|1831 (In the year)
||At the age of 12 Mulla Husayn finished his studies in Bushíhr and went to Mashhad, the most prestigious centre of religious study in Iran. In 1830-1 he relocated to Karbala to study under Siyyid Kázim. Mashhad is where the remains of the Eighth Imám, 'Alí Ibn Musa'r-Ridá are enshrined in the holiest Shi'ih site in Iran. [MH7-8; MH113]
||Karbala; Iraq; Mashhad; Bushihr; Iran
||Mulla Husayn; Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti
|1844. 22 Jan
||Mullá Husayn returned to Karbilá after a journey of two years in Persia. He had been on a mission in Isfahán and Mashhad where he had successfully defended the views of his master, Siyyid Kázim, before the leading clerics of those cities. [MH49]
Mulla Husayn, as the leading representative of the Siyyid's disciples, received mourners for three days in Karbilá. [DB47]
After a period of mourning and 40 days of prayer and fasting, Mulla Husayn in the company of his brother and his nephew, set out for Najaf where he visited the shrine and then proceeded to Persia following the last wishes of Siyyid Kázim that his followers quit Karbalá and search for the Promised One. The party went to Búshihr and then on to Shíráz. [MH50–55, HotD28; DB51]
See SI dust-jacket for a photo of the Shrine of Imam 'Ali.
||Karbala; Isfahan; Mashhad; Najaf; Bushihr; Shiraz; Iraq; Iran
||Mulla Husayn; Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti
|1848. 20 March
||Mullá Husayn and his companion, walking from Mashhad, arrived at Máh-Kú on the eve of Naw-Rúz. The Báb met them at the gate and together they celebrated Naw-Rúz, the fourth after the declaration of the Báb. Mullá Husayn stayed the night at the fortress. He remained with the Báb for nine days. [B131; DB257, 262; MH138, 143]
MH137 says Mullá Husayn arrived in Tabríz on 21 March.
See DB255–7 for story of the dream of `Alí Khán, the prison warden, preceding the arrival of Mullá Husayn at Máh-Kú. From this time on the pilgrims were allowed unrestricted access to the Báb. [DB258]
The warden requested that the Báb marry his daughter. [DB259; MH143]
||Mashhad; Mah-Ku; Iran
||Mulla Husayn; Bab, Life of
|1848. late Spring
||Mullá Husayn went to the house of Quddús in Bárfurúsh, Mázindarán, and realized that the `hidden treasure' was his recognition of the station of Quddús. [DB261–5; MH148–54]
Mullá Husayn proceeded to Mashhad and built a `Bábíyyih', a centre for the Bábís, as instructed by Quddús. He and Quddús took up residence in it and began to teach the Bábí religion.
See DB288–90 and MH158–68 for the result of this effort.
Among those who come to the Bábíyyih was Sám Khán, the chief of police. [MH158]
See MH156 for a picture of the Bábíyyih.
|Barfurush; Mazandaran; Mashhad; Iran
||Mulla Husayn; Quddus; Babi centre; Letters of the Living
||Quddús left Mashhad for Badasht. Mullá Husayn was prevented from attending. He was invited to stay in the camp of the soldiers garrisoned in the area to control a local revolt. The invitation amounted to a confinement but he was able to teach the soldiers while so confined. [BKG50; DB290; MH165–6]
MH160 says that it was at this time that the Báb wrote to all the believers in Persia and Iraq instructing them to go to the aid of Mullá Husayn and Quddús in the `Land of Khá (Khurásán). DB269ff implies this letter was written in 1845.
||Mashhad; Badasht; Iran
||Quddus; Mulla Husayn
|1848 c. Jul
||Quddús was arrested and taken to Sárí where he was placed under house arrest in the home of Mírzá Muhammad-Taqí, a leading cleric. [B171; BKG50; DB300]
Táhirih was arrested and is later taken to Tihrán where she is held in the home of Mahmúd Khán, the Kalántar of Tihrán, until her martyrdom in August 1852.
Mullá Husayn left the army camp near Mashhad where he had been a guest of a brother of the Sháh. He planned to make a pilgrimage to Karbalá. While making preparations for the journey he received a Tablet from the Báb instructing him to go to Mázindarán to help Quddús, carrying a Black Standard before him. He was also instructed to wear the Báb's own green turban and to take the new name Siyyid `Alí. [B171; BKG50; DB324; MH174]
|Sari; Tihran; Mashhad; Mazandaran; Iran; Karbala; Iraq
||Quddus; Mirza Muhammad-Taqi; Tahirih; Mahmud Khan; Kalantar; Mulla Husayn; Shahs; Black Standard; Green turban; Turbans; Names and titles; Letters of the Living
|1848. 21 Jul
||Mullá Husayn and his 202 companions left Mashhad for Mázindarán under the Black Standard. They arrived in September. [BBRSM26, 216]
||Mashhad; Mazandaran; Iran
||Mulla Husayn; Black Standard
||Birth of Aqa Buzurg Khurasani (Badí‘), Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Mashhad.
||Badi (Mirza Aqa Buzurg-i-Nishapuri); Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths
||Hájí Ákhúnd (Mullá ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí), Hand of the Cause, became a Bábí in Mashhad. [EB266]
||Haji Ákhund; Hand of the Cause
Haji Akhund (Mulla Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi); Hands of the Cause
||Hájí `Abdu'l-Majíd-i-Níshápúrí was executed in Mashhad. [BW18:383]
||Haji Abdul-Majid-i-Nishapuri; Iran, persecution
|1890 (In the year)
||Hájí Ákhúnd, Hájí Amín and Ibn-i-Abhar were arrested. Hájí Ákhúnd was imprisoned in Tihrán for two years; Hájí Amín was imprisoned in Qazvín for two years; and Ibn-i-Abhar was imprisoned in Tihrán for four years. [BW18:383–4]
Mírzá Mahmúd-i-Furúghí was arrested in Furúghí and sent to Mashhad. From there he was sent to Kalát-i-Nadírí where he was imprisoned for two years. [BW18:384]
In Mashhad a mob set out to kill Mírzá Husayn-i-Bajistání, but failing to find him they looted his shop. [BW18:384]
|Tihran; Qazvin; Kalat-i-Nadiri; Mashhad; Iran
||Haji Akhund (Mulla Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi); Haji Amin (Abul-Hasan-i-Ardikani); Ibn-i-Abhar (Mulla Muhammad Taqi); Mirza Mahmud-i-Furughi; Mirza Husayn-i-Bajistani; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Mobs; Persecution
|1898. 9 Feb
||Hájí Muhammad-i-Turk was shot, beaten and then burned to death in a main street in Mashhad by four religious students. [BBRXXX, 406; BW18:384]
For Western accounts of the episode see BBR406–17.
|1902 12 Oct
||Birth of `Abdu'l-Hamíd Ishráq-Khávarí, Bahá'í scholar, author and translator, in Mashhad.
||Abdul-Hamid Ishraq-Khavari; Bahai scholars; Births and deaths
|1914 27 Aug
||Áqá Mírzá Yúsif-i-Qá'iní was killed in Mashhad. [BW18:387]
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
|1915 14 Mar
||Shaykh ‘Alí Akbar-i-Qúchání was shot to death in Mashhad. Considerable anti-Bahá’í agitation follows and many Bahá’ís are forced to seek sanctuary. Three hundred people are arrested. [BBRXXX; BW18:387; GPB298–9]
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
|1928 (In the year)
||The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Mírzá 'Alí-Muhammad, known as Ibn-i-Asdaq. He was born in Mashhad in 1850/1851.
His father was Mullá Sádiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khursúní, referred to as a Hand of the Cause of God by 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [EM19]
While still a child he suffered imprisonment with his father in Tehran.
He begged Bahá’u’lláh permission to be a martyr. Bahá'u'lláh said that if one lived right he might attain martyrdom. In 1882 Bahá'u'lláh conferred the station of martyr on him calling him “Shahid Ibn-i-Shahid” (“Martyr, son of the Martyr”) .”
He was the first of the Hands of the Cause of God named by Bahá'u'lláh.
‘Abdu’l-Bahá gave him a special mission to teach members of the “ruling class” the Faith.
He was deeply involved in the planning and construction of the Mashriqu’l-Adhkár in ‘Ishqábád.
Ibn-i-Asdaq, Mírzá ‘Alí-Muhammad, Hand of the Cause of God, Apostle of Bahá’u’lláh, passed away in Tihrán. [BBD115, EM176, LoF9-12, RoB4p286]
For details of his life see EB171–6, BW6p103, Bahaikipedia
||Tihran; Mashhad; Iran
||In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause; Hands appointed by Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Apostles of Bahaullah; Ibn-i-Asdaq (Mirza Ali-Muhammad); Apostles of Bahaullah; Mulla Sadiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khursuni; Hands referred to as such by Abdul-Baha; Names and titles; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad
|1931 (In the year)
||The publication of Bahá'ism: Its Origins, History and Teachings by Reverend William McElwee Miller, a Presbyterian missionary working in Mashhad, Iran. He wrote the "All impartial observers of Bahá'ism in Persia are agreed that here in the land of its birth this religion...is now steadily losing ground...It is only a matter of time until this strange movement...shall be known only to students of history." [MCSp766]
In 1923 he visited Shoghi Effendi in Haifa. [SETPE1p62]
See 1974 when he published the updated version of his polemic entitledThe Bahá'í Faith: Its History and Teachings.
||Criticism and apologetics; William McElwee Miller
|1934 (In the year)
||The government of Iran took several measures against the Bahá’ís throughout the country. [BW18:389]
Nineteen Bahá’í schools are closed in Káshán, Qazvín, Yazd, Najafábád, Ábádih and elsewhere. [ARG109]
Bahá’í meetings were forbidden in many towns, including Tihrán, Mashhad, Sabzivár, Qazvín and Arák.
Bahá’ís centres in Káshán, Hamadán and Záhidán were closed by the authorities.
Some Bahá’í government employees were dismissed.
Some Bahá’í military personnel were stripped of their rank and imprisoned.
Bahá’ís in many places were harassed over the filling-in of marriage certificates, census forms and other legal documents.
||Iran; Kashan; Qazvin; Yazd; Najafabad; Abadih; Tihran; Mashhad; Sabzivar; Arak; Hamadan; Zahidan
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Tarbiyat School; Bahai schools; persecution, Persecution, Education
|1938 (In the year)
||Persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continued throughout the country. [BW18:389]
Bahá’ís marrying without a Muslim ceremony were investigated, including several hundred in Tihrán alone. Most were imprisoned pending trial and were imprisoned for six to eight months afterwards and fined.
Bahá’í meetings in Kirmánsháh, Záhidán, Mashhad and other towns were harassed by the police.
||Iran; Tihran; Kirmanshah; Zahidan; Mashhad
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution
|1938 5 Feb
||Bahá'ís in the Soviet Union were persecuted by the authorities. [BBR473, BW8p87-90, 179-81, BW14p479-481, SETPE1p155]
Five hundred Bahá'í men were imprisoned in Turkistán. [Bw8p89]
Many Persian Bahá'ís living in various cities of the Soviet Union were arrested, some are sent to Siberia, others to Pavladar in northern Kazakhstan and yet others to Iran. [BW8p87, 179, 184]
Six hundred Bahá'í refugees-women, girls, children and a few old men, went to Iran, most to Mashhad. [BW8p89]
The Bahá'í Temple in Ishqábád (now Ashgabat, Turkmenistan) was confiscated and turned into an art gallery. [BDD122, BW8p89]
The Bahá'í schools were ordered closed. [BW8p89]
Spiritual Assemblies and all other administrative institutions in the Caucasus were ordered dissolved. [BW8p89]
||Soviet Union; Russia; Caucasus; Turkistan; Ishqabad; Turkmenistan; Kazakhstan; Iran; Mashhad
||Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Persecution, Russia; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Bahai schools; LSA
|1951 (In the year)
||Throughout Iran, the government introduced repressive measures against Bahá’ís. [BW18:390]
Bahá’ís were dismissed from government positions. [BW18:390]
Fifty Bahá’í employees of the public hospital in Mashhad were dismissed. [BW18:390]
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
|1998 21 Jul
||Mr. Ruhu'llah Rawhani, a 52-year-old medical supplies salesman was hanged in Mashhad solely for religious reasons. Later that morning, Mr. Rawhani's family was summoned to collect his body and required, despite their protests, to complete the burial within one hour, under the supervision of Government intelligence agents.
In 1984, Mr. Rawhani was arrested and imprisoned for more than a year. According to an account given by Mr. Rawhani's relatives in the Australian Bahá'í News, Mr. Rawhani was tortured during his first imprisonment. He was arrested a second time about four years previous. The charge was apparently related to his work in the conduct of purely religious activities, such as prayer meetings and children's classes. He was released after 24 hours.
Mr. Rawhani was arrested for a third time in September 1997 and placed in solitary confinement in Mashhad. He had been accused of "converting" a woman from Islam to the Bahá'í Faith. The woman, however, denied that she had converted; she explained that her mother was a Bahá'í and that she herself had been raised as a Bahá'í. She was not arrested.
The killing of Mr. Rawhani was the first government execution of a Bahá'í in Iran in six years, and was coupled with the widespread arrest of some 32 Bahá'í educators in fourteen different cities throughout Iran in late September and early October. From the Daily Telegraph, August 2nd 1998.
[One Country Jul-Sep 1998 Vol 10 Issue 2,
One Country Oct-Dec 1998 Vol 10 Issue 3, Archives of Bahá'í Persecution in Iran]
See the message from the Universal House of Justice dated 29 September, 1998.
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; persecution, Persecution, Education
|2008 5 Mar
||Mahvash Sabet – a schoolteacher and mother of two and a member of the national-level administrative group for Iran, the Yaran – was arrested after having been summoned to Mashhad to discuss some matters regarding a Bahá'í burial. She subsequently spent 175 days in solitary confinement. On the 26th of May she was moved to Evin prison in Tehran. [BWNS Special Report]
This arrest marked a new wave of persecution of the Bahá'í Faith in Iran.
See Iran Press Watch 10561 for the background story to her arrest.
||Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; Evin prison; BWNS; Mahvash Sabet
|2010 8 Aug
||The sentence of 20 years in prison was announced for members of the "Yaran-i-Iran" or "Friends of Iran" in Branch 28 of the Revolutionary Court presided over by Judge Moqayesseh (or Moghiseh)*. The charges were several: "espionage", "collaborating with enemy states", "insulting the sacred", "propaganda against the state" and "forming an illegal group". The prominent civil and human rights lawyer who defended them was Mr Abdolfattah Soltani. He would later serve a 13-year sentence in the Evin Prison for engaging in his profession. Another member of their legal defense team was the attorney Hadi Esmailzadeh who died in 2016 while serving a 4-year prison term for defending human rights cases. After the sentencing the seven Bahá'í leaders were sent to Raja’i prison in the city of Karaj (Gohardasht) , about 50 kilometers west of Tehran. [BWNS789]
Raja’i prison in Mashhad has frequently been criticized by human rights advocates for its unsanitary environment, lack of medical services, crowded prison cells and unfair treatment of inmates by guards. [Wikipedia; Iran Press Watch 6315].
Soon after their arrival four of the Yaran were transferred to room 17 in Section 6 of this notorious prison. Section 6 is infamous in human rights circles. It has often been the scene of bloody fighting among prisoners and it is considered extremely dangerous. It is where certain political prisoners have been sent to vanish. At first the Mafia-like gangs incarcerated in the same facility began to refer to the Yaran as “infidels”. The authorities also tried to pressure other prisoners to insult and belittle the newly-arrived Bahá'ís, but it appeared that most other prisoners refused to comply with this suggestion. In fact, it was reported that most other prisoners were showing considerable respect to the Bahá'ís and tried to be hospitable. [Iran Press Watch 667]
* For a profile of Judge Mohammad Moghiseh see Iran Press Watch 17764 .
||Tihran; Mashhad; Iran
||Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases; Evin Prison; Gohardasht prison; Abdolfattah Soltani; Hadi Esmailzadeh; Moghiseh; Human rights; Prisons; BWNS; Z****
|2011 12 Feb
||Mahvash Sabet and Fariba Kamalabadi were transferred to the notorious Section 200 of Gohardasht Prison. The circumstances of the move raised concerns that it may have been orchestrated as a means of creating an insecure environment that threatens their lives.
Since their arrival at Gohardasht, the Bahá'í women – despite their own extremely challenging situation – had nonetheless been a constant source of comfort and hope to other inmates. The prison authorities apparently became alarmed that the two women began to receive signs of respect from a growing number of prisoners. As a justification for the increased harsh treatment, the authorities accused the two of teaching the Bahá'í Faith.
While Gohardasht was infamous for its harsh and unsanitary conditions, the Bahá'í prisoners were at first kept segregated from some of the more violent elements at the complex. They also had relatively frequent access to outdoor exercise areas. [BWNS807; BWNS821]
||Fariba Kamalabadi; Mahvash Sabet; Gohardasht Prison; BWNS; Yaran