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1873. 12 Apr Birth of Hippolyte Dreyfus, the first French Bahá'í, in Paris. Named by Shoghi Effendi a Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá. Paris; France Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; First Bahais by country or area; Births and deaths
1899 Spring On her return from pilgrimage, May Bolles established the first Bahá'í group on the European continent in Paris. [AB159; BBRSM106; BFA2:151; GPB259; SBBH1:93]
  • For information on those who became Bahá'ís in Paris, including Thomas Breakwell, the "first English believer"and Hippolyte Dreyfus, the "first Frenchman to embrace the Faith", and Laura Barney see BFA2:151–2, 154–5; and GBP259-260.
  • Paris; France May Maxwell (Bolles); Thomas Breakwell; Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney, Laura Barney
    1899. 3 Dec Charles Mason Remey became a Bahá'í in Paris through May Bolles. [BFA2:151–2] Paris; France Charles Mason Remey; May Maxwell (Bolles)
    1900 26 Nov Agnes Baldwin Alexander wrote to `Abdu'l-Bahá declaring her belief in Bahá'u'lláh. [BFA2:159; SBR176]
  • She had heard of the Bahá'í Faith from Charlotte Dixon while staying in a pension in Rome. She stayed in Rome for three months studying prophecies then travelled to Paris for further study with May Bolles for another three and one half months. [BFA2:159; SBR176]
  • She left Paris in the Spring of 1901 for London, New England, Oakland, Ca and finally Honolulu. On returning to Hawaii in December 1901 she became the first Bahá'í to set foot in Hawaii. [BFA2:159–60; SBR177]
  • Rome; Italy; Paris; France; Oakland; California; London; United Kingdom; Honolulu; Hawaii Agnes Alexander; May Maxwell (Bolles); Charlotte Dixon
    1901 summer Thomas Breakwell, an Englishman living in the United States, learned of the Bahá'í Faith in Paris from May Bolles. Within three days he became a believer and immediately wrote to `Abdu'l-Bahá. [AB74–5; BW7:707]
  • For May Bolles' own account see SW7:707–11.
  • He is the first male British Bahá'í. [BFA2:154]
  • He is designated by Shoghi Effendi the `first English believer'. [GPB259]
  • He is the first Western Bahá'í to pay Huqúqu'lláh. [BW7:70]
  • See also AB74–80; BFA2:154; SEBW6572.
  • Paris; France Thomas Breakwell; May Maxwell (Bolles); Huququllah; First Bahais by country or area; Firsts, Other
    1901 (In the year) Hippolyte Dreyfus heard of the Bahá'í Faith from May Bolles in Paris and soon after accepted it. [AB81–2]
  • He was designated by Shoghi Effendi the `first Frenchman to embrace the Faith'. [GPB259]
  • He was the first European Bahá'í to visit Iran. [AB81]
  • After his marriage to Laura Clifford Barney they adopted the surname Dreyfus-Barney. [AB81]
  • Paris; France Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; May Maxwell (Bolles); Laura Clifford Barney
    1902 (In the year) The publication of Le Livre des Sept Preuves in Paris by A. L. M. Nicolas. It was a French translation of the Báb's Dalá'il-i-Sab'ih. [BBR39] Paris; France The Bab, Writings of; Seven Proofs; Le Livre des Sept Preuves; A. L. M. Nicolas; Z****
    1902 13 Jun Thomas Breakwell died from tuberculosis in Paris. (b. 31 May, 1872 in Woking) [AB77; BBD46; SEBW70]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá appeared to know this without being told. [AB78-9; SEBW70]
  • Shoghi Effendi designated him one of three`luminaries shedding brilliant lustre on annals of Irish, English and Scottish Bahá'í communities'. [MBW174]
  • See AB79, SEBW71–2 and SWAB187–9 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's eulogy.
  • See wikipedia for an account of his life.
  • See Cimetière de Pantin for the location of his resting place c/w photos.
  • See The Life of Thomas Breakwell by Rajwantee Lakshiman-Lepain.
  • Woking; England; Paris; France Thomas Breakwell; In Memoriam; Z****
    1902 (In the year) Since the assassination of the Sháh's father in 1986 the Bahá'í community in Iran had been scapegoated and the oppression was increasing. In 1902 Muzaffar al-Din Sháh and his prime minister were in Paris staying at the Elysèe Palace Hotel. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had a petition for him and Lua Getsinger was asked to deliver it. She and Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney requested an audience with the Sháh but they were refused by the prime minister. She was told that he was not receiving anyone as his son was gravely ill and likely to die. Lua asked if he would see her the following day should his son be healed and consent was granted. That night the Bahá'ís of Paris held a prayer vigil till dawn. As promised, Lua was granted access and put the petition directly in the Sháh's hand. She heard him say that he would do all that was within his power but in 1903 a savage rash of persecution broke out and, upon the advice of his prime minister, the Sháh did nothing believing that it was better to let the restless population vent rage on the Bahá'ís then on the rich and powerful foreigners who might have been victimized. The prime minister was replaced in mid-1903 and the persecutions eased. In 1907 the Sháh did intervene on behalf of the Bahá'ís. [Find a grave; LDNW18-19] Paris Iran, persecution; Lua Getsinger; Muzaffar al-Din Shah; Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; petition; Z****
    1905 (In the year) A.L.M. Nicolas published his book Seyyed Ali dit le Bab. It was the first work by a western author dedicated entirely to the Báb.
    It is "(a) history of the Bábí movement up to 1852. Nicolas gives a list of sources for this book on pp. 48-53. It is interesting to note that among his oral sources are four of the leading Bahá'ís of that period, who had been designated by Bahá'u'lláh as 'Hands of the Cause': Mírzá 'Alí-Muhammad, 'Ibn-i-Asdaq: Mullá 'Al-Akbar-i-Sháhmírzádí, Hají Akhund; Mírzá Muhammad-Táqíy-i-Abharí, 'Ibn-i-Abhar; and Mírzá Hasan-i-Adíb. The other two oral sources named are Siyyid 'Ismu'lláh, who was presumably Siyyid Mihdíy-i-Dihají, and Mírzá Yahyá, Subh-i-Azál." [BBR38-39]
  • The preamble to his book has an image that is supposedly of the Báb, but the portrait does not seem to be an authentic representation.

  • William Miller also reproduced Nicolas’s image on page 17 of his polemical work, The Bahá'í Faith: Its History and Teachings. (South Pasadena, CA: William Carey Library, 1974). [‘The Bab in the World of Images’, Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 19, June 2013, 171–90.]
  • See also WOB83 for other missionaries who wrote polemics against the Bahá'í Faith.
  • Paris; France The Bab, Writings of; A.L.M. Nicolas; Criticism and apologetics; William McElwee Miller; Babi studies; First publications; Publications; Z****
    1905 (In the year) The publication of Le Beyan Arabe in Paris by A. L. M. Nicolas. It was a French translation of the Arabic Bayán. [BBR39] Paris; France Bab, Writings of, Arabic Bayan; A L M Nicolas; Le Beyan Arabe; Z****
    1907 (In the year) Lady Blomfield and her daughter Mary learned of the Faith at a reception in Paris. [CH1–2; ER95; SBR22; SEBW101, SCU17]
  • For accounts of Lady Blomfield's life see ER88–97 and SEBW101–10.
  • Paris; France Lady Blomfield; Mary Blomfield
    1911 - 1914 The publication of Le Beyan Persan in Paris by A. L. M. Nicolas. It was a French translation of the Persian Bayán and was published in four volumes. [BBR39] Paris; France The Bab, Writings of, A L M Nicolas; Le Beyan Persan; Persian Bayan; Z****
    1911 3 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá left London for Paris. [AB154; SBR25, In the Footsteps of 'Abdu'l-Bahá p22]
  • See ABL113 for details of His last day in London. He left from Victoria Station.
  • He was accompanied by many Bahá'ís from England who attended many of the public meeting at which He spoke in Paris. This group included Marion Jack. [NBAD47]
  • He remains in Paris for nine weeks. [AB159; GPB280]
  • For details of His visit see AB159–68.
  • For `Abdu'l-Bahá's talks given in Paris see PT.
  • London; United Kingdom; Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Marion Jack; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of
    1911 4 Oct It is quite probable that 'Abdu'l-Bahá stayed with Hippolyte and Laura Dreyfus-Barney at 15, rue Greuze for a couple of nights before moving to the apartment at 4, avenue de Camoēns which had been prepared for Him by them. The apartment was in a building that was relatively new having been built in 1910. It was one block away from the Trocadéro Gardens and the Eiffel Tower stood just across the River Seine. It had a drawing room that could easily accommodate 75-100 people and came with a French maid who performed the domestic functions and who answered the bell. The apartment was purchase by the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of France in 1996. [ABF62, 65, 68-71, 85 Sur les pas de 'Abdu'l-Bahá à Paris by Paul Hakim, SoW Vol 2 No 14 p3-4]
  • Some members of His entourage stayed at the Grand Hötel de Passy (now Hötel Passy-Eiffel) some ten minutes walk away. [ABF84]
  • Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Avenue de Camoens
    1911 5 Oct 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk at 46, avenue de Malakoff (today avenue Raymond Poincaré) at the home of Edith Sanderson and her mother Margaret Sanderson. [ABF62] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Edith Sanderson
    1911 6 Oct 'Abdu'l-Bahá invited a number of Persian students then in Paris to His apartment. [ABF63-65] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 14 Oct 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk at the home of Hippolyte and Laura Dreyfus-Barney. This was the first of His Parisian talks which were published. [ABF68] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Paris Talks (book)
    1911 15 Oct In the morning 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk at His apartment at #4 Avenue de Camoens. During the talk Muhammad Qazvíní and Siyyid Hasan Taqízásih entered the room. The former had written an introduction for and was the force behind the publication of Kitáb-i-Nuqtatu'l-Káf, a book that supposedly was an early history of the Faith but in reality was heavily biased to the the views of Mírzá Yahya. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had had Mírzá Abdu'l-Fadl write a refutation to the book. Both men had additional dinner engagements with 'Abdu'l-Bahá during His visit. ['Abdu'l-Bahá's Meetings with Two Prominent Iranians, World Order, Fall 1998 Vol 30, no 1 pp35-46, ABF71-76]
  • In the afternoon all were invited to meet Him at #22 rue Ledru- Rollin pré-Saint-Germais-sur-Seine outside the walls of Paris. The purpose was to visit a project run by Mons. V. Ponsonaille and his wife to provide some comfort to the poor children in an underprividged quarter of the city. For an account of this event see Glimpses of Abdul'Bahá in Paris by Alice Beede.[ABF76-79]
  • Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Kitab-i-Nuqtatul-Kaf; Criticism and apologetics; Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Muhammad Qazvini; Siyyid Hasan Taqizasih
    1911 16 Oct 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk before a group of English Bahá'ís which was given the title "The Duty of Kindness and Sympathy towards Strangers and Foreigners". [PT15-17]
  • In the evening He spoke at the Dreyfus-Barney home. [ABF79-82]
  • Paris, France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 17 Oct In the morning 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke in HIs apartment about doing the will of God and not just speaking about it. [SoW Vol 2 no 16]
  • In the afternoon He met again with some students and others at the Hôtel de Passy. [ABF84-85]
  • Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 18 Oct In the morning 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk entitled, "The Power and Value of True Thought Depend upon Its Manifestation in Action". [PT17-19, ABF85-87, SoW Vol 2 no 16 p3-4] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 19 Oct In the morning 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke of healing. "God is the Great Compassionate Physician Who Alone Gives True Healing". [PT19-21, ABF87-89] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 20 Oct In the morning 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke of the relationship between East and West, "The Need for Union Between the Peoples of the East and West". [PT21-22,ABF89-90]
  • The evening talk was given at the Dreyfus-Barney home. "God Comprehends all: He Cannot be Comprehended". [PT23-27, ABF9295]
  • The talk, "The Sun of Truth", shown as being given on the 22nd of October, was perhaps delivered this day. [PT20-33, ABF100-102]
  • Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 21 Oct News of the Battle of Benghazi (17 October) was headline news. It was one of the opening salvos of the Turko-Italian War and began on the 17th of October when Italian invasion forces began their bombardment of the Turkish garrison. The Turks were forced to abandon the city and there were many lives lost, Italians, Turks and civilians.
  • His talk, "The Pitiful Causes of War, and the Duty of Everyone to Strive for Peace". [ABF96-100 PT28-30]
  • Paris; France; Benghazi; Lybia; Turkey; Italy Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; War (general); History (general); Peace
    1911 23 Oct In the morning He gave a talk, "The Light of Truth is now Shining Upon the East and West". [PT33-35, ABF103-104] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 24 Oct In the morning 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk, "The Universal Love". [PT3539, ABF104-108] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 25 Oct In the morning He spoke of His imprisonment. "The Imprisonment of 'Abdu'l-Bahá". [PT39-41, ABF108-109] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 26 Oct In the morning 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk at His apartment. "God's Greatest Gift to Man". [PT41-43]
  • A different version of the same talk was recorded by Mary Hanford Ford. [ABF111-112]
  • In the evening 'Abdu'l-Bahá was driven to 59, avenue de La Bourdonnais by Hippolyte Dreyfus where He spoke at the Société théosophique of Paris. This talk was reported in a number of French newspapers and was published in Talks by Abdul Baha Given in Paris p117-124. [ABF1113-118]
  • Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 27 Oct In the afternoon 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk at His apartment on the relation between God and man entitled, "The Clouds that Obscure the Sun of Truth". [ABF1118-119, PT43-45]
  • A second talk was given at His apartment, "The Benefits of God to Man. [ABF120-121, PT49-51].
  • In the evening He spoke at the Dreyfus-Barney home. He spoke about how religious leaders have mislead their congregations into denying the divinity of other Manifestations. "Religious Prejudices" [ABF121-124, PT45-49]
  • Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 28 Oct 'Abdu'l-Bahá's morning talk at His apartment was on the theme that God was the creator of all existence and therefore all men are as brothers. It was named, "Beauty and Harmony in Diversity". [ABF125-126, PT51-54] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 29 Oct The title for 'Abdu'l-Bahá's morning talk was "Worldly riches do not help Spirit". [ABF133, SoW vol 2 no 16 p4-5]
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá was invited to dinner at 29, rue Brézin, the home of Madeleine Jenny Sacy, the widow of French Bahá'í Gabriel Sacy (1858-1903). He had known Sacy in Egypt where he died unexpectedly. Sacy had been a Syrian Christian who, upon becoming a Bahá'í had a remarkable faculty for interpreting the prophecies of the Old and New Testaments.
  • That same day He spoke at the the home of the sister of Hippolyte Dreyfus, Yvonne and Paul Mayer May at 21, boulevard Beauséjour. [ABF135]
  • Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 30 Oct His morning talk was titled "The True Meaning of the Prophecies Concerning the Coming of Christ". [ABF136-139, PT54-57] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 31 Oct 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke at His apartment on the theme of The Holy Spirit, the Intermediary Power between God and Man". [ABF139-141, PT57-59] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 1 Nov His talk this day, the Feast of All Saints, was "The Two Natures in Man". [ABF143-144, PT60-62] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 2 Nov 'Abdu'l-Bahá's morning talk in His apartment concerned "Material and Spiritual Progress". [ABF146-149, PT62-64] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 3 Nov The morning talk in His apartment was on "The Evolution of Matter and Development of the Soul". [ABF149-151, PT64-67]
  • The Persian students who had been frequent visitors paid one last visit before departing for their place of study.
  • In the evening He spoke at the Drefus-Barney home on the evolution of matter and the development of the soul. [ABF152]
  • Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 4 Nov In the morning at His apartment 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke about The Spiritual Meetings in Paris. [PT67-68, ABF152-153] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 5 Nov 'Abdu'l-Bahá delivered an address entitled "The Two Kinds of Light". [ABF155-156, PT68-70] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 6 Nov This morning's talk at His apartment was "Spiritual Aspiration in the West". [ABF161-163, PT70-72]
  • In the evening He spoke at the studio of Edwin and Josephine Scott at 17, rue Boissonade, American artists living in Paris. The lecture has been called "Lecture Given at a Studio in Paris". [ABF163-165, PT72-74] Another version of the lecture, this time entitled, "Aims and Ambitions of Bahaies: Spoken by Abdul Baha in Paris, November 6th, 1911" was published in Star of the West. [SoW vol 2 no 19 p3]
  • Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 7 Nov His morning talk was on "Bahá’u’lláh". [ABF165-169, PT75-79] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 8 Nov His morning talk at His apartment was "Good Ideas Must Be Carried into Action". [ABF169-170, PT79-81] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 9 Nov The morning talk at 4, avenue de Camoëns was on "The True Meaning of Baptism by Water and Fire". [ABF171-172, PT81-83]
  • In the afternoon He was invited to speak to the Alliance Spiritualiste at Salle de l'Athénée, 21, rue du Vieux-Colombier. "The True Meaning of Baptism by Water and Fire" was the title given to His talk. The meeting was attended by about 40 people. Spiritualism was a religion found in part on the writings of the Swedish mystic Emmanuel Swedenborg (1699-1772). [PT83-88]
  • Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 10 Nov In the morning He gave a talk at His apartment on the search after truth. [ABF180-181, Sow Vol 3 no1 p3-4]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá gives a talk later entitled "The Evolution of the Spirit" at 15 Rue Greuze, Paris, the home of the Dreyfus-Barneys. [Paris Talks p88-94]
  • Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
    1911 2 Dec `Abdu'l-Bahá left Paris for Marseille by train arriving late in the day. Little is known about His stay in that city save for one talk. [ABF246]
  • See ABF256-260 for some of the places that 'Abdu'l-Baha visited while in Paris for which the visits are undated. Included in the list is His visit to the the Senat of the French Republic [PUP72].
  • There are also a number of undated talks and fragments of talks the have been published in a variety of sources. [ABF261-264]
  • See ABF264-268 for a list of persons with whom 'Abdu'l-Bahá had undocumented visits.
  • Paris; Marseille; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Life of
    1912 18 Dec 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk at which E. G. Browne was present. He visited `Abdu'l-Bahá several more times while in London. [SoW Vol III no19 2Mar1913 p4, AB346, ABTM277-278]
  • Hájí Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardakání (Hájí Amín) arrived in London from Paris with three young Persian. He spoke neither English nor French and had had some difficulty in getting from Paris to London. He crossed the English Channel and then found himself back in Paris. His second attempt was successful. [SoW Vol III no19 2Mar1913 p4, AB346–7, ABTM278]
  • London; United Kingdom; Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Edward Granville Browne; Haji Amin (Abul-Hasan-i-Ardikani)
    1913 21 Jan `Abdu'l-Bahá left London for Paris. [AB371]
  • The visit to Paris lasts several weeks. [AB372; SBR220]
  • London; United Kingdom; Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1913. 23 Jan After His morning talk He visited and had lunch with Natalie Clifford Barney, the sister of Laura Dreyfus Barney and the daughter of Alice Pike Barney, probably at her salon at 20, rue Jacob.
  • On this day, or perhaps the next, He met the famous French philosopher and writer, Henri Bergson. (Nobel prize for literature 1928). He was a professor at the College de France. 'Abdu'l-Bahá impressed him with His simple proof for the existence of God. [ABF302-304, Bahá'íes de France]
  • Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Natalie Clifford Barney; Henri Bergson
    1913 6 Feb `Abdu'l-Bahá visited Versailles. [AB376] Paris; Versailles; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1913 17 Feb For the text of an interview, originally published in the Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 3:1 (1993), with Pasteur Monnier during which 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke on the relationship between the Bahá'í Faith and Christianity, see Khazeh Fananapazir site.
  • Pasteur Henri Monnier (b. 1871) was the "Professor á la Faculté libre de théologie protestante de Paris", Vice-president of the Protestant Federation of France and Pastor of the Etoile Church [from International Who's Who, 1st ed.]
  • Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Christianity; Interfaith dialogue; Henri Monnier, Pasteur
    1913 30 Mar `Abdu'l-Bahá traveled from Paris to Stuttgart. [AB379]
  • He told His attendants to wear European dress and to discard their oriental headgear. [AB379]
  • He did not tell the Bahá'ís of Stuttgart of His arrival in advance. [AB379]
  • The party arrived on the 1st of April and took rooms in Hotel Marquardt, near the train station. Then He asked His attendant to telephone the Bahá'ís to announce His arrival and invite them to the hotel. [AB379-380]
  • Paris; France; Stuttgart; Germany Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1913 1 May `Abdu'l-Bahá left Stuttgart and returned to Paris. [AB391] Stuttgart; Germany; Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1913 12 Jun `Abdu'l-Bahá left Paris for Marseilles, arriving the same evening. [AB395]

    In total 'Abdu'-Bahá spent about 171 days in Paris.

    3 October to 2 December 1911 - 60 days          
     21 January to 30 March 1913 - 69 days          
           1 May to 12 June 1913 - 42 days          
                          Total   171 days          
    • See PG117-118 for 'Abdu'l-Bahá continuing concern for Paris in 1919.
    Paris; Marseille; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1913. 16 - 21 July The 6e Congrès International du Progrès Religieux (Chrétiens Progressifs et Libres-Croyants) [6th International Congress of Religious Progress (Progressive Christians and Free Believers)] was held in Paris. Over twenty of the clergy that 'Abdu'l-Bahá had met in His travels in Britain, Canada, the United States and France attended. 'Abdu'l-Bahá's photograph was published amongst those invited to attend and inserted in the proceedings of the Congress. Hippolyte Dreyfus presented the Bahá'í address. [ABF411note 977] Paris International Congress of Religious Progress; Hippolyte Dreyfus
    1914 (In the year) 'Abdu'l-Bahá was forced to expel Tammaddun'ul-Mulk for corrupt behaviour. He was from Shiraz and had been living in Paris for several years. He had been part of His entourage in 1911. [ABF19] Shiraz; Tihran; Iran; Paris; France Tammaddunul-Mulk; Covenant-breaker
    1919 18 Jan The commencement of the Paris Peace Conference in Versailles. Paris; Versailles; France Paris Peace Conference; Peace
    1920. 19 Jul Shoghi Effendi departed from France two weeks after receiving 'Abdu'l-Bahá's permission to study at Oxford. According to Dr J. Fallscheer, the German woman physician that 'Abdu'l-Bahá had engaged to attend to the ladies of His household, 'Abdu'l-Bahá had decided to send Shoghi Effendi to England while he was still in high school. [PG137-138] Paris; France; Oxford; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi at Oxford; Balliol College (Oxford University); Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Fallscheer, Dr J.
    1928 20 Dec Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney, (b. 12 Apr 1873, Paris, France, d. 20 Dec 1928, Paris, France), Disciple of Abdu’l-Bahá, passed away in Paris. He was buried in Cimetiere de Montmartre in Paris. [UD84–5]
  • See Find a grave for a succinct biography.
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s eulogy of him see BW3:210–14 and UD84–5.
  • Paris; France Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam
    1936 (In the Year) The publication of Massacres de Babis en Perse by A.L.M. Nicolos. Paris A L M Nicolas; Massacres de Babis en Perse; Z****
    1939 28 Feb The passing of Louis Alphonse Daniel Nicolas, signing A.-L.-M. Nicolas, (b. March 27 , 1864 in Rasht, Iran) in Paris. He was an historian and French orientalist, official interpreter of the Legation French abroad, and France's consul general in Tabriz.
          After reading Gobineau's Trois ans en Asie, 1855-1858 he checked all the information Gobineau had written in his book, corrected some of it, and then began to translate the writings of the Báb. Seduced by this young doctrine, he converted to Bábism and thus became the first Western Bábí. He wrote various works Seyyed Ali Mohamed dit le Báb (1905) and was the first to translate a work of the Báb into French: the Arabic Beyan and the Persian Beyan, an Essai sur le Chéikhisme (1911) and several articles in newspapers such that Review of the Muslim World. Nicolas became knight of the Legion of Honour in 1909.
  • Moojan Momen says of him, "No European scholar has contributed so much to our knowledge of the life and teachings of the Báb as Nicholas. His study of the life of the Báb and his translations of several of the most important books of the Báb remain of unsurpassed value." [BBR36]
  • His important collection of manuscripts is auctioned and the items relevant to the Bahá’í and Bábí Faiths are purchased by the Bahá’í World Centre.
  • Rasht; Iran; Paris; France A.L.M. Nicolas; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Translation; First believers
    1974 18 Aug Laura Clifford Dreyfus-Barney, (b. 30 Nov 1879, Cincinnati, Hamilton County, Ohio, USA) passed away in Paris. [BW16:296]
  • For her obituary see BW16:535–8.
  • She was buried at Cimetiere de Passy, Paris, City of Paris, Île-de-France, France.
  • She is best known for having compiled the Bahá'í text Some Answered Questions from her interviews with `Abdu'l-Bahá during her visit to Acc between 1904 and 1906. [Wikipedia]
  • See Laura Barney’s Discipleship to ‘Abdu’l-Bahá: Tracing a Theological Flow from the Middle East to the United States, 1900–1916 by Layli Maria Miron in The Journal of Bahá’í Studies 28.1-2 2018.
  • She was the only Western woman to have been designated as "Amatu'l-Bahá" (Handmaid of Bahá) by 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [Some Answered Questions" and Its Compiler by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani published in Lights of Irfan, 18, pages 445]
  • At the end of the war she placed her faith in the League of Nations and represented the International Council of Women in that body, playing an important role in cultural exchange. She was the only woman named by the League Council to sit on the Sub-Committee of experts on Education, a post which she held for many years, beginning in 1926. On 23 July 1925she was appointed Chevalier de la Legion d’Honneur. In that same year she formed under the aegis of the League of Nations the ‘Liaison Committee of Major International Organizations to promote through Education better Understanding between Peoples and Classes’ and became a permanent member of the committee as well as its liaison officer. In 1934 she became a member of the Advisory Committee of the League of Nations on Teaching; she was also a member of the French Committee on Intellectual Co-operation. [BW15p537]
  • My Interview with Laura Dreyfus-Barney by Jack McLean (1967)
  • Paris; France Laura Clifford Barney; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Amatu'l-Baha; Laura Barney; Some Answered Questions
    1976 3 – 6 Aug An International Teaching Conference was held in Paris, attended by some 5,700 Bahá’ís. [BW17:81; DM416; VV33]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW17:131–2.
  • For the message of Kurt Waldheim, Secretary-General of the United Nations, see BW17:140.
  • For pictures see BW17:109, 117–19.
  • Paris; France; Europe Kurt Waldheim; United Nations; United Nations, Secretary-Generals; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching
    1988 (In the year) Branches of the Bahá’í International Community’s Office of Public Information were established in Paris and London. [VV54] Paris; London BIC
    1993 (In the year) EBBF was registered in Paris as an official non-profit association. Its statutes provided that membership was open to Bahá'ís and non-Bahá'ís alike. [ebbf] Paris; France European Bahai Business Forum (EBBF); Business

    from the main catalogue

    1. 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Encounter with Modernity during His Western Travels, by Wendi Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). Abdu'l-Baha's responses to the West's technology and innovations on the one hand, vs. its archaic racist and sexual philosophies on the other. [about]
    2. 'Abdu'l-Baha's Meeting with Two Prominent Iranians, by Muhammad Qazvini, in World Order, 30:1 (1998). Muhammad Qazvini's and Siyyid Hasan Taqizadeh's descriptions of their 1911 meetings with `Abdu'l-Baha in Paris. Preceded by a brief biography of Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
    3. Account of How I Became a Bahá'í and My Stays in Paris in 1901 and 1937, An: Written at the Request of Mrs. Laura Dreyfus-Barney, by Agnes Baldwin Alexander (1958). [about]
    4. Divine Simplicity: Remembering the last Hand of the Cause of God, 'Ali-Muhammad Varqa, by Jack McLean (2008). Biography of Dr. Varqa, partly based on interviews with people who knew him in Iran. [about]
    5. Glimpse of Abdu'l-Bahá in Paris, by Alice R. Beede, in Star of the West, 2:18 (1912). Short account of a brief meeting in Paris, and brief speech by Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
    6. Inayat Khan's meeting with 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Paris, by Inayat Khan (1913). One-paragraph recounting of Khan, the founder of "Universal Sufism," meeting with Abdu'l-Baha in 1913. [about]
    7. Les religions et les philosophies dans l'asie centrale, by Joseph Arthur Gobineau (1866). A lengthy early account of Babi history by French Orientalist and diplomat Comte de Gobineau, who served as France's envoy to Iran in 1855-1863. [about]
    8. Mayflowers in the Ville Lumière: The Dawning of Bahá'í History in the European Continent, by Julio Savi, in Lights of Irfan, 12 (2011). In intellectual and artistic Paris of the fin de siècle, a young American becomes the catalyst for the spiritual awakening of a group of early believers. The paper examines the mysterious ways through which they came to recognize the dawn of the new era. [about]
    9. Paris Talks, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1972). [about]
    10. Questions and Answers 1950-51, by Mirra Alfassa (1951). The Mother's recollections of Abdu'l-Baha speaking to her about sacrifice and suffering. [about]
    11. Sabiduria de 'Abdu'l-Bahá, La, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1996). Spanish translation of Paris Talks. [about]
    12. Seyyèd Ali Mohammed, dit le Bâb, by A.L.M. Nicolas (1905). The first detailed biography of The Bab written in a Western language. [about]
    13. Wisdom and Wit of Roger White, The: Two Reviews, by Marzieh Gail and Hilda Phillips, in dialogue magazine, 1:4 (1987). Reviews of White's books One Bird One Cage One Flight and A Sudden Music. [about]
    14. Words of Long Ago, by Mirra Alfassa (1912). Transcript of a talk The Mother delivered to some Baha'is in Paris in 1912 by request of Abdu'l-Baha; reflections inspired by the departure of Abdu'l-Baha from Paris in June 1913. [about]
     
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