Search for tag "Huququllah"
|1873 (In the year)
||The Law of the Huqúqu'lláh that had first been ordained by the Báb in 1848 in the Persian Bayán (chapter 19 of unit 5), was reiterated in the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, verses 227-233 and in the Questions and Answers.
At first Bahá'u'lláh declined to accept the Huqúq from the believers stating that the funds were not needed. [Huqúqu'lláh: The Right of God p9]
When Bahá’u’lláh revealed The Kitáb-i-Aqdas, He ordered it not to be released for a while. The
reason for this He states in a Tablet was because it contained the law of Ḥuqúq, and He worried that
the friends may not obey it, or even worse, may come to the wrong conclusions. The very thought that
some people, in their immaturity, might possibly assume that the Ḥuqúq was intended for
Bahá’u’lláh’s personal use was extremely painful to Him. [Huqúqu'lláh The Right of God Study Guide by Firaydoun Javaheri 2015 p8]
"After the Kitáb-i-Aqdas had been revealed in response to the pleas of the friends, Bahá’u’lláh withheld it from publication for some time and even then, when a number of devoted Bahá’ís, having learned of the law, endeavored to offer the Ḥuqúqu’lláh, the payment was not accepted. The Tablets of Bahá’u’lláh show His acute consciousness of the way in which material wealth has been permitted to degrade religion in the past, and He preferred the Faith to sacrifice all material benefits rather than to soil to the slightest degree its dignity and purity. Herein is a lesson for all Bahá’í institutions for all time." [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1987]
||Huququllah, Basic timeline; Huququllah; Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Questions and Answers (Aqdas); Gradual implementation of laws
|1878 to 1881
||The law of the Huqúqu'lláh was put into practice because the work of teaching the Cause began to expand in Persia and in neighbouring countries and there was a need for funds but Bahá'u'lláh put restrictions on its collection. [ESW56]
The first Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh was Hájí Sháh-Muhammad-i-Manshádí, or Jináb-i-Sháh Muhammad from Manshád, Yazd who had become a believer in Baghdad. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
His title was Amínu'l-Bayán (Trustee of the Bayán).
He made many journeys between Iran and the Holy Land carrying donations and petitions from the friends and returning with Tablets and news.
See SABF47-48 for the story of the lost coin given as a donation by a very poor woman.
He was tasked with receiving the casket of the Báb after the location had been discovered by a number of believers. He transferred it to the Mosque of Imámzádih Zayd in Tehran where it was buried beneath the floor of the inner sanctuary of the shrine. It was consequently discovered and moved to a series of private homes in Tehran until 'Abdu'l-Bahá sent for it for the internment. [ISC-1963p32]
Hájí Sháh-Muhammad was in 'Akká when Áqá Buzurg, entitled Badí', came to confer with Bahá'u'lláh. He and Badí met on Mount Carmel as directed by Bahá'u'lláh.
He was killed as a result of wounds incurred during an attack during a Kurdish revolt. [RoB3p73]
||Iran; Yazd; Baghdad; Tihran
||Huququllah; Huququllah, Trustees of; Haji Shah-Muhammad-i-Manshadi (Aminul-Bayan); Bab, Remains of; Mosques; Firsts, Other
|1881 to 1928
||The second Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh was Hájí Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardikání, entitled Amín-i-Iláhí (Trusted of God). He had been a companion of Jináb-i-Sháh until his death in 1881 in a fatal attack. Hájí Sháh-Muhammad and Hájí Abu'l-Hasan had been the first believers to succeed in entering the city of 'Akká and attain the presence of Bahá'u'lláh in the public bath in the early days of His confinement in the Most Great Prison. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
He travelled to Paris to obtain the presence of 'Abu'l-Bahá. By 1906 he had made 19 pilgrimages to the Holy Land. [AY225]
Shoghi Effendi named him a Hand of the Cause of God posthumously (July, 1928) and was he was also named one of the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh. In appreciation of Hájí Amín's services, 'Abdu'l-Bahá named one of the doors of the Shrine of the Báb after him.
Upon his death Shoghi Effendi appointed Hájí Ghulám-Ridá (entitled Amín-i-Amín), who for several years had been Hájí Amín's assistant, to succeed him as Trustee of the Huqúq'u'lláh. [RoB3p74-86]
||Huququllah; Huququllah, Trustees of; Haji Abul-Hasan-i-Ardikani (Amin-i-Ilahi); Hands of the Cause; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Apostles of Baha'u'llah; Haji Shah-Muhammad-i-Manshadi (Aminul-Bayan); Haji Ghulam-Rida (Amin-i-Amin); Public baths
||Thomas Breakwell, an Englishman living in the United States, learned of the Bahá'í Faith in Paris from May Bolles. Within three days he became a believer and immediately wrote to `Abdu'l-Bahá. [AB74–5; BW7:707]
For May Bolles' own account see SW7:707–11.
He is the first male British Bahá'í. [BFA2:154]
He is designated by Shoghi Effendi the `first English believer'. [GPB259]
He is the first Western Bahá'í to pay Huqúqu'lláh. [BW7:70]
See also AB74–80; BFA2:154; SEBW6572.
||Thomas Breakwell; May Maxwell (Bolles); Huququllah; First Bahais by country or area; Firsts, Other
|1912 19 Dec
||Hájí Amín, the Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh, presented 'Abdu'l-Bahá with a gift from a poor workman in 'Ishqábád. He had nothing monetary to offer so he gave Hájí Amín his mid-day meal, two small loaves of bread and an apple wrapped in a handkerchief. 'Abdu'l-Bahá took the offering tenderly, ate a small piece of the stale bread and gave the rest to be passed around to the rest of the table. [SoW Vol III No 19 2Mar1913 p5, ABTM278]
||London; United Kingdom
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Gifts; Huququllah; Haji Amin
|1928 to 1938
||The third Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh was Hájí Ghulám-Ridá (entitled Amín-i-Amín) (Trustee of the Trustee). He had been Hájí Amín's assistant for several years and so was chosen to succeed him. He had been born into the wealthy merchant class in Tehran. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
During his tenure steps were taken to register Bahá'í properties and endowments in Iran.
He died due to an illness. [BW8p659]
Photo of his grave. [BW9p77]
||Huququllah; Huququllah, Trustees of; Haji Ghulam-Rida (Amin-i-Amin)
|1938 to 1955
||The fourth Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh was Jináb-i-Valíyu'lláh Varqá, the third son of Varqá the martyr. He was born in Tabriz and after the death of his father and brother he was raised by his grandmother, a fanatical Muslim. At the age of 16 his uncle removed him from the home and taught him the Faith. He attended the American University at Beirut and spent summers with 'Abdu'l-Bahá and accompanied the Master to America and served as His interpreter. He returned to Iran where he served on local and national assemblies and was made a Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh in 1938 at a time when the observance of the law spread throughout Iran. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
He was elevated to a Hand of the Cause of God in 1951 and passed away in Tubingen, Germany in 1955 while taking a treatment for an illness. [BW13p831-834]
||Tubingen; Germany; Tabriz; Iran; Beirut; Lebanon; Akka
||Varqa, Valiyullah; Huququllah; Huququllah, Trustees of; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; American University of Beirut; Varqa
|1955 to 2007
||The fifth Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh was 'Ali-Muhammad Varqá. He inherited both the Trusteeship and the station of Hand of the Cause of God from his father upon his passing. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
During his tenure the compilation Huqúqu'lláh was published (1985) by the Universal House of Justice.
The delegates gathered at the National Convention of the Bahá'ís of the United States in 1984 petitioned the Universal House of Justice to make the Law of the Huqúqu'lláh applicable in their country. (Up to this point the law only applied to Bahá'is of Persian origin.) The Universal House of Justice replied that it was not yet time for such a measure but did agree to make more information available in preparation for such a time. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 3 January, 1985, AWH30]
Friends in Austria and the United States published codifications on the Law of the Huqúqu'lláh. To the benefit of the believers everywhere the Research Department at the World Centre was asked to prepare a brief history and a Codification. This information was sent to all national assemblies in the Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1987.
In 1991 the Central Office of Huqúqu'lláh was established in the Holy Land under the direction of the Chief Trustee in anticipation of the worldwide application of the law. Subsequently regional and national boards were established. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 26 November, 1991]
With the publication of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas in English in 1992 the law of the Huqúqu'lláh became universally applicable.
In 2005 an International Board of Trustees of the Huqúqu'lláh was established to guide the regional and national boards. Three members appointed to the Board were Sally Foo, Ramin Khadem, and Grant Kvalheim. Their term of office was to be determined. [Ridván 2005]
The last Hand of the Cause of Cause and Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh, Alí Muhammad Varqá, passed away in Haifa on the 22nd of September, 2007. [BWNS579]
||Huququllah; Varqa, Ali-Muhammad; Huququllah, Trustees of; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Varqa; BWNS
||Delegates at the United States National Convention petition the Universal House of Justice requesting that the law of Huqúqu’lláh be made binding on the American Bahá’ís. [AWH30; ZK146–77]
The Universal House of Justice replied that it is not yet the time to take this step. [AWH30, Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 6 August, 1984]
||Huququllah, Basic timeline; Conventions national; UHJ; Gradual implementation of laws
|1985 4 Jul
||The publication of the compilation entitled "The Law of Huququ'lláh". [Messages63-86p670, Compilation of CompilationsVol 1 p489]
||Huququllah, Basic timeline; Huququllah; Compilations; Publications
||The first Huqúqu'lláh Conference was held at the World Centre.
||Huququllah, Basic timeline; Huququllah; Ali Muhammad Varqa
||The Universal House of Justice announced that the law of Huqúqu'lláh would become universally applicable at Ridván 1992. [AWH91–2, 174, Ridván 1991]
||Huququllah; Gradual implementation of laws; Universal House of Justice, Letters and messages
||Hand of the Cause Dr 'Alí-Muhammad Varqá convened a conference for the Deputies of the Huqúqu'lláh at Landegg Academy. [VV125]
||Huququllah; Ali Muhammad Varqa; Conference
|1991 26 Nov
||The Office of Ḥuqúqu’lláh had been established in the Holy Land under the direction of the Chief Trustee of Ḥuqúqu’lláh, the Hand of the Cause of God ‘Alí-Muḥammad Varqá, in anticipation of the worldwide application of the Law of Ḥuqúqu’lláh the following Riḍván. Concurrent with this development were the steps being taken by Dr. Varqá to organize regional and national Boards of Trustees of Ḥuqúqu’lláh, following the example of the Board that had been already functioning in the United States. [Adapted from the Message of the Universal House of Justice dated 26 November, 1991.]
||Huququllah, Basic timeline; Varqa, Ali-Muhammad; Varqa; Huququllah, Trustees of; Firsts, Other
||The announcement by the Universal House of Justice that the Law of Ḥuqúqu’lláh was to be in effect for the members of the entire world community. Prior to this time, it was only binding on the Eastern believers, regardless of where they lived. [Ridván Message, AWH106, 175, BW92–3:28, CBN Jan91 p2]
||BWC; Worldwide; Haifa
||Huququllah, Basic timeline; Huququllah; Gradual implementation of laws; Laws; Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); - Basic timeline, Expanded
||"... the time is propitious to bring into being an International Board of Trustees of Huqúqu’lláh to guide and supervise the work of Regional and National Boards of Trustees of Huqúqu’lláh throughout the world. It will operate in close collaboration with the Chief Trustee, the Hand of the Cause of God Dr. ‘Alí-Muhammad Varqá, and will be able to benefit from his knowledge and counsel in carrying out its duties. The three members now appointed to the International Board of Trustees are Sally Foo, Ramin Khadem, and Grant Kvalheim." [Message from the Universal House of Justice, Ridván 2005]
||Huququllah, Basic timeline; Huququllah, Trustees of; Varqa, Ali-Muhammad; Varqa
||The publication of Huqúqu'lláh: The Right of God as compiled by Research Department of the Universal House of Justice.
This edition was amended in August of 2009.
||Huququllah, Basic timeline; Huququllah; Compilations; Publications
|2007 24 May
||The passing of Hadi Rahmani-Shirazi (b. 1914) in the United Kingdom. He was buried in New Southgate Cemetery.
pioneered to Afghanistan at the Guardian's behest,
served on the National Spiritual Assembly and the Auxiliary Board in the Cradle of the Faith,
served as the executive director of the Nonahalan Company, (A Bahá’í investment company in Iran)
among first appointed to institution of the Counsellors created by the Universal House of Justice in June 1968,
relocated to the United Kingdom in the early 1980s,
contributed greatly to the development of the Institution of Huququ'llah through his services as a Deputy. [UK BAHA'I NEWS EMAIL SERVICE message from the National Spiritual Assembly firstname.lastname@example.org 24 May 2007]
Find a grave
||United Kingdom; Afghanistan; Iran
||Hadi Rahmani-Shirazi; Nawnahalan Company; Counsellors; Huququllah; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
|2007 22 Sep
||The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Dr. Ali-Muhammad Varqa (b.1911 or 1912) at his home in Haifa. Mr Varqa received his name from ‘Abdu’l-Bahá in memory of his grandfather, who had been killed for being a follower of Bahá’u’lláh. He was the last survivor of the 27 Hands of the Cause who were alive when Shoghi Effendi passed away in 1957. [BWNS579; One Country]
He had been appointed Hand of the Cause on the 15th of March, 1955 after the passing of his father Hand of the Cause of God Jináb-i-Valíyu'lláh Varqá, [MoVxxiv]
He was appointed as the last Trustee of the Huqúqulláh, a position also held by his father. During his tenure, the Huqúqulláh expanded its base from a few Iranian believers to include every believer in the world in 1992.
He lived in Iran but happened to be away during the revolution in 1979 and never returned. He was accepted as a refugee in Canada and lived there for several years before being called to service at the World Centre.
For a short biography see LoF183-187.
||Varqa, Ali-Muhammad; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Varqa; Hands of the Cause, Institution; Appointed arm; BWNS; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Huququllah
|2019 19 May
||The Universal House of Justice announced the appointment of the members of the International Board of Trustees of Ḥuqúqu’lláh for a five-year term to commence on the anniversary of the Declaration of the Báb, 24 May 2019.
Those appointed were: Ho Yuet Mee, Enos Makhele, Manijeh Reyhani, Adam Robarts, and William Wieties.
The Universal House of Justice express profound gratitude for the exemplary service rendered by Marzia Rowhani Dalalto the institution. [Bahá'í Canada posted 2019/05/27]
||Huququllah; Huququllah, Trustees of
from the main catalogue
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- Amín Hájjí: trustees of Huqúqu'lláh, by Moojan Momen, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 1 (1985). Very brief article, short enough to qualify as "fair use." [about]
- Amin, Haji Abu'l-Hasan, by Moojan Momen (1995). [about]
- Ardakání, Hajjí Abu'l-Hasan (Hand of the Cause), by Denis MacEoin, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 2 (1987). Very brief article, short enough to qualify as "fair use." [about]
- Child of the Covenant, The: A Study Guide to the Will and Testament of 'Abdu'l-Baha , by Adib Taherzadeh (2000). A detailed study of the "Charter of Bahá’u’lláh's New World Order." Sequel to the author's Covenant of Baha'u'llah. [about]
- Divine Simplicity: Remembering the last Hand of the Cause of God, 'Ali-Muhammad Varqa, by Jack McLean (2008). Biography of Dr. Varqa, partly based on interviews with people who knew him in Iran. [about]
- Huqúqu'lláh, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá, in Compilation of Compilations, Volume I (1991). [about]
- Huqúqu'lláh: The Right of God, by Aflatoon Payman, in 75 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in Australasia (1996). [about]
- Huqúqu'lláh: The Right of God, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (2007). [about]
- Huququ'llah Transactions, Examples of, by Universal House of Justice (1991). Information and examples about calculating Huququ'llah transactions. [about]
- Huququ'llah, Sixteen Questions about, by Universal House of Justice (1991). Sixteen detailed questions about Huququ'llah, submitted by a Baha'i attorney. [about]
- Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-1986: Third Epoch of the Formative Age, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
- Regarding Economic Life, by Universal House of Justice (2017). Themes of Baha'u'llah's teachings include the reorganization of human society, how to participate in the material affairs of society in a way consistent with divine precepts, and how collective prosperity can be advanced through justice and collaboration. [about]
- Relationship between two statements of Bahá'u'lláh regarding the calculation of Ḥuqúqu'lláh, by Universal House of Justice (2019). About the relationship between paragraph 97 of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas (fraction) and “Questions and Answers”, number 8 (minimum threshold). [about]
- Six-Year Plan, 1986, by Universal House of Justice (1986). Outline of Baha'i goals for 1986-1992, and collection of letters from the House. [about]
- Unique Features of Bahá'í Service, by Peter J. Khan (2006). On spiritual forces in the universe, the nature of Huququ'llah, the concept of sanctification, and developing a culture of learning to explore the power of the Creative Word. [about]
- Varqá, Wali-Alláh, by Iraj Ayman, in Encyclopaedia Iranica (2017). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
- Wills and Inheritance, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Five questions about the writing of Baha'i wills. Includes a list of which laws are not at present binding upon the friends in the western world, and a compilation of "Extracts from Four Tablets by Abdu'l-Baha Concerning the Question of Inheritance." [about]