Search for tag "Peace"
|1899. 18 May – 28 Jul
||At the suggestion of Czar Nicholas II of Russia, the First International Peace Conference was held in The Hague. 26 nations attended.
Although the conference failed to achieve its primary objective, the limitation on armaments, it did adopt conventions defining the state of belligerency and adopted the Convention for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes thus creating the Permanent Court of Arbitration. [Encyclopaedia Britannica]
This was the second attempt by a sovereign to call for some sort of international peace conference. The first such effort was made by Napoleon III in the 1860s. [Modernity and Millennium by Juan Cole p131-135]
||The Hague; Netherlands
||International Peace Conferences; Czar Nicholas II; Convention for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes; Permanent Court of Arbitration; Peace; Central Organization for a Durable Peace
|1905. 5 Sep
||The Treaty of Portsmouth formally ended the 1904–05 Russo-Japanese War. It was signed on September 5, 1905, after negotiations from August 6 to August 30, at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard in Kittery, Maine, United States. U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt was instrumental in the negotiations and won the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts. Were it not for US diplomacy and the military restraint displayed by the other European nations, the Russo-Japanese war might have become the first world war. [Wikipedia]
According to some historians, the 1905 Russo-Japanese War was the first truly modern war, involving as it did both the telegraph and the telephone, along with machine guns, barbed wire, illuminating star shells, mine fields, advanced torpedoes, and armored battleships. The war's resolution might also be called the world's first modern “peace,” inasmuch as its end came about through perhaps the first use of so-called multi-track diplomacy, involving not only the belligerents but also the United States and, significantly, input from civil society. [One Country]
||Portsmouth; New Hampshire
||Portsmouth Peace Treaty; Theodore Roosevelt
|1907. 15 Jun – 18 Oct
||The Second Peace Conference in The Hague was attended by the representatives of 44 states. Again the proposal for the limitation of armaments was not accepted. The conference did, however, adopt several conventions relating to comportment of nations in time of war. It was resolved to hold another conference in eight years and although the conference scheduled for 1915 failed to meet because of the outbreak of World War I, the conference idea strongly influenced the creation of the more highly organized League of Nations after the war. [Encyclopaedia Britannica]
||The Hague; Netherlands
||International Peace Conferences; League of Nations; Central Organization for a Durable Peace; Peace
|1911 21 Oct
||News of the Battle of Benghazi (17 October) was headline news. It was one of the opening salvos of the Turko-Italian War and began on the 17th of October when Italian invasion forces began their bombardment of the Turkish garrison. The Turks were forced to abandon the city and there were many lives lost, Italians, Turks and civilians.
His talk, The Pitiful Causes of War, and the Duty of Everyone to Strive for Peace. [ABF96-100 PT28-30]
See as well SoW Vol 2 No 14 November 23, 1911 p5 for His talk on the Battle of Benghazi.
||Paris; France; Benghazi; Lybia; Turkey; Italy
||Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; War (general); History (general); Peace
|1912 (In the year)
||The publication of The Brilliant Proof by Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl Gulpáygání in Chicago by the Bahai News Service, 1912. The first edition notes state that it was written December 28, 1911, in Syria, "by the pen of Mirza Abul Fazl Gulpaygan."
239D93 says this book was written by Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl in answer to a London minister's criticism of the Cause.
The publication of this book marked the end of an early era of Bahá'í teaching in the West. As 'Abdu'l-Bahá continued his journeys in the United States and Canada, He delivered hundreds of public talks and private addresses which were tailored to Western audiences. The fresh outpouring of teachings which resulted from these encounters produced a new Bahá'í literature of the words of 'Abdu'l-Bahá in the West. Examples include the following: The Promulgation of Universal Peace: Talks Delivered by `Abdu'l-Bahá During His Visit to the United States and Canada in 1912, compiled by Howard MacNutt, (Wilmette, Ill.: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1922-25); Paris Talks: Addresses Given by `Abdu'l-Bahá in Paris in 1911-1912 (London: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1912); 'Abdu'l-Bahá in London.
||Chicago; United States
||Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Criticism and apologetics; Proofs; Promulgation of Universal Peace (book); Paris Talks (book); Abdul-Baha in London (book); Bahai literature; Publications
|1912 12 May
||`Abdu'l-Bahá took a ferry to New Jersey then a train to Montclair where He addressed the congregation of the Montclair Unity Church before returning to New York to speak to the International Peace Forum at the Grace Methodist Episcopal Church on
West 104th Street, New York where He spoke to 2,000 people. [239D:66; AB191, PUP113, PUP116]
||Montclair; New Jersey; New York; United States
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches; Conferences, Peace; Peace; Trains
|1912 13 May
||`Abdu'l-Bahá, very unwell, attended a reception and gave a talk to the New York Peace Society at the Hotel Astor where He was the guest of honour. [239D:67; AB192, PUP123, APD67]
Various personages paid tribute to Him. The Consul General of Persian, General Topakyan referred to `Abdu'l-Bahá as the Beauty of God and the Glory of the East [Luminous Journey 56:06]
In the evening there was a meeting at `Abdu'l-Bahá's residence with people from India and Japan. He spoke to them in detail, saying:
"India had a great civilization in former times. That civilization spread from that part of Asia to Syria and Egypt; from Syria it was extended to Greece from whence it found its way to Arabia and Spain. Again, from Spain it spread over most of Europe. The world of man, however, has not yet reached its maturity. The time will come when this material civilization will be infused with divine civilization. Universal peace will be realized and people will become angelic. That will be the time of the world's maturity." [MD]
||New York; United States
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other; Peace; Topakyan; India
|1912 14–16 May
||`Abdu'l-Bahá attended the eighteenth annual Conference on International Peace and Arbitration at Lake Mohonk, presenting the first address during the second session of the conference . [239D:67–9; AB193; ABF15; MD101]
"His early public references in North America to the purpose of His visit there placed particular emphasis on the invitation of the organizing committee of the Lake Mohonk Peace Conference for Him to address this international gathering." [BWNS1297]
The Lake Mohonk Conference on International Arbitration was founded in 1895 and was held annually until 1917 for the purpose of creating and directing public sentiment in favour of international arbitration, arbitration treaties, and an international court. For archives see Swarthmore College Peace Collection.
These meetings at Lake Mohonk were instrumental in the creation of the Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague, Netherlands. [Wikepedia]
'Abdu'l-Bahá sent Zia Baghdadi back to the city to obtain a carpet to be used as a gift for the president of the International Peace Society and His host, Mr Smiley. Baghdadi rode a freight train to New York, awoke the sleeping residents at 2AM, boarded the first train for Lake Mohonk, begged to ride on the mail run and arrived just as 'Abdu'l-Bahá was shaking Smiley's hand at 10AM. [Luminous Journey 58:00] iiiii
See Who Will Bell the Cat: 'Abdu'l-Bahá at Lake Monhonk by Janet Ruhe-Schoen.
See The Cause of Universal Peace: 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Enduring Impact by Kathryn Jewett Hogenson for more information on the Lake Mohonk Conferences.
|Lake Mohonk; New York; United States
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Conferences, Peace; Conferences, International; Peace; Abdul-Baha, Talks other; Lake Mohonk Conference on International Arbitration
|1912. 22-27 Aug
||The International Moral Education Congress was an international academic conference held in Europe six times between 1908 and 1934. It convened because of an interest in moral education by many countries beginning a decade before the inaugural event.
The Second Congress was held at The Hague, August 22–27, 1912. Twenty-three countries sent official government delegates. Over 1,000 members were officially enrolled for the congress. Over 200 papers of some 2,000 words each were contributed and appeared in the five published volumes of more than 1,200 pages. [Wikipedia]
From Alexandria, Egypt, 'Abdu'l-Bahá sent a paper called Universal Education.
|The Hague; Netherlands; Alexandria; Egypt
||Peace; Education; Moral education; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Abdul-Baha in Egypt; Abdul-Baha, Life of
||The Central Organization for a Durable Peace was formed at The Hague (the Netherlands) in April 1915 by representatives from nine European nations and the United States. The deliberations of this meeting were summarized in a manifesto, and a nine point minimum-program calling for coercive sanctions, which were studied by nine international research committees and several national committees. Departing from strict pacifism, the organization expressed a willingness to accept military sanctions against countries that started hostilities without first making a good faith effort to resolve a dispute by submitting to international arbitration or making some other appeal to the existing peace machinery.
||The Hague; Netherlands
||Central Organization for a Durable Peace; International Peace Conferences; League of Nations; Peace
||A third international peace conference was planned by the Central Organization for a Durable Peace in The Hague and to this end, they put out a request for interested specialists to participate. Two Bahá'ís in Tehran, Ahmad Yazdáni and 'Alí Muhammad 'Ibn-i-Asdaq, drew 'Abdu'l-Bahá's attention to the organization's invitation.
||The Hague; Netherlands
||International Peace Conferences; Central Organization for a Durable Peace; Lawh-i-Hague (Tablet to The Hague); Ibn-i-Asdaq (Mirza Ali-Muhammad); Peace
|1918 8 Jan
||President Woodrow Wilson in a speech on war aims and peace terms to the United States Congress outlined his Fourteen Points. It was a statement of principles for peace that was to be used for peace negotiations in order to end World War I.
Wilson was influenced by the Bahá’í Teachings in formulating his Fourteen Points, at least three Bahá’í volumes were known to be in the White House. The Hidden Words appears on a 1921 listing of Wilson’s private library. Also, a compilation on peace given the President by a delegation of Washington Bahá’ís ‘turned up in general reference at the Library of Congress marked “transfer from the White House”‘. In addition, Abdul-Baha on Divine Philosophy (Boston, 1918) was said to have much influenced his thinking. [AY155]
Commenting on the Fourteen Points laid down by the President for the world community, the
Master says that twelve of them derive from principles advocated by Bahá’u’lláh fifty years before, and that these Teachings had been spread worldwide through various publications, thus becoming known to leaders in Europe and America (Persian Tablets, vol. III, p. 312). [AY156-157]
US Office of the Historian.
||United States; Washington DC
||Woodrow Wilson; Fourteen Points; History (general); Principles; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Abdul-Baha on Divine Philosophy; Peace; World peace (general); World War I; War (general); United States, Presidents
|1919 18 Jan
||The commencement of the Paris Peace Conference in Versailles.
Ali Kuli Khan was named as a member of Persia’s Peace Delegation to the Versailles. [SUP45]
||Paris; Versailles; France
||Paris Peace Conference; Peace
|1919 28 Jun
||The Treaty of Versailles was concluded. The United States never signed the Treaty of Versailles, never joined the League of Nations which President Wilson's foes derisively referred to as ‘Wilson’s League’. The USA made separate treaties with Germany and the other Central Powers. Wilson died on the 3rd of February, 1924. [AY160-169; US Office of the Historian]
Shoghi Effendi's tribute is as follows:
"To ... President ... Woodrow Wilson, must be ascribed the unique honour, among the statesmen of any nation, whether of the East or of the West, of having voiced sentiments so akin to the principles animating the Cause of Bahá’u’lláh, and of having more than any other world leader, contributed to the creation of the League of Nations—achievements which the pen of the Centre of God’s Covenant acclaimed as signalizing the dawn of the Most Great Peace, whose sun, according to that same pen, must needs arise as the direct consequence of the enforcement of the laws of the Dispensation of Bahá’u’lláh." [CoF36]
||Treaty of Versailles; Woodrow Wilson; League of Nations; History (general); World War I; War (general); World peace (general); Peace; Most Great Peace
|1919 17 Dec
||`Abdu'l-Bahá immediately responded to the invitation and wrote the Tablet to the Central Organization for a Durable Peace. He asked Ahmad Yazdáni and 'Alí Muhammad 'Ibn-i-Asdaq to come to Haifa to deliver the Tablet on His behalf. In May of 1920, they departed Haifa for Rotterdam. Upon arrival, they took a train to The Hague and delivered the Tablet on the 17th of May.
||Haifa; The Hague; Netherlands
||Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Lawh-i-Hague (Tablet to The Hague); Ibn-i-Asdaq (Mirza Ali-Muhammad); Peace; World peace (general); - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; Central Organization for a Durable Peace
|1920. 27 Jan
||The passing of Joseph H. Hannen, Disciple of 'Abdu'l-Bahá a week after he was knocked down by a car in Washington, DC. (b. January 27, 1920,
It was Joseph Hannen who served as a note-taker for many of the talks of 'Abdu'l-Bahá during His tour in the United States. A number of the entries in Promulgation of Universal Peace have been accredited to him. [The Washington Times 28 January, 1928]
‘Abdu’l-Bahá sent the first Tablet of the Divine Plan to the southern states in care of Joseph. He and his wife Pauline taught the Faith to African Americans; among those they taught were Louis Gregory and Mrs. Pocahontas Pope.
[Bahá'í Chronicles, Alain Locke: Faith and Philosophy pp 38-39 by Christopher Buck, Kalimat Press]
He was buried with his wife, Pauline Amalie Knobloch Hannen (b. 29 August, 1874 d. 4 October, 1939) in Prospect Hill Cemetery, in Washington, DC.
|Washington DC; Allegheny; United States
||Joseph Hannen; Pauline Hannen; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Cemeteries and graves; Tablets of the Divine Plan; Promulgation of Universal Peace (book)
|1920. 17 May
||The Tablet to the Central Organization for a Durable Peace was delivered to the Executive Comittee in The Hague.
Ahmad Yazdáni and 'Alí Muhammad 'Ibn-i-Asdaq learned that the Central Organization had been all but dissolved and that the Executive Committee's objective, to hold a third peace conference, had been surpassed by their country's membership in the recently formed League of Nations in Geneva. [AB438; BBD1 15; GPB308; EB176]
See also The Journey of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Tablet to The Hague. It is a photographic chronology by Jelle and Adib de Vries of the Netherlands.
See BWNS1378 and BWNS1431.
It was printed in the Star of the West Vol 11 No 8 1 August 1920.
On the 12th of June, the Executive Committee of the Central Organization for a Durable Peace in The Hague responded to 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Tablet. Ahmad Yazdani immediately forwarded it to Haifa.
|Haifa; The Hague; Netherlands
||Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Lawh-i-Hague (Tablet to The Hague); Ibn-i-Asdaq (Mirza Ali-Muhammad); Peace; World peace (general); - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; Central Organization for a Durable Peace
|1920 1 Jul
||'Abdu'l-Bahá sent His second Tablet to The Hague.
In this second Tablet `Abdu'l-Bahá defined the Bahá'í peace program and covered a wide spectrum of peace-producing Bahá'í social and spiritual teachings. [BW3:12]
It was printed in the Star of the West Vol 11 No 17 19 January, 1921.
||The Hague; Netherlands
||Lawh-i-Hague (Tablet to The Hague); Second Tablet to The Hague; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Central Organization for a Durable Peace
|1922 (In the year)
||The publication of The Promulgation of Universal Peace: Talks Delivered by ‘Abdu’l‑Bahá during His Visit to the United States and Canada in 1912. Compiled by Howard MacNutt.
From the preface to the 1922 edition..."This treasury of His words is a compilation of informal talks and extemporary discourses delivered in Persian and Arabic, interpreted by proficient linguists who accompanied Him, and taken stenographically in both Oriental and Occidental tongue."
From the same preface is a letter from 'Abdu'l-Bahá to Howard MacNutt dated 13 April, 1919 approving his idea to publish the compilation of His talks in America and urging him to be most careful to reproduce the exact text as well as promising an "effulgent face" in the Abhá Kingdom as well as the praise and gratitude of the friends.
And again from the same source is a letter from 'Abdu'l-Bahá to Albert Windust written on the 20th of July, 1919 asking him to name the book The Promulgation of Universal Peace and to direct that the Introduction must be written by Howard MacNutt. Prior to His coming to America the friends were unclear about His station and their differences in understanding was a major source of disunity. On one extreme were those who believed that 'Abdu'l-Baha was a man who, through the application and complete obedience to the Faith, had earned a high station, like Christ's disciple Peter, implying that others could do the same. In the other camp were those who insisted that He was the return of Christ. Little wonder that they were confused because never in religious history had there been someone like 'Abdu'l-Bahá, one Who held the station of "The Mystery of God". Howard's failure to understand 'Abdu'l-Bahá's station and disobedience to Him and taken him precariously close to the company of Covenant-breakers but through 'Abdu'l-Bahá's unfailing love and guidance he was able to come to a true understanding. The Introduction to the 1922 edition was his testament to the station of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [DJT369-372]
The Promulgation of Universal Peace, although not "scripture", could be compared to Some Answered Questions in that it is a carefully transcribed record of His talks. Unlike that publication where He answered questions, in The Promulgation of Universal Peace it was 'Abdu'l-Bahá who chose the subject. Upon arrival in New York He said, "It is my purpose to set forth in America the fundamental principles of the revelation and teachings of Bahá'u'lláh." [PUPxii]
||Chicago; New York; United States
||Promulgation of Universal Peace (book); Howard MacNutt; Publications
|1923 20 Dec
||The Peace Court ruled in favour of giving the Bahá'ís possession of House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád, however, the Council of Ministers, with the approval of King Feisal, ordered that the property not be returned until ownership could be established. [SETPE1p26]
The Guardian sent 19 cables to various individuals and national bodies with instructions that the Bahá'ís should send cables to the British High Commissioner in Iráq, Sir Henry Dobbs, as well as to the British authorities in Iráq and in London as well as to King Feisal to protest the action of the Council of Ministers. In communities where the numbers are stronger, Persia and America, he instructed that every local assembly protest directly. The Guardian himself sent over 600 pieces of correspondence during the following six months concerning this issue. [PP94-6, GBF33-34 BA94-95]
The Iráqí government refused to bow to the pressure put upon them. [PP96]
||House of Bahaullah (Baghdad); Peace Court; Firsts, Other
|1926 26 Dec
||Howard MacNutt, Disciple of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, (b. 13 July, 1858 in Philadelphia) passed away in Florida after being struck by a motorcycle while walking to a meeting in a "Coloured" area. [Bahaipedia]
He had lost his beloved wife Mary about one month earlier. He had been a student of Ibrahim George Kheiralla in New York and became a Bahá'í in 1898. He had learned both Persian and Arabic to better understand the Writings. Howard MacNutt was elected to the Bahá’í Board of Counsel for New York when it was established on December 7th 1900 and served on the body for many years. [SEBW42]
In 1905 Howard and his wife went on pilgrimage and attended a Nineteen Day Feast held by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, Who encouraged him to establish the practice in America. MacNutt consulted with the New York Board of Counsel after returning and a Feast was held in New York on May 23, 1905.
Howard wrote a booklet consisting of what he learned while on Pilgrimage titled Unity Through Love.
MacNutt also edited Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl's Bahá'í Proofs before it was first published in 1902 and revised Ali Kuli Khan's manuscript translation of the Kitáb-i-Íqán for publication in 1904.
He held a belief that `Abdu'l-Bahá had no extraordinary spiritual station and he did not regard Him as being different in Spirit from other men, that through works and service and overcoming all He attained to His station. This opinion resulted in MacNutt failing to appreciate the Bahá'í teaching that Covenant-breaking is a spiritual disease. When `Abdu'l-Bahá came to the United States in 1912 He assigned to MacNutt the task of meeting with a group of potential Covenant-breakers in Chicago and warning them. He also ordered MacNutt to break all communication with Ibrahim Kheiralla and other Covenant-breakers. When MacNutt failed to do as directed, `Abdu'l-Bahá advised him that he had violated the Covenant himself and commanded him to repent before a group of New York Bahá'ís, which he did on 18 November 1912. The matter was not resolved; `Abdu'l-Bahá cabled Ali Kuli Khan on 16 April 1913, "MACNUTT REPENTED FROM VIOLATION OF COVENANT BUT WAS NOT AWAKENED." After several months of correspondence between MacNutt and `Abdu'l-Bahá via Ali Kuli Khan, MacNutt satisfied `Abdu'l-Bahá that he had come to understand and had repented for his earlier errors. Even though `Abdu'l-Bahá recognized MacNutt as a Bahá'í his reputation in the Bahá'í community remained tarnished. To redeem himself he took on the task of compiling `Abdu'l-Bahá's talks in the United States and Canada and editing them. It was published as The Promulgation of Universal Peace, the name chosen by 'Abdu'l-Bahá himself, in 1922. MacNutt's preface contains a long and important statement about `Abdu'l-Bahá's station. His redemption was complete. [PUPxx]
For further details of his life and his brush with Covenant-breaking see SEBW35–42. Also see "In Memoriam: Arthur Pillsbury Dodge, 1849-1915", SoW, Vol. 6, No. 19 (2 March 1916) p165 as well as BFA1p125, 168-17, DJT369-372, AOY111-133 and FMH35.
See BW2p218 for a photo.
See AY321-323 for an account of his accidental death and his funeral.
He died as a result of injuries sustained from a collision with a motorcycle while walking to a meeting in the Coloured section of the city. There was speculation that the traffic mishap was not accidental. See the newspaper article written by Beatrice Cannnady.
||Dade City; Pasco County; Florida; United States
||Howard MacNutt; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Promulgation of Universal Peace
||The first International Religious Congress for World Peace was held at The Hague. It was attended by Martha Root. [BW3:45]
||The Hague; Netherlands
||Conferences, Peace; Martha Root; First conferences
|1938 (In the year)
||The publication of The World Order of Bahá'u'lláh, a compilation of the communications to the North American Bahá'í community between 1929 and 1936. "These...communications unfold a clear vision of the relation between the Bahá'í community and the entire process of social evolution under the Dispensation of Bahá'u'lláh." [WOBv; BEL5.145]
It is available online at the Bahá'í Reference Library.
||World Order of Bahaullah (book); Dispensation of Bahaullah (letter); World order (general); Publications; Shoghi Effendi, Writings of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Peace; World peace (general); Shoghi Effendi, Works of
|1941 28 Mar
||The publication of The Promised Day is Come. It was, in effect, a survey of the world in relation to the Bahá’í Faith during its first century. [AY305; PG215-217]
Available at the Bahá'í Reference Library.
||Promised Day is Come (letter); Bahai history; History (general); Peace; World peace (general); Tablets to kings and rulers
|1945 24 Oct
||The United Nations was formally established.
For the relationship of the Bahá’í Faith to the United Nations see BW16:327–52.
See SDC64-65 for 'Abdu'l-Bahá's prophetic statement, written in 1875, "True civilization will unfurl its banner...".
The temporary headquarters for the United Nations was established in Lake Success, NY in a warehouse formerly occupied by the Sperry Gyroscope Company. (1946-1952).
||San Francisco; California; United States
||United Nations; Secret of Divine Civilization (book); Collective security; Prophecies; World War II; War (general); Peace; History (general)
|1959 (In the year)
||Bahá’í communities in the United States began the observation of World Peace Day to call attention to the need for world peace. [BBD175]
This was replaced in 1985 by the observance of the UN International Day of Peace, which occurs on the third Tuesday in September. [BBD175]
||World Peace Day; United Nations; International Day of Peace; Peace; World peace (general)
|1985 23 Jan
||The plans of the Universal House of Justice for the International Year of Peace were outlined to national spiritual assemblies. [AHW31–4; VV86; Messs63-86p420]
||International Year of Peace; Universal House of Justice; Peace
|1985. 9 Aug
||The publication of the compilation entitled "Peace" prepared from the Bahá'í writings and the letters of the House of Justice by the Research Department. [Messages63-86p679-680, Compilation of CompilationsVol 2 p151]
Available online from the Bahá'í Library.
||Peace; World peace (general); Compilations; Publications
|1985 24 Oct
||On the fortieth anniversary of the United Nations and in anticipation of the United Nations International Year of Peace, the Universal House of Justice addressed a message to the peoples of the world inviting them to consider that a new social order can be fostered by all peoples’ seeing themselves as members of one universal family. This message was presented to world leaders and countless others during the United Nations International Year of Peace. [BBD174, 187–8; BW19:139, 155; VV59, 86–8, The Promise of World Peace]
Within six months national spiritual assemblies present copies to 167 world leaders, including 140 to leaders of independent countries. [BW19:139, 334–6]For pictures see BW19:337–44.For text see BW19:324–33.
||United Nations; Universal House of Justice; Universal House of Justice, Basic timeline; Promise of World Peace (statement); Statements; Publications; Peace; World peace (general); - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Universal House of Justice, Letters and messages; Baha'i International Community
|1985 22 Nov
||The Promise of World Peace was presented to the Secretary-General of the United Nations Javier Perez de Cuellar by Hand of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum and representatives of the Bahá’í International Community. [BW19:33, 382; VV87]
||United Nations; Javier Perez de Cuellar; United Nations, Secretary-General; Promise of World Peace (statement); Baha'i International Community
|1986. 1 Jan
||The publication of the compilation entitled "Women" by the Universal House of Justice. [Messages63-86p704, Compilation of CompilationsVol 2 p355]
Also see a message to an individual from the Universal House of Justice entitled "Women-Their Role in Society and the Establishment of Peace; Membership on the Universal House of Justice". [Messages63-86p707-709]
||Women; Peace; Compilations; Publications; Universal House of Justice, Membership on
||The United Nations Secretary-General designated the Bahá’í International Community and the National Spiritual Assemblies of Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Kenya and Lesotho as Peace Messengers, an honour given to only 300 organizations worldwide for their support of the UN Year of Peace 1986. [BINS173:4]
||New York; United States; Australia; Belgium; Brazil; Kenya; Lesotho
||United Nations; Baha'i International Community; International Year of Peace; Peace
|1989 Jul - Aug
||Five European Regional ‘Peace Moves’ Youth Conferences were held in different parts of the continent.
||Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; Peace
|1989 18 Dec - 1990 2 Jan
||West Berlin Bahá’í communities were joined by 26 Bahá’ís from six European countries and the United States in proclamation and teaching activities among East Germans. [BINS215:2]
More than 50,000 copies of a shortened version of the Peace Statement and other Bahá’í materials were distributed at four major border checkpoints in West Berlin and at the Brandenburg Gate. [BINS215:2]
||Promise of World Peace (statement); Teaching
|1990 (In the year)
||The Asian Buddhist Conference for Peace was held in Mongolia.
A representative of the International Bahá'í Community was the only non-Buddhist speaker invited to address a public meeting held in conjunction with the conference. [AWH88] [VV101]
The paper that was delivered was entitled The Common Goal of Universal Peace in Buddhism and the Bahá'í Faith.
||Buddhism; Conferences, Peace; Bahai International Community; Interfaith dialogue
|1990 Jan – Feb
||The Brazilian Society of Educators for Peace, conceived and initiated by Bahá'ís, is officially recognized by the Amazonas State Government. [BINS219:3]
||Bahai associations; Peace; Education
|1990 26 Jan
||The Bahá'í Chair for World Peace was established at the University of Maryland's Centre for International Development and Conflict Management at the official signing of the Memorandum of Understanding. [AWH76; BINS217:7; VV108]
Professor Suheil Bushrui was appointed to the Chair in 1992.
For picture see VV108.
On the 12th of February the Universal House of Justice announced that the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and the University of Maryland had signed a memorandum of understanding to establish "The Bahá'í Chair for World Peace" in its Centre for International Development and Conflict Management.
In 1992 Professor Suheil Bushrú’í was named as the first scholar to hold the Chair. [AWH76; VV108]
See The American Bahá'í for information on the endowment to fund the Chair as well as the programs and activities. "As part of its threefold objective of research, education and publication, the Bahá’í Chair collaborates with academics and practitioners to provide inspiration and direction to students, faculty and leaders seeking solutions to the world’s great challenges through the study of Bahá'í perspectives."
||Maryland; United States
||Bahai Chair for World Peace; Suheil Bushrui;
|1990 4 Jun
||The 1st International Exposition on Education for Peace sponsored by the National Spiritual Assembly was held in Brasilia, Brazil. Twenty-three embassies and educational institutes participated. [AWH88, BINS226:1]
||Exhibitions; Education; Peace
||Eighty leaders of thought from around the world gathered at Landegg Academy for the first International Dialogue on the Transition to a Global Society. The event was co-sponsored by the University of Maryland, the Vienna Academy for the Study of the Future and the Landegg Academy. [VV109]
For documentation on the proceedings see UNESCO Documents and Publications.
A second international dialogue took place in 1991 and a third in 1992. [VV109]
||University of Maryland; Bahai Chair for World Peace; Vienna Academy; Landegg academy; Universities; Firsts, Other; Conferences, Other
|1991 Dec 20
||A Bahá'í Monument for Peace was inaugurated in a ceremony held in Florianopolis, Brazil. [BINS266:1]
||Bahai Monument for Peace
|1992 (In the year)
||The establishment of the Bahá'í Chair for Peace at the University of Maryland in the United States. The mission of the Bahá'í Chair for Peace, in part, was to develop alternatives to the violent resolution of conflict, promote global education and spiritual awareness, and reflect the beliefs of the Bahá'í world community in building a global society. Suheil Bushrui held the chair from 1992 until 2005. [BWNS282]
||Maryland; United States
||Bahai Chair for World Peace; University of Maryland
|1993 19 Jan
||The Bahá'í Chair for World Peace at the University of Maryland was inaugurated. It was situated in the College of Behavioral and Social Sciences.
The Bahá'í Chair for World Peace is an academic program that conducts and publishes research with a diverse group of scholars on global issues. The organization’s purpose is to study worldwide challenges and discuss solutions that could advance peace and promote tolerance.
In addition to conducting academic research and releasing publications, the chair hosts events at the University of Maryland that are available to students, university staff and the general public.
Although the chair was inspired by the spiritual teachings of the Bahá'í faith’s focus on humanity’s unity, the program emphasizes science-based analysis along with the values the Faith provides. [Unwind Magazine]
|Maryland; United States
||Bahai Chair for World Peace; University of Maryland
|1993 26 Nov
||The National Spiritual Assembly of the Marshall Islands signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the Majuro local government in which the operation of administration of five elementary schools was legally handed over to the National Spiritual Assembly.
President Amata Kabua was the first head of state to respond to the Peace Statement of the Universal House of Justice. [BINS307:4–5; BW93–4:101, CBN Vol 7 no 1 May/June 1994 p29]
||Education; Promise of World Peace (statement); Recognition
|1994 Dec 7 – 9
||The first World Press Exhibition was held by the Information and Public Relations Committees of the National Spiritual Assembly of El Salvador to mark the International Day of Peace. [BINS335:2]
|2000 22 - 26 May
||The United Nations Millennium Forum was held at United Nations Headquarters in New York. It attracted 1,350 participants from more than 106 countries and many others participated remotely via Internet.
The purpose was to give organizations of civil society an opportunity to formulate views and recommendations on global issues to be taken up at the subsequent Millennium Summit in September to be attended by heads of state and government.
Convened by the UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan, the Forum's overarching theme - "The United Nations for the 21st Century" - encompassed six main sub-themes in its declaration: 1) Peace, security and disarmament; 2) Eradication of poverty, including debt cancellation and social development; 3) Human rights; 4) Sustainable development and environment; 5) Facing the challenges of globalization: achieving equity, justice and diversity; and, 6) Strengthening and democratizing the United Nations and international organizations. The document was divided into three main areas: recommendations for governmental action; proposals for the United Nations; and actions to be undertaken by civil society itself.
The Bahá’í International Community as an NGO representing a cross-section of humankind acted as a unifying agent in major discussions. Our principal representative at the United Nations, Techeste Ahderrom, was appointed to cochair a committee of non-governmental organizations. Lawrence Arturo and Diane 'Alá'í represented the Bahá'í International Community. [BW00-01p87-89, Letter from the Universal House of Justice dated 24 September 2000]
||New York; United States
||United Nations Millennium Forum and Summit; United Nations; United Nations Summits; United Nations conferences; Conferences; Millennium; Baha'i International Community; Peace; Security; Disarmament; Poverty; Social and economic development; Human rights; Sustainable development; environment; Globalization; Justice; Diversity; Prosperity; Equality; Solidarity; Tolerance; Nature; Cooperation; Interfaith dialogue; Techeste Ahderom; Lawrence Arturo; Diane Alai
|2000 28 - 31 Aug
||The Millennium Peace Summit of Religious and Spiritual Leaders was held in New York and involved more than 1,000 attendees.
The “very specific purpose” of this meeting was “to further the prospects for peace among peoples and nations, and within every individual.”
The outcome of this Peace Summit was the adoption and signing of a declaration committing the participants to global peace. Noting that “the United Nations and the religions of the world have a common concern for human dignity, justice and peace,” accepting that “men and women are equal partners in all aspects of life and children are the hope of the future,” and acknowledging that “religions have contributed to the peace of the world but have also been used to create division and fuel hostilities,” the declaration resolved to “collaborate with the United Nations and all men and women of goodwill locally, regionally and globally in the pursuit of peace in all its dimensions.”
The Baha'i' International Community was represented by its Secretary-General, Mr Albert Lincoln. Laurence Arturo and Bani Dugal-Gujral also attended as BIC representatives.
[BW00-01p89, Letter from the Universal House of Justice dated 24 September 2000; One Country]
||New York; United States
||United Nations Millennium Forum and Summit; United Nations; United Nations Summits; United Nations conferences; International Peace Conferences; Conferences; Millennium; Bahai International Community; Peace; World peace (general); Peace Summit of Religious and Spiritual Leaders; Interfaith dialogue; Albert Lincoln; Laurence Arturo; Bani Dugal Gujral
|2000 6 - 8 Sep
||The General Assembly Millennium Summit was held at the United Nations Headquarters in New York and was attended by leaders of more than 150 nations.
UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan presented a report entitled, "We The Peoples: The Role of the United Nations in the 21st Century". In which was presented an overview of the challenges facing humankind and suggested practical solutions. Some of the key themes addressed include health, environment, human rights and other social issues, international law, peace and rejuvenating the United Nations.
It is striking that called upon by the Secretary-General of the United Nations to address so historic a gathering was
Mr. Techeste Ahderom, the principal representative of the Bahá’í International Community to the United Nations, addressed the gathering as the spokesman of civil society. He was accorded this honour because he had presided as cochair at the earlier United Nations Millennium Forum.
After all the national leaders had spoken and before the Summit had adopted its declaration on 8 September, Mr. Ahderom made a speech in which he conveyed to that unprecedented assemblage a report of the Forum. The text of his speech is enclosed herewith.
On the last day a declaration was unanimously adopted that began by asserting: “We, Heads of State and Government, have gathered at United Nations Headquarters in New York from 6 to 8 September 2000, at the dawn of a new Millennium, to reaffirm our faith in the Organization and its Charter as indispensable foundations of a more peaceful, prosperous and just world.” [BW00-01p91-93, Letter from the Universal House of Justice dated 24 September 2000]
- The text of Mr. Ahderom's speech can be found on the BIC's website and at BW00-01p243-247.
- Millennium Declaration (in all UN working languages)
- The Millennium Development Goals are to: (1) eradicate extreme poverty and hunger; (2) achieve universal primary education; (3) promote gender equality and empower women; (4) reduce child mortality; (5) improve maternal health; (6) combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases; (7) ensure environmental sustainability; and (8) develop a global partnership for development.
- UN website.
|New York; United States
||United Nations Millennium Forum and Summit; United Nations; United Nations Summits; United Nations conferences; Conferences; Millennium; Bahai International Community; Peace; World peace (general); Security; Disarmament; Poverty; Social and economic development; Human rights; Sustainable development; Environment; Globalization; Justice; Diversity; Prosperity; Equality; Solidarity; Tolerance; Nature; Cooperation; Interfaith dialogue; Techeste Ahderom
|2000 19 Sep
||In a ceremony, the final earth samples from 26 nations were deposited in the Peace Monument, which was built by the Bahá'í International Community and the Bahá'í Community of Brazil in 1992 for the 1992 Earth Summit. Designed by the renowned Brazilian sculptor Siron Franco, the five-meter concrete and ceramic monument is located near the entrance to the Santos Dumont Airport in Rio de Janeiro, just north of Flamengo Park and the site of the 1992 Global Forum, the parallel conference of non-governmental organizations held during the 1992 Earth Summit, which was formally known as the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. [BWNS85]
||Rio de Janeiro; Brazil
||Earth Summit; United Nations Summits; United Nations conferences; United Nations; Environment; Peace Monument; Monuments; Earth; BWNS; Baha'i International Community
|2000. 31 Oct
||The United Nations Security Council unanimously passed Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security. It was the first United Nations Security Council resolution to specifically mention the impact of conflict on women.
The Resolution formally acknowledged the changing nature of warfare, in which civilians are increasingly targeted, and women continue to be excluded from participation in peace processes. It specifically addressed how women and girls are disproportionally impacted by violent conflict and war and recognized the critical role that women can and were playing in peacebuilding efforts. UNSCR 1325 affirmed that peace and security efforts are more sustainable when women are equal partners in the prevention of violent conflict, the delivery of relief and recovery efforts and in the forging of lasting peace.
The four pillars of the resolution were Participation, Prevention, Protection, Relief & Recovery.
It was the first formal and legal document from the Security Council that required parties in a conflict to prevent violations of women's rights, to support women's participation in peace negotiations and in post-conflict reconstruction, and to protect women and girls from wartime sexual violence. Specifically, the key provisions called for:
See Background Paper by Françoise Nduwimana.
- Increase of representation and participation of women in decision-making at all levels.
- Specific attention to gender-based violence in conflict situations.
- Gender perspective in post-conflict processes.
- Gender perspective in UN programming, reporting and in Security Council missions.
- Gender perspective & training in UN peace support operations. [Wikipedia]
|New York, NY
||United Nations; Women; Gender; Peace; Human rights
||The publication of Century of Light, a statement by the Universal House of Justice. The purpose of the book is to provide members of the Faith with a perspective on two defining processes that unfolded during the 20th century; on the one hand, the sequence of events that made the unification of humanity the principal feature of modern history and, on the other, the emergence from obscurity of the Cause of God and its Administrative order. It is primarily a resource for Bahá'í study and deepening. It is not a public information publication. [TP777-778]
||Century of Light (book); Universal House of Justice; Universal House of Justice, Basic timeline; Publications; History (general); Bahai history; 20th century; Peace; World order (general); World peace (general)
|2001 19 Apr
||The publication of the memorandum entitled Attainment of the Unity of Nations and the Lesser Peace by the Research Department on behalf of the Universal House of Justice. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 19 April, 2001]
||Unity of Nations; Lesser Peace; Peace; World peace (general); Unity; World order (general); Prophecies; Seven candles of unity; Publications
|2001 23 Dec
||National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States published a full-page advertisement in The New York Times. The statement, entitled The Destiny of America and The Promise of World Peace," stated that Bahá'ís believe the American nation will evolve, through tests and trials to become a land of spiritual distinction and leadership, a champion of justice and unity among all peoples and nations, and a powerful servant of the cause of everlasting peace. The 645-word document identified six prerequisites for world peace: universal acceptance of the oneness of humanity; the eradication of racism; the full emancipation of women; the elimination of inordinate disparity between the rich and the poor; an end to unbridled nationalism; and harmony between religious leaders. [BWNS147, includes the text of the statement]
||New York; United States
||Promise of World Peace (statement); Statements; NSA statements; NSA United States; Peace; BWNS; Publications; Newspapers; Press (media)
|2003 16 Dec
||Shirin Ebadi, was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, the first Muslim woman to win the coveted distinction.
For a long time she has fought for the rights of women and children in Iran and it is most fitting that she, a woman lawyer who dared to speak out against the sexist Iranian regime, be praised and recognised by the world.
She was an author and also the founder of the Association for Support of Children's Rights in Iran. [Nobel Peace Prize 2003]
In 2002 she founded the Defender of Human Rights Center and in 2009 she was forced to flee into exile after briefly serving as legal counsel for the imprisoned Yaran. Mrs. Ebadi was threatened, intimidated, and vilified in the news media after taking on their case and was not given access to their case files. [BWNS694]
||Shirin Ebadi; Nobel Peace Prize; Human rights; Women; Firsts, Other; BWNS
|2005. 14 -16 Sep
||The 2005 World Summit was a follow-up summit meeting to the United Nations' 2000 Millennium Summit, which led to the Millennium Declaration of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Representatives (including many leaders) of the then 191 (later 193) member states met in New York City for what the United Nations described as "a once-in-a-generation opportunity to take bold decisions in the areas of development, security, human rights and reform of the United Nations." [THE 2005 WORLD SUMMIT: AN OVERVIEW]
2005 World Summit Outcome
Millennium Development Goals
- To eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
- To achieve universal primary education
- To promote gender equality and empower women
- To reduce child mortality
- To improve maternal health
- To combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases
- To ensure environmental sustainability
- To develop a global partnership for development
|New York; United States
||United Nations Millennium Forum and Summit; United Nations; United Nations Summits; United Nations conferences; Conferences; Millennium; Bahai International Community; Peace; World peace (general); Security; Disarmament; Poverty; Social and economic development; Human rights; Sustainable development; environment; Globalization; Justice; Diversity; Prosperity; Equality; Solidarity; Tolerance; Nature; Cooperation; Interfaith dialogue
||Dr. John Grayzei was appointed to the Bahá'í Chair for Peace at the University of Maryland in the United States. He succeeded Suheil Bushrui who held the position since its inauguration in 1992. [BWNS404]
||Maryland; United States
||John Grayzei; Suheil Bushrui; Bahai Chair for World Peace; University of Maryland; BWNS
|2011 29 May
||The inauguration of the UNESCO Square for Tolerance and Peace, situated at the point where Haifa's historic German Templar colony met the terraced gardens of the Shrine of the Báb. [BWNS828]
Over the next year the Square was developed through the addition of upgraded stonework and decorative floral plantings in the centre of the traffic circle. [The Five Year Plan 2011-2016: Summary of Achievements and Learning pg113]
||UNESCO for Tolerance and Peace Square; UNESCO; Tolerance; Peace; BWNS
|2012. 19 Jun
||Over 100 people gathered to mark the re-dedication of the “Peace Monument,” which contains soil brought from nearly 150 countries and is a symbolic representation of the oneness of humanity and the global cooperation needed to achieve lasting peace. The monument was built by the Bahá'í International Community and the Bahá'í Community of Brazil in 1992 for the 1992 Earth Summit. Members of the Baha'i International Community’s delegation attending were: Duncan Hanks, Daniel Perell, May Akale, Ming Hwee Chong, Peter Adriance.
[One Country; BIC HIstory 2012]
||Rio De Janeiro; Brazil
||United Nations; Baha'i International Community; Peace Monument; Duncan Hanks; Daniel Perell; May Akale, Ming Hwee Chong; Peter Adriance; Earth Summit
||The Bahá'í Chair for World Peace was assumed by Professor Hoda Mahmoudi who previously headed a research department at the Bahá'í World Center in Israel. [Bio Professor Hoda Mahmoudi]
She studied structural racism and root causes of prejudice, equality of women as a prerequisite to peace, human nature, global governance, and globalization and the environment. Professor Mahmoudi collaborated with a wide range of scholars, researchers, and practitioners to advance interdisciplinary analysis and open discourse on global peace. Before joining the University of Maryland faculty, Professor Mahmoudi served as the coordinator of the Research Department at the Bahá’í World Centre in Haifa, Israel. Prior to that, Dr. Mahmoudi was Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences at Northeastern Illinois University, where she was also a faculty member in the Department of Sociology. Professor Mahmoudi’s books include: A World Without War: ‘Abdu’l-Baha and the Discourse for Global Peace, co-authored with Dr. Janet Khan; Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Human Rights.
The Bahá'í Chair for World Peace website.
|Maryland; United States
||Hoda Mahmoudi; Bahai Chair for World Peace; University of Maryland
|2019 18 Jan
||On this, the 100th anniversary of the commencement of the Paris Peace Conference, the Universal House of Justice released a message regarding World Peace.
See BWNS1368 for a short video entitled 100 years on, remembering ‘Abdu’l-Baha’s call for peace in the First Tablet to The Hague. The Central Organization for a Durable Peace in The Hague was one of the preliminary steps taken that lead to the Paris Peace Conference.
||BWC; The Hague; Netherlands
||Universal House of Justice, Letters and messages; Paris Peace Conference; International Peace Conferences; Promise of World Peace (statement); Peace; World peace (general)
||Religions for Peace is the world’s largest inter-religious coalition. Their mandate is to work to transform violent conflict, advance human development, promote just and harmonious societies. It is comprised of a world council of religious leaders and bodies from over 125 countries.
Its organization, built over its 50-year history, comprises of six regional Interreligious Councils and is built on the principle of religious representation that reflects the fabric of religious demography.
The Bahá'í International Community’s Principal Representative, Ms. Bani Dugal, was elected as a co-president and member of the World Council of Religions for Peace to become part of the 51 member council of co-presidents. The election, which is held every five years, was held in August in Lindau, Germany. Ms. Dugal was elected by over 700 voting delegates.
Dr. Azza Karam, Professor of Religion and Development at the Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam, Netherlands and former senior advisor on culture at the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) was elected as the body’s new secretary-general, becoming the first woman to hold the post. At UNFPA, she also served as chairperson of the UN task force on engagement with faith-based organizations.
||Baha'i International Community; Bani Dugal; Religions for Peace; Azza Karam
from the main catalogue
See all tags, sorted numerically or alphabetically.
- Abdu'l-Baha in New York: The City of the Covenant, April-December 1912 (1931). A record of Abdu’l-Bahá’s talks in New York, with foreword by John Herman Randall. [about]
- 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Prophecy "Indians Will Enlighten the World", by Christopher Buck and Kevin Locke (2019). Slide-show overview of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá's prophecy "these Indians will enlighten the whole world." [about]
- Achieving Reconciliation in a Conflicting World, by Ismael Velasco, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 18:1-4 (2008). The dynamics of conflict against the backdrop of globalization, and religion's role in fostering unity. A "logic of reconciliation" will allow us to find harmony among ideas, individuals, and communities. [about]
- America and the Most Great Peace interactive study guide, by Duane Troxel (2004). A PDF interactive study guide to Shoghi Effendi's letter "America and the Most Great Peace," which was published in World Order of Baha'u'llah. [about]
- Apocalypse and Millennium: Catastrophe, Progress, and the Lesser Peace, by William P. Collins, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 12:1-4 (2002). Some approaches to the Lesser Peace in light of millennialism, and the Baha'i vision of a divine plan leading to the Lesser Peace and the Most Great Peace which has "progressive” and "catastrophic" aspects. [about]
- Apocalyptic Thinking and Process Thinking: A Bahá'í Contribution to Religious Thought, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). The process of change in religious thinking and how it manifests in expectations about the Lesser Peace, both from Baha'i texts and within the community. Includes discussions of "the calamity," and of non-Baha'i political evolution in the 20th century. [about]
- Attainment of the Unity of Nations and the Lesser Peace, by Universal House of Justice (2001). Letter sent to all NSAs and later broadcast to the Baha'i world to explain the process through which the Lesser Peace will be created and its relation to the Most Great Peace. [about]
- Bahá'í Approach to Cosmopolitan Ideas in International Relations, The, by Nalinie N. Mooten (2005). Link to document offsite. [about]
- Bahá'í Approach to Cosmopolitan Ideas in International Relations, The, by Nalinie Mooten (2006). A Bahá’í approach to the cosmopolitan tradition in International Relations theory, and what contributions the Bahá’í model can offer to this growing tradition. [about]
- Bahá'í Contribution to Cosmopolitan International Relations Theory, The, by Nalinie Mooten, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). [about]
- Bahá'í Horizons in the 21st Century, by David S. Ruhe (1993). Informal notes transcribed from a talk closing a 1993 Conference on Social and Economic Development in Orlando, Florida, offering an overview of Baha'i activities at the turn of the millennium. [about]
- Bahá'í Tradition, The: The Return of Joseph and the Peaceable Imagination, by Todd Lawson, in Fighting Words: Religion, Violence, and the Interpretation of Sacred Texts, ed. John Renard (2012). Overview of the status of violence in the Baha'i tradition, and the historical/social conditions in which these doctrines were articulated. [about]
- Bahá'í Writings and Kant's "Perpetual Peace", The, by Ian Kluge, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). Kant's Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch (1795) outlined practical steps necessary to end war through the establishment of a "league of peace" and a union of nations. This essay traces similarities between Kant's and Baha'i proposals. [about]
- Bahá'í-Inspired Perspectives on Human Rights (2001). Articles by Kiser Barnes, Greg Duly, Cheshmak Farhoumand-Sims, Graham Hassall, Darren Hedley, Nazila Ghanea-Hercock,
Chichi Layor, Michael Penn, Martha Schweitz, and Albert Lincoln. [about]
- Baha'u'llah and the New Era, by John E. Esslemont (1980). The classic introductory text on the Baha'i Faith focusing on Baha'i teachings and the lives of the Bab, Baha'u'llah, and Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
- Call to the Nations, by Shoghi Effendi (1977). Selections from the writings of the Guardian chosen by the Universal House of Justice, offered as guidance at a "critical juncture" of humankind in a dark period of its history, but with a glorious day on the horizon. [about]
- Century of Light, by Universal House of Justice (2001). Survey of the history and dramatic changes of the 20th Century and the Bahá'í Faith's emergence from obscurity, "demonstrating on a global scale the unifying power with which its Divine origin has endowed it." [about]
- Changing Needs in a Changing World, by Ruhiyyih (Mary Maxwell) Khanum (1960). Talk given in New York City in 1960, on bringing peace to the world. [about]
- Comments on "Infallible Institutions?" by Udo Shaefer and "Response" by Peter Terry, by Keith Bookwalter (2020). Thoughts on infallibility of the Universal House of Justice through a case study of predictions regarding the "unity of nations" and the Lesser Peace by the year 2000. [about]
- Communal Harmony: India's Greatest Challenge, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of India (1993). A formal statement from the NSA of the Bahá'ís of India on the need to overcome religious, linguistic and caste-based tensions. [about]
- Compilation of the Holy Utterances of Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá, Concerning the Most Great Peace, War and Duty of the Bahá'ís toward their Government, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (1918). An early compilation, prepared for the Tenth Annual Convention, April 1918. [about]
- Conferencia Mundial para el Examen y la Evaluación de los Logros del Decenio de las Naciones Unidas para la Mujer: Igualdad, Desarrollo y Paz, by Bahá'í International Community (1985). Informe presentado por la Comunidad Internacional Bahá'í acerca de las actividades de la Comunidad Bahá'í Mundial para mejorar la condición de la mujer durante el Decenio de las Naciones Unidas para la Mujer y Programas Futuros para el Adelanto de la Muje [about]
- Constructive Resilience: The Bahá'í Response to Oppression, by Michael Karlberg, in Peace and Change, 35:2 (2010). Example of the non-adversarial approach of the Baha'is in Iran toward social change, their collective response to oppression, and heuristic insights into the dynamics of peace. [about]
- Consultation in the Quest for World Peace, by Roger Coe (1987). The Universal House of Justice in Promise of World Peace advised that Baha'is conduct their affairs utilizing a system of "commonly accepted consultative principles". This is a brief but comprehensive study of that system. Includes audio version. [about]
- Consultation, Portraits, Rakahs, Murtus, and Unknown Language, by Universal House of Justice (2009). Three replies from the Research Department to an individual, dated 2009, 2010 and 2018, on a variety of topics. [about]
- Contemporary Governance and Conflict Resolution: A Bahá'í Reading, by Graham Hassall (1999). [about]
- Continuing Contest between Exclusivism and Pluralism, The: Thoughts on the 2002 Day of Prayer for Peace, by Julio Savi, in World Order, 33.4 (2002). Origins and purpose of the Catholic "Day of Prayer in Assisi," and interfaith dialogue. [about]
- Daniel's Prophecies, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). [about]
- Dawn over Mount Hira and Other Essays, by Marzieh Gail (1976). A collection of essays on various topics of interest to Baha'i studies and history. Most of these were first published in Star of the West and World Order between 1929 and 1971. [about]
- Declaración de la Comunidad Internacional Bahá'í ante la Conferencia Internacional de las Naciones Unidas sobre la Relación Entre el Desarme y el Desarrollo, by Bahá'í International Community (1987). El Año Internacional de la Mujer. Nueva York, Nueva York, 24 de agosto-11 de septiembre de 1987 [about]
- Deganawida, the Peacemaker, by Christopher Buck, in American Writers: A Collection of Literary Biographies, 26 (2015). Biography of the Iroquois / Haudenosaunee prophet-like figure who lived around 600 or 900 years ago. [about]
- Desarme y la Paz, El, by Bahá'í International Community. [about]
- Destiny of America and The Promise of World Peace, The, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States, in The New York Times (2001). Statement published as a full-page ad in New York Times on prerequisites for world peace: acceptance of the oneness of humanity; eradication of racism; emancipation of women; elimination of wealth disparity; end to nationalism; religious harmony. [about]
- Did Prophecy Fail? The Lesser Peace and the Year 2000, by Jack McLean (2003). Prior to the 2010s, there was widespread belief in the Bahá'í community that the Lesser Peace would be established by the year 2000, following some catastrophic event. Yet the Scriptures do not make this claim. Prophecy is interpreted in retrospect. [about]
- Discourse Theory and Peace, by Michael Karlberg, in Encyclopedia of Peace Psychology, ed. Daniel Christie (2012). Discourse theory, which rests on the idea that language helps constitute our reality, can shed light on the role that language plays in both direct and structural violence. No mention of the Baha'i Faith. [about]
- Emergence of World Civilization, The: An Exposition on Excerpts from the Writings of Shoghi Effendi, by James B. Thomas, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). [about]
- Epistle to the Son of the Wolf (Lawh-i-Ibn-i-Dhib): The Lesser Peace, by Michael W. Sours (1999). [about]
- Exposition of the Tablet of the World (Lawh-i-Dunyá), An, by James B. Thomas, in Lights of Irfan, 4 (2003). To fully appreciate the historical significance of the Tablet of the World, this essay first portrays the developing conditions in Persia and in the world that preceded this Tablet, then discusses its salient points. [about]
- Faith of Bahá'u'lláh, The: A World Religion, by Shoghi Effendi (1947). A summary of the origin, teachings and institutions of the Bahá'í Faith, prepared in 1947 for the United Nations Special Committee on Palestine by Shoghi Effendi in his capacity as Head of the Bahá'í Faith. [about]
- Fifty Bahá'í Principles of Unity: A Paradigm of Social Salvation, by Christopher Buck, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 18 (2014). World religions are systems of salvation, liberation, or harmony, in direct response to the perceived human predicament. To Baha’is, this predicament is profound estrangement and the solution is world unity, from family to international relations. [about]
- Fourth Candle, The: The Unity of Religion and Interfaith Dialogue, by Christopher Buck, in dialogue magazine, 1:2 (1986). What does "Unity in Religion" mean, and how does it apply for Baha'is' interactions with other religious communities? An essay inspired by Abdu'l-Bahá's Tablet "Seven Candles of Unity," utopia, Hans Kung, and the Lesser Peace. [about]
- Hartmut Grossmann, Remarks of, Concerning the Timing of the Lesser Peace (2012). Responding to a talk given by an ex-member of the UHJ, this letter explains: statements of ex-members of the House are personal opinions only; and while we don't know the exact date of the Lesser Peace, the Guardian assures us that it will come. [about]
- Hidden Word #63; quote from Promulgation of Universal Peace, by Universal House of Justice (2010). Two minor questions regarding matters of translation: a passage from Hidden Words Persian #63, and a passage from PUP quoted in Portals to Freedom. [about]
- Hora Decisiva para todas las Naciones, by Bahá'í International Community. Declaración de la Comunidad Internacional Bahá'í con motivo del 50 aniversario de Naciones Unidas Octubre 1995 [about]
- Identidad y Paz, by Quentin Farrand, in Derecho y Cambio Social, 19:6 (2009). Estimular la apreciación de la diversidad de caracteres, talentos, y personalidades que encontramos en todos los grupos étnicos, de clase, nacionales, y de creencias, y desalentar el adoctrinamiento de aversión y contienda entre estos segmentos. [about]
- In search of Martha Root: An American Bahá'í feminist and peace advocate in the early twentieth century, by Jiling Yang (2007). Early life of Root, her four world teaching trips from 1919 to 1939 with a focus on peace advocacy, and gender and identity reflections on Tahirih. Link to thesis (offsite). [about]
- Journey of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's "Tablet to the Hague", The: A Photo Chronology (2019). Link (offsite) to a visual tour of the history, people, and events relevant to Abdu'l-Bahá's "Letter to the Central Organisation for a Durable Peace." [about]
- Just System of Government: The Third Dimension to World Peace, by John Huddleston, in The Bahá'í Faith and Marxism (1987). Highlights a few points in the Bahá'í approach to government and collective action. [about]
- Lesser Peace and the Most Great Peace, The, by Ali Nakhjavani, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 9 (2008). [about]
- Letter to Martha Root, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1920). A letter to believers in America. [about]
- Letter to the World's Religious Leaders, by Universal House of Justice (2002). On historic challenges that leaders of religion must respond to, if spiritual leadership is to have meaning in the new global society. [about]
- Letters Written on Behalf of the Guardian, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). Three questions: Letters Written on Behalf of Shoghi Effendi; Status of Research Department Memoranda; Bahá'í Writings Based in Fact? [about]
- Liberation Theology and its Potential for Guidance Towards Peace on Earth: A Bahá'í Perspective, by Fleur Fallon, in 75 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in Australasia (1996). [about]
- Mahmúd's Diary: The Diary of Mírzá Mahmúd-i-Zarqání Chronicling 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Journey to America, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Mirza Mahmud-i-Zarqani (1998). Extensive account of the 1912 travels of Abdu'l-Baha in the West. [about]
- Many Messengers of God, A Native American Perspective: Deganawidah The Peacemaker, by Paula Bidwell (2011). Collection and analysis of proofs from the Baha'i Writings about prophets from indigenous cultures. Includes illustrated slide-show presentation of the paper. [about]
- Mediation, Transformation and Consultation: A Comparative Analysis of Conflict Resolution Models, by Guy Sinclair, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). [about]
- Meditation, by Peter J. Khan, in Australian Bahá'í Bulletin (1979). A short summary of the Bahá’í approach to meditation and its relevance to peace and intuition. [about]
- Message on World Peace, by Universal House of Justice (2019). Letter about important steps the world made towards world peace, and the current situation, in relation to the activities the Bahá'ís are involved with. [about]
- Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-1986: Third Epoch of the Formative Age, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
- Messianic Roots of Babi-Bahá'í Globalism, The, by Stephen Lambden, in Bahá'í and Globalisation (2005). Contrast of the continuity between the globalism of the Bab’s Qayyum al-asma’ and Baha’u’llah’s globalism, verses breaks between the two, e.g. the abandoning of jihad as a means of promoting a globalisation process. [about]
- Military Metaphor in Bahá'í Sacred Literature, The, by Jack McLean (2005). Martial symbology is common in the Baha'i Writings, especially those of Shoghi Effendi, yet the Writings are expressly pacifistic. This article examines the apparent contradiction. [about]
- Millennium Forum, by Universal House of Justice (2000). [about]
- Most Great Peace (a rap), by Brett Zamir (2007). [about]
- New World Order, The: Warwick Leaflets, by Warwick Bahá'í Bookshop (1995). [about]
- No More Jihad: Muhammad's Message in Baha'u'llah's Dream, by Christopher Buck and Necati Alkan (2017). Essay about a Tablet of Baha’u’llah in which He describes a dream in which He "associated" with the prophet Muhammad. [about]
- One Common Faith, by Universal House of Justice (2005). Review of relevant passages from both the writings of Bahá'u'lláh and the scriptures of other faiths against the background of contemporary crises. [about]
- Paz y el Desarrollo, La, by Bahá'í International Community. Declaración presentada al Seminario de las Naciones Unidas para las regiones de Asia, el Pacífico y Asia Occidental, para el Año Internacional de la Paz,
Bangkok, Tailandia, 20 al 24 de mayo de 1985 [about]
- Peace, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá, in Compilation of Compilations, Volume 2 (1991). [about]
- Peace and Prosperity, by Louis Damore (2001). [about]
- "Peace" in the Baha'i Scriptures, by Ismael Velasco (2001). Annotated compilation on the gestation of thoughts about peace and the Lesser Peace in the writings of Baha’u’llah, universal peace in the writings of Abdu'l-Baha, Shoghi Effendi's "New World Order," and the UHJ's influences on the Lesser Peace. [about]
- Peace, Activism for, by Universal House of Justice (1987). Baha'is may be actively involved in peace processes but may not interfere excessively, since Baha'i institutions will not be directly involved in effecting the political unity of nations. [about]
- Pilgrims Notes and the "Calamity", by International Teaching Centre (1984). Status of Pilgrims' Notes and their discussion of the catastrophic events some Baha'is believe might occur around the turn of the millennium. [about]
- Political Non-Involvement and Obedience to Government: Compilation by Peter Khan with Cover Letter from Secretariat, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi (2003). Current world events can cause confusion and anguish among those seeking global peace. Rather than being drawn into prevailing attitudes and disputes, Baha'is must hold a broader long-term perspective. [about]
- Power and the Bahá'í community, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 19 (2018). While Baha'i social teachings may have sounded new and exciting a century ago, that is no longer the case today. The problem the world faces is not in the principles that would lead to a better society, but in their application. [about]
- Power of Discourse and the Discourse of Power, The: Peace as Discourse Intervention, by Michael Karlberg, in International Journal of Peace Studies, 10:1 (2005). Western discourses of power are inadequate for creating a peaceful and just society. Alternate models can be proposed through "discourse intervention." The Baha'i community offers a non-adversarial, alternative social practice. [about]
- Preparación para Vivir en Paz, el Papel de la Juventud, by Bahá'í International Community. [about]
- Preparación Para Vivir En Paz, La, by Bahá'í International Community. Charla presentada durante el Seminario Regional de las Naciones Unidas para Latinoamérica y el Caribe, auspiciado por la Comisión Económica y Social para Latinoamérica y el Caribe (ECLAC) 26 de febrero de 1985 [about]
- Preparación para Vivir en Paz, La Contribución de la Mujer, by Bahá'í International Community. Declaración preparada por la Comunidad Internacional Bahá’í para el Seminario Regional Europeo para el Año Internacional de la Paz, Viena, Austria: 6 al 10 de mayo de 1985 [about]
- President Wilson and the Bahá'í Connection, by Paul Pearsall, in Herald of the South (1988). Short overview of myths and facts on the Wilson-Baha'i connection. Includes addenda on the League of Nations, by Vincent Littrell, and on the Fourteen Points, by Bahram Nadini. [about]
- Promise of World Peace, by Universal House of Justice (1985). A document distributed to many politicians and prominent individuals since its writing in 1985, it was the first official public statement made by the Universal House of Justice since its inception in 1963. [about]
- Promised Day is Come, The, by Shoghi Effendi (1980). A book-length letter written by Shoghi Effendi to the Bahá’ís of the West, dated 28 March 1941, about Bahá'u'lláh's letters to the kings and rulers, and their relation to historical events. [about]
- Promulgation of Universal Peace, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1982). [about]
- Promulgation of Universal Peace: Spreadsheet of Talks (2011). Table of all talks published in this book, showing date, location, and the different page numbers in the 1982 and 2007 editions. [about]
- Prophecy of Daniel; Modifications of Baha'u'llah and the New Era, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Two topics: the fulfilment of the Biblical prophecy of Daniel concerning 1,335 days, and modifications made to Baha'u'llah and the New Era. [about]
- Protecting the Human Family: Humanitarian Intervention, International Law, and Bahá'í Principles, by Brian D. Lepard, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 13:1-4 (2003). [about]
- Psychology and Peace, by Ronald Roesch, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1:2 (1988). [about]
- Reflections on the Principle of Unity/Oneness, Some, by Hooshmand Badee, in Lights of Irfan, 19 (2018). Reflections on the message of Baha'u'llah creating the oneness of humanity and a global society that is based on unity and love rather than factors such as economic and political gains. [about]
- Reframing Public Discourse for Peace and Justice, by Michael Karlberg, in Forming a Culture of Peace: Reframing Narratives of Intergroup Relations, Equity, and Justice, ed. Karina Korostelina (2012). [about]
- Religious Intolerance as a Source of Violence, by Udo Schaefer, in World without Violence: World leaders share their commentaries on world harmony, peace and justice, Arun Gandhi, ed. (1994). A Baha'i-inspired examination of how religious fanaticism and prejudice promotes violence. [about]
- Remembering 'Abdu'l-Baha's Call for Unity, a Century after World War I, by Bahá'í World News Service (2018). Collection of newspaper articles and photographs of Abdu'l-Baha, on the general theme of unity in the face of war. [about]
- Replacing the Sword with the Word: Bahá'u'lláh's Concept of Peace, by Nader Saiedi, in Bahá'í World (2019). The writings of Baha'u'llah reconstruct foundational concepts such as mysticism, religion, and social order; theories of peace, including democratic, Marxist, and sociological. [about]
- Research Department, Functions of; Etymologies of three terms, by Universal House of Justice, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin (1992). Two questions: (1) what is the function of the Research Department, and (2) etymologies of the three terms "world of exemplars," "'álam," and "barzakh." Includes translated excerpts of tablets of Baha'u'llah and Abdu'l-Bahá. [about]
- Revisiting Vietnam: A Case for Reading "Those War Books", by David Langness, in dialogue magazine, 1:3 (1986). Brief reviews of a dozen books about the Vietnam war. [about]
- Science in the Hands of Women: Present Barriers, Future Promise, by Rhea Howard Harmsen, in World Order (1998). [about]
- Shoghi Effendi and the American Dream, by Sandra Hutchison, in World Order, 29:1 (1997). Context and import of Advent of Divine Justice, American destiny, the American frontier, ethical imperatives, and the Most Great Peace. [about]
- Spiritual Inheritors, The, by Bahiyyih Nakhjavani, in dialogue magazine, 2:1 (1987). Reflections on growing up Baha'i, and a report on a conference about capturing the power of the Six Year Plan to focus attention on the role of women in establishing global peace, the destiny of the women of North America, and equality of sexes. [about]
- Spiritual Nature of Reality, The: Has the Future Already Been Written?, by John S. Hatcher, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 10:3-4 (2000). Meditations on "Who is Writing the Future": why is spiritual development a social as well as personal matter; what is epistemological methodology for this development; how is it distinct from materialism; and how does it relate to the Covenants? [about]
- Sri Aurobindo Movement and the Bahá'í Faith, by Anil Sarwal (2001). Summary historical connections between the two communities. [about]
- Star Wars or World Peace, by Dan Q. Posin, in dialogue magazine, 1:1 (1986). How a "missile defense system" might work and ways in which it would not, ramifications for achieving global peace, and discussion by Robert Bowman, the first director of the Star Wars program. No mention of the Baha'i Faith. [about]
- Summons of the Lord of Hosts, by Bahá'u'lláh (2002). [about]
- Tablet to Amir Khan and Tablet of the Holy Mariner, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Three letters about Abdu'l-Baha'is Tablet to Amír Khán; one letter about the Tablet of the Holy Mariner, the "Call of God," and Native American Prophets; short note from David Ruhe about Deganawida. [about]
- Tablet to the Central Organization for a Durable Peace, The Hague, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1919). A letter written by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’ to the Central Organization for a Durable Peace, The Hague, December 17, 1919. Translators unknown. [about]
- Tablet to the Central Organization for a Durable Peace, The Hague, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2019). Updated, authorized translation of both Tablets (1919 and 1920), described by Shoghi Effendi as of "far-reaching importance," was despatched to Executive Committee for a Durable Peace at The Hague by a special delegation. [about]
- Texts, Authenticity of, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Status of texts of Abdu'l-Baha's talks, of letters from the Universal House of Justice versus its Secretariat, of letters from the Guardian, and of the books Baha'i World Faith and Foundations of World Unity. [about]
- Time of Peril, Prospects for Peace, by Glenford Mitchell (2001). Talk at the Baha'i Unity Center in Atlanta. [about]
- Unidad de los Profetas, by Abdu'l-Bahá, in La Promulgación de la Paz Universal por 'Abdu'l-Bahá. Select essays from Promulgation of Universal Peace. [about]
- Unity of Nations, The, by Stanwood Cobb, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 7 (1936-1938) (1938). A look six decades into the future (from 1938) to envision the Lesser Peace. [about]
- Universal Education, by Abdu'l-Bahá, in Mémoires sur l'education morale, présentés au deuxième Congrès international d'éducation morale à La Haye (1912). Tablet to the second international congress on moral education in The Hague. [about]
- Vision of Race Unity: America's Most Challenging Issue, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States (1991). A formal statement from the US NSA on "the most challenging issue confronting America." [about]
- Visions of Peace, Strategies for Change: Bahá'í Books on Creating a New World Order, by William Garlington, in dialogue magazine, 1:2 (1986). Reviews of To the Peoples of the World: A Bahá'í Statement on Peace, by the Universal House of Justice, World Peace and World Government, by Jan Tyson, and Circle of Peace. ed. Anthony Lee. [about]
- Way to World Peace, The: Warwick Leaflets, by Warwick Bahá'í Bookshop (2015). [about]
- World Into One Nation, The: World Peace and the Bahá'í Faith, by Nahzy Abadi Buck (1981). How a whole human society, united and cooperative, can be like a single family. Includes overview of opinions of world leaders on the Baha'i Faith, essential elements of the Faith, cooperation of the Baha'i International Community with the United Nations. [about]
- World Order of Bahá'u'lláh, by Shoghi Effendi (1991). Letters written by the Guardian, 1929-1936. [about]
- World Order of Baha'u'llah: Six Talks on the Various Aspects of, by Ali Nakhjavani (2004). Transcripts of six talks given at a week-long course on the World Order of Baha'u'llah, sponsored by the NSA of Italy. Document includes compilation and outline. (This online version compiled from three different editions of this book.) [about]
- World Organization Secures World Peace, by R. L. Bridgman, in The Atlantic Monthly, 94:563 (1904). While this paper does not mention the Baha'i Faith, it is an interesting snapshot, and history of, early movements paralleling or even preceding Baha'i teachings. [about]
- World Peace: Warwick Leaflets, by Warwick Bahá'í Bookshop (1990). [about]
- 世界?'?平的承诺 (The Promise of World Peace), by Universal House of Justice (1997). [about]