Search for location "Italy"
||The Roman Catholic Vatican Council under Pope Pius IX formulated the doctrine of papal infallibility. Shortly afterwards Italian forces under Victor Emmanuel II attacked the Papal States and seize and occupy Rome, virtually extinguishing the temporal sovereignty of the pope. [GPB227; PDC54]
See Bahá'í Historical Facts.
||Pope Pius IX; Popes; Christianity; History (general)
|1881 (In the year)
||Michele Lessona (b. 20 September 1923 in Turin Italy, d. 20 July 1894 in Turin) was a writer, a philosopher, an explorer and an educator as well as a medical doctor. He was also a prominent scientist who had translated Darwin and went on to influence generations of Italian scientists.
In 1862 he had been appointed physician to the diplomatic delegation sent to Persia to establish relations between the newly created Kingdom of Italy and the Persian government. There in Tabriz, Lessona met Daud Khan, who told him about the new Revelation. He met often with Gobineau, who had then become the French Ambassador to Persia and the two became lifelong friends. Most of Lessona’s information on the Bábi Faith came from these two sources, especially the latter. He found it difficult to get any first-hand information about the Babis, but did recognize, in 1962, that the successor to the Báb was living in Baghdad.
Lessona organized two-part conference on the Bábi movement that was held in December of 1880. The following year he published the proceedings of the conference in a small monograph called I Bábi. It was the first Italian historical testimony on the Bábí - Bahá'í Faith.
[Bahá'í Tributes; Bahá'í Teachings; BW12p900]
|Turin; Italy; Tabriz; Iran
||Michele Lessona; Comte de Gobineau; Babism
|1899. c. 1899
||It is believed that the first Bahá'ís, a couple, were in Italy in 1899. [BN #43 Aug 1930 p8]
A Bahá'í group was established in Italy. [BBRSM:106]
|1900 26 Nov
||Agnes Baldwin Alexander wrote to `Abdu'l-Bahá declaring her belief in Bahá'u'lláh. [BFA2:159; SBR176; PH32]
She had heard of the Bahá'í Faith from Charlotte Dixon while staying in a pension in Rome. She stayed in Rome for three months studying prophecies then travelled to Paris for further study with May Bolles for another three and one half months. [BFA2:159; SBR176]
She left Paris in the Spring of 1901 for London, New England, Oakland, Ca and finally Honolulu. On returning to Hawaii in December 1901 she became the first Bahá'í to set foot in Hawaii. [BFA2:159–60; SBR177]
||Rome; Italy; Paris; France; Oakland; California; London; United Kingdom; Honolulu; Hawaii
||Agnes Alexander; May Maxwell (Bolles); Charlotte Dixon
|1911 22 Aug - 3 Sep
||`Abdu'l-Bahá took up residence at Thonon-les-Bains on Lake Leman (Lake Geneva). [AB140; GPB280; SBR219]
While there He encountered Zillu's-Sultán, the eldest son of the Sháh of the time, Násirid-Dín Sháh. It was he who had ratified the execution of the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs and at least 100 others. The whole family was in exile in Geneva at this time. 'Abdu'l-Bahá was very courteous to this man who had been such an inveterate enemy of the Cause. [DJT172, AY19, GPB201] .
The Master sent for Juliet Thompson who had been waiting in London for His permission to join Him.
During His stay he had a visit from Annie Boylan, a member of the New York community that was experiencing disharmony. Unaware of Bahá'í election procedures, a group that was unhappy with the disunity and ineffectiveness of the Council had organized a vote to be rid of several of its Council members. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had written to the community a short time before recommending that the Council be expanded from 9 to 27 members so that all factions could be represented. He also recommended that women be included on the Council and that the name be changed to "the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of New York". This apparently addressed the problem of disunity because the New York community went on to contribute significantly to the progress of the Faith on a national level. [DJT181, BFA2p338]
Horace Holley, who lived at Quattro Torri, Siena, Italy at the time, along with his wife Bertha Herbert and baby daughter Hertha, visited 'Abdu'l-Bahá on the 29th and 30th of August. Please see his Religion for Mankind p 232-237 for a pen portrait of 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
He met with Elizabeth Stewart and Lillian Kappes who were on their way to Tehran. [find reference]
It would appear that He returned to Marseilles and travelled to London by sea. [SCU22-23]
||Thonon-les-Bains; Lake Leman; Marseilles; France; Switzerland; Italy; London; United Kingdom; New York; United States
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies; Unity; Zillus-Sultan; Persecution; Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Juliet Thompson; Horace Holley; Elizabeth Stewart; Lillian Kappes; Ships
|1911. 29 Sep
||The start of the Italo-Turkish war which lasted until the 18th of October 1912 when the Ottoman Empire signed a treaty in Ouchy in Lausanne called the First Treaty of Lausanne, (often also called Treaty of Ouchy to distinguish it from the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne), (the Second Treaty of Lausanne). Italy's victory led to the annexation of the Ottoman Tripolitania Vilayet, including sub-provinces like Fezzan, Cyrenaica, and Tripoli itself. These regions later became Italian colonies known as Italian Tripolitania and Cyrenaica, which eventually merged into Italian Libya. Italy established control over Libya and would govern the region until the end of World War II.
After defeating the Ottoman army they confiscated on large scale the lands of the Arab peasants on which Italian settlements were established and large numbers of Italian settlers were brought in for the cultivation of cash products. The war cost Italy 1.3 billion lire, nearly a billion more than Prime Minister Giovanni Giolitti had estimated before the war. This ruined ten years of fiscal prudence.
This war is notable for the introduction of new military technologies including the use of the airplane for reconnaissance and bombing. It also included the first instance of an airplane being shot down by ground fire.
The Italians also used a wireless telegraph network established with the help of the Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconi.
This war is considered by historians as a precursor of the First World War. Members of the Balkan League, seeing how easily Italy defeated the Ottomans and motivated by incipient Balkan nationalism, attacked the Ottoman Empire in October 1912, starting the First Balkan War a few days before the end of the Italo-Turkish War. [Wikipedia]
The Battle of Benghazi was a preliminary to the fascist invasion of Ethiopia and Italy’s ambitions
to establish its own colonial empire. [Colonialism, Nationalism and Jewish Immigration to Palestine: Abdu´l-Baha’s Viewpoints Regarding the Middle East by Kamran Ekbal p18]
|Turkey; Italy; Libya
||Imperialism/colonialism; History (general)
|1911 21 Oct
||News of the Battle of Benghazi (17 October) was headline news. It was one of the opening salvos of the Turko-Italian War and began on the 17th of October when Italian invasion forces began their bombardment of the Turkish garrison. The Turks were forced to abandon the city and there were many lives lost, Italians, Turks and civilians.
His talk, The Pitiful Causes of War, and the Duty of Everyone to Strive for Peace. [ABF96-100 PT28-30; Colonialism, Nationalism and Jewish Immigration to Palestine: Abdu´l-Baha’s Viewpoints Regarding the Middle East by Kamran Ekbal p18]
See as well SoW Vol 2 No 14 November 23, 1911 p5 for His talk on the Battle of Benghazi.
The talk was attended by Remi de Gourmont, literary critic, essayist, poet and writer. The following day his editorial, "Le Béhhaïsmie: les idées dujour" was published in the newspaper Le France. [ABF95n287, 98]
||Paris; France; Benghazi; Libya; Turkey; Italy
||Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; War (general); History (general); Peace; Remy_de_Gourmont; Imperialism/colonialism
|1912 25 Mar-17 Jun 1913
||`Abdu'l-Bahá's second Western tour
'Abdul'-Bahá and His party embarked from Alexandria on the White Star Line Liner RMS Cedric for New York via Naples. They departed Naples on the 30th of March and made a call at Gibraltar. Three of His party were forced to leave the ship for supposed "medical' reasons. Among them was His grandson, Shoghi Effendi. [AB171; GPB281; ABF274; ABTM50-52; SYH50-51]
Boarding in Naples to join Him on the Atlantic crossing were Louisa Mathew and the Woodcock family, Percy, Aloysia and their daughter, May as well as Mr and Mrs Austin from Denver, Colorado. [SYH49, 52; ABPp18n.96]
|Alexandria; Egypt; Naples; Italy; Gibraltar; New York; United States
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha in Egypt; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Louise Gregory; Percy Woodcock
|1921 29 May
||Alessandro Bausani, the Italian Bahá'í who was an Islamic scholar, linguist and historian of comparative religions, was born in Rome.
|1925. 5 Apr
||The death of Mohammad- Ali Shah Qajar (b. 21 June 1972 in Tabriz, Azerbaijan, Persia) in exile in San Remo, Italy. He was buried at the Shrine of Imam Husain, Karbala, Iraq. His son and successor, Ahmad Shah Qajar was the last sovereign of the Qajar dynasty. [Wikipedia]
||San Remo; Italy
||Mohammad- Ali Shah Qajar; Ahmad Shah Qajar
||It was reported that there were two Bahá'ís resident in Italy in this year.
- Mrs. Edith Burr of Florence, made her home a centre for many years.
- Signora Maria Forni, who lived at Crevenna near Lake Como. was an ardent exponent from the time of her acceptance of the Teachings in 1899, and her social work among children was testimony of her sincere faith. [BN #43 Aug1930 p.8]
|Crevenna; Florence; Italy
||Edith Burr; Signora Maria Forni
|1940 9 Feb
||The monuments of Navváb and the Purest Branch were dedicated at a ceremony in Haifa. [ZK293]
For details of the ceremony, see ZK293–6.
Marble* for the Monument Gardens came from Chiampo, Italy as did marble for the Archives Building, the Resting Place of Shoghi Effendi, the Seat of the Universal House of Justice, the Terraces Project, and the Houses of Worship in India and Samoa. [BWNS1223]
Edward Keith-Roach OBE (Born 1885 Gloucester, England— died 1954) was the British Colonial administrator during the British mandate on Palestine, who also served as the governor of Jerusalem from 1926 to 1945 (excluding a period in the 1930s when he was governor of the Galilee). He was nicknamed “Páshá of Jerusalem".
He approved exemption from duties and established a policy that was continued by Israel that allowed materials for the BWC to enter duty free, such as the marble for the buildings on the Arc.
[Shoghi Effendi, Uncompiled Published Letters]
|Mount Carmel; BWC; Chiampo; Italy
||Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Mirza Mihdi (Purest Branch); Monument Gardens; Marble; BWNS; Shoghi Effendi, Life Of; Edward Keith-Roach
|1940. 14 or 15 May
||Shoghi Effendi determined to go to England; he and Rúhíyyih Khánum left Haifa for Italy via aquaplane en route to London. [PP 178]
For the difficulties and dangers of this journey that took them from Haifa to Heraklion on Crete and then on to Reggio and then a further 700km to Rome and another 500km to Genoa see PP178–80.
After the passing of his wife, Mr. Maxwell had been invited by Shoghi Effendi to come and live in Haifa. On the same day that Shoghi Effendi and Rúhíyyih Khánum left the Holy Land, Sutherland Maxwell left Montreal to meet up with them in Europe. A few days after their arrival in Italy, Rúhíyyih Khánum travelled to Genoa to meet her father who had arrived on the Italian vessel, the S.S. Rex, that had departed New York. [PP178]
||Haifa; Genoa; Italy; London; United Kingdom
||Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; World War II; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1940 25 May
||After having obtained a visa for Britain in Rome, Shoghi Effendi and Rúhíyyih Khánum left for England. They entered France at Menton and then travelled to Marseilles and eventually to St. Malo. A few days later the Italians enter the war against the Allies. [PP179]
||Rome; Italy; Menton; Marseilles; France; United Kingdom
||Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; World War II
|1946 (In the year)
||In the second Seven Year Plan from 1946 to 1952, the American Bahá'í community was given the responsibility of working for the establishment of bahá'í communities in several european countries. A European Teaching Committee, which was responsible to the North American National Spiritual Assembly, was set up in Geneva in 1946. Its task was to coordinate the pioneer activities in ten European goal countries; Denmark, Norway, Sweden, The Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Italy, Spain and Portugal. [SBBR14p239]
The Committee was chaired by Edna True. [SBBR14p241]
Of the pioneers that arrived during this period, Dagmar Dole (stayed 1947 to 1951)) and Eleanor Hollibaugh (stayed May 1947 to October 1948 and March 1950 to October 1950) had the most influence on the growth of the community. [SBBR14p239-243]
As of 1946 Geresina Campani of Florence was the only known Bahá’í in Italy. In her letter, published in part in Bahá'í News she wrote of the hardship due to the devastation caused by the Allied bombing.
||Denmark; Norway; Sweden; Netherlands; Belgium; Luxembourg; Geneva; Switzerland; Italy; Spain; Portugal
||European Teaching Committee; Edna True; Geresina Campani
|1947. 20 Feb
||Ugo and Angeline Giachery moved from New York to Rome. [BN No 192 Feb 1947 p1]
The first native believer
under this new Seven Year Plan,
had declared himself. He is Signor
Augusto Salvetti of Italy. Signor Salvetti heard of the Faith from a
Persian believer while he was a
prisoner of war in India. After returning to his native Italy he corresponded with the International Bureau and the office of
the European Teaching Committee
in Geneva. Since he was living in
one of our "goal" countries, Mrs.
Graeffe put him in touch with our pioneers, Mr and Mrs Giachery. [BN No195 May 1947 p1]
||Ugo Giachery; Angeline Giachery; Pioneer; Augusto Salvetti
||Contracts were placed in Italy for the rose Baveno granite columns for the Shrine of the Báb. [BBD210; DH140]
The first shipment of stone reaches Haifa on 23 November 1948.
For details of securing the contract and cutting the stone see SE68–83.
||Bab, Shrine of; Granite
||The first Bahá'í institution in Italy, the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Rome was elected.
||Local Spiritual Assembly
|1952 4 Mar
||Shoghi Effendi described plans for a marble colonnade to encircle the Shrine of the Báb as an intermediate step to building a superstructure for the Shrine and sent his ideas to Italy for scale drawings and estimate. [SE133–4]
||Haifa; Mount Carmel; Italy
||Bab, Shrine of
||The National Spiritual Assembly of Italy and Switzerland was established. Elected were: Prof. Mario Fiorentini, Mrs. Anna Kunz, Dr. Ugo R. Giachery, Miss Elsa Steinmetz, Mrs. Stella Lonzar, Mrs. Anne Lynch, Friedrich Schar, Mrs. Marion Little, and Prof. Alessandro Bausani.
For a photo see Bahá'í Historical Facts.
||National Spiritual Assembly, formation
||The superstructure of the Shrine of the Báb was completed. [BBD210; CB324–5; PP235; ZK85–6]
Marble for the Shrine of the Báb came from Chiampo, Italy as did marble for the Archives Building, the Resting Place of Shoghi Effendi, the Seat of the Universal House of Justice, the Terraces Project, the Monument Gardens and the Houses of Worship in India and Samoa. It was cut and chiseled by a firm called Margraf, formerly known as Industria Marmi Vincentini. [BWNS1223]
'Abdu'l-Bahá described the Shrine of the Báb as the first Mashriqu’l-Adhkár. [ABF18]
In a letter from the International Bahá'í Council dated the 2nd of May 1955, they reported on the great interest that has been taken in the Shrine of the Báb since the completion. [CBN No65 Jun 1955 p1; BN o292 Jun 1955 p4]
||BWC; Haifa; Mount Carmel; Chiampo; Italy
||Bab, Shrine of; Marble; BWNS; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Works of; Margraf
||The arrival of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Emma Rice, followed one week later by Knights Stanley and Florence Bagley and their three teenage children, Susan, Gerrold and Carol in Palermo, Sicily. [BWNS254]
||Knights of Bahaullah; BWNS
|1954 10 Jan
||Dorothy Baker, (b.21 December, 1898) Hand of the Cause of God, was killed in a plane crash in the Mediterranean Sea, near the island of Elba. [BW12:670]
In 1921 she married Frank Baker who had two motherless children. They had a girl and a boy of their own. [FMH73]
She was the granddaughter of Ellen "Mother" Beecher who took her to see 'Abdu'l-Bahá in New York in 1912. An early teacher (unnamed), after seeing the young girl, had a vision and asked Jináb-i-Fazil for an explanation. He replied that "someday she will become on of the great teachers of the Cause" and Mother Beecher began to pray that this would be fulfilled. [FMH73]
See FMH76-77 for the story of how Doris McKay was able to help Dorothy deal with her depression in 1929.
For the Guardian’s cable see BW12:670, CF161.
Shoghi Effendi had appointed her among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
For her obituary see BW12:670–4.
See also Freeman, From Copper To Gold.
See TG229 for a short story about her and a comment from her on the Long Obligatory Prayer.
See Remembering Dorthy Baker at Bahá'í Blog.
See Bahá'í Chronicles.
See article in the Canadian Bahá'í News No 46 February 1954 p1.
Find a grave.
||Mediterranean Sea; Elba; Italy
||Dorothy Baker; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, First Contingent
|1954 12 Apr
||Shoghi Effendi accepted the bid made by the firm of Enrico Pandolfini of Pietrasanta in Tuscany, Italy for the supply of the obelisk will mark the place of the first Mashriqu'l-Adhkar of the Holy Land. After the delivery of the materials circumstances did not allow for the obelisk to be erected. The Universal House of Justice completed the project in August, 1971.
||Haifa; BWC; Pietrasanta; Tuscany; Italy
||Mashriqul-Adhkar, Haifa; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Obelisks; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
||In 1953 the National Spiritual Assembly of Italy and Switzerland had been formed. This Ridván, with the formation of the National Spiritual of Switzerland, the regional assembly was re-named the National Spiritual Assembly of Italy. [BWNS909>/a>]
||National Spiritual Assembly, formation
|1962. 11 Oct
||The opening of the Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, commonly known as the Second Vatican Council, or Vatican II at the Vatican. It was the 21st ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church. The council met in St. Peter's Basilica in Rome for four periods (or sessions), each lasting between 8 and 12 weeks, in the autumn of each of the four years 1962 to 1965. (11 October 1962 - 8 December 1965)
Pope John XXIII called the Council because he felt the Church needed “updating”. In order to connect with 20th century people in an increasingly secularized world, some of the Church's practices needed to be improved, and its teaching needed to be presented in a way that would appear relevant and understandable to them.
Roman Catholic bishops at the Second Vatican Council (1962-1965) called for outlawing war by international consent and creating a universal public authority that would safeguard security, justice, and human rights. In their encyclicals, Pope John XXIII, Pope Benedict XVI, and Pope Francis have stated that there is an urgent need for a true world political authority that would be regulated by law, observe the principles of subsidiarity and solidarity, promote human development, manage globalization, and establish the common good. [Wikipedia; Black News 6FEB2022]
|Vatican; Rome; Italy
||Second Vatican Council
|1968 23 – 25 Aug
||The first Oceanic Conference took place in Palermo, Sicily, to commemorate the arrival of Bahá’u’lláh in the Holy Land. [BW15:73, 178; VV3]
It was attended by some 2,300 Bahá’ís from 67 countries. [BW15:73]
For details of the conference, maps and pictures see BW15:72–80.
See the message sent to the conference from the Universal House of Justice in which it was stated:
Contemplating this awe-inspiring, supernal episode, we may obtain a clearer understanding of our own times, a more confident view of their outcome and a deeper apprehension of the part we are called upon to play. That the violent disruption which has seized the entire planet is beyond the ability of men to assuage, unaided by God’s revelation, is a truth repeatedly and forcibly set forth in our Writings. The old order cannot be repaired; it is being rolled up before our eyes. The moral decay and disorder convulsing human society must run their course; we can neither arrest nor divert them.
||Oceanic Conference; Conference
|1969. (In the year)
||The Italian Bahá'í Publishing Trust was formed fulfilling one of the goals of the Nine Year Plan. By that time a great number of Bahá'í Sacred Writings and books had been translated into Italian, old translations were revised and commentaries on the Faith were written by Italian believers. [BN No 468 March 1970 p16]
|1974 4 Feb
||The death of Charles Mason Remey, Hand of the Cause of God (1951-60) and subsequently a Covenant-breaker. in Florence, Italy. (b.15 May 1874) [Wikipedia]
Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
He was declared a Covenant-breaker by the Hands of the Cause on the 26th of July, 1960.
||Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Births and deaths
|1974. 5 - 16 Nov
||The United Nations World Food Conference was held in Rome. [BW16p344]
The Bahá'í International Community delegates to this conference presented the brochure, One World, One People - A Bahá'í View.
See the statement presented by the Bahá'í International Community to the Conference.
||United Nations; Bahai International Community
|1984 1 Sep
||The House of Worship in Apia, Western Samoa, the Mother Temple of the Pacific, was dedicated in the presence of Hand of the Cause of God Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum, Hand of the Cause Dr Ugo Giachery, His Highness Malietoa Tanumafili II and more than a thousand Bahá’ís from 45 countries. [BW19:100–1; VV64]
The architect has utilized the form of the Samoan file roof and the open plan of the fale itself in conceptualizing the design of the Temple. The white mosaic tiled dome rests atop nine pairs of buttresses clad in granite of a soft red tone. The nine ribs of mirrored glass, the graceful arch windows and the wide expanse of glazing over each portal seemingly draw the light through the structure itself. Modern techniques have allowed the dome to be built in this manner, providing an iridescent effect when lit at night. The shell of the dome and the internal structure are of a white, rendered concrete, bushhammered to a soft texture and accented with distinctive native ifilele wood joinery and a warm red quarry tile floor finish. The main hall seats 500 and a cantilevered mezzanine level rings the perimeter providing additional seating for 200 including the choir. [from the pamphlet distributed to guests]
For a report of the dedication see BW19:552–3.
For the text of the address of His Highness Malietoa Tanumafili II see BW19:556.
For pictures see BW19:553 and VV64.
Marble for the House of Worship was cut and chiseled by Margraf, a firm from Chiampo, Italy formerly known as Industria Marmi Vincentini. [BWNS1223]
Location: Apia, Samoa (9km south of the city)
Foundation Stone: Laid by Malietoa Tanumafili II and Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum on 27 January 1979. She placed a small casket of Dust from the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh in a niche in a stone.
Site Dedication:1 September 1984
Seating: 500 - 700
Dimensions:Top of the dome to ground: 28m (92ft), Top of the dome to basement floor: 31m (102ft), Height of the dome: 19m (62ft), Width of the dome: 27M (88ft)
References: BW16p488-489, BW17p371-374, BW18p104, 585-588, BW19p547-557,
|Apia; Samoa; Pacific; Chiampo; Italy
||Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Ugo Giachery; Malietoa Tanumafili II of Western Samoa; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Mother Temples; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Apia; Dedications; Marble; Husayn Amanat; Malietoa Tanumafili II of Western Samoa; Architects; Boxes containing dust, earth or plaster; Gifts; Bahaullah, Shrine of; BWNS; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Margraf
|1986 24 Dec
||The House of Worship in New Delhi, the Mother Temple of the Indian Subcontinent, was dedicated in the presence of Hand of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum and more than 8,000 Bahá’ís from 114 countries. [AWH47; BINS161; BW19:102 BW20p732-733, VV92]
On October 1st, 1954 the Guardian announced that a plot
lying in the outskirts of New Delhi has
been secured at the price of a hundred
thousand rupees as the site of the first
Mashriqu'l-Adhkar of the Indian subcontinent. [CBN No58 Nov 1954 p1]
See VV93–4 for pictures.
Marble for the House of Worship was cut and chiseled by Margraf, a firm from Chiampo, Italy formerly known as Industria Marmi Vincentini. [BWNS1223]
The Universal House of Justice reported that the Bahá’í Temple received more than 120,000 visitors within the first thirty days of its dedication. [Ridván 1987]
Location: New Delhi, India (Bahapur (Abode of Light))
Foundation Stone: 17 October 1977 (Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum)
Construction Period: April 1980 - December 1986
Site Dedication:24 December 1986 (Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum placed a silver casket containing Dust from the Shrines of Bahá’u’lláh and the Báb into the crown of the Prayer Hall arch facing ‘Akká)
Architect/Project Manager: Fariburz Sahbá
Dimensions:Inner buds are 34.3m high, the outer leaves are 15.4m wide and 22.5m high.
References: BW16p486-487, BW17p368-370, BW18p103-104, 571-584, BW19p559-568, BW20p731-753
|New Delhi; India; Chiampo; Italy
||Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Mother Temples; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Delhi; Lotus temple; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Dedications; Marble; Fariburz Sahba; Architects; Boxes containing dust, earth or plaster; Gifts; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Bab, Shrine of; BWNS; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Margraf
|1988 11 Mar
||The passing of Italian orientalist, scholar and linguist Alessandro Bausani. As an orientalist he made contributions in several fields: Persian Literature, Islam, linguistics, the history of Islamic science, Urdu, Indonesian, and other Islamic literatures. He was a polyglot having studied all the main European languages plus Basque, Arabic, Turkish, Persian as well as Latin and Greek.
He accepted the Faith in 1949 and served as a member of the local and national assemblies in Italy. He was a speaker much in demand at all sorts of Bahá'í gatherings in Italy and beyond. A number of his written contributions about the Bahá'í teachings were published posthumously in a volume called, Saggi sulla Fede Bahá'í ("Essays on the Bahá'í Faith", Rome, 1991). [Obituary: Alessandro Bausani (1921-1988) by Heshmat Moayyad; Encyclopædia Iranica: BAUSANI, ALESSANDRO]
Alessandro Bausani was a prolific writer. A small sampling of his publications include:
||Alessandro Bausani; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
|1990 (In the year)
||The Italian Association for Bahá'í Studies was established in Rome. [BINS232:5]
It lapsed in 1991 but was re-established in 1992.
||Rome; Italy; Europe
||Bahai Studies, Associations for
|1991. (In the year)
||The Italian Bahá'í Community purchased the La Panoramica hotel in 1989 and by 1991 to was transformed it into an International Study Centre for training and study as well as cultural exchanges between people of various religions and many nationalities. [Website; Facebook; Instagram]
List of Associations for Bahá'í Studies worldwide.
||Bahai Studies, Associations for
|1998. 17 Jul
||The International Criminal Court was established by the Rome Statue on this date and put into force by the United Nations on 1 July, 2002.
The Rome Statute established four core international crimes: genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression. Those crimes "shall not be subject to any statute of limitations" (Article 29).
The ICC sits in the Netherlands at The Hague.
120 countries have signed on to the treaty. some countries that are not members are: USA, Russia, India, Israel, and China. [Encyclopaedia Britannica]
||Rome; Italy; The Hague; Netherlands
||International Criminal Court
|2001 4 Jun
||The public opening of the terraces surrounding the Shrine of the Báb on Mount Carmel. [BWNS134, BWNS221, BWNS123, BWNS122, BWNS121, BWNS120]
For statement from the Universal House of Justice see: BWNS119.
Other coverage: BWNS118, BWNS117, BWNS115, BWNS96, BWNS94, BWNS87, BWNS79.
Also see: The Bahá’í Gardens.
Marble for the terraces in the Bahá'í Gardens was cut and chiseled by Margraf, a firm from Chiampo, Italy formerly known as Industria Marmi Vincentini. [BWNS1223]
See YouTube video Not Even a Lamp.
See YouTube video Sacred Stairway: Pathway to a Book - A Talk by Michael Day where he talks about his book
Sacred Stairway - The Story of the Shrine of the Bab Volume III: 1963–2001. It was published by George Ronald.
Mount Carmel was extolled by the prophet Isaiah almost three thousand years ago when he announce that:
...it shall come to pass in the last days, that the mountain of the Lord's house shall be established in the top of the mountains, and shall be exalted above the hills; and all nations shall flow until it.
|BWC; Haifa; Mount Carmel; Chiampo; Italy
||Terraces; Dedications; Bab, Shrine of; Marble; BWNS; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Lasse Thoresen; Michael Day; Margraf
|2002 4 Dec
||University of Bari in Italy established a course on ethics and economics titled Ethics and Economy: Towards a New World Order. The University had appointed Giuseppe Robiati, a member of the Bahá'í community of Italy, as the coordinator of the course. [BWNS182]
|2009 7 – 8 Feb
||Regional Conferences were held in Frankfurt, Germany and Padua, Italy. [Padua, Frankfurt]
||Frankfurt; Germany; Padua; Italy
||Conferences, Regional; BWNS
|2021. 19 Dec
||Journalists from over 55 media outlets across Italy attended the press conference in Milan and had the opportunity to learn about and the sacred nature of the project to prepare the marble for the Shrine of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá and the complexities of its construction. The fabrication of the marble has required newly developed machinery that can cut the stone directly from 3D models with extreme precision—a requirement of the project given the curved surfaces of the domed trellis.
Attendees at the press conference included Hossein Amanat, who was selected by the Universal House of Justice as the architect for the project, Sohrab Youssefian, liaison between the project and Margraf, and two members of Italy’s Bahá’í National Spiritual Assembly. The Italian marble company that will cut and chiseled the marble was represented by Silvio Xompero, president of Margraf, and by Alessandro Peotta, head of the Margraf Technical Office. This firm has a long record of service to the Faith
||Abdul-Baha, Shrine of; Margraf; Silvio Xompero; Alessandro Peotta; Hossein Amanat (Husayn Amanat); Sohrab Youssefian
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- Colonialism, Nationalism and Jewish Immigration to Palestine: Abdu'l-Baha's Viewpoints Regarding the Middle East, by Kamran Ekbal (2014). Abdu'l-Bahá was opposed to the cultural and political colonialism of foreign powers and their militaries. In spite of the Bahá'í principle of abstaining from politics, exceptions can be made in the face of tyranny and injustice. [about]
- Emogene Hoagg: Exemplary Pioneer, by Amine De Mille, in Bahá'í News, 511 (1973-10). Biography of travel-teacher and translator of the Writings into Italian. [about]
- Extract from Brochure "One World, One People - A Bahá'í View", by Bahá'í International Community (1974). Short selection from a brochure presented by the Baha’i International Community to delegates attending the United Nations World Population Conference and World Food Conference in 1974. [about]
- From Adrianople to Akka, by Abu'l-Qasim Faizi, in Conqueror of Hearts (1968-08). A talk to the Oceanic Conference, Palermo, Sicily, on the exile journeys of Bahá'u'lláh. [about]
- Germany, France, Italy, and Switzerland, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 4:1 (1994). Compilation of new perspectives on the future of European civilization. Includes introduction by Julio Savi. [about]
- Guardian's Wartime Travels, The, by Harry Liedtke (2016). Brief chronology of world events 1938-1940 juxtaposed with Shoghi Effendi's travels in 1940, when he left Haifa for England nine months after the beginning of the war. [about]
- Henrietta Emogene Martin Hoagg: Short Biographical Monograph, by Peter Terry (1997). Biography of a travel-teacher, translator of the Writings into Italian, and the first pioneer to Italy. She had a great impact on her fellow believers during her lifetime, but is little-recognized today. [about]
- Italian Scientist Extols the Báb, An, by Ugo Giachery, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 12 (1950-54) (1956). On the life of Michele Lessona (1823-1894), a scientist, writer, explorer, and educator, who visited Iran and wrote a 66-page monograph entitled I Babi (1881): one of the first documentations made by a European of the episode of the Báb. [about]
- Journal Diary of European Baha'i Travels: April - November 1948, by Charles Mason Remey (1948). A record of Remey's visits across Europe, from England to Germany. Includes coverage of Bahá'í participation in the first U.N. convention on Human Rights, held in Geneva. [about]
- Obituary: Alessandro Bausani (1921-1988), by Heshmat Moayyad, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 10 (2001). The life and work of Bausani (1921–1988), a leading Italian scholar of Islam, Middle Eastern studies, interlinguistics and the History of Religion, and a prominent Italian Bahá'í. [about]
- Shoghi Effendi: Recollections, by Ugo Giachery (1973). Biography of Shoghi Effendi from the close standpoint of the author's personal experiences. [about]
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