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from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1868. 30 Aug The ship arrived at Jaffa at sunset. At midnight the ship left for Haifa. [BKG168] Jaffa; Haifa; Israel Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Ships
1868. 31 Aug The ship arrived in Haifa in the early morning. [BKG269; GPB182; RB3:11]
  • Bahá'u'lláh and His companions — 70 in all — disembarked and were taken ashore in sailing boats. [RB3:11]
  • One of the Bahá'ís, Áqá `Abdu'l-Ghaffár, one of the four companions of Bahá'u'lláh condemned to share the exile of Mírzá Yahyá, threw himself into the sea when he learned he was to be separated from Bahá'u'lláh. [BKG269; GPB182]
  • A few hours later Bahá'u'lláh's party was put aboard a sailing vessel and taken to `Akká. [RB3:12]
  • See photo of the sea gate by which the exiles entered the citadel.
  • See CH66 for Bahíyyih Khánum's account of the journey.
  • The exiles landed in `Akká and began a confinement in the citadel that was to last two years, two months and five days. [CH67, BBR205; BKG169; DH12; RB3:11]
  • Photo of the citadel.
  • See BKG277–9 for a list of the exiles. Two others joined them immediately after arrival. [BBR205]
  • See BR205–6 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's account of the journey of exile.
  • See RB32:2 and RB3:21 for prophecies regarding Bahá'u'lláh's exile to `Akká.
  • See DH17–24 for a history of `Akká before the arrival of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • See DH26–8 and GPB186–7 for a description of the exiles' walk to the prison.
  • See GPB186–7 for Bahá'u'lláh's description of the citadel and the conditions there on His arrival.
  • See BKG275–7 for Áqá Ridá's description of the citadel and the conditions there.
  • See DH30–1 for a description of the citadel building and the accommodation used by Bahá'u'lláh.
  • The first night the exiles were refused both food and drink. [GPB187]
  • Afterwards each prisoner was allocated three loaves of stale black bread as a daily food ration plus filthy water. [GBP187]
  • Within two days all fell ill with typhoid but for two, 'Abdu'l-Bahá and another man who was able to help Him nurse and care for the others. [CH234]
  • Three of the exiles died soon after arrival. Soon after their death Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Lawh-i-Ra'ís, the second Tablet to `Alí Páshá. [BKG283; GPB187; RB3:20, 34]
  • See BKG317–21 and CH250–1 for the story of the Azalís who were confined to `Akká with the exiles.
  • See BBRSM69–70 for details on the system of communications used between the Holy Land and the Bahá'í communities.
  • At first the Governor was disinclined to relax the strict rules of the exiles but eventually allowed Mírzá Ja'far to go into town, accompanied by a soldier, to purchase food. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had sent Mírzá 'bdu'l-Ahad ahead some time before with instructions to open a shop. It was six months before the exiles could make contact with him. During this time a Greek, Dr. Petro, became a friend and, after having made investigations, assured the Governor that the exiles were not criminals. [CH67]
  • The King of Martyrs and his brother The Beloved of Martyrs were the first to make contact with the exiles by telegraph. They were able to provide much need assistance. [CH67]
  • After the restrictions had been relaxed somewhat Shaykh Salmán was able to function as a courier carrying Tablets and letters to and from Persia. When he was arrested in Aleppo, carrying a most important supplication from a friend in Persia to Bahá'u'lláh, he swallowed the letter to avoid detection. [CH67-68]
  • Haifa; Famagusta; Akka; Israel; Cyprus Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mishkin-Qalam; Aqa Abdul-Ghaffar; Lawh-i-Rais (Tablet to Sultan Ali Pasha); Mirza Jafar; Citadel; Prophecies; Cyprus exiles; Exile; Firsts, Other; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    1868 30 Oct Christoph Hoffman, founder of the Templers, and Georg David Hardegg, his principal lieutenant, landed in Haifa to gather the Children of God in Jerusalem in preparation for the Second Coming of Christ. Hardegg remained in Haifa to head the Tempelgesellschaft while Hoffman went to Jaffa in 1869 to found a school and a hospital there. [BBD224; BBR204, 2, 15–16; DH133, SBBH1p215-218]
  • The colony on Mount Carmel was composed of a few dozen Templer families from Württemberg (S. Germany) and they were joined by kindred families of German origin from southern Russia and by some who had emigrated to America and become citizens, mainly from New York state. [Tablet to Hardegg (Lawh-i-Hirtík): A Tablet of Bahá'u'lláh to the Templer Leader Georg David Hardegg by Stephen Lambden and Kamran Ekbal, A Tablet of Bahā'-Allāh to Georg David Hardegg, the Lawḥ-i Hartīk by Stephen Lambden]
  • DH139 and GPB277 say this was 1863.
  • See BBR215–18 for the relationship between Bahá'u'lláh and the Templers.
  • A tablet addressed to Georg David Hardegg, Lawh-i-Hirtik, contained the proclamation of Bahá'u'lláh as the Promised One and the return of the Father. He also was warned not to make the same errors of the Pharisees who neglected the validity of Christ's own claims.
  • Bahá'u'lláh stayed in the houses of the colony several times. [BBR234]
  • See BBR236–9 for articles written about the Bahá'ís by Templers.
  • Haifa; Jaffa Christoph Hoffman; Georg David Hardegg; Templer colony; Bahaullah, Life of; Lawh-i-Hirtik (Tablet to Hardegg); Interfaith dialogue; Christianity; Prophecies
    1883. Aug Bahá'u'lláh travelled to Haifa on the second of four known visits (His first is His brief stop there before travelling to Akká in 1868). This second visit lasted about three weeks. [BBD94; DH109; GPB194]
  • He stays in Bayt-i-Fanduq, a house in the German Templar colony, that had served as a guest house. The building was located at the northeast corner of Meir Rutberg and Yafo Street. [BKG373–4; BPP173; DH109]
  • Haifa Templer colony; Bayt-i-Fanduq; Bahaullah, Life of
    1890 c. E. G. Browne was in `Akká. Bahá'u'lláh was staying in the Templer colony in Haifa when he arrived. [BBR253] Akka; Haifa Edward Granville Browne; Templer colony; Bahaullah, Life of
    1890. Apr Bahá'u'lláh visited Haifa for a third time. He spent about two weeks there on this visit. [BBD94; BPP173; DH109; GPB194; RB4:351]
  • He first stayed near Bayt-i-Zahlán, near the town. [BKG374]
  • He then moved to Oliphant House in the German colony. His tent was pitched on a piece of land opposite (currently on Ben Gurion 6). The plot upon which the tent of Bahá’u’lláh was pitched, is now a centre for soldiers named General Pierre Koenig Soldier Centre. [BKG374; BPP173]
  • Haifa Templer colony; Bahaullah, Life of; Oliphant House; Bayt-i-Zahlan; Tents
    1891. 27 Jun Bahá'u'lláh visited Haifa for the fourth time. [BKG374; DH109; GPB194; RB4:351]
  • He stayed three months. [BBD94; BKG374; DH109; GPB194; RB4:351]
  • He lived in the house of Ilyás Abyad near the Templar colony, His tent pitched nearby on the foot of Mount Carmel on HaGefen Street. [BKG374; DH186]
  • Bahá'u'lláh instructed to the Master to arrange the transportation of the remains of the Báb from Persia to the Holy Land and their interment in a mausoleum below the clump of cypress trees at a spot which He indicated with His hand. It is stated that there were 15 tiny cypress trees at that time, each one the size of a finger. See Rob4p363 for a photo of the site indicated. [AB45; BKG374; DH134–5; GPB194]
  • For a story of the difficulties in obtaining land for access to the site of the Shrine of the Báb see SES79-80.
  • One day He pitched His tent a few hundred yards east of the Carmelite monastery and visited the monastery. [DH186]
  • Bahá'u'lláh visited the cave of Elijah. [BKG375; DH174; RB4:3512]
  • He revealed the Lawh-i-Karmil (Tablet of Carmel), the `Charter of the World Spiritual and Administrative Centres of the Faith' near the site of the future Mashriqu'l-Adhkár. [BBD1 18–19; BKG375; DH109, 174; MBW63; RB4:352]
  • For the text of this Tablet see BKG376–7, G14–17 and TB3–5.
  • For an analysis of the text see RB4:353–67.
  • See article "Carmel: The Mountain of God and the Tablet of Carmel" by Zikrullah Khadem, ZK279-300.
  • See PG102-103 for a commemoration of Bahá'lláh's visit on the 21st of October, 1922 when 'Abdu'l-Bahá entertained guests from India, Persia, Kurdistan, Egypt and England in a tent erected on the same spot.
  • BWC; Haifa; Mount Carmel Zikrullah Khadem; Bab, Shrine of; Carmelite monastery; Cave of Elijah; Elijah; Lawh-i-Karmil (Tablet of Carmel); Charters; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Haifa; House of Ilyas Abyad; Templer colony; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1891. Jul-Aug Members of the Afnán family met Bahá'u'lláh in Haifa during His visit. [BKG374, 406]
  • For details of this visit see BKG406–13.
  • Also see Memories of the Báb, Bahá’u’lláh and `Abdu’l-Bahá by Mírzá Habíbu’lláh Afnán, (Ahang Rabbani trans.) pages 26-31>.
  • Haifa Afnan; Bahaullah, Life of
    1892. summer `Abdu'l-Bahá went to Haifa and Mount Carmel and isolated Himself in a small apartment in the stone building west of the lower cave of Elijah. [DH59, 188] Mount Carmel; Haifa Abdul-Baha, Life of; Cave of Elijah; Elijah
    1899 (In the year) Siyyid Mustafá Rúmí and others transported a marble casket to the Holy Land made by the Bahá'ís of Mandalay to accommodate the remains of the Báb. [BW10:517] Haifa; Mandalay Siyyid Mustafa Rumi; Bab, Shrine of; Bab, Sarcophagus for
    1899 16 Feb The third group of Western pilgrims arrived in the Holy Land. [BFA1:145]
  • See BFA1:145 for those in the group.
  • Haifa; Akka Pilgrimage; Pilgrims; First pilgrims
    1900. c. 1900 For the state of affairs in Haifa just after the turn of the century see CB231-234. Haifa Covenant-breakers; Abdul-Baha, Life of
    1900 (Early part) `Abdu'l-Bahá began to build the foundations of the Shrine of the Báb. [CB223]
  • Note that the number 8 is prominent in the design of the Shrine of the Báb and the gardens. Mr. Giachery noted that Shoghi Effendi reported 'Abdu'l-Bahá to have said that it was because He was the eighth Manifestation of those religions whose followers still exist. [SER84]
  • BWC; Mount Carmel; Haifa Bab, Shrine of; Mount Carmel; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; Eight (number); - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1902 (In the year) Pilgrims from the East and the West were once again permitted to visit `Abdu'l-Bahá. [CB232] Haifa; Akka Pilgrims; Pilgrimage
    1904 (In the year) Mahd-i-`Ulyá (Fátimih Khánum), the second wife of Bahá'u'lláh, died. She and all her four surviving children had been declared Covenant-breakers. [CB117] Haifa; Akka Mahd-i-Ulya (Fatimih Khanum); Covenant-breakers
    1904 (In the year) Through the year the Covenant-breakers plotted until the friendly governor of `Akká was replaced by one hostile to `Abdu'l-Bahá. Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí stirred up opposition in certain elements of the population. [AB111; CB232]
  • Newspapers in Egypt and in Syria wrote false reports about `Abdu'l-Bahá. [AB111; CB232]
  • Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí drew up an official indictment against `Abdu'l-Bahá full of false accusations. [AB112; CB232]
  • These actions resulted in the arrival of the first Commission of Inquiry, sent by Sultán `Abdu'l-Hamíd. [AB112; CB233]
  • The Commission summoned `Abdu'l-Bahá to answer the accusations levelled against Him and upon receiving His replies, the inquiry collapsed. [AB113–14; CB233]
  • Haifa; Akka; Istanbul; Turkey Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers; Commission of Inquiry; Sultan Abdul-Hamid; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1905 (In the year) A second Commission of Inquiry, under the chairmanship of `Árif Bey, arrived in `Akká further to investigate the charges laid against `Abdu'l-Bahá. [AB117–25; BBR320 3; CB234–7; GPB269–71]
  • See BBR322 for difficulties in dating this event. All Bahá'í sources indicate that this took place in 1907 but documents in the Ottoman State Archives indicate that it took place in 1905.
  • The Commission returned to Turkey amid political upheavals and its report was put to one side. [AB122–3; CB237; GPB271]
  • Haifa; Akka; Istanbul; Turkey Commission of Inquiry; Sultan Abdul-Hamid; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1907 (In the year) `Abdu'l-Bahá started to move His family to the house that He hasddesigned and built in the German colony at the foot of Mount Carmel in Haifa. [BBD107; DH145]
  • Laura Clifford Barney helped to purchase the land for the house and to pay for its construction. [DH145]
  • Some members of the family occupied the house as early as February 1907, if not before. [DH145; GBF56]
  • Haifa House of Abdul-Baha (Haifa); Abdul-Baha, Life of; Laura Clifford Barney; Purchases and exchanges; Architecture; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    1907 (In the year) Six rooms of the Shrine of the Báb were completed. [GBF103]
  • See BBD8 and DH103–4 for information on Mullá Abu-Tálib, the master mason from Bákú, Ádharbáyján, who worked on the Shrine.
  • Haifa; Baku; Adharbayjan Bab, Shrine of; Mulla Abu-Talib
    1908 (In the year) `Abdu'l-Bahá's house in Haifa was completed. [BBD 107] Haifa House of Abdul-Baha (Haifa)
    1908 31 Aug BW2:22 says that `Abdu'l-Bahá walked free on 31 Aug. Haifa Abdul-Baha, Life of
    1909 (Months following Mar) Construction of the Eastern Pilgrim House in Haifa begins. [BBD178]
  • Mírzá Ja`far Rahmání, (also know as Áqá Mírzá Ja’far Shírází) a believer from `Ishqábád, was given permission by `Abdu'l-Bahá to build it. [DH177, SES25-26]
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá composed an inscription that was placed above the entrance that read, "This is a spiritual Hostel for Pilgrims, and its founder is Mírzá Ja'far Rahmani. AH 1327."
  • This was the first property to be granted tax exemption by the civil authorities. [GPB307, SES43-47]
  • Haifa Eastern Pilgrim House; Pilgrim houses; Mirza Jafar Rahmani; Aqa Mirza Jafar Shirazi; Pilgrimage; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    1909 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá gradually moves His family from `Akká to Haifa. [DH214] Haifa; Akka Abdul-Baha, House of
    1910 10 May Talk by 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Haifa to some American pilgrims. [SoW1 Vol 8] Haifa Pilgrims
    1910 13 May Talk by 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Haifa to to a number of Jewish, Zoroastrian, Christian and Mohammedan Bahais. Haifa Interfaith dialogue
    1910 Aug Having moved all His family to Haifa, `Abdu'l-Bahá Himself moved from the House of `Abdu'lláh Páshá to His new home at 7 Haparsim (Persian) Street, Haifa. [BBD13, 107; DH145]
  • Laura Barney helped with the purchase of the land and with the plans. [Prezi]
  • BWC; Haifa; Akka Abdul-Baha, House of; House of Abdullah Pasha; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Laura Clifford Barney
    1910 29 Aug `Abdu'l-Bahá departed for Egypt on board the Kosseir accompanied by two attendants, Mírzá Munír-i-Zayn and 'Abdu'l-Husayn. [ABF5, BBRXXX; GPB280, AB134-135, Bahá'í News #12 16Oct1910 pg206, the Message from the Universal House of Justice dated August 29, 2010]
  • See letter from Sydney Sprague to Isabella Brittingham which indicates that He left sometime before this date.
  • GPB280 and AY84 say He departed in September.
  • After one month in Port Said He embarked for Marseille but turned back to Alexandria owing to His health. In a letter to Munírih Khánum He stated that His intention was to proceed to America or South Africa. [GPB280, ABF5]
  • He stayed for a few days in the Victoria Hotel but then moved to a rented house in Ramleh, a suburb of Alexandria, where He stayed for about one year. [GPB280, AB136]
  • Early in May of 1911 he moved to Cairo and took up residence in nearby Zaytún. [AB138]
  • It was during this period that a sudden change occurred. A journalist who had previously been hostile towards Him took a new tone. [AB136]
  • The Russian poet Isabel Grinevsky, the Oriental Secretary of the British Agency, Ronald Storrs, Lord Kitchener, George Zaydán, eminent writer and celebrated editor as well as clerics, aristocrats, administrators, parliamentarians, men of letters, journalists and publicists, Arabs, Turks and Persians all sought out His company and met with Him. This period could be considered the first public proclamation of the Faith. [MRHK348, AB136-139]
  • See AB138-139 for a description of His triumphs during this period.
  • Haifa; Port Said; Ramleh; Alexandria; Cairo; Zaytun; Egypt Abdul-Baha in Egypt; Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Proclamation; Firsts, Other; Isabella Grinevskaya; Ships; Kosseir;
    1911 15 May Talk by 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Haifa on the day of the commemoration of the Báb's Declaration. Haifa Bab, Declaration of; Abdul-Baha, Life of
    1911 18 May Talk by 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Haifa to to Mr. Charles Mason Remey and Mr. Howard C. Struven on the day of their departure. Haifa Abdul-Baha, Life of
    1911 Aug Hájí Muhammad-Taqí Afnán, Vakílu'd-Dawlih, the cousin of the Báb largely responsible for the building of the House of Worship in `Ishqábád, was buried in the newly acquired Bahá'í cemetery in Haifa, the earliest recorded burial in the cemetery. [BBD51; DH182] Haifa In Memoriam; Haji Muhammad-Taqi Afnan (Vakilud-Dawlih); Afnan; Bab, Family of; Cemeteries and graves; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Firsts, Other
    1912 c. Mishkín-Qalam (b.1826, Shiraz, Iran) passed away in the Holy Land. He was buried in the Bahá'í Cemetery Bahjí. [BBD157; EB272]
  • See Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • See Memorials of the Faithful #38.
  • Haifa Mishkin-Qalam; Births and deaths; In Memoriam
    1913 Oct Shoghi Effendi returned to Beirut and the Syrian Protestant College to start his college education in an Arts program. [PG9] Ramleh; Egypt; Beirut; Lebanon; Haifa Syrian Protestant College; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1913 2 Dec `Abdu'l-Bahá boarded a Lloyd Triestino boat bound for Haifa. [AB402]

    "Having raised the warning and urged the world to work for peace, ‘Abdu’l-Bahá returned on 5 December 1913 to Haifa, then part of the Ottoman Empire. Aware of the coming war, He took steps to protect the Bahá'í community under His stewardship and to avert a famine in the region. One of His first decisions upon returning to the Holy Land was to send home all the Bahá'ís who were visiting from abroad." [BWNS1297]

    Egypt; Haifa Lloyd Triestino; Ships; Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha in Egypt; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1914 29 Jun `Abdu'l-Bahá instructed the remaining pilgrims in the Holy Land to leave. [AB406]
  • CH191 says the American pilgrims left on the last boat from Haifa to Alexandria on 15 Jan. 1915.
  • Haifa Pilgrims
    1914 Aug Shoghi Effendi returned to Haifa after completing his first year of college at the Syrian Protestant College just as war was breaking out in Europe. [PG12] Beirut; Lebanon; Haifa Syrian Protestant College; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1914 Oct Shoghi Effendi returned to Beirut from Haifa to take up his sophomore year of university at the Syrian Protestant College. As a result of the fear of unrest in Beirut, enrollment was down. The College was instrumental in the relief work being done for wounded soldiers or other casualties who were treated free of charge. As a result of this work it became a place of relative safety. The number of Bahá'í students at the Syrian Protestant College increased to 35, many of whom were sent by 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [PG15] Beirut; Lebanon; Haifa Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Syrian Protestant College
    1914 1 Nov Turkey entered the war on the side of the Central Powers.
  • Palestine was blockaded and Haifa was bombarded. [GPB304]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá sent the Bahá'ís to the Druze village of Abú-Sinán for asylum. [AB411; DH124; GPB304, BWNS1297]
  • For `Abdu'l-Bahá in war time see CH188–228.
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá had grown and stored corn in the years leading up to the war and was now able to feed not only local people but the British army. [AB415, 418; CH210; GPB304, 306]
  • Properties in the villages of Asfíyá and Dálíyá near Haifa were purchased by `Abdu'l-Bahá, and, at the request of Bahá'u'lláh, bestowed upon Díyá'u'lláh and Bahí'u'lláh. Land was also acquired in the villages of Samirih, Nughayb and 'Adasíyyih situated near the Jordan. 'Adasíyyih was the village occupied by Bahá'ís of Zoroastrian heritage that produced corn for the Master's household. The village of Nughayb is were the relatives of the Holy Family lived. [CH209-210]
  • Palestine; Israel; Abu-Sinan; Haifa; Asfiya; Daliya; Samirih; Nughayb ; Adasiyyih World War I; War (general); Druze; Abdul-Baha, Life of; British; Charity and relief work; Social and economic development; History (General); - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; Diyaullah; Bahiullah
    1915 (in the year) Jamál Páshá, Commander of the 4th Army Corps of the Turkish army, was put in military control of Syria, including the Holy Land. [AB412]
  • For an account of his relationship with ‘Abdu’l-Bahá see AB412–14.
  • He threatened to crucify ‘Abdu’l-Bahá and to destroy the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh. [AB414; GPB304, 317]
  • Haifa; Akka; Bahji Jamal Pasha; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Death threats to; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline
    1915 Jan Lua Getsinger arrived in Haifa and remained there as a guest of the Holy Family for seven months. This was her last visit. When news came of the possibility of America declaring war, and a United States gunboat came to the very port of Haifa, ‘Abdu’l-Bahá told her that now was the time to leave and take news to the friends in Egypt, Europe and America who had been cut off from correspondence with the Holy Land during the war. "It is a long time that they are without any word," He said, "and I desire to send you to them, after which you are to go and teach." [Star of the West, vol. VI, No. 12, p. 90] Haifa; Egypt; Lua Getsinger
    1915 May The Bahá'ís of Haifa and `Akká returned to their homes from the village of Abú-Sinán. [DH147] Haifa; Akka; Abu-Sinan; Palestine; Israel Druze; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Charity and relief work; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline
    1915 Latter half `Abdu'l-Bahá's Memorials of the Faithful began to take shape. [AB417; MFXII]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá would tell stories of Bahá'í heroes and heroines to the weekly gatherings of Bahá'ís in Haifa and these were compiled and published as a book in 1924. [AB417; MFXII]
  • Haifa Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Memorials of the Faithful (book); - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline
    1915 Aug Shoghi Effendi returned from the Syrian Protestant College in Beirut to Haifa. Because of the naval blockade many of Persian students were unable to return home so they were invited to spend their summer vacation in Haifa where they were accommodated in the anteroom to the Shrine of the Báb. [PG15] Beirut; Lebanon; Haifa Syrian Protestant College; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1915 Oct Shoghi returned to Beirut to commence his junior year at the Syrian Protestant College. [PG16] Haifa; Beirut Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Syrian Protestant College
    1916 26 Mar-22 Apr `Abdu'l-Bahá revealed eight of the Tablets of the Divine Plan. [AB420; BBD219 BBRSM157; SBBH132-3; TDPX]
  • For the order and place of their revelation see AB420-2 and TDP.
  • For a description of their content see AB422-3.
  • Shoghi Effendi characterizes them as a `mandate' and a `supreme charter for teaching'. [GPB255; TDPVII]
  • The Tablets can be found at TDP on the pages indicated:
  • 1st (Page 1) Tablet to the Bahá’ís of the Northeastern States. Revealed on March 26, 1916, in ‘Abdu’l‑Bahá’s room at the house in Bahjí, addressed to the Bahá’ís of nine Northeastern States of the United States: Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Vermont, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and New York.
  • 2nd (Page 2) Tablet to the Bahá’ís of the Southern States. Revealed on March 27, 1916, in the garden adjacent to the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh, addressed to the Bahá’ís of sixteen Southern States of the United States: Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Tennessee, Kentucky, Louisiana, Arkansas, Oklahoma and Texas.
  • 3rd (Page 3) Tablet to the Bahá’ís of the Central States. Revealed on March 29, 1916, outside the house in Bahjí, and addressed to the Bahá’ís of twelve Central States of the United States: Michigan, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska and Kansas.
  • 4th (Page 4) Tablet to the Bahá’ís of the Western States. Revealed on April 1, 1916, in ‘Abdu’l‑Bahá’s room at the house in Bahjí, addressed to the Bahá’ís of eleven Western States of the United States: New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, Nevada, California, Wyoming, Utah, Montana, Idaho, Oregon and Washington.
  • 5th (Page 5) Tablet to the Bahá’ís of Canada and Greenland. Revealed on April 5, 1916, in the garden adjacent to the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh, and addressed to the Bahá’ís of Canada—Newfoundland, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Alberta, British Columbia, Yukon, Mackenzie, Keewatin, Ungava, Franklin Islands—and Greenland.
  • 6th (Page 6) Tablet to the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada. Revealed on April 8, 1916, in the garden outside the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh, and addressed to the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada.
  • 7th (Page 8) Tablet to the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada. Revealed on April 11, 1916, in ‘Abdu’l‑Bahá’s room at the house in Bahjí, and addressed to the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada.
  • 8th (Page 11) Tablet to the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada. Revealed on April 19, 1916, in ‘Abdu’l‑Bahá’s room at the house in Bahjí; on April 20, in the pilgrims’ quarters of the house in Bahjí; on April 22, in the garden adjacent to the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh, and addressed to the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada.
  • See the story of the Geography Book used for the Tablets of the Divine Plan. It was called World Geography: One Volume Edition by Ralph Stockman Tarr and Frank Morton McMurry.
  • Haifa Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Tablets of the Divine Plan; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; World Geography: One Volume Edition
    1916 16 May The Sykes–Picot Agreement, officially known as the Asia Minor Agreement, was a secret 1916 agreement between the United Kingdom and France, to which the Russian Empire assented. The agreement allocated to Britain control of areas roughly comprising the coastal strip between the Mediterranean Sea and the River Jordan, Jordan, southern Iraq, and an additional small area that included the ports of Haifa and Acre, to allow access to the Mediterranean. France got control of southeastern Turkey, northern Iraq, Syria and Lebanon. Russia was to get Istanbul, the Turkish Straits and Armenia. The controlling powers were left free to determine state boundaries within their areas. Further negotiation was expected to determine international administration in the "brown area" (an area including Jerusalem, similar to and smaller than Mandate Palestine), the form of which was to be decided upon after consultation with Russia, and subsequently in consultation with the other Allies, and the representatives of Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca. [Wikipedia] Haifa; Akka; Israel; Palestine Sykes–Picot Agreement (Asia Minor Agreement); History (general); Middle East
    1916 Oct Shoghi Effendi attended his senior year of university at the Syrian Protestant College. Due to the continuing war conditions further deteriorated in the region. More than 300,000 people lost their lives in Syria due to starvation and disease. [PG17-18] Beirut; Lebanon; Haifa Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Syrian Protestant College
    1917 2 Feb-8 Mar `Abdu'l-Bahá revealed six Tablets of the Divine Plan. [AB422; BBD219]
  • As there was no communication with America at that time, the Tablets were stored in a vault under the Shrine of the Báb. [BBD219]
  • The Tablets can be found at TDP on the pages indicated:
  • 9th (Page 14)Tablet to the Bahá’ís of the Northeastern States. Revealed on February 2, 1917, in Ismá’íl Áqá’s room at the house of ‘Abdu’l‑Bahá in Haifa, and addressed to the Bahá’ís of the nine Northeastern States of the United States: Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Vermont, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and New York.
  • 10th (Page 16)Tablet to the Bahá’ís of the Southern States. Revealed on February 3, 1917, in Haifa in Ismá’íl Áqá’s room, and addressed to the Bahá’ís of the sixteen Southern States of the United States: Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Tennessee, Kentucky, Louisiana, Arkansas, Oklahoma and Texas.
  • 11th (Page 18)Tablet to the Bahá’ís of the Central States. Revealed on February 8, 1917, in Bahá’u’lláh’s room at the house of Abbúd in ‘Akká, and addressed to the Bahá’ís of the twelve Central States of the United States: Michigan, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska and Kansas.
  • 12th (Page 20)Tablet to the Bahá’ís of the Western States. Revealed on February 15, 1917, in Bahá’u’lláh’s room at the house of Abbúd in ‘Akká, and addressed to the Bahá’ís of the eleven Western States of the United States: New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, Nevada, California, Wyoming, Utah, Montana, Idaho, Oregon and Washington.
  • 13th (Page 21)Tablet to the Bahá’ís of Canada and Greenland. Revealed on February 21, 1917, in Bahá’u’lláh’s room at the house of Abbúd in ‘Akká, and addressed to the Bahá’ís of Canada—Newfoundland, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Alberta, British Columbia, Yukon, Mackenzie, Keewatin, Ungava, Franklin Islands—and Greenland.
  • 14th (Page 23)Tablet to the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada. Revealed on March 8, 1917, in the summerhouse (Ismá’íl Áqá’s room) at ‘Abdu’l‑Bahá’s house in Haifa, and addressed to the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada.
  • Haifa Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Bab, Shrine of; Tablets of the Divine Plan; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline
    1917 Nov `Abdu'l-Bahá sent a message to the Bahá'ís of the world assuring them of His safety. [AB412]
  • The Tablet was carried by an aged Arab Bahá'í, Hájí Ramadán. It took him 45 days to walk from `Akká to Tihrán. On his return trip he brought gold and messages. [AB412; CH206-7]
  • For text of the Tablet see CH207-8.
  • Haifa; Tihran Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; World War I; Haji Ramadan; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline
    1918 Jan The British Bahá'ís alerted the Foreign Office about the importance of ensuring `Abdu'l-Bahá's safety in Haifa. [BBR332-5; CH219; GPB305-6]
  • CH219 says this was in the Spring but letters to the Foreign Office were dated Jan 1918.
  • For the actions of Lady Blomfield see BBR333, CH219-20, AB425-26 and ER169.
  • For the role of Major Wellesley Tudor Pole see BBR332-3; CH222-5; and ER168-70.
  • Haifa British Foreign Office; Britain; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Lady Blomfield; Major Wellesley Tudor Pole; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline
    1918 18 Sep Allenby began his last offensive against Haifa. [BBR335] Haifa General Allenby
    1918 23 Sep "During the early years of World War I, though no longer imprisoned, ‘Abdu’l-Bahá faced repeated threats against His life by authorities who were antagonistic towards Him and the Bahá'ís. The Commander of the Ottoman fourth army corps had even threatened to crucify ‘Abdu’l-Bahá if the Turkish army were ever to be displaced out of Haifa." Lady Blomfield in London had learned of these threats and through her contacts in Cabinet, the British Army was instructed to protect Him and His family. [BWNS69, BWNS1202]

    The British army took the city in the 1st Battle of Haifa: The battle was won due to a courageous uphill assault by the Jodhpur Lancers of the Indian Army who took the German and Turkish artillery and machine gun emplacements on top of Mount Carmel by surprise. This attack is believed to have been one of the last cavalry charge in modern military history. Each year, on this date, the Indian Army commemorates this victory as Haifa Day. [AY104; BBR335; DH148, Scroll In 68095]

  • For details of the battle see BBR335-6.
  • For letters from the British authorities stating that `Abdu'l-Bahá is safe see BBR336-7.
  • For a photos see The Indian Weekender 5 October, 2018 as well as Wikipedia
  • For videos see India Today, The Battle of Haifa Part 1, The Battle of Haifa Part II.
  • See PG85-86, on the 23rd of August, 1919 'Abdu'l-Bahá, in conversation with Major-General Watson, referring to the success of the British army in taking Haifa stated, "God hath wished it to be so, it was His Divine aid and assistance that made it possible." and "It was God that helped you from every standpoint."
  • Mount Carmel; Haifa; Israel World War I; War (general); History (general); Jodhpur Lancers; Indian Army; Germany; Turkey; Haifa Day; Abdul-Baha, Death threats to; BWNS; Lady Blomfield
    1918. 23 Dec Ahmad Sohrab left the Holy Land to take the Tablets of the Divine Pan to America. [AB434] Haifa Tablets of the Divine Plan; Ahmad Sohrab
    1919 Nov William Harry Randall, an American, asked `Abdu'l-Bahá if he might contribute to the building of the Western Pilgrim House. [DH179]
  • Plans were drawn up and work began but the funds available were insufficient to continue the work until 1923, when money was contributed by Amelia Collins. [BBD178; DH180; GPB307]
  • Haifa William Harry Randall; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Pilgrim Houses; Western Pilgrim House; Amelia Collins
    1919. 18 Nov The periodical entitled "The Magazine of the Children of the Kingdom" was published and distributed by Miss Ella Roberts from 1919 to 1924. [Encyclopedia of Women and Religion in North America: Native American creation stories, edited by Rosemary Skinner Keller, Rosemary Radford Ruether, Marie Cantlon p.782-783]
  • The story of the naming of the magazine...
      Margaret Randall told of the establishment of a Bahá'í Junior Magazine and asked 'Abdu'l-Bahá for a name for it. The Master was told who had charge of it, and His face lighted up with a beautiful smile as He said: "The name is The Magazine of the Children of the Kingdom. Who writes it? This (name) is suitable for it. [WHR128-129]
  • See A Compilation on Bahá’í Education #96 for a tablet by 'Abdu'l-Bahá to the children of the Bahá’í school, Urbana, Illinois found here.
  • See A Compilation on Bahá’í Education #102 for a tribute to the magazine by Shoghi Effendi found here. He called it "first and only organ of the Bahá’í youth throughout the world".
  • At the American National Convention in 1925 (July 4 - 9) it was reported that "The Magazine of the Children of the Kingdom", edited by Ella Roberts and "Bahá’í World Fellowship" edited by Mrs. Victoria Bedikian had merged. ["Bahá’í News Letter" #6 Jul-Aug 1925 p.6]
  • Haifa; United States Magazine of the Children of the Kingdom; Children; Youth; - Periodicals; Publications; First publications
    1919 17 Dec `Abdu'l-Bahá sent His Tablet to the Central Organization for a Durable Peace at the Hague in response to a communication addressed to Him by the executive committee. [AB438; BBD1 15; GPB308]
  • He defined the Bahá'í peace programme and covered a wide spectrum of peace-producing Bahá'í social and spiritual teachings. [BW3:12]
  • It was delivered in person by Ibn-i-Asdaq. [EB176]
  • Haifa; Hague, The; Netherlands Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Lawh-i-Hague (Tablet to The Hague); Ibn-i-Asdaq (Mirza Ali-Muhammad); Peace; World peace (general); - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; Central Organization for a Durable Peace
    1919. 25 Dec Shoghi Effendi presented a precious gift to his friend Dr Esslemont, "a drop of the coagulate and sacred blood of Bahá'u'lláh". [PG126] Haifa Esslemont; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; gifts
    1920 early Jan The arrival of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's hand-built seven-seater Cunningham touring car made in Rochester NY by James Cunningham and Sons. The automobile probably cost in the range from $7,500 to $8.000 and was a gift from Mrs Ella Goodall Cooper. [Coachbuilt website]
    Mr. Fujita accompanied the shipment from the United States to Haifa where he maintained the car and was one of the drivers. The Master gave Shoghi Effendi instructions to see that it was cleared and delivered to the house after receiving notice of its arrival from Port Said. Although it was not a business day, he succeeded in getting the car delivered by taking the papers to the homes of various officials, asking them to sign the documents and give the necessary orders for the car of Sir ‘Abdu’l-Baha ‘Abbas to be delivered to Him at once.
    Although Abdul-Baha rode in the Cunningham car on occasions, it was predominantly used for transporting the pilgrims. The car has since been restored and pilgrims have the opportunity to see it. [PP28, Reflections on the Bahá'í Writings; PG126]
    Haifa Abdul-Baha, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Cunningham; Ella Cooper; Ella Goodall Cooper; Ella Cooper; Saichiro Fujita; Cars; Gifts; Pilgrimage
    1920 20 Apr Shoghi Effendi left Haifa for France with the intention of taking up his study of English at Oxford University. As instructed by 'Abdu'l-Bahá he stayed in a sanitarium in Neuilly (Maison d'Hydrothérapie et de convalescence du Parc de Neuilly, 6 Boulevard du Château, Neuilly-sur-Seine) before leaving for England in July. [SEO58]
  • See AY179-186 for and account of Shoghi Effendi's stay in the Paris area. According to Marzieh Gail he was probably in the area from about the 9th of April until the 13th of July.
  • Haifa; Oxford; United Kingdom; Neuilly; France Shoghi Effendi at Oxford; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Balliol College (Oxford University)
    1920 27 Apr `Abdu'l-Bahá was invested with the insignia of the Knighthood of the British Empire in a ceremony in Haifa. [AB443; BBRXXX, 343-5; CH214; DH149; GPB306]
  • For the document recommending `Abdu'l-Bahá for knighthood, see BBR344.
  • The knighthood was in recognition of `Abdu'l-Bahá's humanitarian work during the war for famine relief. [AB443]
  • He accepted the honour as a gift from a `just king'. [AB443]
  • He did not use the title. [AB443]
  • For Lady Blomfield's account see AB443-4 and CH214-15.
  • See SoW vol 13 No 11 p298.
  • Haifa; Abu-Sinan; Palestine; Israel Abdul-Baha, Knighthood (KBE); Abdul-Baha, Life of; World War I; British; Charity and relief work; Social and economic development; Lady Blomfield; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline
    1920 Dec The passing of Hájí Mírzá Haydar-Alí Isfaháni known as 'the Angel of Mount Carmel' in Haifa. He was buried in the Bahá'í Cemetery on Mount Carmel. [BBD98; EB250]
  • Acting on the request of 'Abdu'l-Bahá he wrote Bahá'í Martyrdoms in Persia in the Year 1903 AD. It covered the events from March to September and was published in English as a 28-page book in 1904 and 1917.
  • For the story of his life see RB2:438–50.
  • For his biography see EB237-50.
  • His autobiography was published as Stories from the Delight of Hearts - The Memoirs of Hají Mírzá Haydar-Alí, was translated by A Q Faizi and published by Kalimat in 1980.
  • Haifa Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Cemeteries and graves; Angel of Carmel
    1921 28 Nov Ascension of `Abdu'l-Bahá

    `Abdu'l-Bahá passed away at about 1:00 a.m., in Haifa. [AB452; BBD4; BBR347; GPB311; UD170]
  • For details of His passing see DOMH210-216, AB452, BW1:19-23; BW15:113-15 and GPB310-11.
  • This marked the end of the Apostolic, Heroic or Primitive Age of the Bahá'í Faith and the beginning of the Transitional Formative or Iron Age. [BBD35-6]
  • For a photograph of the cable sent announcing His passing see SW12, 15:245.
  • See The Passing of 'Abdu'l-Bahá by Shoghi Effendi and Lady Blomfield.
  • For a pen portrait of 'Abdu'l-Bahá see The Oriental Rose by Mary Hanford Ford pg 158-159
  • Also see AB452-83; HLS93-100.
  • See GPB309-320 for a summation of the events that took place in the lifetime of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, during the Heroic Age of the Faith.
  • Haifa Abdul-Baha, Passing of; Ages and Epochs; Heroic Age; Formative Age; Abdul-Baha, Life of; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Holy days; Covenant (general)
    1921 29 Nov The funeral of `Abdu'l-Bahá. [BW15:115]
  • For details of the funeral see AB464-74; BW1:23-6; BW15:115-19; GPB312-14; and SW12, 17:259-67.
  • For Western and newspaper accounts see AB474-80; BBR347-9; BW1:26-8; and BW15:119-20.
  • For eulogies to `Abdu'l-Bahá see AB481-2, BW1:28-9 and BW15 120-1.
  • Ten thousand people attend `Abdu'l-Bahá's funeral. [v7]
  • For a number of pictures of the funeral procession see SW12, 91:290, 292-8.
  • Bahíyyih Khánum looked for instructions on where to bury `Abdu'l-Bahá and, finding none, entombed Him in a vault next to the one where the remains of the Báb lay. [AB464; GBF14]
  • Also see Balyuzi, `Abdu'l-Bahá; Blomfield, The Chosen Highway; Honnold, Vignettes from the Life of `Abdu'l-Bahá; SW12, 15:245 and several following issues.
  • Photo.
  • Haifa; Bahji; Mount Carmel Abdul-Baha, Passing of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Bab, Shrine of; Abdul-Baha, Shrine of; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline
    1921 2 Dec Ethel Rosenberg arrived in the Holy Land, having learned on the train from Port Said of the passing of `Abdu'l-Bahá. [ER181-2] Haifa Ethel Rosenberg; Abdul-Baha, Passing of
    1921 4 Dec On the seventh day after the passing of `Abdu'l-Bahá, corn was distributed in His name to about a thousand of the poor.
  • Up to this day 50 to 100 poor were fed daily at the Master's House. [BW15:122]
  • Haifa Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Passing of; House of Abdul-Baha (Haifa)
    1921 16 Dec Shoghi Effendi left England for Haifa in the company of Lady Blomfield and his sister Rouhangeze [Rúhangíz]. Lady Blomfield stayed on in the Holy Land for several months to assist Shoghi Effendi in his new role as the Guardian. [GBF13-14; PP42; SBR66]
  • Due to passport difficulties Shoghi Effendi could not leave sooner. [GBF13; PP42; SBR66; PG202]
  • London; United Kingdom; Haifa Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Lady Blomfield; Rouhangeze (Ruhangiz); Shoghi Effendi, Family of
    1921 29 Dec Shoghi Effendi arrived in the Holy Land from England by train from Egypt. [GBF14; PP42]
  • An envelope addressed to him from 'Abdu'l-Bahá is waiting for him. It contained the Will and Testament. [Ruhi8.2p2]
  • He is so worn and grief-stricken that he has to be assisted up the stairs and is confined to bed for a number of days. [CB285]
  • United Kingdom; Egypt; Haifa Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Abdul-Baha, Will and Testament of; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Abdul-Baha, Passing of
    1922 6 Jan A memorial feast for 600 people of Haifa, `Akká and the surrounding area was held 40 days after the passing of `Abdu'l-Bahá. [BW15:122; ER195]
  • More than a hundred poor were also fed. [BW15:122; ERT95-6]
  • For details of the memorial service see ER195-9 and SW13, 2:404.
  • Haifa; Akka Abdul-Baha, Passing of
    1922 7 Jan The Will and Testament of `Abdu'l-Bahá was read publicly at his house to an assembled gathering of Bahá'ís from many countries. [ER199-200]
  • Shoghi Effendi was again absent. [ER200]
  • The Greatest Holy Leaf sent two cables to Persia, informing the Bahá'ís that Shoghi Effendi had been appointed Guardian and instructing them to hold memorial services for `Abdu'l-Bahá. [PP47]
  • Haifa Abdul-Baha, Will and Testament of; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Guardianship; Abdul-Baha, Passing of; Abdul-Baha, House of; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1922 12 Feb Laura and Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney arrived in Haifa from their travel teaching trip in Burma and Bombay. [EJR208] Haifa; Myanmar (Burma); Mumbai (Bombay); India Travel teaching; Laura Clifford Barney; Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; Z****
    1922 25 Feb The Will and Testament of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá was written entirely in ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s own hand and it was Shoghi Effendi's first translation for the believers in the West. It was sent to New York and addressed to "The beloved of God and the handmaids of the Merciful throughout the United states of America and Canada". The "Will" delineated the Bahá’í World Order, already founded in the Kitab-i-Aqdas, and of which 'Abdul'-Bahá was the architect. [AY304] Haifa; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Will and Testament of; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Translation; Shoghi Effendi, Translations by; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Firsts, Other
    1922 5 Apr Shoghi Effendi left the affairs of the Faith in the hands of the Greatest Holy Leaf and departed the Holy Land for Europe, accompanied by his eldest cousin. [PP57]
  • See BA25 for his reasons for his departure.
  • Haifa; Europe Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline
    1922 7 Apr The Haifa Bahá'í Spiritual Assembly was seen to be in operation this date, perhaps earlier. [SETPE1p50,] Haifa Haifa Spiritual Assembly; Haifa Bahai Assembly
    1922 9 Apr Work commenced on the Western Pilgrim House. [PP69] Haifa Western Pilgrim House; Pilgrim Houses
    1922 (Autumn) The Greatest Holy Leaf sent Shoghi Effendi's mother and other family members to Switzerland to ask him to return to the Holy Land. [PP63] Switzerland; Haifa Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of
    1922 15 Dec Shoghi Effendi returned to the Holy Land to take up his duties as Guardian. [PP63-4]
  • He sent cablegrams to a number of national communities announcing his return and his eagerness to resume the work. [PP64-5]
  • Switzerland; Haifa Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Guardianship
    1923 (In the year) Charles Mason Remey made preliminary plans for a monumental domed superstructure for the Shrine of the Báb. [BW6:723] Haifa Charles Mason Remey; Bab, Shrine of
    1923 (In the year) Amelia Collins contributed the funds necessary to complete the Western Pilgrim House. [DH180; PSBW76] Haifa Amelia Collins; Western Pilgrim House; Pilgrimage; Pilgrim Houses
    1923 12 Mar Shoghi Effendi wrote to Bahá'ís in America, Great Britain, Germany, France, Switzerland, Italy, Japan and Australasia about Bahá'í administration, outlining the process for annual elections of assemblies and calling for the establishment of local and national funds. [BA34-43; PP330]
  • See ER223-4 for the response of the British Bahá'ís.
  • In the same letter, as a Post Script, he included a list of the best known and most current Bahá'í terms transliterated with a recommendation that this be adopted as standard for all Western Bahá'ís with a promise that the Haifa Spiritual Assembly would provide a supplement. The transliteration scheme was mostly based on a standard adopted by the Tenth International Congress of Orientalists which took place in Geneva in September 1894. [BA43; PG208-209]
  • From the June 1923 issue of Star of the West, attempts were made to introduce the voting system although these are at first very patchy. The first books that appeared to be trying to put the system into use are Esslemont's Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era and Herrick's Unity Triumphant (the latter not entirely consistently), both published in 1923. Although some books appearing in 1924 did not follow the system, from this time on, books and other printed material published under Bahá'í auspices have followed it. [Transliteration by Mojan Momen]
  • A list of transliterated terms appeared in BW1p131 and expanded lists appeared in subsequent volumes.
  • Haifa Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Administration; Transliteration; Z****
    1923 Jun Shoghi Effendi left Haifa for Switzerland. [PP72; BBRSM116]
  • He returned to Haifa in November 1923. [BRRSM116]
  • Switzerland; Haifa Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of
    1923 Nov (Sometime before 14 Nov) Shoghi Effendi returned from Switzerland. [PP73] Switzerland; Haifa Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of
    1924 (In the year) Memorials of the Faithful was published under the auspices of the Haifa Bahá'í Assembly. [MFXII] Haifa Memorials of the Faithful (book); Publications; Haifa Bahai Assembly; Haifa Spiritual Assembly
    1924 Sep Shoghi Effendi returned to the Holy Land after an absence of some six months. [BA65-7; BBRSM117; UD279] Haifa Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of
    1924 21 Nov Dr John E. Esslemont arrived in Haifa to help Shoghi Effendi with his work. [DJEE31; SBR233] Haifa Esslemont; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1925 21 Nov On his way from Iran to study at the American University of Beirut (then called the Syrian Protestant College) the 17-year-old Hasan Balyuzi spent two days in Haifa. Although from a prominent Bahá'í family he was neither knowledgeable nor confirmed in his faith. After having spent more than one hour with Shoghi Effendi his faith was confirmed and the course of his life was set. [SETPE1p110-111, BW18p637-651]
  • See BKG232 footnote for a by Hasan Balyuzi with a story about Mírzá Ahmad, a son of Mírzá Yahyá.
  • Haifa; Beirut; Lebanon Hasan Balyuzi; American University of Beirut; Syrian Protestant College
    1925 22 Nov John Esslemont, Hand of the Cause of God, Disciple of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, passed away in Haifa. [BW3p84-85, BBD81, SETPE1p108-110]
  • For letters of Shoghi Effendi announcing his death and giving details of his life and funeral see BA97–8 and UD40–3.
  • For an obituary see BW1:133–6 and BW8:929–35.
  • He was buried next to the grave of Vakílu’d-Dawlih, the chief builder of the House of Worship at ‘Ishqábád. [DJEE37]
  • Shoghi Effendi elevated him to the station of Hand of the Cause of God on his death. The announcement was made on November 30th. [BA7-98; BWT3:333; DJEE40; PP92; UD403, MoCxxii
  • See also Moojan Momen, Dr John E. Esslemont (BPT UK 1975) and BW8p929-935 for "John Ebenezer Esslemont: His Life and Service" by Jesse E. Revell.
  • In addition to the publication of Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era in Britain by George Allen and Unwin in 1923 he also published a booklet called Bahá’u’lláh and His Message in New York by the Bahá’í Publishing Committee in 1921. (32 p). It was reprinted in London by the National Bahā’i Assembly of England, 1924. (23 p.), and a revised and edited publication was done by the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the British Isles. London, 1938.
  • The Message of Bahá’u’lláh: (Based on “Bahá’u’lláh and His Message”) was published in London by the Bahá’í Publishing Trust in 1945. (30 p.). [DJEE28; RG77; The Story of J. E. Esslemont and his Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era: Bibliography by Jan Jasion]
  • Haifa Esslemont; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Vakilud-Dawlih; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Cemeteries and graves
    1925 30 Nov With the passing of Dr Esslemont Shoghi Effendi was left without qualified secretarial help. This situation remained in place until the formation of the International Bahá'í Council in 1951. [PP92-95, SETPE1p112]
  • On November 30th Shoghi Effendi appointed him a Hand of the Cause of God.
  • Haifa Esslemont; Hand of the Cause of God; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi
    1925 Dec The Guardian expressed his "heartfelt and abiding gratitude" to Milly Collins and seven others who had donated the necessary funds to complete the Western Pilgrim House construction project. It had been started in 1919 with a donation from Ruth and Harry Randal but had come to a halt when the funds ran out. [Millyp7] Haifa Western Pilgrim House; Pilgrim Houses; Amelia Collins; Donations; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    1926 Jan Orcella Rexford and her husband Dr Gayne Gregory (the first to accept the Faith in Alaska) went to Haifa on pilgrimage and were technically the first from Alaska to do so. They were in the process of moving from Alaska to the Continental USA. [SETPE1p112-113 ]
  • See BW11p495-498 for for details of the life of Orella Rexford.
  • Haifa; Alaska; United States First Bahais by country or area; Orcella Rexford
    1927 (In the year) Abu'l-Qásim Faizi, a 19-year-old student who had attended the Tarbiyát School in Tehran but was now enrolled at the American University at Beirut, visited Haifa to meet Shoghi Effendi. Like Hasan Balyuzi before him, he was immediately possessed by a great desire to serve him. [SETPE1p146-7] Haifa; Tihran; Iran; Beirut; Lebanon Abul-Qasim Faizi; Tarbiyat School; American University of Beirut; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1927 11 Mar Sadie Oglesby and her daughter Bertha Parvine arrived in Haifa, the first black American women to make the pilgrimage. [TMW173, 206, SETPE1p141-145] Haifa Pilgrims; First pilgrims
    1927 May The funeral of a believer resident in the Holy Land, Mírá Moshen Afnán, was the first entirely Bahá'í funeral to take place in Palestine showing the strong independence of the Faith. [SETPE1p147] Haifa; Palestine Mira Moshen Afnan; funeral
    1927 Oct Shoghi Effendi entrusted Dr William Slater and his wife Ida Slater, who were visiting Haifa on a 19-day pilgrimage, with carpets from the Shrines of the Báb and 'Abdu'l-Bahá for the House of Worship in Chicago. [SETPE1p149] Haifa; Wilmette; United States William Slater; Ida Slater; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Bab, Shrine of; Carpets; Gifts; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1927 (Mid-Oct) Shoghi Effendi announced the defection of 'Abdu'l-Husayn Ávarih. He had been a very successful teacher and the author of a book on the history of the Faith but opposed Shoghi Effendi's efforts to build the Administrative Order. He was insistent that the Universal House of Justice be formed at that time. He was denounced by the believers in Egypt and Iran. [SETPE1p149, BA137-139, Ruhi8.2-20, CoC294-296; MBW53; PP120; ; BKC118-120]
  • After his defection he became a Muslim and an opponent of the Bahá'í Faith. He returned to Tehran and spent the rest of his life as a secondary school teacher. During this period he wrote many works of poetry and prose, including Kashf al-Hial, a three volume work refuting the Bahá'í Faith. [Wikipedia]
  • Haifa Covenant-breakers; Avarih (Abdul-Husayn); Abd al-Hosayn Ayati
    1928 Jan A Covenant-breaker, Jamil Irani, tried to still up trouble by implicating the Bahá'ís with Saláru'd-Dawlih, an ambitious brother of Muhammad-'Ali Sháh who had been deposed by the 1909 Revolution in Iran. The allegation was investigated by Lord Plummer, the British High Commissioner in Palestine who learned the truth of the matter. [SETPE1p151-152] Iran; Haifa Covenant-breakers; Jamil Irani; Plummer, Lord
    1929 (In the year) Shoghi Effendi completed the construction of the building at 10 Haparsim Street, which was designed as a hostel for western pilgrims, and adopted the custom of taking the evening meal with them in the dining room on the lower level. He usually met with the eastern pilgrims in the pilgrim house next to the Shrine of the Báb. [Bahá’í Pilgrimage] Haifa Pilgrimage; 10 Haparsim
    1929 4 May When the British Mandate in Palestine had been set up, an Order-in-Council had been enacted that allowed each of the recognized religious communities to be administered in all affairs of personal status according to their own religious laws and courts. The Bahá'í community had not, however, been accorded this "recognized" status and was thus compelled to submit to the Muslim Courts. In 1929 Shoghi Effendi asked Mountfort Mills to raise the matter with the authorities and the Bahá’í Community of Haifa formally petitioned the government that the Bahá’í laws on personal status be recognized in Palestine. [BBR459; PP284]
  • Recognition was granted later in the year. [BBR459; DH116; PP284]
  • Haifa; Palestine Recognition
    1929 summer Shoghi Effendi made plans to hold an international conference to consider, among other things, how to establish national spiritual assemblies as a prelude to the Universal House of Justice. [PP250]
  • He cancelled the conference when he perceived that the Bahá’ís would find it a source of confusion and misunderstanding. [BBRSM126; PP250]
  • BWC; Haifa Universal House of Justice; Spiritual Assemblies
    1930 7 Oct Ruth White wrote to the High Commissioner of Palestine stating that she had sent a photograph of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Will and Testament to Dr Ainsworth Mitchell in England who had declared it a forgery. The High Commissioner requested she send that same evidence to him and he forwarded it to the Governor of Haifa who requested to meet with Shoghi Effendi and allow an expert to examine the original. The expert declared the Will authentic. [SETPET1p157] Haifa; Israel; United Kingdom Covenant-breakers; Ruth White; Abdul-Baha, Will and testament of; Authenticity; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; High Commisioners
    1937 25 Mar Shoghi Effendi married Mary Maxwell, Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum. [PP151; UD115]
  • For a description of the simple wedding see GBF68–9 and PP151–2.
  • Shoghi Effendi stressed that the marriage drew the Occident and the Orient closer together. [GBF69–70; PP153]
  • The American Bahá’í community sent $19 from each of its 71 Assemblies as a wedding gift. [GBF70; PP153]
  • An extension was built onto Shoghi Effendi’s apartment on the roof of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s house in Haifa to accommodate the couple. [BBD107; DH152]
  • See also MA89.
  • Haifa Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Interracial marriage; Gifts; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1938 - 1939 Shoghi Effendi disbanded the Haifa Spiritual Assembly which had been in operation since at least 1922, and sent the local community away. [PP348]
  • The disbanding of the spiritual assembly apparently did not mean the end to the publication of the "Haifa News Letter" in which news from the World Centre had been forwarded to all the Bahá'í centres in the East in Persian with an English translation of the publication distributed in the West. The last known mention of the Haifa News Letter was in Bahá'í News Dec. 1945 p780. [PP50, 282,348]
  • Haifa Haifa Spiritual Assembly; Spiritual Assemblies; Haifa News Letter; Newsletters; Haifa Bahai Assembly
    1940 15 May Shoghi Effendi determined to go to England; he and Rúhíyyih Khánum left Haifa for Italy en route to London. [PP 178]
  • For the difficulties and dangers of this journey see PP178–80.
  • A few days after their arrival Rúhíyyih Khánum traveled to Genoa to meet her father, Sutherland Maxwell who had arrived on the S.S. Rex from Montreal. After the passing of his wife, Mr. Maxwell had been invited by Shoghi Effendi to come and live in Haifa. [PP178]
  • Haifa; Genoa; Italy; London; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; World War II; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1940 27 Dec Shoghi Effendi and Rúhíyyih Khánum returned Haifa. [PP181] Haifa Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1942 Late in the year Shoghi Effendi asked Sutherland Maxwell to design the superstructure of the Shrine of the Báb. [BBD210; DH140; GBF103–5] Haifa; Mount Carmel Sutherland Maxwell; Bab, Shrine of; Architecture; Architects; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1944 22–23 May The Centenary of the Declaration of the Báb was commemorated in the Holy Land. [BW10:150]
  • For a description of this event by Rúhíyyih Khánum see BW10:150–7.
  • For press accounts see BW10:156–7.
  • Haifa Centenaries; Bab, Declaration of
    1944 23 May Shoghi Effendi unveiled the model of the Shrine of the Báb at the centenary celebration of the Declaration of the Báb in Haifa. [BBD210; BW10:154, 157; DH140; GBF104; PP239–40; UD166]
  • BW10:157 suggests this was 24 May.
  • BWC; Mount Carmel; Haifa Bab, Shrine of; Bab, Declaration of; Centenaries; Models; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1944 Nov Shoghi Effendi sent the cable below to the Bahá'í world: "Monib Shahid, grandson of both `Abdu'l-Bahá and the King of Martyrs, married according to the Moslem rites the daughter of a political exile who is nephew of the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem. This treacherous act of alliance with enemies of the Faith merits condemnation of entire Bahá'í world." [Bahá'í News, December, 1944 No. 172] Haifa Covenant-breakers; Munib Shahid
    1945 Ridván Shoghi Effendi sent the following cable to the Bahá'í world: "My faithless brother Husayn, after long period of dishonourable conduct, has abandoned the Master's home to consort with his sister and other Covenant-breakers". [Bahá'í News, No. 174, p.2] Haifa Covenant-breakers; Husayn Ali Rabbani
    1946 Jan-Feb Canadian Elizabeth Greenleaf went on pilgrimage in Haifa. [SETPE1p114] Haifa Elizabeth Greenleaf; Pilgrims
    1946 11 Apr Shoghi Effendi instructed Sutherland Maxwell to set plans in motion for the first stages of the building of the superstructure of the Shrine of the Báb. [GBF104–5] BWC; Mount Carmel; Haifa Sutherland Maxwell; Bab, Shrine of; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1947 9 Jul Shoghi Effendi received a letter from the chairman of the United Nations Special Committee on Palestine requesting a statement on the relationship the Bahá’í Faith had to Palestine and the Bahá’í attitude to any future changes in the status of the country. [BW11:43, Text]
  • Shoghi Effendi replied on 14 July setting out the non-political character of the Bahá’í Faith and explaining that Palestine is both the administrative and the spiritual headquarters of the religion. [BW11:43–4]
  • He also included a statement of the history, aims and significance of the Bahá’í Faith, later published by the American National Spiritual Assembly in pamphlet form. [BW11:44; PP351]
  • For the text of this latter statement see GTT1–10.
  • Haifa; Palestine United Nations; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Writings of; Statements; Publications
    1948 21 - 22 Apr The 2nd Battle of Haifa: A Jewish offensive to gain control of the strategic port of Haifa. Prior to the 30-hour battle the Arab population of Haifa was estimated to be 65,000 compared to 70,000 Palestinian Jews. At the end of the operation the Arab population was reduced to about 4,000 people. [Battle of Haifa] Haifa War (general); History (general)
    1948 14 May The British Mandate in Palestine ended and the state of Israel was proclaimed. Palestine; Israel; Haifa Britain; History (general)
    1950 Mar Shoghi Effendi sent a further cable regarding his brother: "Faithless brother Hussein, already abased through dishonorable conduct over period (of) years followed by association with Covenant-breakers (in) Holy Land and efforts (to) undermine Guardian's position, recently further demeaned himself through marriage under obscure circumstances with lowborn Christian girl (in) Europe". [Bahá'í News, No. 229, p.1; Bahá'í News, No. 236, p.4] Haifa Husayn Ali Rabbani; Covenant-breakers
    1950 (Early June) In 1950 Sutherland Maxwell suffered from a severe illness from which he never recovered. He returned to Montreal in early June, 1951. [From CBN undated Memorial Issue] Haifa; Monteal; Sutherland Maxwell
    1950 9 Jul The Centenary of the Martyrdom of the Báb was commemorated.
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s message to the Bahá’ís on this occasion see BW12:191–3.
  • For accounts of commemorations around the world see BW12:205–8.
  • A small group of Bahá’í pilgrims visited the site of the Báb’s martyrdom and other places associated with His life. [BW12:217–26]
  • The columned arcade and parapet of the Shrine of the Báb were completed. [ZK284–5]
  • Haifa; Mount Carmel; Iran; Worldwide Centenaries; Bab, Martyrdom of; Bab, Shrine of; Pilgrimage; Pilgrims
    1950 Nov From Switzerland, Shoghi Effendi invited five Bahá’ís—Lotfullah Hakim, Jessie and Ethel Revell, Amelia Collins and Mason Remey—to Haifa. [PP251]
  • They, together with Ben and Gladys Weeden who were already there, were told that they would constitute the International Bahá’í Council. [PP251–2]
  • Switzerland; BWC; Haifa International Bahai Council; Lutfullah Hakim; Jessie Revell; Ethel Revell; Amelia Collins; Charles Mason Remey; Ben Weeden; Gladys Weeden
    1950 (Near end of year) Shoghi Effendi entered into negotiations with the government of Israel to exchange some farm land near the border with Jordan for the same acreage in the vicinity of the Shrine and the Mansion in Bahjí. The difficult and protracted talks lasted two years and involved Mr Hautz and Leroy Ioas, who in March 1952, had become the General Secretariat of the International Bahá'í Council and so had become the lead on the negotiations. [SETPE1p124-125] Bahji; Haifa Bahji; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1950 12 Nov Mírzá Badí‘u’lláh, the youngest son of Bahá’u’lláh, (b.1867 in Adrianople) described by Shoghi Effendi as the ‘chief lieutenant’ of the ‘archbreaker’ of the ‘divine Covenant’ died. [CB340, 355–6; CF89, BIC162, MSBR63, BBR460, RoB3pg230, CH209, SoB92, CoB340, 355-6, CoF89]
  • A close companion of Mírzá Muhammad-'Alí. [CoB165]
  • All his family became Covenant-breakers. [CoB362]
  • He had a short-lived repentance. [CoB152-3, GPB263, Historical Dictionary of the Bahá'í Faith p321, Interview with Badi'u'llah by Howard MacNutt]
  • He opposed both 'Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi. [CoB165] As an example, in 1939 when Shoghi Effendi proposed to relocate the remains of Mirza Mihdí and Ásíyih Khánum from 'Akka to Haifa, it was Mírzá Badí‘u’lláh who led the dissenting faction claiming that as he was more closely related to Mirza Mihdí, it was he, under Moslem law, who had the right to decide as to the disposal of the remains. [BBR460-461]
  • Haifa, BWC, Mirza Badiullah; Covenant-breakers
    1950 15 Dec The Guardian appealed directly to Israel’s Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion to recognize the interest of the Bahá’í community in the property known as Mazra‘ih as a holy place. After a protracted struggle to obtain ownership of the property, then a Moslem religious endowment, he leased the site from the Department of Moslem and Druze affairs in the Ministry of Religions. [DH93, GBF137, PP290, CB331, MBW7, Bahá'í News, no. 244, June 1951, p. 4] Haifa; Mazraih; Akka; Israel House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); David Ben-Gurion
    1951 9 Jan Shoghi Effendi announced the formation of the International Bahá'í Council. [BBD118; BBRSM127; GBF109; MBW7–8; PP252]

    Proclaim National Assemblies of East and West weighty epoch-making decision of formation of first International Bahá'í Council, forerunner of supreme administrative institution destined to emerge in fullness of time within precincts beneath shadow of World Spiritual Center of Faith already established in twin cities of 'Akká and Haifa....

  • The members were: Rúhíyyih Khanum (1951–61) Liaison with Shoghi Effendi; Hand of the Cause of God Charles Mason Remey (1951–61) President; Hand of the Cause Amelia Collins (1951–61) Vice President; Hand of the Cause Leroy Ioas (1952–61) Secretary General; Hand of the Cause Jessie Revell (1951–61) Treasurer Luṭfu’lláh Ḥakím (1951–61) Eastern Assistant Secretary Ethel Revell (1951–61) Western Assistant Secretary Ugo Giachery (1952–61) Member-at-large; Hand of the Cause Ben Weeden (1951–52); Gladys Weeden (1951–52); Sylvia Ioas (1955–61).
  • See UD261 for the significance of the establishment of the International Bahá'í Council. Between 1951 and 1957 Shoghi Effendi directed the members and used the Council to create an image of an international body handling the Bahá'í affairs in Haifa. According to Shoghi Effendi, the Council's responsibilities were to:
  • establish links with the Israeli authorities, and
  • negotiate with them concerning an establishing of a Bahá'í court to deal with personal matters,
  • Shoghi Effendi to complete the superstructure of the Shrine of the Báb
  • as an international Bahá'í secretariat.

    This body functioned until the election of the Universal House of Justice in 1963.

  • It was a forerunner to the Universal House of Justice. [BBD118]
  • For its functions see MBW7–8.
  • Its seat is the Western Pilgrim House. [BBD178]
  • For the stages of its evolution see CB324.
  • BWC, Haifa, International Bahai Council; Universal House of Justice; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline
    1951 2 Mar Shoghi Effendi announced the completion of the restoration of the House of ‘Abbúd. [MBW8] Haifa; Akka House of Abbud; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Restoration; World Centre; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens
    1951 30 Nov Shoghi Effendi announced plans for the Great Jubilee commemorating the centenary of the birth of the Revelation of Bahá’u’lláh in the Síyáh-Chál. [BW12:24–6, 115–16; MBW16–18] Haifa Great Jubilee; Centenaries; Bahaullah, Birth of Revelation of
    1951 Dec Shoghi Effendi's brother Riáz Rabbáni was the last of his siblings to become a Covenant-Breaker. "With feeling profound concern, grief, indignation, am compelled disclose Bahá'í world recent developments Holy Land furnishing further incontestable proof relationship established old and new Covenant-breakers demonstrating increasing boldness, marked, tragic decline in character and spiritual condition grandchildren `Abdu'l-Bahá. Their shameful attitude and conduct receiving approbation their elders. Evidences multiplying attesting Ruhi's increasing rebelliousness, efforts exerted my eldest sister pave way fourth alliance members family Siyyid Ali involving marriage his granddaughter with Ruha's son and personal contact recently established my own treacherous, despicable brother Riaz with Majdi'd-Din, redoubtable enemy Faith, former henchman Muhammad-'Ali, Archbreaker Bahá'u'lláh's Covenant. Convey information all National Assemblies." [MBW16, CoB358, 362, 364] Haifa; BWC Covenant-breakers; Riaz Rabbani
    1951 24 Dec Shoghi Effendi appointed 12 Hands of the Cause of God, the first contingent of Hands to be appointed. BBRSM127; BW12:38–40, 374–5; BW13:333–4; MBW20; PG223-224]
  • They were Sutherland Maxwell, Mason Remey, Amelia Collins (she had been appointed in 1946, but her appointment had not been made public), Valíyu’lláh Varqá, Tarázu’lláh Samandarí, ‘Alí-Akbar Furútan, Horace Holley, Dorothy Baker, Leroy Ioas, George Townshend, Herman Grossmann and Ugo Giachery [GBF110–11; MBW20; PP253–4]
  • Haifa Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands of the Cause, Contingents; Hands of the Cause, First Contingent; Sutherland Maxwell; Charles Mason Remey; Amelia Collins; Varqa, Valiyullah; Varqa; Tarazullah Samandari; Ali Akbar Furutan; Horace Holley; Dorothy Baker; Leroy Ioas; George Townshend; Herman Grossmann; Ugo Giachery
    1952 29 Feb Shoghi Effendi appointed the second contingent of Hands of the Cause of God. [BW12:375–6; CT202–3 MBW20–1; PP254; ZK47]
  • They were Fred Schopflocher, Corinne True, Dhikru’lláh Khádem, Shu’á’u’lláh ‘Alá’í, Adelbert Mühlschlegel, Músá Banání and Clara Dunn. [BW12:375–6; MWB19–20]
  • Shoghi Effendi described their two-fold function: propagation of the Faith and preservation of its unity. [BW12:376; MBW21]
  • Haifa Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands of the Cause, Contingents; Hands of the Cause, Second Contingent; Fred Schopflocher; Corinne True; Dhikrullah Khadem; Shuaullah Alai; Adelbert Muhlschlegel; Musa Banani; Clara Dunn
    1952 Mar The Octagonal component of the Shrine of the Báb was completed. [The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1952 Information Statistical & Comparative p6] Haifa; Mount Carmel Bab, Shrine of
    1952 4 Mar Shoghi Effendi described plans for a marble colonnade to encircle the Shrine of the Báb as an intermediate step to building a superstructure for the Shrine and sent his ideas to Italy for scale drawings and estimate. [SE133–4] Haifa; Mount Carmel; Italy Bab, Shrine of
    1952 8 Mar Shoghi Effendi announced the enlargement of the International Bahá’í Council to eight members. [MBW22; PP252–3]
  • Its members were Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum, Mason Remey, Amelia Collins, Ugo Giachery, Leroy Ioas, Jessie Revell, Ethel Revell and Lotfullah Hakim. [BW12:379; MBW22]
  • Haifa International Bahai Council; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Charles Mason Remey; Amelia Collins; Ugo Giachery; Leroy Ioas; Jessie Revell; Ethel Revell; Lutfullah Hakim
    1952 26 Mar Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum was appointed Hand of the Cause of God to replace her father. [GBF111; MBW132–3] Haifa Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Hands of the Cause, Appointments
    1952 18 May The case brought against Shoghi Effendi by the Covenant-breakers in connection with the demolition of a house adjoining the Shrine and Mansion of Bahá’u’lláh at Bahjí was removed from the civil courts by the government of Israel. [CB330; GBF138–9; PP233–4, 290]
  • For the history of this case and the outcome see BW12:384–7.
  • Haifa: Bahji Bahaullah, Shrine of; House of Bahaullah (Bahji); Court cases; Covenant-breakers
    1952 12 Nov The government of Israel exchanged 145,000 square metres of land surrounding Bahjí for property at Ein Gev on the eastern side of the Sea of Galilee belonging to the descendants of Bahá’u’lláh’s brother Mírzá Muhammad-Qulí and given to the Faith for this purpose. [DH118, 208; PP233, SETPE1p134-125, MBW454-46]
  • Bahá’í holdings at Bahjí up to this time amount to only 4,000 square metres.
  • Israel; Haifa; BWC Bahji; Mirza Muhammad-Quli
    1953 Ridván Bahjí was lit for the first time by 99 four-branched wrought iron lamp posts. [GBF32; PP89–90] Bahji; Haifa Light (general); Firsts, Other; Bahaullah, Shrine of
    1953 29 Apr In a moving ceremony, Shoghi Effendi placed a silver box containing a fragment of plaster from the ceiling of the Báb’s cell in Máh-Kú under a tile in the golden dome of the Shrine of the Báb. [BW12:239; ZK285] Haifa; Mount Carmel; Mah-Ku; Iran Bab, Shrine of; Mah-Ku; Boxes containing dust, earth or plaster
    1953. 28 May In a message addressed on the eve of the 61st anniversary of the passing of Bahá'u'lláh, at the opening of the Ten Year Crusade, Shoghi Effendi encouraged 70 pioneers to arise to fill the goals promising that a Roll of Honour with their names would be deposited at the entrance door of the inner Sanctuary of the Tomb of Bahá’u’lláh. [MBW48-49]
  • He further elaborated in a message addressed to the National Spiritual Assembly of Canada. See the message of the 8 June 1953. [MtC177]
  • See 1992 28 May.
  • Haifa; BWC Pioneers; Knights of Bahaullah; Roll of Honour; Bahaullah, Shrine of
    1953 Oct The superstructure of the Shrine of the Báb was completed. [BBD210; CB324–5; PP235; ZK85–6]
  • Marble for the Shrine of the Báb came from Chiampo, Italy as did marble for the Archives Building, the Resting Place of Shoghi Effendi, the Seat of the Universal House of Justice, the Terraces Project, the Monument Gardens and the Houses of Worship in India and Samoa. [BWNS1223]
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá described the Shrine of the Báb as the first Mashriqu’l-Adhkár. [ABF18]
  • BWC; Haifa; Mount Carmel; Chiampo; Italy Bab, Shrine of; Marble; BWNS; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1953 13 Dec A separate department for the Bahá’í Faith was established by the Israeli Ministry of Religious Affairs. [GBF137; PP 291; PP320] Israel; Haifa; BWC Recognition
    1954 6 Apr Shoghi Effendi announced that plans for the International Bahá’í Archives had been completed and that steps had been taken to begin its construction. [PP264BBD22–3; DH169; GBF117–8; MBW64] BWC; Mount Carmel; Haifa International Bahai Archives; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1954 12 Apr Shoghi Effendi accepted the bid made by the firm of Enrico Pandolfini of Pietrasanta in Tuscany, Italy for the supply of the obelisk will mark the place of the first Mashriqu'l-Adhkar of the Holy Land. After the delivery of the materials circumstances did not allow for the obelisk to be erected. The Universal House of Justice completed the project in August, 1971. Haifa; BWC; Pietrasanta; Tuscany; Italy Mashriqul-Adhkar, Haifa; Obelisks; Shoghi Effendi, Life of find reference
    1954 26 Apr President of Israel Ben Zvi and his wife visit the Shrines on Mount Carmel, the first official visit paid by a head of a sovereign state to the Shrines of the Báb and ‘Abdu’l-Bahá. [GBF139–140; MBW68; PP2923] Haifa; Mount Carmel Ben Zvi; Presidents; Prominent visitors; Bab, Shrine of; Firsts, Other
    1954 Apr The site for the first Mashriqu’l-Adhkár of the Holy Land was selected. [DH175; MBW63] Haifa Mashriqul-Adhkar, Haifa
    1954 4 May Shoghi Effendi closed the Roll of Honour, except for those pioneers who have already left for their posts and those first arriving in the remaining virgin territories inside and outside the Soviet Republics and satellites. [MBW69] Haifa; BWC Roll of Honour; Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 1 Oct The title of the a parcel of land on Mount Carmel was transferred to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canada, Israel Branch. The title deed was for Parcel No. 304, Block 10811 Mount Carmel, Haifa. Mount Carmel; Haifa; Israel; BWC Purchases and exchanges find reference
    1954 Nov A plot of land of slightly less than half an acre (1,300 metres) owned by Farah Sprague, a Covenant-breaker, was purchased (after expropriation by the state of Israel), overcoming the final obstacle to beginning the construction of the International Bahá’í Archives. This concluded a thirty-year struggle in the acquisition of land on the Arc for the Guardian. [LI210-211; DH169; MBW73–4; CBN No 60 January, 1955 p1] Haifa Farah Sprague; Covenant-breakers; International Bahai Archives Was she the Iranian-born wife of Sidney Sprague? See BFA2p155 Sister of Fareed? MBW73
    1954 27 Nov Shoghi Effendi described the significance of the world administrative centre of the Faith and the ‘structures, which will serve as the administrative seats of such divinely appointed institutions as the Guardianship, the Hands of the Cause, and the Universal House of Justice’ to be ranged along a ‘far-flung arc’. [MBW74] BWC; Mount Carmel; Haifa Guardianship; Hands of the Cause; Universal House of Justice, Seat of; Arc (World Centre); - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1955 to 2007 The fifth Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh was 'Ali-Muhammad Varqá. He inherited both the Trusteeship and the station of Hand of the Cause of God from his father upon his passing. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
  • During his tenure the compilation Huqúqu'lláh was published (1985) by the Universal House of Justice.
  • The delegates gathered at the National Convention of the Bahá'ís of the United States in 1984 petitioned the Universal House of Justice to make the Law of the Huqúqu'lláh applicable in their country. (Up to this point the law only applied to Bahá'is of Persian origin.) The Universal House of Justice replied that it was not yet time for such a measure but did agree to make more information available in preparation for such a time. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 3 January, 1985, AWH30]
  • Friends in Austria and the United States published codifications on the Law of the Huqúqu'lláh. To the benefit of the believers everywhere the Research Department at the World Centre was asked to prepare a brief history and a Codification. This information was sent to all national assemblies in the Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1987.
  • In 1991 the Central Office of Huqúqu'lláh was established in the Holy Land under the direction of the Chief Trustee in anticipation of the worldwide application of the law. Subsequently regional and national boards were established. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 26 November, 1991]
  • With the publication of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas in English in 1992 the law of the Huqúqu'lláh became universally applicable.
  • In 2005 an International Board of Trustees of the Huqúqu'lláh was established to guide the regional and national boards. Three members appointed to the Board were Sally Foo, Ramin Khadem, and Grant Kvalheim. Their term of office was to be determined. [Ridván 2005]
  • The last Hand of the Cause of Cause and Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh, Alí Muhammad Varqá, passed away in Haifa on the 22nd of September, 2007. [BWNS579]
  • BWC; Haifa Varqa, Ali-Muhammad; Huququllah; Huququllah, Trustees of; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Varqa; BWNS
    1955 Apr Shoghi Effendi announced the acquisition of 36,000 square metres of land for the first Mashriqu’l-Adhkár of the Holy Land. [DH175; MBW78–9]
  • The entire sum for the purchase was donated by Amelia Collins. [MBW79]
  • BWC; Haifa Mashriqul-Adhkar, Haifa; Purchases and exchanges; Amelia Collins; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    1955 4 May Sylvia Ioas was appointed to the International Bahá’í Council as its ninth member. [BW19:612; GBF110; MBW86; PP253] Haifa Sylvia Ioas; International Bahai Council
    1956. c. 1956 Shoghi Effendi acquired the title to the Pilgrim House at Bahjí from the Israeli government as part of the exchange for the Bahá’í properties at Ein Gev. [BBD177; DH226] Bahji; BWC; Haifa Pilgrim House at Bahji; Pilgrim Houses
    1956 20 Dec The publication in the Official Gazette of the government of Israel of the issue of an expropriation order against the Covenant-Breakers in possession of the holy Shrines at Bahji. This order was immediately appealed by the Covenant-Breakers to the Supreme Court. BWC; Haifa Bahji; Covenant-breakers find reference
    1957 3 Feb Enoch Olinga arrived in the Holy Land, the first black African Bahá’í to go on pilgrimage. Haifa Enoch Olinga; First pilgrims; Pilgrims
    1957 Ridván In his last Ridván message Shoghi Effendi announced that the exterior of International Bahá’í Archives had been completed and that the roof was in place. [VBHP38; DH169; GBF63–4; PP264–6]
      It had cost approximately a quarter of a million dollars and was, like the Shrine of the Báb, ordered in Italy, entirely carved and completed there, and shipped to Haifa for erection; not only was each separate stone numbered, but charts showing where each on went facilitated its being place in its proper position." [PP265]
  • Ugo Giachery supervised the work in Italy and Leroy Ioas in Haifa. Because the landscaping had been completed prior to the completion of the construction, it had to be built from the rear with only a space of about 5 metres on three sides to work in. [PP265]
  • For details of its construction and photographs see BW13:403–33.
  • BWC; Mount Carmel; Haifa International Bahai Archives; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1957 31 May The judgement of the Supreme Court of Israel against the Covenant-Breakers appeal, resulted in their removal from the properties in Bahjí. Bahji; BWC; Haifa Bahji; Covenant-breakers find reference
    1957 4 Jun Shoghi Effendi added protection of the Cause to the duties of the Hands of the Cause. [BBRSM127; CB380; MBW122–3] BWC; Haifa Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Institution; Protection; Appointed arm
    1957 6 Sep Shoghi Effendi announced ‘the complete evacuation of the remnant of Covenant-breakers and the transfer of all their belongings from the precincts of the Most Holy Shrine’. [MBW124]
  • See VSE166 for Audrey Robarts' observation of the Covenant-breakers at Bahjí during her pilgrimage in 1955.
  • Akka; BWC; Haifa Bahji; Covenant-breakers; Bahaullah, Shrine of
    1957 Oct The third contingent of Hands of the Cause of God was appointed: Enoch Olinga, William Sears, John Robarts, Hasan Balyuzi, John Ferraby, Collis Featherstone, Rahmatu’lláh Muhájir and Abu’l-Qásim Faizí. [GBF111; MBW127; PP254, 442; SS47]
  • See TG160 for the story of how Enoch Olinga reacted to the news of being appointed a Hand of the Cause of God.
  • Haifa Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands of the Cause, Contingents; Hands of the Cause, Third Contingent; Enoch Olinga; William Sears; John Robarts; Hasan Balyuzi; John Ferraby; Collis Featherstone; Rahmatullah Muhajir; Abul-Qasim Faizi
    1957 15 Nov Hands of the Cause Rúhíyyih Khánum, Mason Remey, Amelia Collins and Leroy Ioas, accompanied by Hand of the Cause Ugo Giachery, entered the apartment of Shoghi Effendi and sealed with tape and wax the safe where his important documents were kept as well as the drawers to his desk. [BW13:341]
  • The keys to the safe were placed in an envelope, which was sealed and signed by the five Hands and then placed in the safe of Leroy Ioas. BW13:341]
  • Haifa Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Charles Mason Remey; Amelia Collins; Leroy Ioas; Ugo Giachery
    1957 18–25 Nov The first conclave of the Hands of the Cause of God convened at Bahjí. Twenty-three Hands were present. [BBRSM128; DH215; MoC8–11, TG158]
  • This was the first meeting of the Hands of the Cause as a group.
  • For a personal account of the Conclave by Hand of the Cause Zikrullah Khadem. see ZK119.
  • For the nature of the six Conclaves see MoC9–10, 12.
  • Akka; BWC; Haifa Bahji; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Hands of the Cause, Conclaves; Zikrullah Khadem
    1957 19 Nov Nine Hands of the Cause were chosen by Rúhíyyih Khánum to examine Shoghi Effendi’s apartment. [BW 13:341]
  • They were the five members of the International Bahá’í Council (Rúhíyyih Khánum, Mason Remey, Amelia Collins, Ugo Giachery and Leroy Ioas), an Afnán (Hasan Balyuzi), a representative of the Hands of the Western Hemisphere (Horace Holley), a representative of the Hands of the African continent (Músá Banání) and the Trustee of the Huqúqu’lláh (‘Alí Muhammad Varqá). [BW13:341]
  • After seeing that the seals were intact, the Hands examined the contents of Shoghi Effendi’s safe and desk. [BW13:341]
  • The nine Hands signed a document testifying that no Will or Testament of any nature executed by Shoghi Effendi had been found. This was reported to the entire body of Hands assembled in the Mansion of Bahjí. [BW13:341]
  • See CB378–9 for an explanation of why Shoghi Effendi left no Will.
  • Haifa; Bahji Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; International Bahai Council; Charles Mason Remey; Amelia Collins; Ugo Giachery; Leroy Ioas; Hasan Balyuzi; Horace Holley; Musa Banani; Varqa, Ali-Muhammad
    1957 25 Nov A proclamation was issued stating that Shoghi Effendi left no heir and made no appointment of another Guardian. [BW13:341–5; MC25–30]
  • See LOG310 for an explanation of the various meanings of the word ‘Guardianship’.
  • See CB388–9 for a discussion of the continuation of the institution of the Guardianship.
  • Haifa; BWC Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Covenant (general); Hands of the Cause, Activities; Guardianship; Custodians; Appointed arm; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1957 25 Nov Nine Hands were chosen to serve as Custodians of the Faith residing in the Holy Land. [BBD57; BW13:342; DH215]
  • The Hands residing in the Holy Land were established as a legal body under the title ‘The Custodians of the Bahá’í World Faith’.
  • The Hands chosen as first Custodians are Rúhíyyih Khánum, Mason Remey, Amelia Collins, Leroy Ioas, Hasan Balyuzi, ‘Alí Akbar Furútan, Jalál Kházeh, Paul Haney and Adelbert Mühlschlegel. [BW13:345–6; MC40–1]
  • Haifa; BWC Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Hands of the Cause, Institution; Custodians; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Charles Mason Remey; Amelia Collins; Leroy Ioas; Hasan Balyuzi; Ali Akbar Furutan; Jalal Khazeh; Paul Haney; Adelbert Muhlschlegel; Appointed arm
    1957 Nov-1963 Apr Interregnum

    The six year ministry of the Hands of the Cause residing in the Holy Land, or ‘Custodians’. [BW16:90; WG45–6]

  • This period is known as the ‘interregnum’. [BBD 120]
  • See BW14:467 for a summary of the work of the Hands of the Cause during this period.
  • The International Bahá’í Council continued to perform its duties at the World Centre under the direction of the Custodians. [BBD118]
  • See also The Ministry of The Custodians 1957–1963.
  • Haifa; BWC Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Custodians; Interregnum; Ministry of The Custodians (book); International Bahai Council; Universal House of Justice; Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Appointed arm; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Covenant (general)
    1957 2 Dec On the advice of their lawyer, Dr Abraham Weinshall, the Custodians ask each National and Regional Assembly to send a letter recognizing them as the supreme body in the Cause. [MC40–1] Haifa NSA
    1957 2 Dec The titles to the Shrine of the Báb, the Mansion of Bahjí, and all other buildings and lands which the Covenant-Breakers had owned were transferred to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States. BWC; Mount Carmel; Haifa; Bahji Covenant-breakers; Ownership find reference
    1957 25 Dec The Hands of the Cause announced the destruction of the long, two-storey house previously occupied by Covenant-breakers which was located near the garden wall of the Mansion of Bahá’u’lláh and of which Shoghi Effendi had acquired legal possession shortly before his passing. [MC11, 51]
  • The rubble was used to complete the terraces begun by Shoghi Effendi north of the mansion and forcompleting the northern gardens planned by him.
  • Bahji; BWC; Haifa Bahji; Covenant-breakers
    1958 12 Jun The Custodians released the ‘Statement regarding the Guardianship’, explaining that Shoghi Effendi had left no heir, that only he could appoint a second Guardian and that the Bahá’ís must dismiss all hopeful expectation that a Will appointing a second Guardian will be found. [MC100-2] Haifa Guardianship
    1959 (In the year) The mansion at Mazra‘ih was renovated. [MC219] Akka; BWC; Haifa House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); Restoration; World Centre; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens
    1959 (In the year) The House of ‘Abbúd was renovated and restored. [MC219] Akka; BWC; Haifa House of Abbud; Restoration; World Centre; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens
    1959 Ridván The Custodians announced that the resting place of the remains of the father of Bahá’u’lláh had been identified. [MC144] Haifa Bahaullah, family of
    1959 14 Jun The Hands of the Cause announced that the remains of the cousin of the Báb had been identified and had been transferred to a cemetery. [MC161] Haifa Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities
    1960 Ridván c. Hand of the Cause Charles Mason Remey claimed he was the second, ‘hereditary’ Guardian of the Bahá’í Faith. [BW13:397; BW16:90; SS49]
  • See MC205–6, 231–6 for details of Remey’s claims.
  • See also BBRSM130-1, 138–9; CB386–91; MC196–217, 223–8; SBBH1:220, NOTE 207.
  • BWC; Haifa Charles Mason Remey; Guardianship; Covenant-breakers
    1960 27 Apr The International Bahá’í Council by unanimous vote rejected the claim of Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [MC206–7] Haifa International Bahai Council; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship
    1960 28 Apr The Custodians called upon all believers to join the Hands in repudiation of the claims of Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [MC196–7] Haifa Custodians; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship
    1960 30 Apr – 10 May Twenty–four national spiritual assemblies and five national conventions sent messages of support to the Custodians, repudiating the claim made by Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [MC199–202]
  • The National Spiritual Assembly of France voted to recognize the claim. [MC203]
  • BWC; Haifa; France NSA; Custodians; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship
    1960 5 May Hand of the Cause Abu’l-Qásim Faizí was sent by the Custodians to France to meet with the National Spiritual Assembly and Bahá’ís of France. [MC197]
  • After consultation, five members of the assembly continued to support Charles Mason Remey in his claim to be the second Guardian and resigned from the assembly. The national assembly was dissolved. [MC203]
  • BWC; Haifa; France Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Abul-Qasim Faizi; NSA; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship
    1960 13 May The International Bahá’í Council wrote to the Custodians recording its decision taken on 27 April to reject the claims of Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [Mc206–7] Haifa International Bahai Council; Charles Mason Remey; Custodians; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship
    1960 12 Jul Horace Hotchkiss Holley, Hand of the Cause of God, passed away in Haifa. (b. 7 April, 1887 in Torrington, CT) [MC226-227, BW13:849]
  • See FMH58-59 for the story of how he came to believe in the Faith.
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
  • For his obituary see BW13:849–858.
  • For cable from the Hands of the Cause see MC217–18.
  • See also SBR214-247, LoF253-264 and Holley, Horace Hotchkiss by R. Jackson Armstrong-Ingram.
      Some of his is publications: See BEL7.1197 to 7.1233]
    • The Bahá'í Religion: Papers Read at the Conference on Some Living Religions Within the British Empire Papers presented by Horace Holley and Ruhi Afnan. 1925 [BEL7.386]
    • Bahaism: The Modern Social Religion, (1913) [BEL7.1203]
    • Religion for Mankind, (1956) [BEL7.1222]
    • World Unity,
    • Bahá'í, The Spirit of the Age, (1921) [BEL7.1201]
    • Bahá'í Scriptures; Selections from the Utterances of Bahaʼuʼllah and Abdul Baha, (1923 and 1928) The first general book-length compilation of the writings of Bahá'u'lláh and 'Abdu'l-Bahá. Many passages were early and nonauthoritative translations. The book was superseded by Bahá'í World Faith [BEL4.71]
    • Read-aloud Plays,
    • Divinations and Creation,
    • The World Economy of Baháʼuʼlláh
    • The Inner Garden; A Book of Verse
    • The Reality of Man (1931) [BEL3.103]
    • He was a man of enormous capacity. When asked about it he reerred to a "zone of energy" in which he sometimes operated when more than normal strength was available to him. [FMH58]
  • Haifa; Torrington; Connecticut; United States Horace Holley; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, First Contingent; Bahai Scriptures (book); Plays; Arts
    1960 26 Jul The Hands of the Cause of God declared Charles Mason Remey a Covenant-breaker. [BBRSM221; MC224–5] Haifa Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers
    1960 18 – 27 Oct The fourth Conclave of the Hands of the Cause of God was convened at Bahjí. [MoC229] Haifa; BWC Bahji; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Hands of the Cause, Conclaves
    1960 2 Nov The Hands of the Cause issued a message from their fourth Conclave. [MoC237–44]
  • All the Hands of the Cause were henceforth to render their services on a global, rather than a regional, scale. [MoC239]
  • Haifa Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Hands of the Cause, Conclaves
    1961 Ridván The International Bahá’í Council was elected for the first time, by postal ballot of the members of the national spiritual assemblies. [BW13:397; MoC282]
  • The members were Jessie Revell, ‘Alí Nakhjavání, Lutfu’lláh Hakím, Ethel Revell, Charles Wolcott, Sylvia Ioas, Mildred Mottahedeh, Ian Semple and Borrah Kavelin. [MoC282]
  • See BW13:398 for picture.
  • See also BBD118; BBRSM131; BW16:90; CB324; MoC168, 242.
  • Haifa; BWC International Bahai Council; Universal House of Justice; Jessie Revell; Ali Nakhjavani; Lutfullah Hakim; Ethel Revell; Charles Wolcott; Sylvia Ioas; Mildred Mottahedeh; Ian Semple; H. Borrah Kavelin; Firsts, Other
    1961 25 – 26 Jun The newly-elected International Bahá’í Council met for the first time. [BW13:397; MoC285–6]
  • For details of the meeting and excerpts from its minutes see MC285–91.
  • Haifa International Bahai Council
    1961 (Autumn/Winter) The International Bahá’í Archives Building was opened to Bahá’í pilgrims. [BW13:429; MC20]
  • For details of the Archives building and several pictures see BW13:403–34.
  • Marble for the the International Baha’i Archives building was cut and chiseled by Margraf, a firm from Chiampo, Italy formerly known as Industria dei Marmi Vincentini. [BWNS1223]
  • BWC; Haifa International Bahai Archives; Pilgrimage; Marble; BWNS
    1961 5 Nov The Hands of the Cause issued a message from their fifth Conclave. [MoC313–23]
  • They called for the election of the Universal House of Justice at a convention to be held in the Holy Land on the first, second and third days of Ridván 1963. [CB392; MoC321]
  • They asked the electors to leave the Hands free to ‘discharge their duties’. [MoC321]
  • The celebration of the Most Great Jubilee, the Centenary of the Declaration of Bahá’u’lláh, was to be held in London rather than Baghdád, owing to the situation in the Middle East. [MoC322]
  • Haifa; Baghdad; Iraq; London; United Kingdom Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Hands of the Cause, Conclaves; Bahji; Most Great Jubilee; World congresses; Centenaries; Universal House of Justice, Election of; UHJ
    1962 1 Jan Amelia Collins passed away in Haifa. (b. 7 June, 1873) [BW13:399, 840; MC12]
  • For her obituary see BW13:834–41.
  • Shoghi Effendi appointed her (publicly) among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
  • For the cable of the Hands of the Cause see MC333.
  • See also Faizí, Milly ,"The Fulfilled hope of 'Abdu'l-Bahá" by Richard Francis and PSBW73–106.
  • For a timeline of her life see Shareable Bahá'í Resources
  • While serving in Haifa she was given 'Abdu'l-Bahá's room. She was the last person to occupy it. [TG231]
  • Haifa Amelia Collins; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, First Contingent; In Memoriam
    1962 28 Jun President Tubman of Liberia visited the Shrine of the Báb.
  • This is the second official visit of a head of state and is notable in that Liberia is the first black republic on the continent of Africa. [BW13:400]
  • See BW13:400 for picture.
  • Haifa; Mount Carmel; Liberia Bab, Shrine of; Presidents; Prominent visitors; Firsts, Other
    1963 21 Apr Establishment of the Universal House of Justice
  • The Universal House of Justice was elected for the first time. [BW14:427; MoC424]
  • The election was held at 9:30 in the morning at the home of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, 7 Haparsim Street, Haifa. [BW14:427; MoC425]
  • Ballots were received from all 56 national spiritual assemblies. [BW14:427]
  • 288 members of 51 national spiritual assemblies were present at the election. [BW14:427]
  • For a list of the electors see MoC406–13.
  • For details of the election see BW14:425–9 and MoC20–1.
  • Haifa; BWC Universal House of Justice, Election of; Conventions, International; Elections; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Firsts, Other; Appointed arm; Universal House of Justice, Basic timeline; Covenant (general); Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline
    1963 21 – 23 Apr The First International Convention was convened in Haifa. [MoC424]
  • For programme see MoC424–5.
  • For details of the Convention and pictures see BW14:425–30.
  • Haifa; BWC Conventions, International; First conventions
    1963 22 Apr The results of the election of the Universal House of Justice were announced at the close of the morning session of the International Convention: Charles Wolcott, ‘Alí Nakhjavání, H. Borrah Kavelin, Ian Semple, Lutfu’lláh Hakím, David Hofman, Hugh Chance, Amoz Gibson and Hushmand Fatheazam. [BBD231–3; BBRSM131; BW14:425 MoC425; SS50; VVXI-XII]
  • For a picture of the Hands of the Cause of God with the Universal House of Justice see ZK123.
  • Haifa; BWC Charles Wolcott; Ali Nakhjavani; H. Borrah Kavelin; Ian Semple; Lutfullah Hakim; David Hofman; Hugh Chance; Amoz Gibson; Hushmand Fatheazam; Universal House of Justice, Election of; Elections; Conventions, International; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Firsts, Other
    1963 9 May The Hands of the Cause of God passed a resolution regarding the principles that will apply between the body of the Hands and the Hands Residing in the Holy Land and the activities of the Hands in the Holy Land. [MoC426]
  • Five Hands of the Cause were assigned to the Holy Land.
  • Haifa Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities
    1963 19 May The Hands of the Cause cabled the annual conventions with the names of the five Hands chosen to reside in the Holy Land: Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum, Leroy Ioas, ‘Alí-Akbar Furútan, Paul Haney and Abu’l-Qásim Faizí. [MoC427] Haifa Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Leroy Ioas; Ali Akbar Furutan; Paul Haney; Abul-Qasim Faizi
    1963 7 Jun The Custodians published a Declaration ‘releasing all their functions, rights and powers conferred upon them by the Declaration of the Hands, November 25, 1957, to the Universal House of Justice’. [MoC433]
  • This was in accordance with the terms of the original document which provided for the Hands to exercise these functions until the election of the Universal House of Justice. [MoC431]
  • Haifa; BWC Custodians
    1963 16 Jun The Universal House of Justice announced that it will for the present time, use the Western Pilgrim House at 10 Haparsim Street, Haifa, as its seat and that both the Eastern and Western pilgrims will be housed in the Haifa Pilgrim House. [WG9] Haifa Western Pilgrim House; Universal House of Justice, Seat of; Pilgrimage
    1963 6 Oct The Universal House of Justice cabled that it found that ‘there is no way to appoint or to legislate to make it possible to appoint a second Guardian to succeed Shoghi Effendi’. [WG11]
  • See an interview with Mr Ian Semple in which he provides background to the decision and the process by which it was made.
  • BWC; Haifa Guardianship
    1964 3 Feb Hand of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum and her companion Violette Nakhjavání left Haifa at the start of their 55,000 mile, 9-month journey through India, Ceylon, Nepal and Sikkim. [AV114; VV11] Haifa; India; Sri Lanka; Nepal; Sikkim Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum, Journeys of; Violette Nakhjavani
    1964 Nov The Universal House of Justice announced that ‘there is no way to appoint, or to legislate to make it possible to appoint, Hands of the Cause of God’. [WG41]
  • For decisions of the Universal House of Justice regarding the development of the institution of the Hands of the Cause of God see WG40–3.
  • Haifa; BWC Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Institution; Appointed arm; Universal House of Justice; Universal House of Justice, Basic timeline
    1965 22 Jul Leroy Ioas, Hand of the Cause of God, passed away in Haifa. (b.15 February, 1896 in Wilmington, IL). He was known as "the Guardian's Hercules" and was praised by Shoghi Effendi for his "tireless vigilance, self-sacrifice, and devotion to the Cause in all its multiple fields of activity, in 'prodigious labours' and his 'stupendous efforts'. [BW14:291-300, VV7]
  • For his obituary see BW14:291–300.
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
  • For cable of the Universal House of Justice see WG157.
  • For a short biography see LoF265-275.
  • See Leroy Ioas: Hand of the Cause of God by Anita Ioas Chapman, published by George Ronald, 1998
  • Bahaipedia.
  • Shoghi Effendi named the inner front door of the Shrine of the Báb "Báb-i-Ioas".
  • Haifa; Wilmington, Leroy Ioas; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, First Contingent; Anita Ioas Chapman
    1966 14 Apr Jessie Revell, formerly a member of the International Bahá’í Council, passed away in Haifa. [BW14:300]
  • For her obituary see BW14:300–3.
  • Haifa Jessie Revell; Births and deaths
    1966 10 Jun The Universal House of Justice addressed its first letter to ‘Bahá’í Youth in Every Land’. [BW15:324; WG92–7] Haifa UHJ
    1967 Ridván The Universal House of Justice called upon the Bahá’ís to launch a global campaign proclaiming the message of Bahá’u’lláh to every stratum of society. A special edition of The Proclamation of Bahá'u'lláh was to be presented to Heads of State. [BW14:211, Ridván 1967] BWC; Haifa Universal House of Justice; Proclamation of Bahaullah (book)
    1968 Ridván The Universal House of Justice was elected for a second time by delegates from 81 National Spiritual Assemblies. [BW15:557]
  • Dr David Ruhe was elected to replace Dr Hakím, who resigned for reasons of ill health. The members were: Amoz Gibson, 'Ali Nakhjavani, Hushmand Fatheazam, Ian Semple, Charles Wolcott, David Hofman, H. Borrah Kavelin, Hugh Chance and David Ruhe. [VV3]
  • For a description of the second international convention and pictures see BW14:564–8.
  • Haifa; BWC Universal House of Justice, Election of; Elections; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Conventions, International; Amoz Gibson; Ali Nakhjavani; Hushmand Fatheazam; Ian Semple; Charles Wolcott; David Hofman; H. Borrah Kavelin; Hugh Chance; David Ruhe
    1968 21 Jun The Universal House of Justice established the Continental Boards of Counsellors to continue the functions of the Hands of the Cause in the protection and propagation of the Faith. [BBD58–9, 97; BW15:611–13; BW17:319; MUHJ4–5; WG141, Mess63-86p130, 21 June, 1968, CEBF112]
  • For details of the eleven Boards and their membership see BW15:612 and WG140–4.
  • For pictures of the Counsellors see BW15:614, 615, 618, 619, 622, 623, 625, 627.
  • For a history of the development of the institutions of the International Teaching Centre and the Continental boards of Counsellors see BW20p673-693.
  • BWC; Haifa Universal House of Justice; Counsellors; Hands of the Cause; Appointed arm; Universal House of Justice, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded Auxiliary Board Members and assistants
    1968 10 Aug Dr Lutfu’lláh Hakím, former member of the Universal House of Justice, passed away in Haifa. [BW15:434]
  • For his obituary see BW15:430–4.
  • For cable of the Universal House of Justice see BW15:434 and WG158.
  • See Wikipedia.
  • Find a grave.
  • See Bahá'í Reference Library.
  • Haifa Lutfullah Hakim; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1968 26 – 31 Aug The centenary of the arrival of Bahá’u’lláh in the Holy Land was commemorated at the World Centre. [BW15:81–4]
  • For details of the commemoration, the pilgrimage to follow and pictures see BW15:81–6.
  • Haifa; BWC; Israel Centenaries; Pilgrimage; Bahaullah, Banishment of
    1968 2 Sep Tarázu’lláh Samandarí, Hand of the Cause of God, passed away in Haifa. (b.1874 in Qazvin, Persia)
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
  • For his obituary see BW15p410-416.
  • For cable of the Universal House of Justice see BW15:416 and WG158–9.
  • Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • See Moments with Bahá'u'lláh: Memoirs of the Hand of the Cause of God Tarázu'lláh Samandarí translated by Mehdi Samandarí and Marzieh Gail and published by Kalimat Press.
  • Find a grave.
  • Haifa Tarazullah Samandari; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam
    1968 9 Oct The Universal House of Justice addressed its second letter to Bahá’í Youth. [BW15:324; WG152–4] Haifa UHJ; Youth
    1969 (In the year) Owing to the increased flow of pilgrims, the pilgrim house in Haifa was converted to a pilgrim centre and the decision was taken to accommodate pilgrims in hotels. [DH178] Haifa; BWC Pilgrim Houses; Pilgrimage; Pilgrims
    1971 Aug The Universal House of Justice erected an obelisk on the site of the future House of Worship of the Holy Land on land that was purchased in 1953 with a gift of $50,000 from Milly Collins. [MBW63, 78-79, BBD 172; BW15:177–8; DH175; MUHJ83–4, SES18-20] BWC; Mount Carmel; Haifa Universal House of Justice; Universal House of Justice, Basic timeline; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Haifa; Obelisks; Gifts; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Milly Collins
    1971 26 – 28 Nov The fiftieth anniversary of the passing of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá was commemorated. [BW15:125–8; VV14]
  • For text of the letters of the Universal House of Justice see BW15:125–6 and MUHJ76–7.
  • BWC; Haifa Abdul-Baha, Passing of
    1973 Feb Hand of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum and her companion Violette Nakhjavání completed their tour of Africa. [BW15:605]
  • They drove some 36,000 miles to visit more than 30 countries. [BW15:596; VV12]
  • For details of the safari see BW15:593–607.
  • See BW15:606–7 for the countries, islands and territories visited and the heads of state and other dignitaries who received them.
  • Africa; Haifa Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum, Journeys of; Violette Nakhjavani; Great Safari
    1973 Ridván The Universal House of Justice was elected for the third time. The conference was attended by 472 National Spiritual Assembly members of the possible 1,017 from the 113 National and Regional Assemblies. Members of 14 Assemblies were prevented from attending for circumstances beyond their control but at least one person attended from the remaining 99 Assemblies. [VV14, SDSC296]
  • The newly elected members of the Universal House of Justice were: 'Alí Nakhjavání, Hushmand Fatheazam, Amoz Gibson, Ian Semple, David Hofman, Charles Wolcott, Borrah Kavelin, David Ruhe, Hugh Chance. [Mess63-86]
  • BWC; Haifa Universal House of Justice, Election of; Conventions, International; Elections
    1973 5 Jun The International Teaching Centre was established at the Bahá’í World Centre for the purpose of continuing the work of the Hands of the Cause of God into the future. [BBD118–19; BBRSM132–3; BW16:134, 411–14; BW17:322–5; VV16, CEBF200; Wikipedia]
  • For cable of the Universal House of Justice see BW16:413.
  • Hands of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum, ‘Alí-Akbar Furútan, Paul Haney and Abu’l-Qásim Faizí and Counsellor members Hooper Dunbar, Florence Mayberry and Aziz Yazdí were appointed. [BW16:413]
  • For pictures see BW16:412 and VV16.
  • The duties and the organization of the International Teaching Centre were deliniated in the Message from the Universal House of Justice of June 8th, 1973.
  • BWC; Haifa International Teaching Centre; International Teaching Centre, Members of; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Counsellors; Universal House of Justice, Basic timeline; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Ali Akbar Furutan; Paul Haney; Abul-Qasim Faizi; Hooper Dunbar; Florence Mayberry; Aziz Yazdi; Appointed arm; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1973 14 Jun The International Teaching Centre met for the first time. [VV16] Haifa International Teaching Centre
    1973 18 Sep Husayn Amánat was appointed architect of the Seat of the Universal House of Justice. [BW16:133; DH172; VV37] BWC; Haifa Universal House of Justice, Seat of; Hossein Amanat (Husayn Amanat); Architecture; Architects
    1973 4 Dec The Universal House of Justice announced the completion of the final, south-western quadrant of the gardens at Bahjí. [BW16:135–6; DH122] Akka; BWC; Haifa Bahji
    1975 14 Jan The house of ‘Abdu’lláh Páshá was purchased after lengthy and delicate negotiations. [BBD108; BW16:103, 133; BW17:82; DH73; VV39]
  • For a history of the house see BW16:103–6.
  • Akka; BWC; Haifa House of Abdullah Pasha; Purchases and exchanges; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    1975 5 Jun Excavation of the site of the Seat of the Universal House of Justice began. [BW16:133; BW18:465]
  • See BW16:399–404 for an article on the Seat by architect Husayn Amánat.
  • See BW17:301 for the significance of the seat.
  • Haifa; BWC Hossein Amanat (Husayn Amanat); Universal House of Justice, Seat of; Architecture; Architects
    1976 7 May Saichiro Fujita, (b. 1886) the second Japanese to become a Bahá’í, passed away in Haifa. [BW17:406]
  • For his obituary see BW17:406–8.
  • 1903 came to California for education.
  • 1905 became a Bahá'í (Mrs. Kathryn Frankland)
  • 1912 joined 'Abdu'l-Bahá's party in Chicago as they were near departure for California.
  • 1919 came to the Holy Land after studying electricity and horticulture.
  • 1928 Shoghi Effendi sent him back to Japan with the war impending.
  • 1955 returned to the Holy Land.
  • Was buried in the Bahá'í Cemetery in Haifa.
  • References: Traces That Remain and Japan Will Turn Ablaze
  • Haifa Saichiro Fujita; In Memoriam; Births and Deaths
    1977 11 Jun The centenary of the termination of Bahá’u’lláh’s confinement in ‘Akká was commemorated at the World Centre. [BW17:64] Haifa; BWC Centenaries; Bahaullah, Banishment of
    1977 Dec The restoration of the house of ‘Abdu’lláh Páshá began. [BW17:84] Akka; BWC; Haifa House of Abdullah Pasha; Restoration
    1978 Ridván The Universal House of Justice was elected for the fourth time at the International Convention held in Haifa. [BW17:293]
  • Those elected were: 'Alí Nakhjavání, Hushmand Fatheazam, Amoz Gibson, Ian Semple, David Ruhe, Charles Wolcott, David Hofman, Hugh Chance, Borrah Kavelin, . [Mess63-86p381] .
  • For details of the International Convention and pictures see BW17:293–300.
  • BWC; Haifa Universal House of Justice, Election of; Conventions, International; Elections
    1978 Ridvan Delegates to the International Convention attended a ceremony to further dedicate the new building for the Seat of the Universal House of Justice. The superstructure of the building was completed at this stage. Chairing the event was Hand of the Cause Dr. Ugo Giachery with special guest Ethel Revell, former member of the International Bahá'í Council in attendance. A casket containing dust from both Holy Shrines was placed in a niche specially designed for it.
  • Delegates from 123 National/Regional Assemblies attended. [BW17p293-300]
  • BWC; Haifa Universal House of Justice, Seat of; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Bab, Shrine of; Boxes containing dust, earth or plaster
    1980 24 Sep Universal House of Justice announced that additional land had been acquired in the south-western area of the Haram-i-Aqdas in exchange for some land near Nazareth. The acquisition of this new land permitted the completion of the fourth quadrant. In addition, it was announced that nearly 50,000 square meters of agricultural land adjacent to and north of the Mazra'ih property had been acquired as a protection for the Mansion because this area was being developed rapidly. [BW18:99; DH122, Message from the Universal House of Justice 24 September, 1980] BWC; Akka; Bahji; Haifa Haram-i-Aqdas; House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); Purchases and exchanges; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    1980 20 Nov Abu’l-Qásim Faizí, Hand of the Cause of God, passed away in Haifa. (b.1906) [BW18:659; VV52]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
  • For his obituary see BW18:659–65.
  • See Conqueror of Hearts: Excerpts from Letters, Talks, and Writings of Hand of the Cause of God Abu'l-Qásim Faizí by Abu'l-Qasim Faizi edited by Shirley Macias.
  • Haifa Abul-Qasim Faizi; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Third Contingent
    1982 15 Jul In commemoration of the fiftieth anniversary of the passing of Bahíyyih Khánum, the Greatest Holy Leaf, Bahá’ís at the World Centre prayed at midnight at the Shrine of the Báb and at the tomb of the Greatest Holy Leaf, commemoration services were held in many parts of the world. [BW18:53, 102]
  • For a list of references to the Greatest Holy Leaf found in English-language works see BW18:55–6.
  • For a list of works published to commemorate this anniversary see BW18:57–8.
  • For an article about her life and service see BW18:68–73.
  • Five international conferences and their satellites, held in June, August and September, are dedicated to her memory. [BW18:102]

    "The five international conferences of the Seven Year Plan were called to commemorate the fiftieth anniversary of the passing of the Greatest Holy Leaf, to discuss anew the present condition of the Faith in a turbulent world society, to examine the great opportunities for its future growth and development, and to focus attention on the unfulfilled goals of the Plan. We are certain that the contemplation of the gathered friends on the sterling qualities which distinguished the heroic life of the Greatest Holy Leaf will help them to persevere in their noble endeavours." [The Universal House of Justice, from a message to the International Conference in Canberra, Australia, 2, September 1982 para 3]

  • Haifa Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Bab, Shrine of
    1982 3 Dec Paul Haney, Hand of the Cause of God, died in Haifa in an automobile accident. [BW18:617; VV52]
  • Paul Haney was born to Mary (Merriam) Ida Parkhurst and Charles Freeborn Haney on August 20, 1909. His parents were active Bahá’is since 1900 and had been married for seventeen years at the time of Paul’s birth. His mother accredited a portion of his spiritual development to being in the presence of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá while a fetus....In letters between his mother, Merriam, and Rúhíyyih Khánum it was indicated that the Master gave him his own name; it was ‘Abdu’l-Bahá. He was also given the name Paul by the Master to be used in the outside world. In 1919, Corinne True was able to also confirm that the master gave Paul his name. [Bahá'í Chronicles]
  • He had been appointed a Hand of the Cause of God on the 19th of March,1954 following the death of Hand of the Cause of God Dorothy Baker. [MoCxxiv}
  • For his obituary see BW18:613–18.
  • Haifa Paul Haney; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Appointments
    1983 May The number of members of the International Teaching Centre was raised to nine. [BW19:27; Mess63-86p361] Haifa International Teaching Centre
    1984 3 Jan The Universal House of Justice addressed a letter to the Bahá’í youth of the world encouraging them to volunteer a period of service to the Bahá’í Faith. [AWH14–17; BW19:297–8, 299, 311–13; VV116] Haifa Universal House of Justice; Youth, Year of service; Youth
    1984 21 Oct His Excellency Chaim Herzog, President of the State of Israel, pays an official visit to the Bahá’í World Centre at the invitation of the Universal House of Justice. [BW19:377; VV88]
  • This is the first visit by a head of state to the Seat of the House of Justice. [VV88]
  • Haifa; BWC; Israel Chaim Herzog; Presidents; Prominent visitors
    1984 9 Nov The Universal House of Justice met with representatives of the Bahá’í International Community and various national spiritual assemblies at the World Centre. Haifa UHJ; BIC; NSA
    1985 May The Office of Public Information was established at the Bahá’í World Centre. [BBD38; BW19:58–9; VV54] Haifa; BWC Office of Public Information
    1985 27 Dec - 1986 2 Jan The Universal House of Justice convened a Counsellors’ Conference at the Bahá’í World Centre. [AWH39; BW19:29; VV122]
  • The gathering, held in the Seat of the Universal House of Justice, consulted on the opportunities and challenges facing the Bahá’í world community. [BW19:29]
  • See BW19:494, 504 for pictures.
  • Haifa; BWC Counsellors; Conferences, Bahai; Counsellors conferences
    1986 2 Jan The Universal House of Justice ended the Counsellors’ Conference at the Bahá’í World Centre by announcing in a letter that the Bahá’í world has entered the fourth epoch in the Formative Age of the Cause. [AWH39–42; BBD79, 85; BW19:29; VV91]
  • The seven major objectives of the Six Year Plan, to begin at Ridván 1986, were outlined. [AWH40]
  • On the closing day of the Counsellors' Conference, the Universal House of Justice announced certain features of the Six Year Plan and the methods by which the national goals were to be worked out in consultation between the Counsellors and National Spiritual Assemblies. [Mess63-86p717]
  • The year from Ridván 1992 was designated a Holy Year. [AWH40–1]
  • Haifa; BWC Formative Age; Ages and Epochs; Holy Years; Six Year Plan (1986-1992); Counsellors conferences
    1986 3 – 4 Aug The Honourable Sir Thomas David, Prime Minister of the Cook Islands, at his request, consults with the Universal House of Justice at the Bahá’í World Centre about world peace, ‘the most concrete response to date by a political leader to the Peace Statement’. BINS157:1; VV88]
    • For picture see VV86.
    Haifa; BWC; Cook Islands Prominent visitors; Universal House of Justice
    1987 (In the year) The first conference on Huqúqu’lláh was held at the Bahá’í World Centre. Haifa; BWC Huququllah
    1987 (In the year) The film, Heart of the Lotus, made by Elizabeth Martin, documented the dedication of the House of Worship in New Delhi. [HNWE45] Haifa; BWC film; Elizabeth Martin; Heart of the Lotus
    1987 22 Apr A ceremony was held to sign a ‘status agreement’ between the Bahá’í International Community and the Government of Israel defining the relationship of the Bahá’í World Centre with the State of Israel. [LETTER OF THE UNIVERSAL HOUSE OF JUSTICE, 30 APR 87]
  • Shimon Peres, Vice-President and Foreign Minister, represented the Government of Israel while Donald Barrett signed the agreement in his capacity as Secretary-General of the Bahá’í International Community. [LETTER OF THE UNIVERSAL HOUSE OF JUSTICE, 30 APR 87]
  • Israel; Haifa; BWC Status agreement; Bahai International Community; Shimon Peres; Donald Barrett
    1988 Apr The House of Abdu'lláh Páshá was open for the Bahá'ís to visit for the first time on the occasion of the Sixth International Convention. [ARG61-62] Haifa; BWC House of Abdullah Pasha; Conventions, International
    1989. 10 Oct The Bahá'í World Centre received official approval by the Local Town Planning Committee and City Council of Haifa of the Town Planning Scheme for the initiation of the Projects on Mt Carmel. Haifa Arc Project find reference
    1990 Mar The Haifa District Town Planning Commission approved the plan submitted by the World Centre for the building projects on Mount Carmel. [AWH76] Mount Carmel; Haifa; Israel; BWC Arc project
    1990 23 May The work started on the project to reinforce and extend the main terrace of the Shrine of the Báb. This was the initial step in the work to have the Terraces extend from the foot of the ridge of the mountain. [Ridván Message 1992, AWH83, 102]
  • The architect for the Terraces project was Fariborz Sahba.
  • World Centre; Akka; Haifa; Israel; BWC Terraces; Arc project; Bab, Shrine of; Fariborz Sahba
    1991 17 Jun The contracts were signed for the second phase of construction for the terraces to the Shrine of the Báb. Haifa; Mount Carmel Bab, Shrine of; Terraces
    1991 Sep The ground was broken for the construction of the Centre for the Study of the Sacred Texts and for the Extension to the International Archives Building. [Ridván Message 1992] Haifa; BWC Centre for the Study of the Sacred Texts; International Bahai Archives; Arc project; Foundation stones and groundbreaking
    1991 26 Nov The Office of Ḥuqúqu’lláh had been established in the Holy Land under the direction of the Chief Trustee of Ḥuqúqu’lláh, the Hand of the Cause of God ‘Alí-Muḥammad Varqá, in anticipation of the worldwide application of the Law of Ḥuqúqu’lláh the following Riḍván. Concurrent with this development were the steps being taken by Dr. Varqá to organize regional and national Boards of Trustees of Ḥuqúqu’lláh, following the example of the Board that had been already functioning in the United States. [Adapted from the Message of the Universal House of Justice dated 26 November, 1991.] BWC; Haifa Varqa, Ali-Muhammad; Varqa; Huququllah; Huququllah, Trustees of; Firsts, Other
    1992 Ridván The announcement by the Universal House of Justice that the Law of Ḥuqúqu’lláh was to be in effect for the members of the entire world community. [Ridván Message, AWH106, 175, BW92–3:28, CBN Jan91 p2] BWC; Worldwide; Haifa Huququllah; Gradual implementation of laws; Laws; Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1992 27 – 30 May Three thousand Bahá'ís representing approximately 200 countries and territories, gathered at the Bahá'í World Centre to mark the Centenary of the Ascension of Bahá'u'lláh. [BINS271:1–2; BW92–3:96–8, 121]

    On the 27th of May...the gathering of one hundred thirteen Knights of Bahá'u'lláh along with 19 representatives of every National Spiritual Assembly (165) and 9 representatives of every territory without a National Spiritual Assembly (40-50) at Bahjí in commemoration of the ascension of Bahá'u'lláh (some 3,000 persons). A scroll bearing the Roll of Honour of the Knights of Bahá'u'lláh was deposited at the entrance door of the inner Sanctuary of the Most Holy Shrine. [AWH90 105] [VV128] [BW92-3p98] [BINS271:1]

  • See the Roll of Honour online at Knights of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • For pictures see VV127-8, BINS271:9-10, BW92–3:97.
  • BWC; Haifa Bahaullah, Ascension of; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Roll of Honour; Knights of Bahaullah; Holy days; Centenaries; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1992 28 May The original scroll bearing the Roll of Honour of the Knights of Bahá'u'lláh was placed by Hand of the Cause Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum in a chamber at the entrance door of the inner sanctuary of the Most Holy Shrine. [AWH90, 105; BINS271:1; BW92–3, 98; VV128]
  • For pictures see BINS271:9 and VV127, 128.
  • Bahji; BWC; Haifa Knights of Bahaullah; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Roll of Honour; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1993 12 Jun The Honourable Sir Julius Chan, KBE, Deputy Prime Minister of Papua New Guinea consulted with the Universal House of Justice on the future role of his country as an emerging nation and on the destiny of the Pacific region. [BINS297:9; BW93–4:78]
  • For pictures see BINS297:9 and BW93–4:78
  • Papua New Guinea; Haifa; Pacific region Julius Chan, Sir; Universal House of Justice; Prominent visitors
    1993 16 Sep The document Bahá’í Social and Economic Development: Prospects for the Future, prepared at the World Centre, was approved for publication by the Universal House of Justice for use by the Office of Social and Economic Development (OSED) in orienting and guiding the work in this area. Most central to this vision was the question of capacity building. That activities should start on a modest scale and only grow in complexity in keeping with available human resources was a concept that gradually came to influence development thought and practice. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 26 November, 2012] BWC; Haifa Social and economic development; Capacity building; Publications; Growth; Bahai Faith, Evolutionary nature of; Social action
    1994 Jun 13 The Prime Minister of Israel, Yitzhak Rabin, visited the Bahá'í World Centre to view the Terraces Project. [BW94–5:77] Israel; Haifa; BWC Yitzzhak Rabin; Prime Ministers; Prominent visitors
    1994 Aug 4 Shimon Peres, Israel's Minister of Foreign Affairs, made an official visit to the Bahá'í World Centre. [BW94–5:77] Israel; Haifa; BWC Shimon Peres
    1995 26 Dec Start of the Institute Process

    In its message of 26 December 1995 to the Conference of the Continental Boards of Counsellors the Universal House of Justice announced that it will send separate messages concerning the upcoming the Four Year Plan to different parts of the world and will call for the establishment of Training Institutes as an agency of the National Spiritual Assemblies. The Training Institutes will be charged with developing human resources. The Counsellors and the Auxiliary Board members will be intimately involved in the establishment and operation of these institutes. The two arms of the Administrative Order will collaborate in the overseeing of the budget and planning program content, developing curricula and delivering courses. Should there be a board of directors then Auxiliary Board Members may serve on these bodies.

    BWC; Haifa Training Institutes; Teaching Plans; Four Year Plan (1995-1999); Counsellors; Counsellors conferences; * Institute process; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1997 30 May In its message of 30 May 1997 the Universal House of Justice announced that they have authorized the formation of "State Bahá'í Councils" or "Regional Teaching and Administrative Committees" to be called "Regional Bahá'í Councils. Their intention was to provide a balance between centralization and decentralization. This structure had been in place in some countries, notably India, for some years prior to this time. See 23 May, 1986. [TP87-90]
    For a synopsis of the letter see The Establishment of Regional Bahá'í Councils in Certain Countries, Their Characteristics and Functions.
    The distinguishing effects of the establishment of Regional Bahá’í Councils were the following:
  • It provided for a level of autonomous decision making on both teaching and administrative matters, as distinct from merely executive action, below the National Assembly and above the Local Assemblies.
  • It involved the members of Local Spiritual Assemblies of the area in the choice of the members of the Council, thus reinforcing the bond between it and the local believers while, at the same time, bringing into public service capable believers who were known to the friends in their own region.
  • It established direct consultative relationships between the Continental Counselors and the Regional Bahá’í Councils.
  • It offered the possibility of forming a Regional Bahá’í Council in an ethnically distinct region which covered parts of two or more countries. In such a situation the Council was designated to work directly under one of the National Assemblies involved, providing copies of its reports and minutes to the other National Assembly.
  • The greater degree of decentralization involved in the devolution of authority upon Regional Bahá’í Councils required a corresponding increase in the capacity of the National Spiritual Assembly itself to keep fully informed of what was proceeding in all parts of the territory over which it had ultimate jurisdiction.
  • BWC; Haifa State Bahai Councils; Regional Bahai Councils; National Spiritual Assemblies; Local Spiritual Assemblies; Administration
    1999 9 Nov The announcement by the Universal House of Justice of the creation of the Office of Correspondence at the World Centre to improve communication between the World Centre and the Bahá'í World by assisting the Secretariat of the House of Justice in responding to routine requests and inquiries made to the World Center and also to handle a broader range of such correspondence, over its own signature, following policies laid down for this purpose. [Universal House of Justice 9 November, 1999] BWC; Haifa Office of Correspondence
    2000 19 Jan The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum in Haifa. She was born in New York on 8 August 1910. [One CountryVol.11,Issue4, Mess86-01p699-700, 19 January, 2000]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed her as a Hand of the Cause of God after the passing of her father, Hand of the Cause of God Sutherland Maxwell on the 26th of March, 1952. [MoCxxiv]
  • See A Tribute to Amatu’l-Bahá Ruhiyyih Khanum by Violette Nakhjavani.
  • Photo of her Resting Place.
  • Haifa Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    2000 18 Sep The announcement of the opening of the new Pilgrim Reception Centre near the Shrine of the Báb to receive Bahá'í pilgrims and visitors to the Bahá'í holy places in Haifa and Acre. The Centre was housed in two historic buildings that formerly served as a clinic. Remodeling these two structures began in 1998. The larger one was built during the time of the British Mandate and the smaller structure has a more Middle Eastern appearance, with patterned ceramic floors and stone arches. The first Bahá'í Pilgrim House in Haifa was built near the Shrine of the Báb by a Persian believer in 1909 and continued to serve as the primary gathering place for pilgrims until the new facility was completed. [BWNS67] BWC; Haifa Pilgrim Reception Centre; Pilgrimage; Pilgrim Houses; BWNS; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Pilgrims
    2001 8 - 17 Jan The inauguration of the International Teaching Centre Building at the World Centre with the meeting of the Institution of the Counsellors. Board members from 172 countries attended.
  • Message from the Universal House of Justice date 14 January, 2001 addressed To the Conference Marking the Inauguration of the International Teaching Centre Building.
  • This occasion was marked as "one of the historic happenings of the Formative Age". From the Ridván Message of 2000]
  • Construction of the International Teaching Centre Building began in 1987 and was completed in October 2000. [BWNS131]
  • For a full account of the event see BWNS131 and BW00-01p4148.
  • BWC; Mount Carmel; Haifa International Teaching Centre, Seat; Arc project; BWNS; Counsellors; Counsellors conferences; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    2001 9 - 13 Jan The Counsellors in all continents met at the World Centre to take part in deliberations on the general features of the Five Year Plan. They were joined by the Auxiliary Board members (849 from 172 countries) who gathered from throughout the world to participate in events marking the occupation by the International Teaching Centre of its permanent seat on Mount Carmel. [From the messages from the Universal House of Justice dated the 29th of October, 2000 and the16th of January, 2001] BWC; Haifa Counsellors; Counsellors conferences; Five Year Plan (2001-2006); Teaching Plans; Auxiliary Board Members and assistants; International Teaching Centre, Seat
    2001 12 Jan The Administrative Order was further developed by the Universal House of Justice in its message to the Conference of the Continental Boards of Counselors of 9 January, 2001 in which the concept of the "cluster" was first introduced. The cluster, a subdivision of the region, is to be formed on the basis of cultural, language, pattern of transport, infrastructure or the social life of the inhabitants.
  • In its message of 12 December, 2011 the Universal House of Justice stated that the cluster should have three coordinators appointed by the Training Institute, one concerned with study circles, junior youth groups and a third for children's classes.
  • BWC; Haifa Administrative Order; Clusters; Counsellors; Counsellors conferences; * Institute process
    2001 16 Jan The Faith of Bahá’u’lláh entered the fifth epoch of the Formative Age. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 16 January, 2001] BWC; Haifa Formative Age; Ages and Epochs; 5th Epoch
    2001 May The inauguration of the Centre for the Study of the Texts. The facility was completed and occupied in 1999. It consists of study rooms for resident and visiting scholars, meeting and conference rooms, a large reference library, a secretariat and ancillary spaces totalling 7750 sq. metres (83,420 sq. ft) Much of the building is located below ground. It has been integrated into the mountain with a portico that reflects the classical motifs of the other buildings on the Arc. The offices of the building are provided with natural light directly or through light wells, patios and skylights. Below ground it is connected to an extension to the Archives which provides secure, climate-controlled storage vaults for the original, hand written papers that constitute the Bahá'í Sacred Texts. The architect was Hossein Amanat. [amanatarchitect.com]

    “The Centre for the Study of the Texts . . . will be the seat of an institution of Bahá’í scholars, the efflorescence of the present Research Department of the World Centre, which will assist the Universal House of Justice in consulting the Sacred Writings, and will prepare translations of and commentaries on the authoritative texts of the Faith.” [AWH p52]

    “The building was completed and occupied in 1999. It now houses the Research Department, and is the temporary home of the International Bahá'í Library and other offices.” [Visiting Bahá’í Holy Places p. 35; BW99-00p38-39]

    BWC; Mount Carmel; Haifa Centre for the Study of the Sacred Texts; Arc project; Hossein Amanat (Husayn Amanat); Research Department; International Bahai Library; International Bahai Archives; Libraries; Archives; Translation; Architects; Architecture; Quick facts; - Basic timeline, Expanded; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    2001 23 May At dusk on the evening of the 22nd of May, the opening of the Terraces of the Shrine of the Báb, a project begun ten years ago that has transformed the ancient barren face of the mountain into 19 majestic terraced gardens cascading down the length of the mountain. [BWNS121; BW01-02p37-73]
  • See the message To the Believers Gathered for the Events Marking the Completion of the Projects on Mount Carmel.
  • The nineteen Canadian believers who had the extraordinary blessing of being present in the Holy Land for the official opening of the Terraces of the Shrine of the Báb are: Dr. Akouete Akakpo-Vida, Mr. Riel Aubichon, Mr. Garrett Brisdon, Mrs. Pearl Downie, Mrs. Nellie Ironeagle, Mrs. Aghdas Javid, Mr. Joseph Kowtow, Mrs. Joo Jong Kung, M. Fréderic Landry, Ms. Giselle Melanson, Mr. Borna Noureddin, Mr. James Patrick, Mrs. Valerie Pemberton-Piggott, Mlle. Cindy Poitras, Mrs. Janice Schlosser, Mlle. Caroline Simon, Mrs. Doris Toeg, Mrs. Linda Wilkinson and Mme. Elizabeth Wright. In addition, several students from the Maxwell International Bahá'í School were present as members of the delegations from their home countries.
  • The event was attended by some 4,500 people, 3,300 of them Bahá'ís, as representative of more than 200 countries and territories. [One Country Vol.13 Issue 1]
  • For the statement read at the official opening of the flight of terraces see Ruhi 8.3 page 93.
  • See video From Darkness to Light Recalling the Events at the Official Opening of the Terraces on Mount Carmel May 2001.
  • See The Opening of the Terraces (May 2001): Reflections of a Participant by Thelma Batchelor.
  • BWC; Haifa; Mount Carmel Bab, Shrine of; Terraces; Dedications; Arc project; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; - Basic timeline, Expanded; BWNS
    2001 4 Jun The public opening of the terraces surrounding the Shrine of the Báb on Mount Carmel. [BWNS134, BWNS221, BWNS123, BWNS122, BWNS121, BWNS120,]

  • For statement from the Universal House of Justice see: BWNS119,
  • Other coverage: BWNS118, BWNS117, BWNS115, BWNS96, BWNS94, BWNS87, BWNS79.
  • Also see: The Bahá’í Gardens.
  • Marble for the terraces in the Bahá'í Gardens was cut and chiseled by Margraf, a firm from Chiampo, Italy formerly known as Industria Marmi Vincentini. [BWNS1223]
  • BWC; Haifa; Mount Carmel; Chiampo; Italy Terraces; Dedications; Bab, Shrine of; Marble; BWNS; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    2003 4 Apr Given current conditions in the world at the time, the Ninth International Convention was cancelled. It had been scheduled for 29 April to 2 May. Ballots from the National Spiritual Assembly members were mailed to the World Centre. The 19 delegates that had been chosen as tellers travelled to the World Centre to count the votes. [BW'02-‘03pg37-38, BWNS202] BWC; Haifa Conventions, International; Firsts, Other; BWNS
    2003 29 Apr The election of the Universal House of Justice by postal ballot by 1,544 electors from 178 countries. Chosen were Hartmut Grossmann and Firaydoun Javaheri to replace retiring members Mr. Nakhjavani, 83, and Mr. Fatheazam, 79 and re-elected were Farzam Arbab, Kiser Barnes, Hooper Dunbar, Peter Khan, Douglas Martin, Glenford Mitchell and Ian Semple. [One Country Vol.15 Issue1, BWNS207]
  • Mr. Grossmann, born in Germany, had academic qualifications in the German and English languages. He served on the National Spiritual Assemblies of the Bahá'ís of Germany (1963 to 1969) and Finland (1977 to 1980). He was a university academic in Finland. Mr. Grossmann was appointed a Continental Counsellor in 1980, advising Bahá'í communities throughout Europe in their growth and development. He had been serving in the International Teaching Centre prior to his election.
  • Dr. Javaheri, who was born in Iran, had a doctorate in agronomy. He lived for 27 years in Africa -- Gambia then Zambia -- where he was Chief Technical Adviser for the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. He served the Bahá'í communities there in the area of social and economic development. He was appointed a Continental Counsellor in 1995 after serving for 19 years as a member of its Auxiliary Board. He, like Mr Grossmann, had been serving in the International Teaching Centre prior to his election. [BWNS208]
  • BWC; Haifa Universal House of Justice, Election of; Elections; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Conventions, International; Firsts, Other; Hartmut Grossmann; Firaydoun Javaheri; Farzam Arbab; Kiser Barnes; Hooper Dunbar; Peter Khan; Douglas Martin; Glenford Mitchell; Ian Semple; Retirements; Ali Nakhjavani; Hushmand Fatheazam; BWNS
    2003 26 Nov The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Ali Akbar Furútan in Haifa at the age of 98. [BWNS261, BW'03-‘04pg227]
  • Born in Sabzivar, Iran, on 29 April 1905.
  • Moved with his family to Ashgabat in what was then Russian Turkestan (now part of Turkmenistan), and, through his years of school and university, he took an active part in the work of the Bahá'í communities of Ashgabat, Baku, Moscow, and other parts of Russia.
  • In 1930 he was expelled from the Soviet Union during the Stalinist persecution of religion and from that time on played an ever more significant role in the work and administration of the Iranian Bahá'í community. [BW03-04p227-230]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
  • For a tribute from the Universal House of Justice see message of 27 November, 2003.
  • Haifa; Sabzivar; Iran; Ashgabat; Turkmenistan; Baku; Moscow Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Ali Akbar Furutan; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, First Contingent; BWNS
    2004 Jun After 15 years of negotiations, research, and planning, the restoration work began on the cell used to imprison Bahá'u'lláh when He was first incarcerated in ‘Acre. Approved by government authorities keen to preserve the heritage of the site, the project was supervised and financed by the Bahá'í World Centre. [BWNS336] Akka; BWC; Haifa Bahaullah, Prison cell of; Restoration; Pilgrimage; World Centre; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; BWNS
    2004 24 Nov The announcement of the completion of the restoration of the prison citadel that was occupied by Bahá'u'lláh and His family upon arrival in Akka I on August 31st, 1868. [BWNS336] Akka; BWC; Haifa Bahaullah, Prison cell of; Citadel; BWNS; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Restoration
    2005 Ridván "... the time is propitious to bring into being an International Board of Trustees of Huqúqu’lláh to guide and supervise the work of Regional and National Boards of Trustees of Huqúqu’lláh throughout the world. It will operate in close collaboration with the Chief Trustee, the Hand of the Cause of God Dr. ‘Alí-Muhammad Varqá, and will be able to benefit from his knowledge and counsel in carrying out its duties. The three members now appointed to the International Board of Trustees are Sally Foo, Ramin Khadem, and Grant Kvalheim." [Message from the Universal House of Justice, Ridván 2005] BWC; Haifa Huququllah; Huququllah, Trustees of; Varqa, Ali-Muhammad; Varqa
    2005 1 Dec The president of the Republic of the Marshall Islands, Kessai Note, paid an official visit to the Bahá'í World Centre. [BWNS410] Marshall Islands; BWC; Haifa Kessal Note; BWC; Prominent visitors; BWNS
    2007 22 Sep The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Dr. Ali-Muhammad Varqa (b.1912) at his home in Haifa. (b.1911) He was the last survivor of the 27 Hands of the Cause who were alive when Shoghi Effendi passed away in 1957. [BWNS579]
  • He had been appointed Hand of the Cause on the 15th of March, 1955 after the passing of his father Hand of the Cause of God Jináb-i-Valíyu'lláh Varqá, [MoVxxiv]
  • He was appointed as the last Trustee of the Huqúqulláh, a position also held by his father. During his tenure the Huqúqulláh expanded its base from a few Iranian believers to include every believer in the world in 1992.
  • He lived in Iran but happened to be away during the revolution in 1979 and never returned. He was accepted as a refugee in Canada and lived there for several years before being called to service at the World Centre.
  • For a short biography see LoF183-187.
  • Haifa Varqa, Ali-Muhammad; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Varqa; Hands of the Cause, Institution; Appointed arm; BWNS; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Huququllah
    2008 30 Apr The election of the Universal House of Justice at the 10th International Bahá'í Convention. Those elected were Farzam Arbab, Kiser Barnes, Peter Khan, Hooper Dunbar, Firaydoun Javaheri, Paul Lample, Payman Mohajer, Shahriar Razavi, and Gustavo Correa. [BWNS629, BWNS631, BWNS627, BWNS628, BWNS626, BWNS624] BWC; Haifa Conventions, International; Universal House of Justice, Election of; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Farzam Arbab; Kiser Barnes; Peter Khan; Hooper Dunbar; Firaydoun Javaheri; Paul Lample; Payman Mohajer; Shahriar Razavi; Gustavo Correa; BWNS
    2008 12 May After several years of negotiations, agreement was reached with the Israeli government for the acquisition of a rectangular plot of land 90,000 square metres in area, located between Bahjí and the main road. This land was being used by the government. This acquisition opened the way to further beautification of the environs of the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh, the Qiblih of the people of Bahá, described by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá as the “luminous Shrine” and “the place around which circumambulate the Concourse on high”.
  • The property in the possession of the Faith had been further augmented by the conclusion, after negotiations which extended over some twenty years, of a land exchange with the Israel Land Administration, by which a portion of the land bequeathed to the Faith in the Ein Sara neighbourhood of Nahariya, north of ‘Akká, had been exchanged for an additional 100,000 square metres to the east of the Mansion of Bahjí, an area of about 32,000 square metres adjoining the island at the Riḍván Garden and the caravanserai adjacent to the Mansion of Mazra‘ih. They reported that discussions were continuing with the authorities for a further exchange, using more of the Ein Sara land to acquire additional property in close proximity to the Bahá’í Holy Places in the ‘Akká area required to protect the sanctity and tranquillity of these places in the face of the rapid urbanization of the region.
  • It was also announced that work had been completed on the restoration of the Junayn Gardens, a small farmhouse and orchard north of Bahjí visited occasionally by Bahá’u’lláh, which was subsequently donated to the Faith. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 12 May, 2008]
  • Haifa; BWC; Ein Sara; Nahariya; Akka; Mazraih; Bahji; Israel Junayn Gardens; Bahaullah, Shrine of; House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); House of Bahaullah (Bahji); Ridvan Garden; Purchases and exchanges; Caravanserai; Restoration; World Centre; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens
    2008 8 Jul The Shrine of the Báb and the Resting Place of Baháu'lláh, together with their surrounding gardens, associated buildings and monuments, were chosen as UNESCO World Heritage sites. [BWNS642, BWNS643, UNESCO site] Haifa; Israel; Akka; BWC UNESCO; World Heritage Sites; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Bab, Shrine of; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; BWNS
    2010 30 Apr The visit of the President of the Republic of Ireland, Mary McAleese, to the World Centre. [BWNS774] BWC; Ireland; Haifa Presidents; Prominent visitors; Mary McAleese; BWNS
    2010 29 Oct After three years the restoration, work was completed on the Ridván Garden some two kilometers southeast of the old city of Acre. [BWNS797] BWC; Akka; Bahji; Haifa Ridvan garden; Restoration; BWNS; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    2011 Apr After more than two years of extensive restoration work the Shrine of the Báb was complete. The project required the restoration and conservation of the interior and exterior of the original 1909 structure, as well as measures to strengthen the Shrine against seismic forces. An entirely new retrofit design – combining concrete, steel and carbon fibre wrap technology was needed for the whole building, from its foundation and original masonry to its octagon, drum and dome. More than 120 rock anchors were fixed into the mountain behind newly fortified retaining walls. [BWNS816] BWC; Haifa; Mount Carmel Bab, Shrine of; Restoration; BWNS; World Centre; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens
    2011 29 May The inauguration of the UNESCO Square for Tolerance and Peace, situated at the point where Haifa's historic German Templar colony met the terraced gardens of the Shrine of the Báb. [BWNS828]
  • Photo.
  • Over the next year the Square was developed through the addition of upgraded stonework and decorative floral plantings in the centre of the traffic circle. [The Five Year Plan 2011-2016: Summary of Achievements and Learning pg113]
  • Haifa; Israel UNESCO for Tolerance and Peace Square; UNESCO; Tolerance; Peace; BWNS; Z****
    2011 11 Dec The announcement by the Universal House of Justice of the creation of "an International Advisory Board to assist the Ruhi Institute in overseeing its system for the preparation, production, and distribution of materials, the content and structure of which now draw extensively on Bahá’í experience worldwide in applying the teachings and principles of the Faith to the life of humanity. As it gradually takes up its work, the Board will be able to respond to related issues and follow the development of supplementary materials that are aligned with the direction set by the global Plans". [December 11, 2011] BWC; Haifa Ruhi Institute; * Institute process
    2012 (In the Year) The Office of Temples and Sites was established at the Bahá'í World Centre. The purpose of the office was to coordinate initial preparations for the temple builds with the respective National Spiritual Assemblies.
  • Firstly a committee is formed in each country, entrusted with identifying, together with institutions and agencies at all levels of the community, means to promote widespread participation and to channel the enthusiasm engendered among the friends following the announcement of the projects.
  • Another practical step in these national and local projects has been the selection of a suitable piece of land, one which is modest in size, strategically located, and easily accessible. Then a construction office for the project is established to assist with the management of technical, financial, and legal issues.
  • The next step is to call for the preparation of a design for the Temple edifice. This begins with the selection of potential architects and the formulation of an architectural brief defining the requirements for the structure which will ultimately result in a contract for the final design. Architects are presented with the singular challenge of designing Temples “as perfect as is possible in the world of being” that harmonize naturally with the local culture and the daily lives of those who will gather to pray and meditate therein. The task calls for creativity and skill to combine beauty, grace, and dignity with modesty, functionality, and economy and consideration for local customs and practices. [The Universal House of Justice message dated 1 August, 2014]
  • BWC; Haifa Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Mashriqul-Adhkar, National; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Local; Architecture; Beauty; Economics; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    2012 21 Apr Plans were announced that the Universal House of Justice was entering into consultations with respective National Spiritual Assemblies regarding the erection of the first local Houses of Worship in each of the following clusters: Battambang, Cambodia; Bihar Sharif, India; Matunda Soy, Kenya; Norte del Cauca, Colombia; and Tanna, Vanuatu. [Riḍván 2012 To the Bahá’ís of the World] Matunda; Haifa; Israel; Battambang; Cambodia; Bihar Sharif; India; Matunda Soy; Kenya; Norte del Cauca; Colombia; Tanna; Vanuatu Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Local; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    2013 Ridván The announcement by the Universal House of Justice in the Ridván Message of the creation of the Office of Public Discourse. [Ridván 2013] BWC; Haifa Office of Public Discourse; Public discourse
    2013 29 Apr – 2 May The Eleventh International Bahá'í Convention in Haifa and the 50th anniversary of the inaugural Convention in 1963 at which the first Universal House of Justice was elected. Those elected were Paul Lample, Firaydoun Javaheri, Payman Mohajer, Gustavo Correa, Shahriar Razavi, Stephen Birkland, Stephen Hall, Chuungu Malitonga, and Ayman Rouhani. [BWNS950, BWNS951, BWNS953]
  • More than a thousand members of one hundred and fifty seven National Spiritual Assemblies attended, and nearly five hundred more, including those from an additional fourteen countries, participated in the election by mail. [Letter from the Universal House of Justice to the delegates gathered at Bahá'í National Conventions dated 16 May, 2013]
  • BWC; Haifa Universal House of Justice, Election of; Elections; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Conventions, International; Paul Lample; Firaydoun Javaheri; Payman Mohajer; Gustavo Correa; Shahriar Razavi; Stephen Birkland; Stephen Hall; Chuungu Malitonga; Ayman Rouhani; Anniversaries; BWNS
    2013 1 Oct The Bahá'í International Community announced the appointment of Joshua Lincoln as its new Secretary-General. This announcement followed the announcement of the retirement of Mr. Albert Lincoln who had served as Secretary-General for 19 years. [BWNS968, BWNS969] BWC; Haifa Bahai International Community; Joshua Lincoln; Bahai International Community, Secretary-Generals; Albert Lincoln; Retirements; BWNS
    2017. 25 Aug The announcement of the opening of the new Pilgrim Reception Centre.
  • The three-story stone structure, which is located immediately to the west of the Shrine of the Bab, was opened in time to receive the season’s first pilgrim group in October, on the occasion of the 200th anniversary of the birth of Bahá'u'lláh. [BWNS1188]
  • BWC; Haifa Pilgrimage; Pilgrim Reception Centre; Pilgrim Houses; BWNS; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Pilgrims
    2018 30 Apr The announcement of the election of the 12th Universal House of Justice. Those elected were Paul Lample, Chuungu Malitonga, Payman Mohajer, Shahriar Razavi, Stephen Hall, Ayman Rouhani, Stephen Birkland, Juan Francisco Mora, and Praveen Mallik. [BWNS1258]
  • The Twelfth International Bahá'í Convention was held from the 29th of April until the 2nd of May. In the election of the Universal House of Justice over 1,300 ballots were cast by representatives of 160 national communities. [BWNS1256, BWNS1257, BWNS1259, BWNS1261]
  • See Vimeo for a short film of the International Convention by Farideh Baki-Nasseri.
  • The film A Widening Embrace was screened at the Convention, enriching the consultations of the delegates. It is a documentary film about the community-building efforts of the Bahá'íworld. Many of the themes discussed over the days of the Convention were highlighted in the practical examples presented in the documentary which tells the story of the transformation of communities unfolding throughout the world by featuring the process in 24 communities representing different realities and contexts. The 77-minute film, which was commissioned by the Universal House of Justice, was made available in English, Spanish, French, Russian, Arabic, and Persian. [BWNS1260] .
  • BWC; Haifa Paul Lample; Chuungu Malitonga; Payman Mohajer; Shahriar Razavi; Stephen Hall; Ayman Rouhani; Stephen Birkland; Juan Francisco Mora; Praveen Mallik; Universal House of Justice, Election of; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Conventions, International; BWNS; Widening Embrace, A (film); Documentaries; * Institute process; Social action; Social and economic development; Farideh Baki-Nasseri

    from the main catalogue

    1. Advertisement for Israeli Tourism in the New Yorker magazine, in New Yorker (2000). Baha'i World Centre photograph in advertisement in prominent magazine, featuring the terraces. [about]
    2. Ayesha of the Bosphorus: A Romance of Constantinople, by Stanwood Cobb (1915). A novella combining fiction with scenes from the lives of Abdu'l-Baha and the Baha'is in Haifa in the early 1900s. Includes introduction by Bei Dawud. [about]
    3. Bahá'í Shrines, by John Walbridge, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 3 (1989). [about]
    4. Bahá'í World Centre, by Moojan Momen, in The Bahá'í Encyclopedia (2009). On the spiritual center of the Bahá’í Faith, established in the twin cities of Acre and Haifa, the focal points of devotion for Bahá’ís around the world, and edifices of the administrative center. [about]
    5. Bridge over Troubled Waters: The City of Haifa in Lavie Tidhar's Stories, by Ehud Maimon, in Strange Horizons (2012). Brief mentions of the temple of the Bab and the terraces, and the place of Haifa and Mt. Carmel in some contemporary Israeli fiction. Includes photos. [about]
    6. Carmel - the Mountain of God, by Dhikrullah Khadem. [about]
    7. Chosen Highway, The, by Lady Sarah Louisa Blomfield (Sitarih Khanum) (1940). [about]
    8. Concealment and Burial of the Báb, by Peter Terry, in A Most Noble Pattern: Collected Essays on the Writings of the Báb (2012). This chapter from A.-L.-M. Nicolas' seminal biography Seyyed Ali Mohammed dit le Bab (1905) tells the story of the death and burial of the Bab, compiled from the reports of several eye-witnesses consulted by the author. [about]
    9. Efforts to preserve the remains of the Bab: Four historical accounts, by Ahang Rabbani, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 11 (2003). Accounts by Mirza Hasan Adib Taliqani, Fadil Mazandarani, ‘Abdu’l-Husayn Avarih, and Aqa Husayn ‘Ali Nur. [about]
    10. Excellency of Mt. Carmel, The, by George Napier Whittingham, in The Home of Fadeless Splendour: The Diary of a Pilgrimage to Palestine (1921). Chapter 10, "The Excellency of Mt. Carmel," describes the author's visit to Haifa and gives an overview of the Baha'i Faith. [about]
    11. Eyewitness Account of the Massacre of Bahá'ís in Nayriz, 1909, by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in Lights of Irfan, 14 (2013). Shaykh Dhakariyya's rebellion in Nayriz culminated in the martyrdom of nineteen Baha'is on Naw Ruz, 1909, the same day Abdu'l-Baha interred the remains of the Bab in the mausoleum on Mount Carmel. This is a history of both events. [about]
    12. Frommer's Guide to Israel: Haifa, by Robert Ullian (1998). From a popular travel guide series. Includes Akko [Akka] and Bahji. [about]
    13. Frommer's Guide to Israel: The Golden Coast (includes Akka and Bahji), by Robert Ullian (1998). Travel guide; now out-of-date. [about]
    14. Haifa Notes, by Gayle Woolson (1956). Notes from a pilgrimage in 1956. [about]
    15. Holy Places at the Bahá'í World Centre, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (1968). [about]
    16. International Bahá'í Council, by Duane L. Herrmann, in Bahá'í News (1990). History of the formation of the IBC. [about]
    17. Letter to Mrs A.M. Bryant re interment of the remains of The Bab on Mt. Carmel, by May Woodcock and A.M. Bryant (1909). Brief description of the interment of the remains of the Bab on Mt. Carmel on 21 March 1909. [about]
    18. Memories of the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh and 'Abdu'l-Bahá: Memoirs of Mírzá Habíbu'lláh Afnán, in Witnesses to Babi and Bahá'í History, vol. 4 (2005). Autobiography of a close confidant of the holy family. Includes appendices on Baha'i historical places in Shiraz, the Afnán family genealogy, and excerpts from Houshmand Fatheazam’s diary [about]
    19. Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-1986: Third Epoch of the Formative Age, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
    20. Mountain of God, The, by E. S. (Ethel Stefana) Stevens, in World Order, 4:3-4:4 (1911). Sympathetic portrayal by a non-Baha'i of Abdu'l-Baha and the small band of Bahá’ís who lived in Haifa and 'Akká early in 20th Century. [about]
    21. My Pilgrimage to the Land of Desire, by Marie Watson (1932). Account of a pilgrimage to Haifa to visit Abdu'l-Baha in July–August 1921. [about]
    22. Palestine: Depicted and Described, by G. E. Franklin (1911). Four pages of pictures of Haifa, Carmel, and the American College at Beirut (Shoghi Effendi's alma mater). Contains no mention of the Baha'i Faith; included for historical interest only. [about]
    23. Pilgrim's Notes, by William Allison (1957). Notes from a 1957 pilgrimage; Allison was one of the last Baha'is to visit the Guardian in Haifa. [about]
    24. Shoghi Effendi, by Marcus Bach, in The Circle of Faith, Chapter 3 (1957). Dr. Bach set out to meet the five people of his time whom he felt best exemplified the teachings of Jesus Christ. He travelled the world to pursue this aim, interviewing Helen Keller, Pope Pius XII, Albert Schweitzer, Therese Neumann, and Shoghi Effendi. [about]
    25. Shoghi Effendi: Recollections, by Ugo Giachery (1973). Biography of Shoghi Effendi from the close standpoint of the author's personal experiences. Short excerpt from book; Part 1 only. [about]
    26. Stories from The Delight of Hearts: The Memoirs of Hájí Mírzá Haydar-'Alí, by Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali (1980). Anecdotes and history, a personal glimpse of the Middle East in the 19th century, as told by a follower of Baha'u'llah and companion of Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
    27. Tablet of [Mount] Carmel (Lawh-i-Karmil): Wilmette Institute faculty notes, by Peter Terry and Ted Brownstein (1999). [about]
    28. Tablet to Hardegg (Lawh-i-Hirtík): A Tablet of Bahá'u'lláh to the Templer Leader Georg David Hardegg, by Stephen Lambden and Kamran Ekbal, in Lights of Irfan, 4 (2003). [about]
    29. Through the Eyes of Margaret Cousins: Irish and Indian Suffragette, by Keith Munro (2018). Biography of the co-founder of the Irish Women's Franchise League, a theosophist, who met both Martha Root and Shoghi Effendi. [about]
    30. Views of Akka, Haifa, Mt. Carmel, and Other Places: Photographs of "The Dwelling Place of the Most High," Authorized by Abdu'l-Baha (1911). Pictures of Akká taken between 1903-1911, with historical annotations and bibliographical data added later, in 2007 by Troxel and in 2008 by Cary Enoch Reinstein. [about]
     
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