Search for location "Shiraz"
||Birth of Fath-`Alí Khán (later Sháh) in Shíráz. He ruled from 1797 (or 1798) to 1834.
||Fath-Ali Shah; Shahs; Births and deaths; Qajar dynasty
|1778. c. 1778
||Birth of Mírzá Muhammad Riday-i-Shírází, the father of the Báb.
||Mirza Muhammad Rida; Births and deaths; Bab, Family of
|1815. (Dates undetermined)
||Early history of the House of the Báb
RoB4p240 states that the Báb’s father, Áqá Mírzá Muhammad Ridá bought the House, however, the family records
show that it was an inheritance. [MBBA162]
The Báb (Alí Muhammad) was born there 20th of October, 1819.
With the passing of His father He and his mother, Fatimah Bagum, relocated to the home of her brother Hájí Mírzá Siyyid ‘Alí, possibly about 1824 or later.
||Bab, House of (Shiraz); Aqa Mirza Muhammad Rida; Fatimih Bagum; Haji Mirza Siyyid Ali
|1817 (In the year)
||Shaykh Ahmad traveled to Persia and visits Shíráz and Tihrán. He was in Tihrán when Bahá'u'lláh is born. [DB13]
||Shiraz; Tihran; Iran
||Shaykh Ahmad-i-Ahsai; Shaykhism; Bahaullah, Birth of; Bahaullah, Life of
|1819. 20 Oct
||Birth of Siyyid `Alí-Muhammad (The Báb), before dawn, in Shíráz. [B32; GH13; DB14, 72]
The Primal Point (Nuqtiy-i-Úlá). [BBD185]
The Promised One of Islam, the Qá'im. [BBD188]
Siyyid-i-dhikr (Lord of Remembrance). [BBD212]
His mother was Fátimih-Bagum. [Bab33, 46; KBWB20; RB2:382]
His father was Mírzá Muhammad Ridá. [BW4:234–5; LOG351; SE206; TN4]
He was a direct heir of the House of Háshim and descended thus from Muhammad and through Him from Abraham. [BW8:874]
Designations of the Báb include `Abdu'dh-dhikr (Servant of the Remembrance), Bábu'lláh (the Gate of God) and Hadrat-i-A`lá (His Holiness the Most Exalted One). [BBD1, 30, 93]
For biblical reference see LOG378. See RB1:304 for extracts from Shoghi Effendi re: His station.
See BBD39, GPB157–8 for a condensed history.
See Bab32 and TN4 for discussion of the date of His father's death
See DB28–30. See DB75 for the extent of His schooling. See DB75 n1 for his education.
- In the latter years of her life while she was living in Iraq, Bahá'u'lláh instructed two of His devoted followers, Hájí Siyyid Javád-i-Karbilá'í and the wife of Hájí 'Abdu'l-Majíd-i-Shírází, to acquaint her in the principles of the Faith and she became aware of the bountiful gifts which God had conferred upon her. [DB191]
||Bab, Birth of; Bab, Life of; Bab, Family of; Fatimih Bagum; Mirza Muhammad Rida; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bab, Basic timeline; Holy days; Twin Holy days; Births and deaths
|1820 (In the year)
||Birth of Khadíjih Bagum (daughter of Mírzá `Alí, a merchant of Shíráz), first wife of the Báb, in Shíráz.
||Khadijih Bagum; Bab, Family of; Births and deaths
|1825. c. 1825
||Birth of Áqá Husayn-i-Isfahání (Mishkín-Qalam), Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh and well-known calligrapher, in Shíráz.
||Mishkin-Qalam; Apostles of Bahaullah
|1828 (In the year)
||Passing of Mírzá Muhammad Ridá, the father of the Báb.
The Báb was placed in the care of His maternal uncle, Hájí Mírzá Siyyid `Alí, Khál-i-A`zam (the Most Great Uncle). He was a leading merchant of Shíráz and was the first, after the Letters of the Living, to embrace the new Cause in that city. He was one of the Seven Martyrs of Tihrán. [BBD14]
In the household was an Ethiopian servant named Mubarak who nurtured and tutored Him throughout His later childhood and adolescence. “the Bab, in fact, places Mubarak on the same plane as his father.” [The Ethiopian King by Nader Saiedi translated by Omid Ghaemmaghami Baha’i Studies Review, Volume 17 p181-186] This servant was not, in fact, the Hají Mubarak who later accompanied Him to Mecca.
According to Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl-i-Gulpáygání, the Báb was still an infant and had not yet been weaned when His father passed away. [DB72]
||Mirza Muhammad Rida; Haji Mirza Siyyid Ali; Bab, Family of; Bab, Uncles of; Uncles; Bab, Life of; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Bab, Basic timeline; Mubarak
||The marriage of Siyyid `Alí Muhammad (the Báb) in Shíráz to Khadíjih-Bagum (b. 1821) the daughter of Mirzá 'Ali, a merchant of Shiraz. She had been a childhood friend and sometimes playmate. Their family homes were adjacent. [Bab46; BBD28, 127; BKG402; RB2:382; DoH107; DB76note3]
See Bab80 for a reproduction of the marriage certificate.
He returned to live in the House after His marriage. [RoB4429]
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Family of; Weddings; Khadijih Bagum; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bab, House of (Shiraz)
|1843 (In the year)
||Birth of Ahmad, son of the Báb. He passed away shortly after he was born (or was still-born). [Bab46-47; DB76note4; 77; KBWB6-9]
DB74 for a picture of his resting-place. Also see KBWB7.
||Ahmad (son of the Bab); Bab, Life of; Bab, Family of; Cemeteries and graves; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1843 10 Jan
||The Báb dreamed that He drank a few drops of blood from the wounds of the martyred Imám Husayn. After this dream He felt that the Spirit of God had taken possession of His soul. At this moment He received intimation that He was to be a Manifestation of God. [GPB92; BBRSM14; DB253, HotD23-24]
Khadíjih Bagum apparently recognized her Husband as the promised Qá'im `sometime before the Báb declared His mission after having seen Him wrapt in prayer during the night. He bade her to keep this knowledge concealed. He entrusted her with a special prayer to be used before she went to sleep, the reading of which would remove her difficulties and lighten the burden of her woes. [DB191–192; HotD27; KBWB9-14; The Genesis of the Bábi-Bahá'í Faiths in Shíráz and Fárs p21-22 by A. Rabbani]
There are several such prayers among the Bábí and Bahá’í Writings, one of them has become informally known as "the Remover of Difficulties Prayer": There is no evidence that the pray mentioned above was this prayer. Please see The Invocation 'Is There Any Remover of Difficulties Save God...' by Muhammad Afnan and translated by Adib Masumian.
See as well Joycean Modernism in a Nineteenth- Century Qur’an Commentary?
A Comparison of the Bab’s Qayyūm al- asmā’ with Joyce’s Ulysses p113 by Todd Lawson.
||Bab, Life of; Dreams and visions; Blood; Imam Husayn; Khadijih Bagum; Remover of Difficulties
|1844. 22 Jan
||Mullá Husayn returned to Karbilá after a journey of two years in Persia. He had been on a mission in Isfahán and Mashhad where he had successfully defended the views of his master, Siyyid Kázim, before the leading clerics of those cities. [MH49]
Mulla Husayn, as the leading representative of the Siyyid's disciples, received mourners for three days in Karbilá. [DB47]
After a period of mourning and 40 days of prayer and fasting, Mulla Husayn in the company of his brother and his nephew, set out for Najaf where he visited the shrine and then proceeded to Persia following the last wishes of Siyyid Kázim that his followers quit Karbalá and search for the Promised One. The party went to Búshihr and then on to Shíráz. [MH50–55, HotD28; DB51]
See SI dust-jacket for a photo of the Shrine of Imam 'Ali.
||Karbala; Isfahan; Mashhad; Najaf; Bushihr; Shiraz; Iraq; Iran
||Mulla Husayn; Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti
|1844. 3 Apr
||In Kitáb Fihrist, the Báb stated that the first descent of Spirit on Him was on 15th of the third month (Rabi ul Awal) of AH 1260 [3 April 1844]. [The Genesis of the Bâbí-Baháʼí Faiths in Shíráz and Fárs pp. 20–22]
|1844. 22 May
||Declaration of the Báb's Mission
Two hours and eleven minutes after sunset Siyyid `Alí-Muhammad made His declaration to Mullá Husayn-i-Bushrú'í in the upper room of His House. [DB52-65]
“I am, I am, I am, the promised One! I am the One whose name you have for a thousand years invoked, at whose mention you have risen, whose advent you have longed to witness, and the hour of whose Revelation you have prayed God to hasten. Verily I say, it is incumbent upon the peoples of both the East and the West to obey My word and to pledge allegiance to My person.” [DB315-316]
See SI231 for information on the anticipated return of the Hidden Imam. See BBR2pg42-3 and DB57 for a list of signs by which the Promised One would be known.
See BW5p600-4 for a brief biography of William Miller the founder of the Adventist sect who, after intense study of the Bible, had predicted the return of Christ on March 21, 1844. See BW5p604 for mention of other Christians who made similar predictions.
See DB383 and BBR2pg25 for information on Mulla Husayn-i-Bushru’i. See CoB110 for the significance of the first believer.
See SBBH1:14 for a possible explanation for Mullá Husayn's presence in Shíráz at this time.
Nabíl-i-A`zam relates that Mullá Husayn was welcomed at the Báb's mansion by Mubárak, His Ethiopian servant. Others resident in this house at the time were Fiddih (f), responsible for the preparation of the food and the mother of Siyyid 'Alí-Muhammad, Zahrá Bagum. [DB53; KBWB5]
For more information about Mubarack see Black Pearls: Servants in the Household of the Bab and Baha'U'Llah p21-22.
He revealed the first chapter of the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá' (the Commentary on the Súrih of Joseph. The entire text would later be translated from the original Arabic by Táhirih. [B19–21; BBD190–1; BBRSM14–15; BKG28; BW12:85–8; BWMF16; DB52–65, 264, 216, BBR2pg14-15, GPB23, 73; MH56–71; SBBH17, HotD30]
This date marks the end of the Adamic Cycle of approximately six thousand years and the beginning of the Bahá'í Cycle or Cycle of Fulfilment. [BBD9, 35, 72; GPB100] Shoghi Effendi is quoted as saying that this is the second most important anniversary on the Bahá'í calendar. [ZK320]
The beginning of the Apostolic, Heroic or Primitive Age. [BBD35, 67]
See MH86–7 for an explanation of the implication of the word `Báb' to the Shí'í Muslims.
Three stages of the Báb's Revelation:
- Bahá'u'lláh has described this book as being `the first, the greatest, and mightiest of all books' in the Bábí Dispensation. [GPB23]
- See SBBH5pg1 for discussion on the Qayyumu’l-Asma’.
- This text was the most widely circulated of all the Báb's writings and came to be regarded as the Bábí Qur'an for almost the entirety of His mission. [BBRSM32]
- Images of the Qayyum al-asma' (‘Maintainer of the names’) can be see at the website of the British Library, Discovering Sacred Texts.
- He chose the title `Báb' and Mullá Husayn was given the title Bábu'l-Báb (the gate of the Gate).
- In the second year of the Revelation (from His confinement in the house of His uncle in Shíráz) He took the title of Siyyid-i-dhikr (dhikr means `remembrance of God') and gave the title `Báb' to Mullá Husayn. At Fort Tabarsí Mullá Husayn was called `Jináb-i Báb' by his companions.
- At His public declaration the Báb declared Himself to be the promised Qá'im. [MH87–8]
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Declaration of; Holy days; Bab, Writings of; Mulla Husayn; Qayyumul-Asma (book); Surih of Joseph; Tahirih; Bab, Life of; Cycles; Ages and Epochs; Heroic age; Qaim; Promised One; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bab, Basic timeline; Mubarak; Letters of the Living; Fiddih; Bab, House of (Shiraz)
|1844 Jul - Aug
||The intention of the Báb was to introduce the new Revelation slowly so as not to cause estrangement. He instructed the Letters of the Living to spread out and teach His Faith and to this end He assigned each one a special task, most often to their own native provinces. This is analogous to Christ's instructions to His disciples. He instructed them to record the name of every believer who embraced the Faith and to send their lists to His uncle, Hájí Mírzá 'Alí in Shíráz in a sealed envelope. His intention was to classify these lists once received into 18 sets of names with 19 names each (one Vahid meaning "Unity"). A list with the names of 18 Letters of the Living plus His own name would constitute the 19th set making one Kull-i-Shay (meaning "all things" with a value of 361). Thus fourteen Letters of the Living were dispatched; only Mullá Husayn and Quddús remained with Him. [BBRSM14–16, 36; SWB119; BBR2p36; DB92–4, 123; MH82–6; SBBH1:19]
To Mullá Husayn He had given the task of delivering a Tablet to Bahá'u'lláh in Tihrán and going to the court of the Sháh to apprise him of the Báb's cause. Mullá Husayn was not able to gain access to the Sháh. [B48–57; BBRSM15 BKG32–3; CH22–3; DB85-87, 96, 97; MH90–2, 102] He was also directed to send Him a written report on the nature and progress of his activities in Isfáhán, Tehran and in Khurásán. Not until He received this letter from Khurásán would He depart on pilgrimage. [DB123]
Mullá Husayn carried a Tablet revealed by the Báb for Muhammad Sháh to Tihrán . This was the first of a number of unsuccessful attempts to make him aware of the Revelation. [BBRSM20–1; MH102; SWB13]
Note: MH118-119 and DB127-128 indicate that Mullá Husayn had been in Tehran "between the months of Jámádí and Rajab". The first day of Jámádí, 1260 corresponds to 18 June, and the last day of Rajab to 15 August, 1844.
See RB2:303, `The Báb … sent Tablets to only two monarchs of His day — Muhammad Sháh of Persia and Sultán `Abdu'l-Majíd of Turkey.'
From Shiraz Mullá Husayn journeyed north to Isfahán where his message was rejected by the 'ulamás. Mullá Ja'far, the sifter of wheat, was the first and only one to embrace the Cause of the Báb in that city. There was however, a disciple of Siyyid Kazim, Mírzá Muhammad-'Alíy-i-Nahrí, who had been instructed to go to Isfahan some five years earlier to prepare the way for the advent of the new Revelation, who was receptive to the message of Mulla Husayn. He was instructed to go to Kirmán and acquaint Hájí Mírzá Karím Khán with the Message and then to travel to Shiraz. (This man's daughter was subsequently joined in wedlock with 'Abdu'l-Bahá.)[DB100]
Mullá Husayn then traveled to Káshán, about 130 miles from Isfahán. He had great success in that city but news of his conversion brought the wrath of the official clergy down upon him. [DB101note1; DB123-125]
He then went to Qum, another 100 miles from Káshán where he met with no success. After Qum he went to Tihrán. [MH98–101, DB101]
In Tihrán he took residence in a madrisih and first met with the leader of the shaykhí community, Hájí Mírzá Muhammad, but he failed to win him over. He did, however, manage to convince a number of souls in private conversations. [DB103note1] This same reference seems to indicate that his well-wishers assisted in delivering the Tablet to Muhammad Sháh and his minister, Hájí Mírzá Àqásí but they did not receive it. " the book was not submitted to thy presence, through the intervention of such as regard themselves the well-wishers of the government." [Selections from the Writings of the Báb page 13]
See Bab53–6; DB104–7, MH104–110 for the delivery of the Báb's Tablet to Bahá'u'lláh by the young student, Mullá Huhammad-i-Mu'allim, a native of Núr. Mullá Husayn did not meet Bahá'u'lláh on this occasion.
On receiving the Tablet of the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh accepted His Cause and asked that a gift of a loaf of Russian sugar and a package of tea be given to Mulla Husayn for delivery to the Báb. [DB106-107] See DB123-125 for his activities in Khán.
Mullá Husayn left for Khurásán, as he had been instructed, winning supporters for the Báb's Cause while there he wrote to the Báb regarding these new believers and Bahá'u'lláh's immediate response to the Báb's Revelation. [Bab56, DB128–9, MH118]
After Khurásán he travelled to Najaf and Karbilá where he was to wait for further instructions from the Báb. [DB86]
See MH121–2 for a discussion of the speed of Mullá Husayn's journey before the letter was dispatched to the Báb. It assumes that Mullá Husayn departed after the Báb met with all the Letters of the Living (date not before 2 July, 1844.) In fact both Mullá Husayn and Mullá 'Alíy-Bastámí had been dispatched before this meeting. [DB85-86, 92, HotD46]
||Kashan; Shiraz; Isfahan; Tihran; Mazandaran; Khurasan; Qum; Iran; Turkey
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Writings of; Bab, Speech to the Letters of the Living; Letters of the Living; Mulla Husayn; Bahaullah, Life of; Tablet to Bahaullah; Shahs; Mulla Jafar (sifter of wheat); Muhammad Shah; Sultan Abdul-Majid; First believers; Letters of the Living; Bab, Basic timeline; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Kull-i-Shay
|1844. 10 Sep
||The Báb left Shiraz for Bushihr and arrived on the 19th of September. [The Genesis of the Bábi-Bahá'í Faiths in Shíráz and Fárs p35 by A. Rabbani]
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Pilgrimage of
|1844 30 Sep
||The Báb received the letter from Mullá Husayn giving Him details of his journey and meeting with Bahá'u'lláh and others he had contacted. See DB126-128 for information on the letter and the affect it had on the Báb.
Nabíl indicated that the Báb received the letter on 9 October (26 Ramadan) and that it was a deciding factor in His decision to undertake the pilgrimage. [DB126–7, 129]
Balyuzi says soon after the Báb received the letter, `in the month of September' He left Shíráz'. [Bab57]
GPB8-9 says He received the letter in the month of Sha'bán, 1260 (16 August to 13 September, 1844).
See MH119 where the author speculates that if the letter arrived on 16 Ramadan (29 September) and the Báb departed from the port of Búshihr on the 19th of Ramadan (2 October, 1844), He had to have been in Búshihr when He received the letter. IIII
||Shiraz; Bushihr; Iran
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Pilgrimage of; Mulla Husayn; Bahaullah, Life of; Letters of the Living
||Pigrimage of the Báb
The Báb, Quddús (Hájí Mullá Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Barfurúshí) and the Báb's Ethiopian servant, Mubarak, left Shíráz for Búshihr en route to Mecca. The journey took ten days. [Bab57; DB129; MH119]
DB129 says He left Shíráz during the month of Shavvál, 1260 (14 October to 11 November, 1844).
SBBH1 xxviii shows the departure date as 12 November, 1844.
Balyuzi, Bab57 says "in the month of September.
The Genesis of the Bábi-Bahá'í Faiths in Shíráz and Fárs p35 by A. Rabbani says He left port on the 2nd of October.
|Iran; Saudi Arabia; Shiraz; Bushihr; Mecca
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Pilgrimage of; Quddus; Servants; Mubarak; Letters of the Living; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1845 Feb - Mar
||The Báb returned to Búshihr. He sent Quddús to Shíráz with a letter addressed to His uncle Hájí Mírzá Siyyid `Alí who, upon receiving it, embraced his Nephew's Cause, the first, after the Letters of the Living, to do so in Shíráz. The Báb also entrusted Quddús with a treatise for him entitled Khasá'il-i-Sab`ih (`the Seven Qualifications') and promised him his impending martyrdom. Later he gave his life as one of the Seven Martyrs of Tehran, see 1850 19 or 20 Feb. [Bab77–8; DB142–3; MS2, GPB9-10]
To the departing Quddus He promised intense suffering in Shíráz and eventual martyrdom. [DB142-143]
Bab77 and GPB10 say the Báb arrived in Búshihr in February - March.
SSBH1p23 and BBRSM216 say 15 May, 1845.
Before leaving on pilgrimage the Báb had stated that He would return to Karbalá and asked His followers to congregate there. An explanation in part for the large following that had gathered there is the messianic expectation associated with the year 1261, a thousand years after the Twelfth Imám's disappearance in 260 A.H.. This gathering was perceived as a threat by the authorities. [BBRSM15, 45, 216; DB157–8; SBBH1p23, 32]
The Báb changed His plan to meet His followers in Karbalá and instructed them to go to Isfahán instead. A number abandon Him, regarding this as badá', `alteration of divine will'. [BBRSM16; DB158; MH125; SBBH23]
Some speculate that He did not go to Karbalá to avoid conflict and sedition. Many Bábís had gone to Karbalá armed in preparation for holy war, `jihád'. [BBRSM21–2; SBBH1:23]
||Bushihr; Iran; Shiraz
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Pilgrimage of; Bab, Family of; Bab, Uncles of; Uncles; Quddus; Haji Mirza Siyyid Ali; Dhasail-i-Sabih (Seven Qualifications); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; First believers; Bab, Writings of
|1845. c. Jun
||After expelling Mullá Husayn and Mullá Sádiq the governor of Fárs, Hasayn Khán ordered that the Báb, the instigator of the commotion, be arrested and brought to Shíráz. [Bab84; BW18:380; DB148–50; GPB11]
||Bushihr; Shiraz; Iran
||Governors; Husayn Khan; Quddus; Ismullahul-Asdaq (Mulla Sadiq Khurasani); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; Bab, Life of; Persecution
|1845. 30 Jun
||At Dálakí, some 40 miles northeast of the Búshíhr, the Báb met the soldiers of the governor of Fárs who had been sent to arrest Him. He was escorted to Shíráz. [Bab84, 105; BBR170; BBRSM216; DB148–9; GPB11; TN6, SBBH1pxxv111; The Genesis of the Bábi-Bahá'í Faiths in Shíráz and Fárs p35-36 by A. Rabbani]
DB150 says the Báb travelled `free and unfettered', `before His escort'.
BBRSM16 implies the Báb returned to Shíráz by Himself in July and that He was placed under house arrest upon arrival.
||Dalaki; Fars; Shiraz; Iran
||Bab, Life of; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
|1845. c. 7 Jul
||The Báb arrived in Shíráz.
Note: Other estimates for the time of His arrival in Shíráz are from about the 8th to 16th of August based on the fact that Husayn Khán ordered His arrest after the beating of Mullá Sádiq and Quddús. "According to A. L. M. Nicolas’ “Siyyid ‘Alí-Muhammad dit le Báb” (footnote 175, p. 225), this meeting took place on August 6, 1845 A.D." [DB146n2]
Bab105 says it must have taken the Báb another week at least to reach Shíráz;
SBBH1:24 says He arrived in Shíráz in early July.
Upon arrival in Shíráz the Báb was taken to the governor who publicly interrogated Him, rebuked Him and ordered his attendant to strike Him across the face. He was struck such a violent blow that His turban fell to the ground. Due to the intervention of Shay Abú-Turáb, the head ímam of the region He was released into the custody of His maternal uncle Hájí Mírzá Siyyid `Alí. [Bab85–9; BBRSM216; DB150–1; GPB11]
Note: DB155 states that after He was released and "regained His home" He was able to celebrate Naw-Rúz that fell on 10 Rabí'u'l-Avval, 1261 (19 March, 1945). This is an error. GPB11 says He was able to "celebrate the Naw-Rúz of that and the succeeding year in an atmosphere of relative tranquillity in the company of His mother, His wife and His uncle.'' This too appears to be in error. If He left Shíráz in September of 1846 He would not have been present In March of 1847.
Three of the divines of Shíráz passed a verdict of death upon The Báb. But for the intercession of Zahrá Bagum, the sister of the wife of The Báb, Khadíjih-Bagum, the mother of The Báb, Fátimih Bagum, with Shay Abú-Turáb, the Imám-Jum'ih of Shíráz, the Báb would have been executed. [LTDT12]
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Family of; Bab, Uncles of; Uncles; Haji Mirza Siyyid Ali; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1845. Jul (and months following)
||The Báb was released to the custody of His uncle, Hájí Mírzá Siyyid 'Alí. [DB151, LTDT13]
Báb was asked by Mírzá Abu'l-Qásim to attend a Friday gathering at the Mosque of Vakíl to appease the hostility and the curiosity of some of the residents of Shíráz and to clarify His position. The exact date of His attendance is unknown. He made a public pronouncement that He was neither the representative of the Hidden Imám nor the gate to him, that is, His station was higher. Many of those who witnessed His address became partisans. [Bab94–8; DB153–157]
see DB152 for pictures of the above mosque.
This time has been described by Shoghi Effendi as the `most fecund period' of the Báb's ministry. It marks the birth of the Bábí community. [Bab89–90]
During this time He was asked to speak in mosques and in colleges and He addressed gatherings in His home. The clergy sent their most able mullas to refute and humiliate Him without success. He never attacked the government or Islam but rather called out the corrupt clergy and the abuses of all classes of society. His fame and acceptance among the population grew. [DB157note1]
A considerable number of the Báb's followers had congregated in Isfahan at His instruction when He informed them He would not go to Karbilá when He returned from Mecca as He had previously stated. Upon hearing the news of the confinement of the Báb, Mullá Husayn and his companions, his brother and nephew, left Isfahán where they have been awaiting further instructions. They travelled to Shíráz in disguise. Mullá Husayn was able to meet secretly with the Báb several times in the house of His uncle. The Báb sent word to the remainder of His followers in Isfahán to leave and to travel to Shíráz in small, inconspicuous numbers. Among those gathered were some who were jealous of Múllá Husayn and the attention he received from the Báb. They threw their lot in with the detractors and were eventually expelled from the city for the unrest they caused. [DB160-162; Bab102–3; MH128–9]
After a time the presence of Mullá Husayn in Shíráz threatened to cause civil unrest. The Báb instructed him to go to Khurásán via Yazd and Kirmán and told the rest of the companions to return to Isfahán. He retained Mullá 'Abdu'l-Karím to transcribe His Writings. [Bab90, 102–3; DB170; MH130]
The Sháh sent one of the most learned men in Persia, Siyyid Yahyáy-i-Dárábí, (a town near Nayriz) surnamed Vahíd, (the peerless one) to investigate the claims of the Báb. He became an adherent of the Cause of the Báb. To him He revealed some 2,000 verses at one sitting of five hours and among the the Surih of Kawthar. Vahíd and 'Abdu'l-Karím spent three days and three nights transcribing this Tablet. Siyyid Yahyáy-i-Dárábí wrote to the Sháh and resigned his post. On the instructions of the Báb he journeyed home to acquaint his father with the new Message. As a result of his conversion most of the inhabitants of the town of Nayríz later became Bábís. [Bab90–4; BBD216; BBRSM41; CH21; DB171–7; GPB11–12; TN7–8; DB171-172note 2; Tablet of Patience (Surih Íabr): Declaration of
Bahá’u’lláh and Selected Topics
by Foad Seddigh p370] iiiii
<! from DB175 note 2 "current calamo" definition: written without reflection.>
Another learned scholar, Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Zanjání, surnamed Hujjat, became a believer after reading only one page of the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá'. Several thousand of his fellow townspeople in Zanján became Bábís. [Bab100–2; BBD111; BBRSM16; GPB12; DB177-179]
Mírzá Ahmad-i-Azghandí, yet another learned man, who had compiled traditions and prophecies concerning the expected Revelation, became a believer as well. [GPB12–13]
||Shiraz; Isfahan; Khurasan; Yazd; Kirman; Nayriz; Iran; Karbala; Iraq
||Bab, Life of; Vakil Mosque; Mosques; Mulla Husayn; Bab, Family of; Muhammad Shah; Shahs; Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi); Hujjat; Qayyumul-Asma (book); Mirza Ahmad-i-Azghandi; Tahirih; Mirza Ahmad-i-Azghandi; Abdul-Karim
|1845. 1 Nov
||The Times of London carried an item on the arrest and torture of Quddús, Mullá Sádiq-i-Khurásání, Mullá `Alí-Akbar-i-Ardistání and Mullá Abú-Tálib in Shíráz in June. This was the first known printed reference to the Revelation in the Western press. A similar article was reprinted on 19 November. [First newspaper story of the events of the Bábí Faith compiled by Steven Kolins; B76–7; BBR4, 69]
See In was in the news.... In this blog by SMK, he has provided an extensive list of English newspaper articles on the persecution of the Báb and the Bábís in 1845 and 1846.
||Shiraz; Iran; London; United Kingdom
||Quddus; Ismullahul-Asdaq (Mulla Sadiq Khurasani); Mulla Ali-Akbar-i-Ardistani; Mulla Abu-Talib; Times (newspaper); Newspaper articles; Firsts, Other; Mentions; Babism, Early Western Accounts of
||First newspaper story of the events of the Bábí Faith|
|1846 19 Mar
||The Báb bequeathed all His possessions to His mother and His wife and revealed a special prayer for His wife to help her in times of sorrow. He told His wife of His impending martyrdom. He moved to the house of His uncle Hájí Mírzá Siyyid `Alí. He told the Bábís in Shíráz to go to Isfahán. [GPB14; KB21–2; TB103–5, LTDT13; DB190-192]
||Shiraz; Isfahan; Iran
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Family of; Prayer; Haji Mirza Siyyid Ali
|1846 (After Naw-Ruz)
||After the Báb left Shiraz, His wife, Khadijih Bagum, mother, Fatimah Bagum, maternal grandmother, Zahra Bagum, as well as Ethiopian servants Mubarak, and maidservant Fiddih were living in the Sacred House. [MBBA167]
||Bab, House of (Shiraz); Fatimih Bagum; Khadijih Bagum; Zahra Bagum; Mubarak; Fiddih
|1846. 23 Jun
||Quddús met Mullá Sádiq-i-Muqaddas in Shíráz to whom he entrusted a copy of Khasá'il-i-Sab`ih (`the Seven Qualifications'). Following instructions received in a Tablet from the Báb, Mullá Sádiq sounded the call to prayer using the additional words provided by the Báb. This, along with their teaching of the Cause, provoked a public commotion. [Bab78; DB144-145; BBRSM16]
The governor of Fárs, Husayn Khán Nizámu'd-Dawlih, had Quddús, Mullá Sádiq-i-Khurásání, Mullá `Alí-Akbar-i-Ardistání and Mullá Abú-Tálib arrested, tortured and expelled from Shíráz. [Bab78; BBR69; BW18:380; DB145–148; GPB11, BBR1pxxviii]
The governor's punishment was particularly cruel. He commanded that the beards of both Quddús and Mullá Sádiq be burned, their noses pierced and that a cord should be passed which and used to led them through the city. The men were then beaten. Mullá Sádiq was a frail man of about 50 years but in spite of this took some 900 strokes and still remained calm and serene. When questioned later he said the first seven lashes were severely painful but then he became indifferent to the rest. It was as though the strokes were not being applied to his own body. [DB146-148]
The London Times of November 1st and November 19, 1845 reported that this took place on the 23rd of June. [Bab76, BBR1p69, 82]
Note: Bab78 says that Mullá Abú-Tálib was not among the group. DB145 says that only Mulla Husayn and Mulla Sádiq were arrested.
Note: DB146 note2 says "According to A. L. M. Nicolas’ “Siyyid ‘Alí-Muhammad dit le Báb” (footnote 175, p. 225), this meeting took place on August 6, 1845 A.D."
Upon departing Shíráz Quddús made his way to Kirmán to interview Hájí Mírzá Karím Khán. The ambitious and seditious Karím Khán remained unconvinced buy Quddús had earned an ally in his host during his stay in Kirmán, Hájí Siyyid Javád, someone he had known from his day in Karbilá. From Kirmán Quddús travelled to Yazd and then to Ardikán, Náyin, Ardistán, Isfáhán, Káshán, Qum and to Tihrán. There he met with Bahá'u'lláh and after which proceeded to Mázindarán and to his native town of Bárfurúsh where he lived in the home of his father for two years.
Mullá Sádiq travelled to Yazd with the intention of spreading news of the Cause among the 'ulamás of that province. There they encountered opposition from Hájí Mírzá Karím Khán.
Mullá Sádiq and Mullá Yúsuf-i-Ardibílí moved on to Kirmán where they received the same treatment then they travelled to Khurásán
||Fars; Shiraz; Iran
||Governors; Husayn Khan; Quddus; Ismullahul-Asdaq (Mulla Sadiq Khurasani); Mulla Ali-Akbar-i-Ardistani; Mulla Abu-Talib; Husayn Khan; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
||The Chief Constable, 'Abdu'l-Hamíd Khán, was instructed by order of the governor, Hasayn Khán, to break into the house of Hájí Mírzá Siyyid 'Alí where the Báb had been confined and to arrest Him. He and a follower were taken away along with His books and Writings. It was widely rumoured that He would be executed. He was allowed to return some time later. [LTDT14]
||Bab, Life of; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
|1846. 23 Sep
||Up to this point the Báb had not been critical of the civil government but considering that His denunciations of the intellectually dishonest and plundering clergy were so unrelenting, could they expect to escape His scrutiny? The governor, Husayn Khán, was thus threatened by the Báb's rising popularity and ordered His arrest. The chief constable, `Abdu'l-Hamíd Khán, took the Báb into custody and escorted Him to the governor's home but found it abandoned. He took the Báb to his own home where he learned that a cholera epidemic had swept the city and that his sons have been stricken. At the chief constable's insistence the Báb cureed the boys by requesting they drink some of the water with which He had washed His own face. `Abdu'l-Hamíd resigned his post and begged the governor to release the Báb who agreed on condition the Báb leave Shíráz. The incident proved to be Husayn Khán's undoing: the Sháh dismissed him from office shortly after. [B104–5; BBRSM55; DB194–7; DB194note1; GPB13; TN9]
This cholera outbreak was evidently a sign of the coming Manifestation. The outbreak raged for four years. [DB196note2)
See BBR170–1 and DB197 for the fate of Husayn Khán who was immediately dismissed by the Sháh.
DB196–7 says `Abdu'l-Hamíd Khán had only one ill son.
DB195Note1 gives this date as 1845. If this were the case how could the Báb have celebrated "The second Naw-Rúz after the declaration..." [DB190] MBBA165n237 says that it took place on the 10th of September 1846 and that He was in His own house at the time.
||Husayn Khan; Governors; Bab, Life of; Abdul-Hamid Khan; Epidemics; Muhammad Shah; Shahs; cholera
|1846 23 – 24 Sep
||The Báb departed for Isfahán after a sojourn in Shíráz of less than 15 months. [B105–6; BBRSM216; BW18:380; TN9, SBBR1pxxviii]
TN9 says that the Báb left Shíráz `the morning after' the night He saved the children from cholera.
Bab105 says he left `in the last days of September.
||Shiraz; Isfahan; Iran
||Bab, Life of
|1847. 1 Apr
||The Báb received a letter and gifts from Bahá'u'lláh in Tihrán delivered to His Hands by Mulla Muhammad-Mihdiy-i-Kandi. The letter cheered His heart, He had been despondent since His arrest and departure from Shíráz. [Bab120; DB227; GPB678]
||Tihran; Shiraz; Iran
||Bab, Life of; Gifts; Bahaullah, Writings of
|1850. 27 May-
|First Nayríz upheaval.
Vahíd traveled from Yazd towards Shíráz, eventually coming to Nayríz. He went to the Mosque of Jum‘ih where he ascended the pulpit and proclaimed the Cause of God. The governor moved against him and Vahíd ordered his companions to occupy the fort of Khájih. The siege that followed lasted a month. [B178, 204–5; BBR109–13; BW18:381; For23]
See RB1:325–31 for the story of Vahíd. See also GPB50, KI223.
See also B178–82; BBD171; BBR109–13; BBRSM28, 216; DB485–99; GPB42–4; RB1:264; TN245.
See BW19p381 for a chronicle of events.
The main events were:
- 27 May: Entry of Vahid into Nayriz; his address at the Jum‘ih mosque; the Governor made moves against him; Vahid ordered his companions to occupy the fort of Khájih..
- about 6 June: Arrival of Mihr-‘Ali Khan-i-Nuri with troops from Shiraz.
- about 8 June: Night sortie by Bábis routed troops.
- about 9 June: Prolonged fighting on this day led to many deaths on both sides.
- 17 June: Vahid, having received a promise of safety written on the Qur’án, left the fort for Mihr-‘Ali Khan’s camp.
- 21 June: The Bábis were, through treachery, induced to leave the fort, then set upon and killed.
- 24 June: The arrival in Shiraz of thirteen severed heads of Bábfs which were paraded through the town.
- 29 June: Martyrdom of Vahfd.
- 11 July: Mihr-‘Ali Khan arrived in Shiraz with Bábi’ prisoners and decapitated heads.
|Nayriz; Yazd; Shiraz; Iran
||Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi); Mosques; Jumih; Governors; Fort Khajih; Nayriz upheaval; Upheavals; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
|1850. 24 Jun
||The severed heads of 13 Bábís arrived in Shíráz from Nayríz. They were raised on lances and paraded through the town. [B182; BW18:381]
||Shiraz; Nayriz; Iran
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Nayriz upheaval; Upheavals
|1850. 3 Oct
||Two of Vahíd's companions were executed in Shíráz.
||Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
|1853. 4 May
||An earthquake struck in Shiraz. It destroyed many homes and killed several thousand citizens. It also demolished the majority of the schools and mosques. The House of the Báb was severely damaged and the mosque next to it was completely demolished. At this time the House had been rented to Mírzá Muhammad-Husayn, who was occupying the House with no written documentation. A lease is dated January 1854 and it recognized the owner as Siyyidih Fatimih Bagum and stated that the repairs were to be made at the leasee's expense. After this document was signed, Mírzá Muhammad-Husayn realized the cost of the repairs was prohibitive. Consequently, he leased the House to two brothers, Samad and Ibrahim, who were bakers. They took up residence with no formal documentation. Gradually they took over all the affairs of the House and claimed sole ownership. [MBBA169]
||Bab, House of (Shiraz)
|1853. 31 Oct
||Some 600 female and 80 to 180 male Bábís are taken prisoner at Nayríz and marched to Shíráz, along with the heads of some 180 martyrs. This fulfilled an Islamic prophecy concerning the appearance of the Qá'im indicating that the heads of the followers would be used as gifts. [BW18:382; KI245; For17]
||Nayriz; Shiraz; Iran
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Prophecies
|1853. 24 Nov
||The prisoners from Nayríz and the heads of the martyrs arrived in Shíráz. More Bábís were executed and their heads sent to Tihrán. The heads were later buried at Ábádih. [BW18:382]
||Shiraz; Nayriz; Tihran; Abadih; Iran
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
|1862. (Dates undetermined)
||In order to regain ownership of the House of the Báb, Mírzá Áqá Nuri'd-Din convinced the residents of the fact that because of the recent earthquakes some parts of the House had been structurally damaged, making it unsuitable to live in. He agreed to purchase or lease another dwelling for them while he did repairs.
After some minor repairs, a believer named`Abdu’r-Razzaq lived there for three years.
After him, it was occupied by the late Hájí Abu’l-Hasan [Bazzaz], who had accompanied the Báb on His hajj journey to Mecca and was one of the first believers of Shiraz.
Afterwards, the House was leased to Mulla Áqá Buzurg-i-Zarqani, who was a Bábí but not known as one.
Following him, Hájí Abu’l-Hasan lived in the House with his wife and two sons, Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí and Mírzá Muhammad-Baqir, who later adopted the surname Dihqan. His wife was a relative of the Imam-Jum`ih Abu-Turab and, consequently, the family enjoyed some measure of protection. After five years of living in the Blessed House, his wife passed away and the protection of the `ulama was withdrawn. Because he was known as a Bábí, Hájí Abu’l-Hasan was forced to leave the city in the middle of the night, taking his two young sons with him. He departed in January of 1872.
With Zarqani’s departure, in January 1872 a mother and daughter of Nayriz, who were brought as captives to Shiraz after the battles of 1853, occupied the House in order to preserve it. They remained there until about 1872. [MBBA169-170]
||Mirza Áqa Nurid-Din; Bab, House of (Shiraz)
|1863. 3 May
||Bahá'u'lláh left the Garden of Ridván.
This initiated the holy day the Twelfth Day of Ridván, to be celebrated on 2 May. [BBD196]
As He was about to leave He revealed a Tablet addressed to Áqá Mírzá Áqá in Shíráz. It brought relief and happiness to those who received it. [EB222]
His leaving was accompanied by symbolic signs of His station: He rode a horse rather than a donkey and wore a tall táj. [BBD221; BKG176]
See BKG175–6, GPB155 and RB1:281–2 for descriptions of the scenes that accompanied His departure.
Bahá'u'lláh and His party arrived at Firayját, about three miles away on the banks of the Tigris. [BKG176]
There they stayed in a borrowed garden for a week while Bahá'u'lláh's brother, Mirza Musa, completed dealing with their affairs in Baghdad and packing the remaining goods. Visitors still came daily. [SA235]
One of the loyal followers who was left behind was Ahmad-i-Yazdi. He would later make the journey to Constantinople where he received a Tablet from Bahá'u'lláh. [C3MT17]
|Baghdad; Firayjat; Iraq; Shiraz; Iran
||Ridvan; Bahaullah, Declaration of; Bahaullah, Life of; Ridvan Festival; Aqa Mirza Aqay-i-Afnan (Nurud-Din); Afnan; Horses; Donkeys; Taj; Tigris; Rivers; Ridvan garden; Najibiyyih Garden; Holy days
|1864 (In the year)
||Birth of Mírzá Hádí Shírází, the father of Shoghi Effendi, in Shíráz.
||Mirza Hadi Shirazi; Shoghi Effendi, Family of; Births and deaths
|1867 Sep - Aug 1868
||Nabíl-i-A‘zam was dispatched to Iraq and Iran to inform the Bábís of the advent of Bahá'u'lláh. He was further instructed to perform the rites of pilgrimage on Bahá'u'lláh's behalf in the House of the Báb and the Most Great House in Baghdad. [BKG250; EB224; GPB176–7]
For details of his mission see EB224–7.
On hearing Nabíl's message, the wife of the Báb, Khadíjih Khánum, immediately recognized the station of Bahá'u'lláh. [EB225]
Nabil was the first Bahá'í to perform pilgrimage to the house of the Báb in Shiraz in fall 1866, in accordance with the rites prescribed in the Surat al-ḥajj revealed by Bahá'u'lláh. He also went to Baghdad and performed the pilgrimage to the House of Bahá'u'lláh in spring 1867, according to another sura, Surat al-damm written by Bahá'u'lláh for that purpose. Nabil’s pilgrimage to those two houses marked the inception of pilgrimage laws ordained by Bahá'u'lláh later in his Kitāb-i-Aqdas. For the rites of these two pilgrimages performed by Nabíl see SA113–15. [GPB176-177, “Nabil-e aʿzam Zaranadi, Mollā Mohammad,” by Vahid Rafati, Encyclopædia Iranica, DB434-435]
- Lawh-i-Hajj (Tablet of Pilgrimage) (Note: there were numerous Tablets revealed with this same name. [BW19p584] (Leiden List shows 18 in total.)
|Shiraz; Iran; Baghdad; Iraq
||Nabil-i-Azam; Pilgrims; Pilgrimage; First pilgrims; Khadijih Khanum; House of Bahaullah (Baghdad)
|1871 (In the year)
||Muhammad-Hasan Khán-i-Káshí died in Burújird, Iran, after being bastinadoed. [BW18:383]
Three Bahá'ís were executed in Shíráz. [BW18:383]
||Burujird; Shiraz; Iran
|1872 (In the year)
||Restoration of the House of the Báb began at the request of Khadíjih Bigum with the permission and the financial support of Bahá'u'lláh. She requested that the House not be restored to its original configuration to avoid painful memories. Therefore,
substantial changes were made to the structure of the House. These included making two of the rooms part of the expanded courtyard and moving the small pool.
After these changes were made, Khadíjih Bagum took up residence in the Blessed House. She lived there for
the next nine years, until her passing in October 1882. [EB232; The Genesis of the Bábi-Bahá'í Faiths in Shíráz and Fárs p93 by A. Rabbani; MBBA172]
To protect the House further, a small house next to it on the eastern wall was bought. It belonged to a certain Hájí Muhammad-
Ja`far-i-Hadíd. The elders of the Afnán family asked Hájí Mírzá `Abdu’l-Hamid to live there. He was one of the early believers in the Báb and married to the daughter of Hujjat-i-Zanjani. From the first day Hujjat’s daughter arrived in Shiraz, she was a close companion of Khadíjih Bagum, who had a particular affinity for the families of the Bábí martyrs. An underground passageway was constructed connecting the two homes. It was used as the main entrance for the House of the Báb so that the neighborhood would not take notice of the occupants. [MBBA171-172]
After her ascension, as instructed by Bahá’u’lláh, her sister, Zahra Bagum, moved her residence to the Sanctified House. She
lived there until her passing in 1891. [MBBA172]
Note: During the early days of the Afnán family, there was considerable competition within certain quarters of the family over the House of the Báb. On several occasions, the issue was brought to Bahá’u’lláh. He consistently reaffirmed the hereditary custodianship of Zahra Bagum and her descendants. By the time of `Abdu’l-Bahá’s Ministry, only a few family members questioned the custodianship rights. However, to ensure complete unity, the Master reaffirmed the hereditary right of Núri’d-Dín and, thereafter, Mírzá Habíb. Before his passing, Mírzá Habíb passed the custodianship to his oldest son, Abú’l-Qásim Afnán. [MBBA115n165]
||Khadijih Bagum; Bab, House of (Shiraz); Restoration
|1872. c. 1872
||Bahá'u'lláh tasked Shaykh Salmán to escort Munírih Khánum (Fátimih Khánum) to `Akká to marry `Abdu'l-Bahá. She traveled from her home in Isfahan to Shíráz where she stayed with the wife of the Báb then went to Mecca for pilgrimage. From Mecca she traveled to `Akká. [MKBM26-44; RoB2p384-386]
DH45 says she was called to the Holy Land from December 1871 to January 1872.
BKG347 says she performed the pilgrimage in February 1873.
||Isfahan; Iran; Shiraz; Mecca; Akka
||Munirih Khanum; Shaykh Salman
|1882 11 Nov
||The passing of Khadíjih-Bagum, the wife of the Báb, in Shíráz in the house of her Husband. [BBD127; EB235; KBWB35; DB191; RoB2p387] Note: KBWB35 states that she passed on the 15th of September, 1882 however MBBA112 suggests 16th of October. She died of dysentery.
Within two hours of her passing her faithful servitor, an Ethiopian slave named Fiddhih, someone who had been a member of the household since the age of seven, passed away as well. Both were interred within the Shrine of Sháh-Chirágh. [BK35]
Upon her passing Bahá'u'lláh revealed a tablet of visitation for her and later He composed a verse to be inscribed on her tombstone. [RoB2p387]
- In accordance with Bahá’u’lláh’s instructions, in 1308 A.H.
, Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí went to Bombay to publish some
of the Holy Tablets. As the Blessed Beauty instructed, he
purchased a gravestone for the resting place of the wife of the Báb.
The following verse, revealed from the heaven of divine will, was
engraved on it: He is the Everlasting. Verily this exalted leaf
hearkened to the Call of the Tree beyond which there is no passing
and winged her flight towards it. "Abú’l-Qásim Afnán informs the translator that this gravestone is safe in an
undisclosed location in Iran." [MBBA117]
||Khadijih Bagum; Servants; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Cemeteries and graves; Fiddih
|1883 (In the year)
||Six Bahá'ís were arrested in Yazd and sent to Isfahán in chains. BW18:383]
Four Bahá'ís were arrested in Sarvistán, Fárs, and sent to Shíráz where they are bastinadoed. [BW18:383]
|Yazd; Isfahan; Sarvistan; Fars; Shiraz; Iran
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
|1888. c. Jul-Aug
||Two Bahá'ís were arrested in Sarvistán, Fárs, and were sent to Shíráz, where one was imprisoned. [BW18:383]
||Sarvistan; Fars; Shiraz; Iran
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
||Áqá Murtadá of Sarvistán, who had been in prison for five years, was executed in Shíráz. [BW18:384]
||Sarvistan; Shiraz; Iran
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Aqa Murtada
|1902 (In the year)
||In Shíráz, Hájí Abu'l-Hasan was beaten so severely on the order of the mujtahid that he died a few months later from the effects. [BW18:385]
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
|1903. 20 Jul
||`Abdu'l-Bahá commissioned the second restoration of the House of the Báb in Shíráz under the supervision of Áqá Mírzá Áqá, an Afnán and a nephew of `Abdu'l-Bahá. He had closed his business affairs in Egypt and moved his entire family to Shiraz to handle the project. Having been raised in the House Áqá Mírzá Áqá was the only living person who remembered the details of the house as it had been before the first major renovation. [AB108; EB236; GPB300; MBBA154, 176-177]
Mi`mar-Bashi began the renovation project. They demolished the whole structure. The ground under the building was excavated until the original foundation of the House was uncovered. The workers began to raise the walls and rebuild the House on the same foundation and following the original design. Each day, in this small area, over 30 construction crew laboured devotedly. Within two months, as `Abdu’l-Bahá had commanded, the structural walls were completed in exactly the same design as that of the time of the Báb. Soon the rooms were finished and the doors and windows added.
Starting on the 23rd of October 1903 Áqá Mírzá Áqá fell ill and, day by day, his condition grew worse. However, until a week before his passing, he would come each day to the site of the construction and, although suffering from illness, spend the day supervising all the work. He passed away on the 15th of November 1903 after completing the task entrusted to him by `Abdu’l-Bahá. It was then that the wisdom of the Master’s statement “delay will cause a colossal catastrophe” became clear, as Áqá Mírzá Áqá was the only one of all the kindred who knew the original design of the House. After his passing, the rest of the work, consisting of painting and decoration, was completed. [MBBA177]
Also see MBBA219-222 for a "back-story".
See MBBA177-185 for the story of how the Bahá'ís helped to renovate the mosque of Masjid-i-Shamshirgarha on the adjacent property.
The House of the Báb was located on Shamshirgarha Street. [MBBA161]
||Bab, House of (Shiraz); Restoration; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Aqa Mirza Aqay-i-Afnan (Nurud-Din); Afnan
|1914 (In the year)
||'Abdu'l-Bahá was forced to expel Tammaddun'ul-Mulk for corrupt behaviour. He was from Shiraz and had been living in Paris for several years. He had been part of His entourage in 1911. [ABF19]
||Shiraz; Tihran; Iran; Paris; France
|1942 (In the year)
||The House of the Báb in Shíráz was attacked and damaged by fire. [BBD108; BW18p389]
||Bab, House of (Shiraz); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution
|1943 5 Apr
||Sir Ronald Storrs visited the House of the Báb in Shiraz. [BW 11:461]
||Ronald Storrs; Bab, House of (Shiraz)
|1944 22–23 May
||The Centenary of the Declaration of the Báb was celebrated at the House of the Báb in Shíráz. [BW10:181]
Ninety delegates to the national convention and members of the National Spiritual Assembly of Iran assembled discreetly for the occasion.
For details of this event and the caution with which the arrangements for it were made see BW10:181–3.
The Guardian sent the Persian Bahá’ís a lengthy letter detailing how the observance and the week-long festivities to follow are to be made. [BW10:183]
For details of the events see BW10:183–8.
||Bab, Declaration of; Bab, House of (Shiraz); Conventions, National; NSA; Centenaries
|1954 or 1955
||"The sacred dust of the Báb's infant son, extolled in the Qayyum-i-Asma, was respectfully and ceremoniously transferred on the anniversary of his Father's martyrdom, in the presence of pilgrims and resident believers to the Bahá'í cemetery in Shiraz, the prelude to the translation to the same spot of the remains of the Báb's beloved and long-suffering consort." [CBN No 65 June, 1955 p1]
The timing of the event is unclear. From the article, "the second year, second decade of the second century", it can be assumed that it took place on July 9th, 1955, however, the publication date was June, 1955.
||Ahmad (son of the Bab)
|1955. 21 April
||The Báb's only child, Ahmad, was still-born or died soon after birth. Khadíjih Bagum had a very difficult delivery and almost died as a result. The child was buried under a pine (or cypress) tree in the shrine of Bíbí-Dukhtarán (meaning Matron or Mistress of the Maidens).
In the opening days of 1955, the Shíráz municipality decided to construct a school on the site which would have destroyed the grave. When advised of the situation Shoghi Effendi responded: "Guardian approves transfer remains Primal Point's Son Gulistán Jávíd. Ensure befitting burial."
The Spiritual Assembly arranged for the remains to be exhumed, laid in a silk container, and placed in a cement coffin. For three months, the coffin was kept in the western part of the local Hadiratu'l-Quds. On the 21st of April 1955, which coincided with the day of the Báb's martyrdom reckoned by the lunar calendar, a special ceremony for the reinterment was held. It was the largest Bahá'í gathering in Shíráz in the history of the Bahá'í Faith. Multitudes of believers from all parts of the country participated in the historic event. In a prayerful atmosphere, the remains were reinterred in the Bahá'í cemetery of Shíráz. The Guardian heard the details and, on 24 April, cabled his joy: "SHIRAZ ASSEMBLY CARE KHADEM TEHERAN. OVERJOYED HISTORIC ACHIEVEMENT CONGRATULATE VALIANT FRIENDS LOVING REMEMBRANCE SHRINES SUPPLICATING BOUNTIFUL BLESSINGS. SHOGHI." [The Afnán Family:
Some Biographical Notes by Ahang Rabbani 2007 Note <44>]
In the first báb of the fifth vahíd of the Persian Bayán, the Báb asks for a befitting structure to be built over the resting-place of Ahmad for the faithful to worship God. [Bahaipedia]
||Ahmad (son of the Bab); Bab, Life of; Bab, Family of; Cemeteries and graves; Births and deaths
|1955. 23 Apr
||Ramadán began. Shaykh Muhammad-Taqí known as "Falsafí" made an inflammatory speech against the Bahá’ís from a mosque in Tihrán. [BW18p390]
This was broadcast on national radio and stirred up the people against the Bahá’ís. [BW18:390]
Beatings, killings, looting and raping went on for several weeks, usually incited by the local ‘ulamá. [BW18:390–1; MC16–17; ZK215–6]
The House of the Báb in Shíráz was attacked and damaged by a mob led by Siyyid Núru’d-Dín, a mujtahid.
See a publication in the newspaper Shahin Tehran about his "work".
||Tihran; Shiraz; Iran
||Bab, House of (Shiraz); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Mobs; Persecution; Falsafi; Shaykh Muhammad-Taqi
||Persecutions against the Bahá’ís continued throughout Iran. [BW18p391]
Many Bahá’ís were beaten, including women and children.
Bahá’í houses and shops were looted and burned.
Bahá’ís employed in government service were dismissed.
Bodies of dead Bahá’ís were disinterred and mutilated.
Young Bahá’í women were abducted and forced to marry Muslims.
Several Bahá’í women were publicly stripped and/or raped.
Crops and orchards belonging to Bahá’ís were looted and destroyed.
Bahá’í children were expelled from schools.
The House of the Báb in Shíráz was damaged and almost destroyed by an anti-Bahá'í mob.
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution; Bab, House of (Shiraz)
|1955 9 May
||Bahá’í houses were attacked and looted at Shíráz, Iran. [BW18:390]
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
||Bahá’ís in Iran continued to be dismissed from their employment. Bahá’í students were expelled from Shíráz University. [BW18p391]
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Education; Persecution; Haziratul-Quds
||In Iran, the house of the maternal uncle of the Báb and the adjacent house in which the Báb was born were destroyed on the pretext that the sites needed to be cleared. [BW17:79]
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution; Bab, House of (Shiraz); Bab, Family of
||Three hundred Bahá’í homes near Shíráz were burned or destroyed and in another 200 homes the Bahá’ís were driven from them, property was stolen and many Bahá’ís were beaten. [BW17:79; BW19:42]
At one point 700 Bahá’ís were homeless and their means of livelihood destroyed. [BW17:79; BN136 April 1979 p2-3]
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution
||Revolutionary Guards in Iran occupied the House of the Báb in Shíráz and neighbouring Bahá’í properties, explaining that it was a temporary measure intended to protect the building. [BW17:79]
||Bab, House of (Shiraz); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
|1979 8 – 10 Sep
||The House of the Báb in Shíráz was attacked and substantially demolished by a crowd accompanied by 25 Revolutionary Guards apparently under the clergyman in charge of the local religious endowments department. [BBD108; BI11; BW18:253]
See BW18p253p253 for an idea of the size of the house.
A photo of the destruction.
||Bab, House of (Shiraz); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution
||Work on the demolition of the House of the Báb in Shíráz was resumed and the building almost razed to the ground. [BW18:255]
Several attempts had been made to demolish the House and several times they had to stop because there were freak accidents where people were hurt or killed in trying to knock it down. Finally it was completely demolished during the night in December. [OFM69]
See video Sacred Space - 40 Years Since the Destruction of the House of the Báb.
Wikipedia The Báb's House.
After the authorities demolished the House of the Báb, they decided to construct a Islamic religious center on that site. Ironically the new structure was named "Bayt-al-Mahdi" or "The House of the Mahdi (Promised One)". [The House of the Báb, Shiraz, Iran]
A Concise Encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith p315 says, "A road and a public square were later built over the site."
||Bab, House of (Shiraz); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution
|1981 (In the year)
||The site of the House of the Báb, destroyed by a mob in 1979, was made into a road and public square. [BBD108]
||Bab, House of (Shiraz); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Mobs; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution
|1982 23 Oct
||Authorities arrested 45 Bahá'ís in Shiraz on the order of the prosecutor. On October 30th another 40 Baha’is were arrested. In all cases, they were arrested simply because of their religious beliefs. Some were later released but many of those arrested were subjected to interrogation and excruciating torture. The interrogations and torture were carried out to extract information about Bahá'í organizations and to force prisoners to renounce their faith and convert to Islam.
The Revolutionary Court of Shiraz sent 22 of those arrested to the gallows. The executions began on January 1, 1983, with the killing of Hedayatollah Siavoshi.
The last of the group to die was Soheil Houshmand on June 28, 1983.
The oldest among the executed Bahá'ís was Abdolhossein Azadi, 66, and the youngest was Mona Mahmoudinejad, a high school student of 17.
The entire Eshraghi family — father, mother and daughter — were executed. Also executed were a mother and son, Nosrat and Bahram Yaldaie, and a young couple, Jamshid and Tahereh Siavoshi. Yadollah, the father of 17-year-old Mona Mahmoudinejad, was also killed.
Ahmad Sabet Sarvestani was the only one among them who died in prison as a result of torture before he could be hanged. [Iran Press Watch 19466]
||Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; Deaths; Persecution, Iran; Persecution; Mona Mahmudnizhad; Youth
|1983. 16 Jun
||Six Bahá’ís had been executed by hanging: Dr. Bahrarn Afnan, aged 50, a prominent physician specializing in heart and internal diseases; Mr. Bahram Yalda’i, aged 28, who had studied to obtain his doctorate in economics; Mr. Jamflid Siyavushi, aged 39, who owned a clothing shop; Mr. ‘Inayatu’llah Ifiraqi, aged 61, who had worked for the Iran Oil Company and was retired; Mr. Kurug Haqqbin, aged 34, an electrical technician specializing in the repair of radio and television sets; and Mr. ‘Abdu’l-Husayn Azadi, aged 66, a veterinarian who had been an employee of the Ministry of Health. Of this group, all save Mr. Igraqi and Mr. Yalda’i were members of Local Spiritual Assemblies in Shíráz or surrounding communities.
|1983 18 Jun
||In Shiraz, ten Bahá'í women ranging in age from 17 to 57, were hanged. All of the women had been tortured and interrogated in the months prior to their execution. The youngest of these martyrs was Mona Mahmudnizhad, a 17-year-old schoolgirl who had been beaten on the soles of her feet, kissed the hands of her executioner and placed the hangman's rope around her own throat. The names of the others executed were Zarrin Muqimi-Abyanih, 28, Ruya Ishraqi, a 23-year-old veterinary student, Shahin Dalvand, 25, a sociologist; Izzat Janami Ishraqi, 57, a homemaker; Mahshid Nirumand, 28, who had qualified for a degree in physics but had it denied her because she was a Bahá'í, Simin Sabiri, 25; Tahirih Arjumandi Siyavushi, 30, a nurse; Akhtar Thabit, 25, also a nurse; Nusrat Ghufrani Yalda'i, 47, a mother and member of the local Bahá'í Spiritual Assembly. [Hanged for teaching “Sunday school”]
For the story of the martyrs see BW19:180–7 and VV56.
For their obituaries see BW19:596–607.
For pictures of the martyred women see BW19:240–1.
See World Order magazine Vol 4 Issue 3, 1986 for an article on Zarrin Muqimi-Abyanih written by her sister Simin Khavari.
See Bahá'í Teachings for the story of Nusrat Yalda’i, a mother of four children, three sons and one daughter, who was executed for her hospitality.
See Track Persia dated 25 January 2020 for an account of how female prisoners have been treated in Iranian prisons since the Islamic Revolution.
See the NYTimes story in which Khomeini attacks Reagan for supporting Bahá'ís.
In 1985 a 45-page booklet entitled The Story of Mona: 1965-1983 was published by Bahá'î Canada Publications, under the auspices of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canada.
Also in 1985 a music video called Mona and Children was made by Douglas John Cameron and friends.
In 2003 a play, A New Dress for Mona by Mark Perry was produced by the Drama Circle.
Lenz entertainment produced a screenplay entitled Mona's Dream. It was written by Houshang Touzie and Jack Lenz and won the 2010 Female Eye Audience Choice Screenplay Award. Facebook.
In June of 2017 the book, Our Friend Mona: The Remarkable Life of a Young Martyr by Azadeh Rohanian Perry and Mark E Perry (with the assistance of Mona's mother, Mrs. Farkhundih Mahmudnizhad) was published by Circle of Spirit.
Further details about the lives of the ten women as well as the history of their arrest and public execution can be found here.
||Martyrs, Shiraz 1983; Mona Mahmudnizhad; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Youth; persecution, Persecution, Education; Shahin Dalvand; Izzat Janami Ishraqi; Mahshid Nirumand; Simin Sabiri; Tahirih Arjumandi Siyavushi; Akhtar Thabit; Nusrat Ghufrani Yaldai; Zarrin Muqimi-Abyanih; Ruya Ishraqi
|2006 19 May
||Iranian security officials arrested 54 Bahá'ís in the city of Shiraz who were involved in a community service project, many of them in their teens and early 20's. They were not charged and all but three were released within six days. It was the largest mass arrest of Bahá'ís since the 1980's. [New York Times 1 June, 2006]
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; Youth
|2006 21 Dec
||The Education Department Management Security Office in Shiraz circulated a form to be completed by all students who belonged to religious minorities and the "perverse Bahaist sect". The form required not only detailed information about the student and his or her parents, but also detailed information on all the student's siblings. [Provisional Translation of the text of the letter]
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Education; Persecution
||In Shiraz, the Revolutionary Guard began excavation of some 200 square meters of the Bahá'í cemetery. The site, which had been in use since the 1920s, had been confiscated by the government in 1983 and the Revolutionary Guard had taken ownership of the site some three years earlier with plans to build a cultural and sports centre. It is the site of the remains of the ten Bahá'í of Shiraz who were hanged in 1983 for the crimes of being Zionists and teaching children's classes. [BWNS993, BWNS994]
||Cemeteries and graves; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution; BWNS
|2014 8 May
||Despite a worldwide outcry, the Iranian Revolutionary Guards continued destroying an historic Bahá'í cemetery in Shiraz. Between 2005 and 2012 some 42 Bahá'í-owned cemeteries were desecrated in a similar fashion. [BWNS993, BWNS1016]
||Cemeteries and graves; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution; BWNS
|2017 18 - 22 Oct
||The Iranian Bahá'í community was targeted during the bicentenary period. Between 18 and 21 October, some 19 individuals were arrested in Kermanshah, Tehran, and Birjand, and the homes 25 Baha’is were raided. Twenty-six Bahá'í-owned shops around the country were sealed off by authorities because the owners observed the Holy Day on 21 October. These closures occurred in Shiraz, Marvdasht, Gorgan, and Gonbad. [BWNS1215]
||Iran; Kermanshah; Tihran; Birjand; Shiraz; Marvdasht; Gorgan; Gonbad
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Bahaullah, Birth of; BWNS
||The Bahá'í community in Iran experienced increased pressures since the COVID-19 epidemic began in Iran in February. There was an upsurge in threats and persecution particularly in Shiraz, with an unprecedented number of new prison sentences, high numbers of people being returned to prison who had been given temporary leave due to the coronavirus outbreak. There was a fresh hate speech campaign against Bahá'ís in the national media. Since the Persian new year on March 20, the Bahá'í International Community reported, at least 3,000 pieces of anti-Bahá'í propaganda had been published in Iranian state media. The community was denied the right to respond publicly to these reports and accusations.
In Shiraz, some 40 Bahá'ís whose cases had been suspended for months, were summoned to court, part of a growing and unprecedented trend of the city’s Bahá'ís in recent years. One judicial official in Shiraz announced his intention to eradicate Bahá'ís from that city. [Iran Wire; BWNS1433; Archives of Persecution]
|2021. 5 - 7 Dec
||A three-day poster design workshop was held in Shiraz for the purpose of inciting hatred against Bahá'ís. This coincided with the beginning of another wave of security and judicial pressure on Bahá'í citizens in different cities of Iran.
The Visual Arts Festival (Moqaddas Nama) hosted the poster and caricature design workshop aimed at inciting hatred against the followers of the Bahá'í Faith. This workshop, organized by the Secretariat of Moghadas Nama and the Secretariat of the Revolution Poster and the Association of Designers of the Islamic Revolution (Beit,) specifically attacks the religious beliefs of the members of the Bahá'í community through poster design and graphic works. This program is part of the Iranian government’s ongoing campaign against the Bahá'í Community, which has routinely and systematically violated the citizenship and human rights of the Baha’s over the past four decades. Participants in the Anti-Baha’i poster workshop are offered millions in prizes. [Iran Press Watch]
|2023. 15 May
||The Bahá’í International Community announced the launching a global campaign, called #OurStoryIsOne, to honour the 10 Iranian women executed forty years prior and the long struggle for gender equality lived by women of all faiths and backgrounds in Iran for many decades and which continued in that country. The campaign started in June and spanned a year, with its most intensive phase taking place the first three weeks of June, leading up to the 40th anniversary of their execution on 18 June.
The BIC invited people around the world, whether as artists, musicians, filmmakers, or in other creative areas, to pay tribute in their name. Contributions included: songs about the 10 women, short videos about their lives, a memory of the women themselves, graphic arts, written work, social media posts, or public events and memorials, to honour the longstanding struggle and efforts towards gender equality in Iran.
Details about the 10 women and a recounting of the story of their arrest and public execution can be found here.
|Geneva; Switzerland; Shiraz; Iran
||Persecution, Iran; Bahai International Community
from the Main Catalogue
See all locations, sorted numerically or alphabetically.
- Báb in Shiraz, The: An Account by Mírzá Habíbu'lláh Afnán, in Witnesses to Babi and Bahá'í History, vol. 16 (2008). Recollections of the early years of the Bab and his family, and the times following his declaration; written by a relative. [about]
- Babi Pamphlet, A, by W. A. Rice, in The Church Missionary Intelligencer, 53:27 (1902). Review of an unnamed booklet sent to E.G. Browne, a "little manuscript book of 118 small pages, written in the beautiful Persian character," which was "originally composed before Behaullah’s death in 1892." [about]
- Bahá'í Shrines, by John Walbridge, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 3 (1989). [about]
- Browne and the Babis, by Arthur J. Arberry, in Shiraz: Persian City of Saints and Poets (1960). Brief history of the Babis and E. G. Browne's relations with them. [about]
- Declaration of the Bab (Poetic), by David Merrick (2008). A poetic meditation on Mulla Husayn's transformation at the Declaration of the Bab. [about]
- Eastern Persia: An Account of the Journeys of the Persian Boundary Commission 1870-72, by Major St. John (1876). Brief description of the town of Nírís [Nayriz], "the head-quarters of Bábism," and the road to Shiraz. [about]
- European Bahá'í Youth Conference in Innsbruck, by Universal House of Justice (1983-07-04). Challenges facing European Bahá'í Youth, followed by consolation to Bahá'í youth in light of the 1983 martyrdoms of young Bahá'ís in Iran. [about]
- First Recorded Bahá'í Fireside, The, by Christopher Buck, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 21 (2019). An episode from Browne's A Year Amongst the Persians which can be regarded as a first "fireside" — a meeting with Bahá'ís in Shiraz in March 1888. [about]
- Genesis of the Bábí-Bahá'í Faiths in Shíráz and Fárs, The, by Mirza Habibu'llah Afnan, in Witnesses to Babi and Bahá'í History, vol. 1 (2008). Detailed account of the early years of the Bab, events of the 1880s and 1890s, the Constitutional Revolution years, and appendices for the study of the Bahá'í community in Shíráz. [about]
- Gobineau's Account of the Beginnings of the Bahá'í Revelation, by Howard B. Garey, in World Order, 31:4 (2000 Summer). Short summary of the Bab's time in Shiraz and Mecca, circa 1843. [about]
- Light of the World: Selected Tablets of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2021). Tablets of ‘Abdul-Bahá describing aspects of the life of Bahá’u’lláh including the tribulations He suffered, events in His homeland, the purpose and greatness of His Cause, and the nature and significance of His Covenant. [about]
- Memories of the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh and 'Abdu'l-Bahá: Memoirs of Mírzá Habíbu'lláh Afnán, in Witnesses to Babi and Bahá'í History, vol. 4 (2005). Autobiography of a close confidant of the holy family. Includes appendices on Bahá'í historical places in Shiraz, the Afnán family genealogy, and excerpts from Houshmand Fatheazam’s diary [about]
- Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-1986: Third Epoch of the Formative Age, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
- Orange Tree, Myth of, by Universal House of Justice (1997-12-26). Refutation of the "miracle" of an immortal orange tree growing at the site of the former House of the Bab [about]
- Pilgrimage in Baha'u'llah's Writings, by Ahang Rabbani (2010-01). On pilgrimage to the Twin Shrines in the Holy Land and their Tablets of Visitation, to the House of the Bab in Shiraz, and to the House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad. Includes provisional translations of several Tablets of Visitation. [about]
- Provincial Politics of Heresy and Reform in Qajar Iran, The: Shaykh al-Rais in Shiraz, 1895-1902, by Juan Cole, in Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East, 22:1-2 (2002). Biography and political/historical context of "the poet laureate of the Iranian Constitutional Revolution," who was secretly a second-generation Bahá'í. [about]
- Tablet of Pilgrimage to the House of the Báb (Suriy-i-Hajj): Shiraz, by Bahá'u'lláh, in Rituals in Babism and Bahá'ísm, Pembroke Persian Series Vol. 2 (1994). [about]
- Tablets of Pilgrimage (Suriy-i-Hajj): Wilmette Institute faculty notes, by Iraj Ayman (1999). In the Aqdas, Bahá'í pilgrimage is enjoined to the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdad and the House of the Báb in Shíráz. This is not possible now, and pilgrims go to Haifa and Akka instead. How did this change occur? [about]
- Visit to Persia, A, by Guy Murchie, in Bahá'í News, 408 (1965 March/April). Notes from travels to Bahá'í holy places in Iran in 1964, on a trip made with special permission from the House of Justice; includes descriptions of the architecture of the house and shop of the Bab, the birthplace of Bahá'u'lláh, and the Síyáh Chál. [about]
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