Search for location "Karbala"
|1831 (In the year)
||At the age of 12 Mulla Husayn finished his studies in Bushíhr and went to Mashhad, the most prestigious centre of religious study in Iran. In 1830-1 he relocated to Karbala to study under Siyyid Kázim. Mashhad is where the remains of the Eighth Imám, 'Alí Ibn Musa'r-Ridá are enshrined in the holiest Shi'ih site in Iran. [MH7-8; MH113]
||Karbala; Iraq; Mashhad; Bushihr; Iran
||Mulla Husayn; Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti
|1841 (In the year)
||Siyyid `Alí Muhammad (the Báb) went Karbalá where He attended the lectures of Siyyid Kázim-i-Rashtí, Shaykh Ahmad's successor. From Karbalá He went to Najaf before returning to Shíráz. [DB26-30; Bab42–4; MH25; RB3:254; SBBH15]
The followers of Shaykh Ahmad number about 100,000 in Iraq alone. [MH25, HotD25]
BBRSM13 says the Báb went to Najaf and Karbalá in 1839/40.
||Najaf; Karbala; Iraq
||Bab, Life of; Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti; Shaykh Ahmad-i-Ahsai; Shaykhism; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1843 10 Jan
||The sacking of the holy city of Karbalá at the hands of the Turks. Thousands of its citizens were killed even those who had taken refuge in the Shrines of Imám Husayn or 'Abbás. [BBRSM55, HotD10, DB36-37]
||Ottoman Empire; War (general); History (general)
|1843 31 Dec
||Passing of Siyyid Kázim-i-Rashtí, the disciple and self-proclaimed successor of Shaykh Ahmad, in Karbalá. Because Siyyid Kázim designated no successor, within a short period of time the Shaykhí school was split into several factions. The two largest were grouped around Siyyid `Alí Muhammad and Hájí Mullá Muhammad Karím Khán Kirmání. The first faction moved away from the outward practice of Islám towards a development of inner realities and ultimately a new revelation. The second emphasized the continuing role of the Prophets and the Imáms and sought acceptance from the Shí'í majority which had formerly excommunicated Shaykh Ahmad and Siyyid Kázim. [BBD126–7; MH26; SBBH1; TB6, Sayyid Kazim Rashti by Moojan Momen]
The latter, Hájí Mullá Muhammad Karím Khán Kirmání, became an enemy of the Báb. [SDH165; RoB1p331-335]
BBRSM9 for a brief account of his life and the Shaykhí school under his leadership. See MH28 for a picture. See DB43–5, MH46–7 for an account of a warning of his passing in a shepard's dream.
Bahá'u'lláh condemned him in both the Kitáb-i-Íqán (p.184-186) and the Lawh-i-Qiná.
See DB24-25, 40-42 for Siyyid Kázim's exhortations to his followers predicting the manifestation of both the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh.
||Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti; Shaykh Ahmad-i-Ahsai; Shaykhism; Siyyid Ali Muhammad; Haji Mulla Muhammad Karim Khan Kirmani; Shiism; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1844 10 Jan
||The arrival of Táhirih in Karbilá. She had learned of the views of Shaykh Ahmad and Siyyid Kázim and had corresponded with the latter from whom she received her name, Qurratu'l-Ayn, meaning "Solace of the Eyes". Against the wishes of her family she had left her home to join the circle of his students but arrived in Karbilá ten days after his passing. Convinced that the Promised One would soon appear she stayed on in that city as Siyyid Kázim's disciples were departing in their search. To one of them, her brother-in-law, Mírzá Muhammad-i-Alíy-i-Qazvíní, she gave a sealed letter and told him to deliver it to the One Sought. This he did and the Báb recognized her as one of the Letters of the Living. [B25-26; DB81note2]
She had had a dream in which a youth, a Siyyid wearing a black cloak and a green turban, appeared to her in the heavens, who with upraised hands was reciting certain verses, one of which she noted down in her book. Later on, when she had a copy of the Báb's Súrih of Joseph, she discovered that same verse which she had heard in her dream. [DB81note2]
||Tahirih; Shaykh Ahmad-i-Ahsai; Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti; Mirza Muhammad-i-Aliy-i-Qazvini; Letters of the Living
|1844. 22 Jan
||Mullá Husayn returned to Karbilá after a journey of two years in Persia. He had been on a mission in Isfahán and Mashhad where he had successfully defended the views of his master, Siyyid Kázim, before the leading clerics of those cities. [MH49]
Mulla Husayn, as the leading representative of the Siyyid's disciples, received mourners for three days in Karbilá. [DB47]
After a period of mourning and 40 days of prayer and fasting, Mulla Husayn in the company of his brother and his nephew, set out for Najaf where he visited the shrine and then proceeded to Persia following the last wishes of Siyyid Kázim that his followers quit Karbalá and search for the Promised One. The party went to Búshihr and then on to Shíráz. [MH50–55, HotD28; DB51]
See SI dust-jacket for a photo of the Shrine of Imam 'Ali.
||Karbala; Isfahan; Mashhad; Najaf; Bushihr; Shiraz; Iraq; Iran
||Mulla Husayn; Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti
|1844. 11 Aug
||The Báb sent Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí to Najaf and Karbalá to proclaim His Cause among the Shaykhís. In Najaf Mullá `Alí delivered a letter from the Báb to Shaykh Muhammad-Hasan Najafí, the leading Shí`í divine and the keeper of the shrines in Iraq. [BBRSM15; DB87-91; SBBH20–1, HotD46]
The Shaykh's rejection of the claim led to a violent debate. Mullá `Alí was taken to Baghdád and imprisoned there. After a public trial, a joint tribunal of Sunní and Shí`í `ulamá, he was sent to Istanbul. He was the first martyr of the Bábí Dispensation. It is significant that Mullá Hasan Gawhar, a leading figure of the Shaykhí school, participated in the condemnation as it marks the first major challenge to Bábism from a Shaykhí leader. [Bab27, 37–8, 58; BBR83–90; BBRSM17; BKG31; DB90–2; MMBA, BBR2p17, GPB10]
||Istanbul (Constantinople); Turkey; Iraq; Baghdad; Najaf; Karbala
||Bab, Life of; Mulla Ali Bastami; Ulama; Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Shaykhism; Firsts, Other; Trials; Court cases; Persecution, Court cases; Letters of the Living
|1844 2 or 3 Oct
||The Báb departed from Búshihr on His pilgrimage. [Bab57; MH119, 121, GPB9]
He instructed His followers to await His arrival in Karbalá. [DB86, 87; MH122; SBBH1:23]
He had been awaiting the letter from Mullá Husayn before starting on His pilgrimage. [DB123; MH117]
The vessel taking the Báb to Jiddah was probably the Arab sailing-boat named Futúh-ar-Ras`ul. [Bab69]
He joined the company of a group of pilgrims from Fárs. [DB76-77]
It was slow, stormy and unsteady sailing and the passengers were in constant dispute amongst themselves. [DB129note2]
The Báb, recognizing the difficulty in sea-travel, prayered that conditions might be improved. Nabil noted on page 131 "Within a short space of time, since that prayer was offered, maritime transport have greatly multiplied, and the Persian gulf, which in those days hardly possessed a single steam-driven vessel, now boast a fleet of ocean liners...". He goes on to attribute the Industrial Revolution to the impulse of the Revelation.
After twelve days the vessel made a rest-stop in Mascate for several days. The Báb attempted to convert a religious man of high rank but was unsuccessful. [DB129note2; [DB130note1]
||Karbala; Iraq; Jiddah; Saudi Arabia; Muscate
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Pilgrimage of; Mulla Husayn; Ships; Industrial Revolution
|1845. c. Jan
||Crowds gathered in Karbalá in response to the Báb's summons, among them was Táhirih. [BabI62; BBRSM15, 215; SBBH1:22]
||Bab, Life of; Tahirih
|1845 July and months following
||In Karbalá Táhirih revived the remnant of the Bábí community. She was considered a part of the radical element of Shaykhí Bábís because she believed that the Shaykhí tradition had been abrogated by the new Revelation. The new Bábí movement caused the Shaykhí leaders to unite in their opposition to the Báb and to redefine the nature of the school, toning down its more controversial teachings and moving back towards mainstream Shí`ísm. [BBRSM16–18]
|1845. Jul (and months following)
||The Báb was released to the custody of His uncle, Hájí Mírzá Siyyid 'Alí. [DB151, LTDT13]
Báb was asked by Mírzá Abu'l-Qásim to attend a Friday gathering at the Mosque of Vakíl to appease the hostility and the curiosity of some of the residents of Shíráz and to clarify His position. The exact date of His attendance is unknown. He made a public pronouncement that He was neither the representative of the Hidden Imám nor the gate to him, that is, His station was higher. Many of those who witnessed His address became partisans. [Bab94–8; DB153–157]
see DB152 for pictures of the above mosque.
This time has been described by Shoghi Effendi as the `most fecund period' of the Báb's ministry. It marks the birth of the Bábí community. [Bab89–90]
During this time He was asked to speak in mosques and in colleges and He addressed gatherings in His home. The clergy sent their most able mullas to refute and humiliate Him without success. He never attacked the government or Islam but rather called out the corrupt clergy and the abuses of all classes of society. His fame and acceptance among the population grew. [DB157note1]
A considerable number of the Báb's followers had congregated in Isfahan at His instruction when He informed them He would not go to Karbilá when He returned from Mecca as He had previously stated. Upon hearing the news of the confinement of the Báb, Mullá Husayn and his companions, his brother and nephew, left Isfahán where they have been awaiting further instructions. They travelled to Shíráz in disguise. Mullá Husayn was able to meet secretly with the Báb several times in the house of His uncle. The Báb sent word to the remainder of His followers in Isfahán to leave and to travel to Shíráz in small, inconspicuous numbers. Among those gathered were some who were jealous of Múllá Husayn and the attention he received from the Báb. They threw their lot in with the detractors and were eventually expelled from the city for the unrest they caused. [DB160-162; Bab102–3; MH128–9]
After a time the presence of Mullá Husayn in Shíráz threatened to cause civil unrest. The Báb instructed him to go to Khurásán via Yazd and Kirmán and told the rest of the companions to return to Isfahán. He retained Mullá 'Abdu'l-Karím to transcribe His Writings. [Bab90, 102–3; DB170; MH130]
The Sháh sent one of the most learned men in Persia, Siyyid Yahyáy-i-Dárábí, (a town near Nayriz) surnamed Vahíd, (the peerless one) to investigate the claims of the Báb. He became an adherent of the Cause of the Báb. To him He revealed some 2,000 verses at one sitting of five hours and among the the Surih of Kawthar. Vahíd and 'Abdu'l-Karím spent three days and three nights transcribing this Tablet. Siyyid Yahyáy-i-Dárábí wrote to the Sháh and resigned his post. On the instructions of the Báb he journeyed home to acquaint his father with the new Message. As a result of his conversion most of the inhabitants of the town of Nayríz later became Bábís. [Bab90–4; BBD216; BBRSM41; CH21; DB171–7; GPB11–12; TN7–8; DB171-172note 2; Tablet of Patience (Surih Íabr): Declaration of Bahá’u’lláh and Selected Topics by Foad Seddigh p370; RoB1p325-331] iiiii
Another learned scholar, Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Zanjání, surnamed Hujjat, became a believer after reading only one page of the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá'. Several thousand of his fellow townspeople in Zanján became Bábís. [Bab100–2; BBD111; BBRSM16; GPB12; DB177-179]
Mírzá Ahmad-i-Azghandí, yet another learned man, who had compiled traditions and prophecies concerning the expected Revelation, became a believer as well. [GPB12–13]
||Shiraz; Isfahan; Khurasan; Yazd; Kirman; Nayriz; Iran; Karbala; Iraq
||Bab, Life of; Vakil Mosque; Mosques; Mulla Husayn; Bab, Family of; Muhammad Shah; Shahs; Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi); Hujjat; Qayyumul-Asma (book); Mirza Ahmad-i-Azghandi; Tahirih; Mirza Ahmad-i-Azghandi; Abdul-Karim
|1845. 30 Dec
||The Báb's birthday fell on the first day of the mourning observance for the Imám Husayn. Táhirih, who was in Karbalá with the widow of Siyyid Kázim-i-Rashtí, instructed her relatives and the Bábís to dress in bright clothing and joyously celebrate the Báb's birth. This caused a considerable disturbance, even among the Bábís. Táhirih was arrested and expelled from the city. [RR305, SA217]
||Tahirih; Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
|1846 (In the year)
||Táhirih was sent back to Baghdád from Karbalá. She was lodged first in the house of Shaykh Muhammad Shíbl and then in the house of the Muftí of Baghdád where she stayed for three months. During her time in Iraq she enlisted a considerable number of followers and made a number of enemies among the clergy [Bab162; DB81note2; 271]
||Baghdad; Karbala; Iraq
||Táhirih provoked disturbances in Karbalá. Her radical interpretation of Babism and her assumption of leadership split the Bábi community between the more conservative Bábis and her own circle of devotees. [BBRSM17]
|1847 Jul to 1848 Apr
||The people of Máh-Kú show markeded hostility to the Báb on His arrival. Later they were won over by His gentle manners and His love. They congregated at the foot of the mountain hoping to catch a glimpse of Him. [Bab129; DB244–5]
At the beginning of the Báb's incarceration the warden `Alí Khán kept the Báb strictly confined and allowed no visitors. He had a vision of the Báb engaged in prayer outside of the prison gates, knowing that the Báb is inside. He became humble and permitted the Bábís to visit the Báb. [Bab129–31; DB245–8]
The winter the Báb spent in Máh-Kú was exceptionally cold. [DB252]
Many of the Báb's writings were revealed in this period. [GPB24–5]
It was probably at this time that He addressed all the divines in Persia and Najaf and Karbalá, detailing the errors committed by each one of them. [GPB24]
He revealed nine commentaries on the whole of the Qur'an, the fate of which is unknown. [DB31; GPB24]
He revealed the "Mother Book" of the Bábí Revelation, the Persian Bayán, containing the laws and precepts of the new Revelation in some 8,000 verses. It is primarily a eulogy of the Promised One. [BBD44–5; BBRSM32; BW12:91 GPB24–5; ESW165; SWB102, 159] It is possible that the latter part of the Persian Bayán was revealed while He was confined in Chihríq.
The Báb began the composition of the `smaller and less weighty' Arabic Bayán. [Bab132; BBD45; GPB25]
He stated in the Bayán that, to date, He had revealed some 500,000 verses, 100,000 of which had been circulated. [BBRSM32, GPB22]
In the Dalá'il-i-Sab'ih (Seven Proofs) the Báb assigned blame to the seven powerful sovereigns then ruling the world and censured the conduct of the Christian divines who, had they recognized Muhammad, would have been followed by the greater part of their co-religionists. [BBD63; BW12:96; GPB26]
The Báb wrote His `most detailed and illuminating' Tablet to Muhammad Sháh. [GPB26]
|Mah-Ku; Iran; Najaf; Karbala; Iraq
||Bab, Life of; Ali Khan; Bayan-i-Farsi (Persian Bayan); Bayan-i-Arabi (Arabic Bayan); Bayan; Dalail-i-Sabih (Seven Proofs); Bab, Writings of; Tablet to Muhammad Shah; Muhammad Shah; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1848 c. Jul
||Quddús was arrested and taken to Sárí where he was placed under house arrest in the home of Mírzá Muhammad-Taqí, a leading cleric. [Bab171; BKG50; DB300]
Táhirih was arrested and was later taken to Tihrán where she was held in the home of Mahmúd Khán, the Kalántar of Tihrán, until her martyrdom in August 1852.
Mullá Husayn left the army camp near Mashhad where he had been a guest of a brother of the Sháh. He planned to make a pilgrimage to Karbalá. While making preparations for the journey he received a Tablet from the Báb instructing him to go to Mázindarán to help Quddús, carrying a Black Standard before him. He was also instructed to wear the Báb's own green turban and to take the new name Siyyid `Alí. [Bab171; BKG50; DB324; MH174]
|Sari; Tihran; Mashhad; Mazandaran; Iran; Karbala; Iraq
||Quddus; Mirza Muhammad-Taqi; Tahirih; Mahmud Khan; Kalantar; Mulla Husayn; Shahs; Black Standard; Green turban; Turbans; Names and titles; Letters of the Living
|1849 1 Aug
||Death of Hájí Mírzá Áqásí at Karbalá. [Bab147; BBD19; BBR156]
The Báb, in a letter to the Sháh called him "manifest darkness" and "the devil whom thou hast appointed as thy Chancellor". [SWB26]
Shoghi Effendi designated him as the "Antichrist of the Bábí Revelation" and called him a "vulgar, false-hearted and fickle-minded schemer". [GPB164, 4]
||Karbala; Iraq; Iran
||Haji Mirza Aqasi; Prime Ministers of Iran; Prime Ministers
|1850 - 1851
||Birth of Mírzá `Alí-Muhammad-i-Khurásání, (b. 1850-1851 Mashad, d. 2 April 1928 in Tehran) later known as Ibn-i-Asdaq, Hand of the Cause.
His father, Mullá Sádiq-i-Muqaddas had left his native Khurasan and travelled to the city of Karbila where he saw the Báb. Subsequently he went to Isfahan where he encountered Mullá Husayn Bushrui who led him to the recognition of the Promised One. He and Quddús were later dragged through the streets of Shiraz and expelled from the city. [PG108; Bahá'í Encylopedia Project]
||Khurasan; Karbala; Iraq; Mashhad; Iran
||Ibn-i-Asdaq (Mirza Ali-Muhammad); Hands of the Cause; Hands appointed by Bahaullah; Births and deaths; Births and deaths
|1851 Jun c.
||Mírzá Taqí Khán met with Bahá'u'lláh and told Him that it would be advisable for Bahá'u'lláh to leave Tihrán temporarily. A few days later, He left for the 'Atabát (the Sacred Thresholds) on pilgrimage. [BKG66; DB587, 591]
||Tihran; Iran; Karbala; Iraq
||Mirza Taqi Khan; Bahaullah, Life of
|1851. 28 Aug
||Bahá'u'lláh arrived in Karbalá via Baghdád on His pilgrimage. He stayed for 10 months. [BKG67; DB593; GPB70]
See BKG68 and DB593–4 for those who became Bábís in Karbalá in this period.
||Karbala; Baghdad; Iraq
||Bahaullah, Life of; Pilgrimage; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1851 5 Oct
||Shaykh Hasan-i-Zunúzí, the Báb's amanuensis, had been sent from the Báb's side in Chihríq to live in Karbilá at a time just before the incident at Shaykh Tabarsí when all available believers were being dispatched to assist Quddús. Here, the Báb told him, he would meet the promised Husayn. Although he had never met Bahá'u'lláh before, on this day he recognized Him as He walked by the inner courtyard of the Shrine of the Imám Husayn. [DB31; BKG67–68]
There is a Shíh tradition that, in the Latter Days, 'Alí would re-appear twice, once before Muhammad and once after Husayn. The Báb's name was 'Alí-Muhammad and Bahá'u'lláh's name was Husayn-Alí, hence the prophecy was fulfilled. Shaykh Hasan wants to proclaim the advent of the Promised One however Bahá'u'lláh advises him that it is not yet time.[OPOP163, DB31-33]
See a letter from the Universal Housed of Justice dated 20 June 1991 para 7 where "the first person to recognize Bahá'u'lláh as a Manifestation of God" is discussed.
||Shaykh Hasan-i-Zunuzi; Bab, Life of; amanuensis; Bahaullah, Life of; Imam Husayn; Prophecies
||When the news of the martyrdom of the Báb reached Shiraz, Fatimah Bagum, the mother of the Báb, having previously
consulted with her Son about the journey to the `Atabat, (literally means the sublime thresholds.Thea are the shrines of six Shia Imams which are in four cities of Iraq, namely Najaf, Karbala, Kadhimiya and Samarra) decided to leave Shiraz. She wanted to put behind her the constant barrage of insults aimed at her family by the city’s divines.
Before she left, it was decided that Khadíjih Bagum would live with her half-sister in the house of the martyred-uncle of the Báb, Háji Mírzá Siyyid 'Alí, and the Blessed House be entrusted to Mírzá Muhammad-Husayn-i-Bazzaz, son of Mírzá Asadu’llah. He was not a believer in the Báb but a native of Shiraz and a close acquaintance of the family. This decision ushered in a period where the House was in the hands of non-believers. [MBBA167-168]
||Fatimih Bagum; Bab, Family of; Bab, House of (Shiraz); Khadijih Bagum (wife of the Bab)
|1852 Apr - May c.
||Bahá'u'lláh returned to Iran from Karbalá. [DB598]
He was the guest of the Grand Vizier for one month. [BKG74; DB598–9]
||Karbala; Iraq; Iran
||Bahaullah, Life of; Grand Viziers; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
||Bahá'u'lláh revealed His station and mission to Mírzá Áqá Ján in Karbalá. He was the first person to believe in Bahá'ú'lláh as "Him Whom God shall make manifest." [BKG109–11; GPB115–16; CoB181]
See a story about Mírzá Áqá Ján and his first inclination that Bahá'u'lláh was indeed the One promised by the Báb.
See a letter from the Universal Housed of Justice dated 20 June 1991 para 7 where "the first person to recognize Bahá'u'lláh as a Manifestation of God" is discussed.
||Bahaullah, Life of; Mirza Aqa Jan
||a few newspaper stories in English mention 'A certain "Babee"'|
|1863 (In the year)
||The passing of Hájí Mubárak, the servant of the Báb. He was born in 1823 and died at the age of 40. He was buried in the grounds of the Imam Husayn Shrine in Karbala, Iraq.
He had been purchased in Bushir at the age of 5 by Hájí Mírzá Abú'l-Qásím, the great-grandfather of Shoghi Effendi and brother-in-law of the Báb and was sold to the Báb in 1842, just prior to His wedding, at the age of 19 for fourteen tomans. [BP5, 18]
||Bushihr; Iran; Karbala; Iraq
||Haji Mubarak; In Memoriam
||Death of former Prime Minister Mírzá Áqá Khán, in Qum. He was buried at Karbalá. [BBR165]
||Qum; Iran; Karbala; Iraq
||Prime Ministers; Mirza Aqa Khan
|1881 (In the year)
||The passing of Fáṭimih Bagum, the mother of the Báb in Karbila. She herself was from a prominent Shírází merchant family; she could trace her background back to the Imám Husayn. The daughter of Mírzá Siyyid Muhammad Husayn, she married Siyyid Muhammad Ridá, and had several children with him, however only one survived; ‘Alí-Muhammad. Widowed shortly after, she went to live with her brother Hájí Mirzá Siyyid 'Ali who served as a father figure to Siyyid ‘Alí-Muhammad. On hearing that Siyyid ‘Alí-Muhammad was making a pilgrimage to the holy city of Karbilá, she was distressed and arranged the marriage between Him to His second cousin once removed: Khadíjih Bagum.
Originally, Fáṭimih Bagum did not accept her Son’s cause unlike her brother, however she kept an open mind. She was devastated on hearing the news of the treatment of her Son, and after His martyrdom her family kept it a secret from her for nearly a whole year. After hearing the news, the distraught Fáṭimih Bagum moved to Karbilá with her closest companions in December of 1851. She did not become a believer until some time later when Bahá'u'lláh instructed two of His faithful followers, Hájí Siyyid Javád-i-Karbilá'í and the wife of Hájí 'Abdu'l-Majíd-i-Shírázi to instruct her in the principles of the Faith
Shoghí Effendí pursued in trying to locate her grave, but it has not yet been found.
The Báb referred to Fáṭimih Bagum as "Ummu’l-Mu’minin" (mother of the believers) and "Ummu’dh-Dhikr" (mother of the Remembrance). Bahá’u’lláh referred to her as "Khayru’n-Nisa" (the best of women) and forbad all others, except Khadíjih Bagum, from adopting this title. [Wikipedia]
||In Memoriam; Fatimih Bagum; Bab, Life of
|1892 3 Sep
||Nabíl, inconsolable at the death of Bahá'u'lláh, committed suicide by drowning himself in the sea. [AB56; BBD167; BKG265-268, , 427–8; MF32-37; DH81; EB268-270; GPB222; Rob1p201-206]
He left a note paying homage to `Abdu'l-Bahá, writing the date of his death in the single Arabic word `Gharíq' (drowned), the numerical value of which is AH 1310 (AD 1892–3). [MF35; RB1:205]
See OPOP86 for "Pilgrim's Note" concerning what Jináb-i-Fádil said that 'Abdu'l-Bahá said about Nabil's suicide.
See DH81 for his own epitaph.
He was buried in the Muslim Cemetery near `Akká. [DH81]
He was one of 19 Apostles of Bahá’u’lláh designated by Shoghi Effendi in recognition of distinguished services that those nineteen loyal and devoted Persian Bahá'ís have rendered to their faith. [BW3p80-81]
Nabíl was born in the village of Zarand on the 29th of July, 1831. He had become a Bábí around 1847 after over-hearing a conversation between two men about the Báb. He accepted the faith of Bahá'u'lláh in 1858. During his years as a Bábí, Nabil traveled to Lorestan, Kermanshah, Tehran, and Khorasan; he met with the Bábís and Bábí leaders in those provinces to foster the Bábí ideology and inspire the believers to arise, consolidate, and expand the new Bábí communities. He also transcribed and distributed Bábí literature among the rank and file of the society to promote the Bábí faith. He was jailed in Sāva for four months because of his pro-Bábí activities. In September 1854, he set out for Baghdad and Karbala, where he stayed until October 1856. During late 1856 to July 1858, he traveled to Hamadan, his hometown Zarand, and many major Babi communities in the capital province and returned to Baghdad on 19 July 1858.
Nabil’s life as a Bahá'í is summed up in his extensive travels throughout Iran, Iraq, Turkey, the Caucasus, Egypt, and Palestine. In his early travels as a Bahá'í, he met with the Bábí communities to invite them to the Bahá'í faith; he attracted the Bábi leaders to the recognition of Bahá'u'lláh as the fulfillment of the Báb’s prophecies concerning the promised messianic figure and helped reinforce the belief of the new Bahá'ís in the teachings and principles that were being advanced by Bahá'u'lláh. Through these activities, Nabíl became an outstanding teacher, defender, and promulgator of the Bahá'í faith.
[Dawn over Mount Hira, "The Poet Laureate" p19-104, or p85-98, “Nabil-e aʿzam Zaranadi, Mollā Mohammad,” by Vahid Rafati, Encyclopædia Iranica, DB434-435]
Although known primarily as an historian in the West he was a gifted and prolific poet who devoted most of his poetry to the historical events in the Bábí and Bahá'í faiths. His most famous poem in couplet form about the history of the Bahá'í faith was published as Maṯnawi-e Nabil Zarandi in Cairo in 1924 in 65 pages and reprinted in Langenhain in 1995. In this poem he describes major historical events from the early days of the Bábí movement to the year 1869. His second poem, in 666 verses, deals with Bahá'u'lláh’s banishment from Edirne to Akka. Other historical poetry of Nabil consists of his poem titled “Maṯnawi-e weṣāl wa hejr” in 175 verses (pub. in Rafati, 2014, Chap. 6; Ḏokāʾi, p. 416) and his poem on the life of Āqā Moḥammad Nabil Akbar Qāʾeni in 303 verses (Ḵušahā-i az ḵarman-e adab wa honar 13, pp. 108-16). In addition to those poems, Nabil left behind a great collection of poetry in different forms, only a fraction of which has been published.
His other works in prose included a treatise on the Bábí-Bahá'í calendar, a treatise on Bahá'í inheritance laws (Fāżel Māzandarāni, IV pp. 1, 214), and his account on the event of the passing of Bahá'u'lláh (Nabil Zarandi, Maṯnawi-e Nabil Zarandi, Langenhain, 1995, pp. 67-108). But Nabil’s most celebrated work is Maṭāleʿ al-anwār, an extensive historical narrative of the Bábí faith, written in Akka in 1888-90, which was edited and translated into English by Shoghi Effendi as The Dawn-Breakers. The work was first published in the United States in 1932. [“Nabil-e aʿzam Zaranadi, Mollā Mohammad,” by Vahid Rafati, Encyclopædia Iranica; DB434-435]
|Akka; Zarand; Sava; Baghdad; Karbala; Cairo; Erdine; Turkey
||Nabil-i-Azam; Suicide; Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths; Cemeteries and graves; In memoriam
|1913 14 Apr
||'Abu'l-Bahá's plan had been to leave but His departure was delayed due to a request from the president of the Túránian Society, Count Pal Teleki, who later became the Hungarian Prime Minister two times.
In the afternoon 'Abu'l-Bahá visited Arminius Vambéry at his home again and some time later sent him a tablet and a carpet by the post. It was reported in "Star of the West" (February 1929) that this tablet was in possession of Arminius's son, Rusztem Vámbéry. [SBBR14p115, 125, AB387, SoW9Vol9p24]
At a meeting of the Túránian Society in the grand hall of the National Museum 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a lecture entitled "Peace Between Nations and Religions" to some 200 people. The talk was translated into Hungarian by Leopold Stark and into English by Mirza Ahmad Sohrab. [SBBR14p113; ABM318; Talk by Abdu’l-Baha Given in Budapest to the Turanian Society on 14 April 1913 (Provisional)]
'Alí Abbás Áqá, a Tabrízí carpet merchant, hosted a dinner party in His honour. Among those attending was the Turkish Consul. [AB387, MRHK367, SBBR14p113]
- See BW5p329 for the testament written by Professor Vámbéry and published in the Egyptian Gazette September 24th, 1913.
- See SUR73 for the story of Arminius Vámbéry, while travelling with a caravan and disguised as a dervish, encountered another caravan loaded with coffins bound for burial in the vicinity of the Shrines in Karbilá'.
- See The Dervish of Windsor Castle: The Life of Arminius Vambery by Lory Alder and Richard Dalby.
|Budapest; Hungary; Karbala; Iraq
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Arminius Vambery; Leopold Stark; Count Pal Teleki; Ali Abbas Aqa
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