Search for location "Nayriz"
|1845. Jul (and months following)
||The Báb was released to the custody of His uncle, Hájí Mírzá Siyyid 'Alí. [DB151, LTDT13]
Báb was asked by Mírzá Abu'l-Qásim to attend a Friday gathering at the Mosque of Vakíl to appease the hostility and the curiosity of some of the residents of Shíráz and to clarify His position. The exact date of His attendance is unknown. He made a public pronouncement that He was neither the representative of the Hidden Imám nor the gate to him, that is, His station was higher. Many of those who witnessed His address became partisans. [Bab94–8; DB153–157]
see DB152 for pictures of the above mosque.
This time has been described by Shoghi Effendi as the `most fecund period' of the Báb's ministry. It marks the birth of the Bábí community. [Bab89–90]
During this time He was asked to speak in mosques and in colleges and He addressed gatherings in His home. The clergy sent their most able mullas to refute and humiliate Him without success. He never attacked the government or Islam but rather called out the corrupt clergy and the abuses of all classes of society. His fame and acceptance among the population grew. [DB157note1]
A considerable number of the Báb's followers had congregated in Isfahan at His instruction when He informed them He would not go to Karbilá when He returned from Mecca as He had previously stated. Upon hearing the news of the confinement of the Báb, Mullá Husayn and his companions, his brother and nephew, left Isfahán where they have been awaiting further instructions. They travelled to Shíráz in disguise. Mullá Husayn was able to meet secretly with the Báb several times in the house of His uncle. The Báb sent word to the remainder of His followers in Isfahán to leave and to travel to Shíráz in small, inconspicuous numbers. Among those gathered were some who were jealous of Múllá Husayn and the attention he received from the Báb. They threw their lot in with the detractors and were eventually expelled from the city for the unrest they caused. [DB160-162; Bab102–3; MH128–9]
After a time the presence of Mullá Husayn in Shíráz threatened to cause civil unrest. The Báb instructed him to go to Khurásán via Yazd and Kirmán and told the rest of the companions to return to Isfahán. He retained Mullá 'Abdu'l-Karím to transcribe His Writings. [Bab90, 102–3; DB170; MH130]
The Sháh sent one of the most learned men in Persia, Siyyid Yahyáy-i-Dárábí, (a town near Nayriz) surnamed Vahíd, (the peerless one) to investigate the claims of the Báb. He became an adherent of the Cause of the Báb. To him He revealed some 2,000 verses at one sitting of five hours and among the the Surih of Kawthar. Vahíd and 'Abdu'l-Karím spent three days and three nights transcribing this Tablet. Siyyid Yahyáy-i-Dárábí wrote to the Sháh and resigned his post. On the instructions of the Báb he journeyed home to acquaint his father with the new Message. As a result of his conversion most of the inhabitants of the town of Nayríz later became Bábís. [Bab90–4; BBD216; BBRSM41; CH21; DB171–7; GPB11–12; TN7–8; DB171-172note 2; Tablet of Patience (Surih Íabr): Declaration of Bahá’u’lláh and Selected Topics by Foad Seddigh p370; RoB1p325-331] iiiii
Another learned scholar, Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Zanjání, surnamed Hujjat, became a believer after reading only one page of the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá'. Several thousand of his fellow townspeople in Zanján became Bábís. [Bab100–2; BBD111; BBRSM16; GPB12; DB177-179]
Mírzá Ahmad-i-Azghandí, yet another learned man, who had compiled traditions and prophecies concerning the expected Revelation, became a believer as well. [GPB12–13]
||Shiraz; Isfahan; Khurasan; Yazd; Kirman; Nayriz; Iran; Karbala; Iraq
||Bab, Life of; Vakil Mosque; Mosques; Mulla Husayn; Bab, Family of; Muhammad Shah; Shahs; Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi); Hujjat; Qayyumul-Asma (book); Mirza Ahmad-i-Azghandi; Tahirih; Mirza Ahmad-i-Azghandi; Abdul-Karim
|1850. 27 May-
|First Nayríz upheaval.
Vahíd traveled from Yazd towards Shíráz, eventually coming to Nayríz. He went to the Mosque of Jum‘ih where he ascended the pulpit and proclaimed the Cause of God. The governor moved against him and Vahíd ordered his companions to occupy the fort of Khájih. The siege that followed lasted a month. [B178, 204–5; BBR109–13; BW18:381; For23]
See RB1:325–31 for the story of Vahíd. See also GPB50, KI223.
See also B178–82; BBD171; BBR109–13; BBRSM28, 216; DB485–99; GPB42–4; RB1:264; TN245.
See BW19p381 for a chronicle of events.
The main events were:
- 27 May: Entry of Vahid into Nayriz; his address at the Jum‘ih mosque; the Governor made moves against him; Vahid ordered his companions to occupy the fort of Khájih..
- about 6 June: Arrival of Mihr-‘Ali Khan-i-Nuri with troops from Shiraz.
- about 8 June: Night sortie by Bábis routed troops.
- about 9 June: Prolonged fighting on this day led to many deaths on both sides.
- 17 June: Vahid, having received a promise of safety written on the Qur’án, left the fort for Mihr-‘Ali Khan’s camp.
- 21 June: The Bábis were, through treachery, induced to leave the fort, then set upon and killed.
- 24 June: The arrival in Shiraz of thirteen severed heads of Bábfs which were paraded through the town.
- 29 June: Martyrdom of Vahfd.
- 11 July: Mihr-‘Ali Khan arrived in Shiraz with Bábi’ prisoners and decapitated heads.
|Nayriz; Yazd; Shiraz; Iran
||Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi); Mosques; Jumih; Governors; Fort Khajih; Nayriz upheaval; Upheavals; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
|1850. 17 Jun
||At Nayríz, Vahíd received a message from the Governor offering a truce and a promise of safety written on the Qur'án. He, together with five attendants, leave the fortress and were received into the camp of his enemies where he was entertained with great ceremony for three days. [B180–1; BW18:381]
||Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi); Truces; Nayriz upheaval; Upheavals; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
|1850. 21 Jun
||End of the first Nayríz upheaval. [BBRXXIX, 112]
Vahíd was forced to write to his companions in the fortress to assure them that a settlement had been reached. The Bábís left the fort, were set upon and killed. [Bab181; BW18;381]
||Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi); Nayriz upheaval; Upheavals
|1850. 24 Jun
||The severed heads of 13 Bábís arrived in Shíráz from Nayríz. They were raised on lances and paraded through the town. [B182; BW18:381]
||Shiraz; Nayriz; Iran
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Nayriz upheaval; Upheavals
|1850 29 Jun
||Vahíd was martyred in Nayríz. [Bab182; BW18:381; DB495, 499; GPB42; RB1:265]
See DB494 for details of his martyrdom.
His body was dragged through the streets to the accompaniment of drums and cymbals. [RB1:265; For24]
See SDH13 for a respectful opinion of Vahíd expressed by an enemy of the Cause, one of the army chiefs who had fought against Vahíd.
See PG109-110 for the story of Jenabeh Vahid's show of reverence towards the Báb.
||Nayriz; Tabriz; Iran
||Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
|1853. 26 Mar
||Five Bábís, acting on their own initiative, murdered the governor of Nayríz, providing the spark for the second Nayríz upheaval. [BBR147]
||Nayriz upheaval; Upheavals; Governors; Persecution, Iran; Persecution; Assassinations
||Second Nayríz upheaval. [BBR147–51; BBRSM:217; BW18:382; DB642–5;]
The new governor of Nayríz, Mírzá Na‘ím-i-Núrí, arrested a large number of Bábís and pillaged their properties. The Bábís retreated to the hills to take up defensive positions against hundreds and then thousands of troops that had been called in from the region by the governor in Shiraz. [BW18:382; GPB17]
See BW18:382 for a chronicle of events by Moojan Momen.
See BBR147–51 for Western accounts.
- October: Mirza Na‘im-i-Nuri, the new Governor, began to treat the Bábl’s harshly, arresting a large number of them and pillaging their property. In response the Bábis fled to the hills and took up defensive positions there.
- mid—October: Mirzá Na‘i’m’s troops launched major attack on the Bábl’ positions in the hills during the night but were thrown back in much confusion and with great loss of life.
- 31 October: Bábis asked to negotiate terms.
- early November: Bábis tricked into leaving their positions then attacked and over a hundred killed. Some 600 women prisoners, 80-180 male prisoners and the heads of some 180 martyrs were taken to Shiraz.
||Nayriz upheaval; Upheavals; Mirza Naim-i-Nuri; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
|1853. 31 Oct
||Some 600 female and 80 to 180 male Bábís are taken prisoner at Nayríz and marched to Shíráz, along with the heads of some 180 martyrs. This fulfilled an Islamic prophecy concerning the appearance of the Qá'im indicating that the heads of the followers would be used as gifts. [BW18:382; KI245; For17]
||Nayriz; Shiraz; Iran
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Prophecies
|1853. 24 Nov
||The prisoners from Nayríz and the heads of the martyrs arrived in Shíráz. More Bábís were executed and their heads sent to Tihrán. The heads were later buried at Ábádih. [BW18:382]
||Shiraz; Nayriz; Tihran; Abadih; Iran
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
|1897 (In the year)
||Fifteen Bahá'ís were arrested in Saysán, Ádharbáyján. They were taken to Tabríz, imprisoned and fined. [BW18:384]
Three Bahá'ís were arrested in Nayríz on the orders of Áqá Najafí, the `Son of the Wolf'. [BW18:384]
The homes of several Bahá'ís in Hamadán were looted and ransacked after complaints by Jews of the town against Bahá'ís of Jewish background. [BW18:384]
||Saysan; Adharbayjan; Tabriz; Nayriz; Hamadan; Iran
||Aqa Najafi (Son of the Wolf); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
|1907 (In the year)
||Hájar, an elderly Bahá'í woman, was shot dead in Nayríz. [BW18:386]
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
||The third upheaval in Nayriz. Eighteen or nineteen Bahá'ís were brutally assassinated in Nayríz when the Constitutionalists took control of the city. [BBR369; BW18:386; DH71, 138; GPB298; RB1:268]
||Constitutionalists; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
|1942 13 Feb
||Ustád Habíbu’lláh Mu‘ammarí was martyred in Nayríz, Iran. [BW18:389]
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
from the Main Catalogue
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- Awakening: A History of the Bábi and Bahá'í Faiths in Nayriz, by Hussein Ahdieh and Hillary Chapman (2013). Eight items: The complete book in Spanish, sample chapter in English, reviews, audio interview, and video interviews and presentations, including one on "Bábí Women Of Nayriz" in the persecutions of 1850, 1853 and 1909. [about]
- Awakening: A History of the Bábí and Bahá'í Faiths in Nayriz, by Hussein Ahdieh: Review, by Robert Harris (2013). [about]
- Awakening: A History of the Bábí and Bahá'í Faiths in Nayriz, by Hussein Ahdieh: Review, in Payam-i Bahá'í (2013-09). English translation of a short review in Persian. [about]
- Awakening: A History of the Bábí and Bahá'í Faiths in Nayriz, by Hussein Ahdieh: Review, by Naysan Naraqi (2013-10-21). Brief review of book, and short interview with Ahdieh, conducted by bahaiblog.net. [about]
- Awakening: A History of the Bábí and Bahá'í Faiths in Nayriz, by Hussein Ahdieh: Review, by Anne Pearson, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 25:3 (2015). [about]
- Babi and Bahá'í Religions 1844-1944: Some Contemporary Western Accounts, by Moojan Momen (1981). A lengthy collection of first-hand reports and mentions of the Bábí and Bahá'í religions in contemporaneous accounts and newspapers. [about]
- Babi-State Conflicts of 1848-1853, The, by Siyamak Zabihi-Moghaddam (2003-12-23). Overview of four conflicts between the Babis and the Qajar state: one at Shaykh Tabarsi in Mazandaran (1848), one in Zanjan (1850), and two in Nayriz (1850, 1853). [about]
- Bábís of Nayriz, The: History and Documents, in Witnesses to Babi and Bahá'í History, vol. 2 (2006). Extensive collection of historical documents: autobiographies, narratives, genealogies and chronologies, the transition from the Bábí to the Bahá'í community, provisional translations, and a list of Bábí martyrs. [about]
- Bábism in Nayriz, by Hussein Ahdieh, in Encyclopaedia Iranica (2015). Brief excerpt on Nayriz and Sayyed Yahyá Dárábí (Vahíd), with link to article offsite. [about]
- Bahá'í History and Videos, by Hussein Ahdieh (2013-2022). Links to Zoom videos on a variety of topics: Kahlil Gibran, the life of Varqá, Bahá'í schools for girls and Tahirih's influence, martyrs in Nayriz, Abdu'l-Bahá in New York, and Harlem Prep School. [about]
- Eyewitness Account of the Massacre of Bahá'ís in Nayriz, 1909, by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in Lights of Irfan, 14 (2013). Shaykh Dhakariyya's rebellion in Nayriz culminated in the martyrdom of nineteen Bahá'ís on Naw Ruz, 1909, the same day Abdu'l-Bahá interred the remains of the Bab in the mausoleum on Mount Carmel. This is a history of both events. [about]
- Foreigner: From an Iranian Village to New York City and the Lights That Led the Way, by Hussein Ahdieh and Hillary Chapman (2019). Biography of a young boy in Nayriz, Iran in the mid 20th-century, his reflection on the sad society; his experience as a immigrant in the United States, struggle to make the American dream, and helped the innovative Harlem Prep, a Bahá'í inspired School.
- Making of a Survivor, The: A Foreigner's Story, by Hussein Ahdieh, in IranWire (2019-05-22). The author on his new book, growing up as a Baha’i in Iran, and how his faith and family nourished and taught him to be who he is today. [about]
- Nayriz Heroes: 22 Biographies of Bábís and Bahá'ís from Nayriz, Calligraphy of Ahmad Nayrizi, and Poetry of Vafá, by Hussein Ahdieh (2013). Bios of Muhammad Shafi, Nayrizi Vahidi, Abu Turab, Imam Jumih Shirazi, Ahmad Khoshnevis Nayrizi, Muhammad Nayrizi, Pari Jan Khanum, Shaykh Bahá'í, Jalal Misaghi, Rooha Ahdieh Misaghi, Muhammad Husayn, Shafi Rouhani, Ja'fari Yazdi, Ibrahim Khoshnevis, etc. [about]
- Social Basis of the Bábí Upheavals in Iran (1848-1953): A Preliminary Analysis, by Moojan Momen, in International Journal of Middle East Studies, 15 (1983). In the mid-19th century, Iran was shaken by unrest caused by the Bábí movement, which set off a chain of events that led on the one hand, to the constitutional movement in Iran, and on the other, to the establishment of the now world-wide Bahá'í Faith. [about]
- Tablet of Patience (Surih Sabr): Declaration of Bahá'u'lláh and Selected Topics, by Foad Seddigh, in Lights of Irfan, 15 (2014). This significant Tablet from Ridvan 1863 covers the Seal of the Prophets, appearance and presence of God, resurrection, and the Qayyum al-Asma. Includes context of Bahá'u'lláh's life and troubles during this period. [about]
- Western Islamic Scholarship and Bahá'í Origins, by Muhammad Afnan and William S. Hatcher, in Religion, 15:1 (1985). A critique of articles by Denis MacEoin, and a defense of Bahá'í interpretations of history vis-à-vis academic criticism. [about]
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