Search for location "Isfahan"
|1835 (In the year)
||Birth of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Husayn, Mahbúbu'sh-Shuhadá' (`Beloved of Martyrs'), in Isfahán.
||Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Births and deaths
|1837 (In the year)
||Birth of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Hasan, Sultánu'sh-Shuhadá' (`King of Martyrs'), in Isfahán.
||Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Births and deaths
|1838 (In the year)
||Manúchihr Khán was appointed Governor of Isfahán. [BBR167]
||Manuchihr Khan; Governors
|1844. 22 Jan
||Mullá Husayn returned to Karbilá after a journey of two years in Persia. He had been on a mission in Isfahán and Mashhad where he had successfully defended the views of his master, Siyyid Kázim, before the leading clerics of those cities. [MH49]
Mulla Husayn, as the leading representative of the Siyyid's disciples, received mourners for three days in Karbilá. [DB47]
After a period of mourning and 40 days of prayer and fasting, Mulla Husayn in the company of his brother and his nephew, set out for Najaf where he visited the shrine and then proceeded to Persia following the last wishes of Siyyid Kázim that his followers quit Karbalá and search for the Promised One. The party went to Búshihr and then on to Shíráz. [MH50–55, HotD28; DB51]
See SI dust-jacket for a photo of the Shrine of Imam 'Ali.
||Karbala; Isfahan; Mashhad; Najaf; Bushihr; Shiraz; Iraq; Iran
||Mulla Husayn; Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti
|1844 Jul - Aug
||The intention of the Báb was to introduce the new Revelation slowly so as not to cause estrangement. He instructed the Letters of the Living to spread out and teach His Faith and to this end He assigned each one a special task, most often to their own native provinces. This is analogous to Christ's instructions to His disciples. He instructed them to record the name of every believer who embraced the Faith and to send their lists to His uncle, Hájí Mírzá 'Alí in Shíráz in a sealed envelope. His intention was to classify these lists once received into 18 sets of names with 19 names each (one Vahid meaning "Unity"). A list with the names of 18 Letters of the Living plus His own name would constitute the 19th set making one Kull-i-Shay (meaning "all things" with a value of 361). Thus fourteen Letters of the Living were dispatched; only Mullá Husayn and Quddús remained with Him. [BBRSM14–16, 36; SWB119; BBR2p36; DB92–4, 123; MH82–6; SBBH1:19]
To Mullá Husayn He had given the task of delivering a Tablet to Bahá'u'lláh in Tihrán and going to the court of the Sháh to apprise him of the Báb's cause. Mullá Husayn was not able to gain access to the Sháh. [B48–57; BBRSM15 BKG32–3; CH22–3; DB85-87, 96, 97; MH90–2, 102] He was also directed to send Him a written report on the nature and progress of his activities in Isfáhán, Tehran and in Khurásán. Not until He received this letter from Khurásán would He depart on pilgrimage. [DB123]
Mullá Husayn carried a Tablet revealed by the Báb for Muhammad Sháh to Tihrán . This was the first of a number of unsuccessful attempts to make him aware of the Revelation. [BBRSM20–1; MH102; SWB13]
Note: MH118-119 and DB127-128 indicate that Mullá Husayn had been in Tehran "between the months of Jámádí and Rajab". The first day of Jámádí, 1260 corresponds to 18 June, and the last day of Rajab to 15 August, 1844.
See RB2:303, `The Báb … sent Tablets to only two monarchs of His day — Muhammad Sháh of Persia and Sultán `Abdu'l-Majíd of Turkey.'
From Shiraz Mullá Husayn journeyed north to Isfahán where his message was rejected by the 'ulamás. Mullá Ja'far, the sifter of wheat, was the first and only one to embrace the Cause of the Báb in that city. There was however, a disciple of Siyyid Kazim, Mírzá Muhammad-'Alíy-i-Nahrí, who had been instructed to go to Isfahan some five years earlier to prepare the way for the advent of the new Revelation, who was receptive to the message of Mulla Husayn. He was instructed to go to Kirmán and acquaint Hájí Mírzá Karím Khán with the Message and then to travel to Shiraz. (This man's daughter was subsequently joined in wedlock with 'Abdu'l-Bahá.)[DB100]
Mullá Husayn then traveled to Káshán, about 130 miles from Isfahán. He had great success in that city but news of his conversion brought the wrath of the official clergy down upon him. [DB101note1; DB123-125]
He then went to Qum, another 100 miles from Káshán where he met with no success. After Qum he went to Tihrán. [MH98–101, DB101]
In Tihrán he took residence in a madrisih and first met with the leader of the shaykhí community, Hájí Mírzá Muhammad, but he failed to win him over. He did, however, manage to convince a number of souls in private conversations. [DB103note1] This same reference seems to indicate that his well-wishers assisted in delivering the Tablet to Muhammad Sháh and his minister, Hájí Mírzá Àqásí but they did not receive it. " the book was not submitted to thy presence, through the intervention of such as regard themselves the well-wishers of the government." [Selections from the Writings of the Báb page 13]
See Bab53–6; DB104–7, MH104–110 for the delivery of the Báb's Tablet to Bahá'u'lláh by the young student, Mullá Huhammad-i-Mu'allim, a native of Núr. Mullá Husayn did not meet Bahá'u'lláh on this occasion.
On receiving the Tablet of the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh accepted His Cause and asked that a gift of a loaf of Russian sugar and a package of tea be given to Mulla Husayn for delivery to the Báb. [DB106-107] See DB123-125 for his activities in Khán.
Mullá Husayn left for Khurásán, as he had been instructed, winning supporters for the Báb's Cause while there he wrote to the Báb regarding these new believers and Bahá'u'lláh's immediate response to the Báb's Revelation. [Bab56, DB128–9, MH118]
After Khurásán he travelled to Najaf and Karbilá where he was to wait for further instructions from the Báb. [DB86]
See MH121–2 for a discussion of the speed of Mullá Husayn's journey before the letter was dispatched to the Báb. It assumes that Mullá Husayn departed after the Báb met with all the Letters of the Living (date not before 2 July, 1844.) In fact both Mullá Husayn and Mullá 'Alíy-Bastámí had been dispatched before this meeting. [DB85-86, 92, HotD46]
||Kashan; Shiraz; Isfahan; Tihran; Mazandaran; Khurasan; Qum; Iran; Turkey
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Writings of; Bab, Speech to the Letters of the Living; Letters of the Living; Mulla Husayn; Bahaullah, Life of; Tablet to Bahaullah; Shahs; Mulla Jafar (sifter of wheat); Muhammad Shah; Sultan Abdul-Majid; First believers; Letters of the Living; Bab, Basic timeline; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Kull-i-Shay
|1845. Jul (and months following)
||The Báb was released to the custody of His uncle, Hájí Mírzá Siyyid 'Alí. [DB151, LTDT13]
Báb was asked by Mírzá Abu'l-Qásim to attend a Friday gathering at the Mosque of Vakíl to appease the hostility and the curiosity of some of the residents of Shíráz and to clarify His position. The exact date of His attendance is unknown. He made a public pronouncement that He was neither the representative of the Hidden Imám nor the gate to him, that is, His station was higher. Many of those who witnessed His address became partisans. [Bab94–8; DB153–157]
see DB152 for pictures of the above mosque.
This time has been described by Shoghi Effendi as the `most fecund period' of the Báb's ministry. It marks the birth of the Bábí community. [Bab89–90]
During this time He was asked to speak in mosques and in colleges and He addressed gatherings in His home. The clergy sent their most able mullas to refute and humiliate Him without success. He never attacked the government or Islam but rather called out the corrupt clergy and the abuses of all classes of society. His fame and acceptance among the population grew. [DB157note1]
A considerable number of the Báb's followers had congregated in Isfahan at His instruction when He informed them He would not go to Karbilá when He returned from Mecca as He had previously stated. Upon hearing the news of the confinement of the Báb, Mullá Husayn and his companions, his brother and nephew, left Isfahán where they have been awaiting further instructions. They travelled to Shíráz in disguise. Mullá Husayn was able to meet secretly with the Báb several times in the house of His uncle. The Báb sent word to the remainder of His followers in Isfahán to leave and to travel to Shíráz in small, inconspicuous numbers. Among those gathered were some who were jealous of Múllá Husayn and the attention he received from the Báb. They threw their lot in with the detractors and were eventually expelled from the city for the unrest they caused. [DB160-162; Bab102–3; MH128–9]
After a time the presence of Mullá Husayn in Shíráz threatened to cause civil unrest. The Báb instructed him to go to Khurásán via Yazd and Kirmán and told the rest of the companions to return to Isfahán. He retained Mullá 'Abdu'l-Karím to transcribe His Writings. [Bab90, 102–3; DB170; MH130]
The Sháh sent one of the most learned men in Persia, Siyyid Yahyáy-i-Dárábí, (a town near Nayriz) surnamed Vahíd, (the peerless one) to investigate the claims of the Báb. He became an adherent of the Cause of the Báb. To him He revealed some 2,000 verses at one sitting of five hours and among the the Surih of Kawthar. Vahíd and 'Abdu'l-Karím spent three days and three nights transcribing this Tablet. Siyyid Yahyáy-i-Dárábí wrote to the Sháh and resigned his post. On the instructions of the Báb he journeyed home to acquaint his father with the new Message. As a result of his conversion most of the inhabitants of the town of Nayríz later became Bábís. [Bab90–4; BBD216; BBRSM41; CH21; DB171–7; GPB11–12; TN7–8; DB171-172note 2; Tablet of Patience (Surih Íabr): Declaration of
Bahá’u’lláh and Selected Topics
by Foad Seddigh p370] iiiii
Another learned scholar, Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Zanjání, surnamed Hujjat, became a believer after reading only one page of the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá'. Several thousand of his fellow townspeople in Zanján became Bábís. [Bab100–2; BBD111; BBRSM16; GPB12; DB177-179]
Mírzá Ahmad-i-Azghandí, yet another learned man, who had compiled traditions and prophecies concerning the expected Revelation, became a believer as well. [GPB12–13]
||Shiraz; Isfahan; Khurasan; Yazd; Kirman; Nayriz; Iran; Karbala; Iraq
||Bab, Life of; Vakil Mosque; Mosques; Mulla Husayn; Bab, Family of; Muhammad Shah; Shahs; Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi); Hujjat; Qayyumul-Asma (book); Mirza Ahmad-i-Azghandi; Tahirih; Mirza Ahmad-i-Azghandi; Abdul-Karim
|1846 19 Mar
||The Báb bequeathed all His possessions to His mother and His wife and revealed a special prayer for His wife to help her in times of sorrow. He told His wife of His impending martyrdom. He moved to the house of His uncle Hájí Mírzá Siyyid `Alí. He told the Bábís in Shíráz to go to Isfahán. [GPB14; KB21–2; TB103–5, LTDT13; DB190-192]
||Shiraz; Isfahan; Iran
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Family of; Prayer; Haji Mirza Siyyid Ali
|1846 23 – 24 Sep
||The Báb departed for Isfahán after a sojourn in Shíráz of less than 15 months. [B105–6; BBRSM216; BW18:380; TN9, SBBR1pxxviii]
TN9 says that the Báb left Shíráz `the morning after' the night He saved the children from cholera.
Bab105 says he left `in the last days of September.
||Shiraz; Isfahan; Iran
||Bab, Life of
|1846 Sep - Oct
||On His approach to Isfahan the Báb wrote to Manúchihr Khán, the governor-general of Isfahán, and asked him where He should take shelter. The governor requested that Siyyid Muhammad, the Imám-Jum`ih of Isfahán, accommodate Him. During His stay of 40 days the Báb impressed His host as well as many of the clerics. [Bab109–10, 13; DB199–202, 208]
See Bab108–9 for information on Manúchihr Khán.
It was during His six-month stay in Isfahán that the Báb took a second wife, Fátimih, the sister of a Bábí from that city. She was the sister of Mulla Rajab-`Alí Isfahání. [RB1:249]
See Light of the World:
Selected Tablets of 'Abdu'l-Bahá Section 28 para 6 for information on this and additional marriages of Mírzá Yahyá while in Baghdad.
- She became the 6th wife of Mírzá Yahyá in 1854 - 1856. He married her in Baghdad during Bahá'u'lláh's absence in Sulaymaniyah, and divorced her about a month later, giving her in marriage to Sayyid Muhammad Isfahani. [The Cyprus Exiles by Moojan Momen]
||Bab, Life of; Manuchihr Khan; Governor-generals; Siyyid Muhammad (Imam-Jumih); Fatimih; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal)
|1846 c. Nov
||Manúchihr Khán arranged a meeting between the Báb and the clerics to silence their opposition. After the encounter, about 70 of them meet and issued a death-warrant. [Bab112–13; DB205–9]
||Manuchihr Khan; Bab, Life of; Death-warrant
|1846. date uncertain
||The Sháh had already instructed the governor, Manúchihr Khán to send the Báb to Tihrán. Seeking to discredit the Báb in the eyes of the Shah, Hájí Mírzá Áqási incited the mullas of Isfahan to condemn Him. The Imám-Jum'ih, knowing that about seventy of the leading clerics of the city had signed His death warrant, he, himself refused to endorse it and fearing for the safety of the Báb, devised a scheme to have the Báb escorted from Isfahán but then secretly returned to the governor's residence. The Báb remained there for four months with only three of His followers apprised of His whereabouts. These four months have been described as having been the calmest in His Ministry. [Bab113–16; DB209–211, 213; TN9–11]
The governor offered all of his resources to try to win the Sháh over to His Cause but the Báb declined his offer saying that the Cause will triumph through the `poor and lowly'. [Bab115–16; DB212–213]
|Tihran; Isfahan; Iran
||Shah; Manuchihr Khan; Bab, Life of; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1847. 4 Mar
||The passing of Manúchihr Khán. His death had been predicted by the Báb 87 days earlier. The governor had made the Báb the beneficiary of his vast holdings, estimated to be 40 million francs, but his nephew Gurgín Khán appropriated everything after his death. [Bab116; DB212Note1, 213–214]
Before the death of Manúchihr Khán the Báb instructed His followers to disperse throughout Káshán, Qum and Tihrán. [B115; DB213–14] Gurgín Khán, in his role as the new governor, informed the Sháh that the Báb wss in Isfahán and had been sheltered by Manúchihr Khán. The Sháh ordered that the Báb be taken to Tihrán incognito. The Báb, escorted by Nusayrí horsemen, set out for Tihrán soon after midnight. [Bab116, 118; DB215–116; TN11]
||Tihran; Isfahan; Iran
||Manuchihr Khan; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Bab, Life of; Gurgin Khan; Nusayri horsemen; Horses
|1847. c. May
||Birth of Fátimih (Munírih) Khánum, wife of `Abdu'l-Bahá, in Isfahán.
Daughter of Mírzá Muhammad-'Alí. [DB208]
See MKML2-14 and DB208-209 for the story of her family and her conception.
See MH96 for information on Munírih, future wife of `Abdu'l-Bahá.
See CH84 for her account of a dream she had as a young child.
She was first cousin to the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs. [CH86]
See MKML22-24 for the story of her first marriage to the younger brother of the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs.
See MKML26-44 for the story of her trip from Iran to Mecca and then to the Holy Land in the company of Shaykh Salman.
||Munirih Khanum; Abdul-Baha, Family of; Births and deaths; Shaykh Salman
||Upheaval at Najafábád
Several hundred Bahá'ís were arrested by Shaykh Muhammad-Báqir (later stigmatized as ‘the Wolf' by Bahá'u'lláh) and taken to Isfahán to be put to death. He was dissuaded from this plan by other ‘ulamá of Isfahán. Two of the prisoners were executed, 18 were sent to Tihrán and the remainder were sent back to Najafábád where they were severely beaten. Those sent to Tihrán were put in a dungeon but released after three months by the Sháh. Two of these were beaten then executed upon their return from Tihrán on the order of Shaykh Muhammad-Báqir. [BBD213; BBR268–9; BW18:382]
||Najafabad; Isfahan; Tihran; Iran
||Shaykh Muhammad-Baqir; Wolf; Najafabad upheaval; Upheavals
||Shaykh Muhammad-Baqir, ‘the Wolf’, ordered the arrest of several hundred Bábis and had them brought to Iṣfahán. Mirzá Habibu’lláh and Ustzád Husayn-‘Ali-i-Khayyat were executed and a number of the prisoners were sent on to Ṭihrán where they languished in prison for several months before being set free. On their return to Iṣfahán, Haji Mullá Hasan and Hájí Muhammad-Sádiq were beaten and then executed in June. [BW18p382]
||Najafahad; Iṣfahan; Iran
||Shaykh Muhammad-Baqir; The Wolf; Persecution, Iran
|1872. c. 1872
||Bahá'u'lláh tasked Shaykh Salmán to escort Munírih Khánum (Fátimih Khánum) to `Akká to marry `Abdu'l-Bahá. She traveled from her home in Isfahan to Shíráz where she stayed with the wife of the Báb then went to Mecca for pilgrimage. From Mecca she traveled to `Akká. [MKBM26-44; RoB2p384-386]
DH45 says she was called to the Holy Land from December 1871 to January 1872.
BKG347 says she performed the pilgrimage in February 1873.
||Isfahan; Iran; Shiraz; Mecca; Akka
||Munirih Khanum; Shaykh Salman
||Shaykh Muhammad-Báqir, the Wolf, has 20 or more Bahá'ís arrested in Isfahán. [BW18:383]
||Shaykh Muhammad-Baqir; Wolf
|1874. 8 May
||The arrival of the eldest son of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh, Sultán-Mas'úd Mírzá, Zillu's-Sultán, in Isfahán as governor. [BBR269]
Within a few days of the arrival of Zillu's-Sultán in Isfahán, a general persecution of Bahá'ís began. [BBRXXXIX, 269–70]
This can be traced to Shaykh Muhammad Báqir, the `Wolf'. [BBR270]
See SDH104 for comment by Bahá'u'lláh on a challenge made by Shaykh Muhammad-Báqir.
For Western reports of this outburst see BBR270–3.
||Sultan-Masud Mirza; Governors; Zillus-Sultan; Shaykh Muhammad-Baqir; Wolf
|1875 (In the year)
||The `ulamá arouse the rabble against the Bahá'ís in Sidih, Isfahán. Several Bahá'ís were imprisoned, including Nayyir and Síná. [BW18:383]
||Sidih; Isfahan; Iran
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
||Mullá Kázim-i-Tálkhunchi'í was executed in Isfahán. [BBR273–4; BW18:383]
|1879. 17 Mar
||The martyrdom of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Hasan, the `King of Martyrs' (Sultánu'sh-Shuhadá), and Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Husayn, the `Beloved of Martyrs'. [BW18:383]
Their martyrdom was instigated by Mír Muhammad-Husayn, the Imám-Jum'ih, stigmatized by Bahá'u'lláh as the `she-serpent', who owed the brothers a large sum of money. [GPB200–1, ARG172, SDH104]
Shaykh Muhammad-Báqir, the `Wolf', pronounced the death sentence on the two brothers and the Zillu's-Sultán ratified the decision. [GPB201]
The brothers were put in chains, decapitated and dragged to the Maydán-i-Sháh for public viewing. [GPB201]
For Western accounts of their martyrdom see BBR274–6.
See SDH112 for the story of the pilgrimage of their families to the Holy Land.
See BW11:594 for a picture of the memorial to the King and the Beloved of Martyrs.
Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Hasan, the `King of Martyrs' (Sultánu'sh-Shuhadá) was appointed as one of the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh.
||Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Mir Muhammad-Husayn; Shaykh Muhammad-Baqir; Wolf; Zillus-Sultan; Apostles of Baha'u'llah; Sultanu'sh-Shuhada
|1882 (In the year)
||Mírzá `Alí-Muhammad Varqá was arrested in Yazd. He is sent to Isfahán where he was imprisoned for a year. [BW18p383]
||Yazd; Isfahan; Iran
||Varqa, Mirza Ali-Muhammad; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; Varqa
|1883 (In the year)
||Six Bahá'ís were arrested in Yazd and sent to Isfahán in chains. BW18:383]
Four Bahá'ís were arrested in Sarvistán, Fárs, and sent to Shíráz where they are bastinadoed. [BW18:383]
|Yazd; Isfahan; Sarvistan; Fars; Shiraz; Iran
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
|1888. 23 Oct
||The martyrdom of Mírzá Ashraf of Ábádih in Isfahán. He was hanged, his body burnt and left hanging in the market. Later his body was buried beneath a wall. [BBRXXIX, 277–80; BW18:383; GPB201]
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
||Áqá Najafí, the `Son of the Wolf', initiated a campaign against the Bahá'ís in Isfahán, Sidih and Najafábád. [BW18:383]
||Isfahan; Sidih; Najafabad; Iran
||Aqa Najafi (Son of the Wolf)
|1889. 17 Jul
||Upheaval in Najafábád: Áqá Najafí, the `Son of the Wolf', drove over a hundred Bahá'ís out of Sidih and Najafábád. They took sanctuary in the Telegraph Office and in the stables of the governor of Isfahán.
See BBR280–4 for Western reporting of the episode.
What follows is the account from BW18p383 by Moojan Momen:
- 17 July; Isfahan, Sidih and Najafabad: Aqá Najafi, the ‘Son of the Wolf, having initiated a campaign against the Bahá’ís in June, on this day, drove over one hundred Bahá’ís out of Sidih and Najafábád: they took sanctuary in the Telegraph Office and in the stables Of the Governor in Iṣfahán.
- 18 July: They were persuaded to leave the Telegraph Office after being assured that they would receive protection in their villages.
- August: Bahá’ís of Sidih and Najafábád, having received no help, went to Ṭihrán to petition the Sháh.
- 25 February 1890: On their return from Ṭihrán with the Shah‘s decree permitting their return home, seven were killed as they tried to return to Sidih.
|Najafabad; Sidih; Isfahan; Iran
||Aqa Najafi (Son of the Wolf); Najafabad upheaval; Upheavals
|1889. 18 Jul
||The Bahá'ís were persuaded to leave the Telegraph Office in Isfahán after being assured that they would receive protection in their villages. [BW18:383]
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
|1903. 03 May
||Upheaval at Rasht. [BBRXXX, 373]
See BW18p385 for a chronicle of events.
The Bahá'ís take sanctuary at the Russian Consulate. [BBR376]
For Western accounts of the episode see BBR377–385]
- 3 May: Agitation against Bahá’í’s following publication of photograph of the Bahá’í community; several Bahá’ís beaten.
- May: Mob disrupted a Bahá’í funeral, exhumed body and burned it.
- May: Renewed uproar in the town following the placing of a forged placard at the door of the local mujtahid, Haji Khumami.
- 17 May: Two leading Bahá’ís, Ibtihaju'l-Mulk and Mudabbiru’l-Mamalik, expelled from the town.
|Rasht; Isfahan; Iran
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution; Rasht upheaval; Isfahan upheaval; Upheavals; Russian consulate
|1903. 23 - 28 May
||Upheaval in Isfahan: Muhammad-Javad-i-Sarraf seized was by students of Aqa Najafi and beaten severely; this caused a large number of Bahá’ís to take sanctuary in the Russian Consulate.
28 May: Large mob gathered outside Russian Consulate and beat Bahá’ís as they left; Sayyid Abu’l-Qasim-i-Mamani, aged 90, died as a result of the injuries he received.
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Russian consulate; Persecution, Mobs; Russian consulate
||At the request of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, Hájí Mírzá Hadar-'Alí wrote Bahá'í Martyrdoms in Persia in the Year 1903 AD.
||Yazd; Isfahan; Iran
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Yazd upheaval
|1904 (In the year)
||The publication of Bahá'í Martyrdoms in Persia in the Year 1903 AD
by Hájí Mírzá Haydar-Alí Isfaháni and
translated by Youness Afroukhteh. A second edition was published in 1917.
||Yazd; Isfahan; Iran
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Publications; Yazd upheaval
|1909 8 Nov
||Hájí Haydar, a leading Bahá'í of Najafábád, was shot and killed at Isfahán. [BBR432]
BRXXX and BW18:387 says this occurred on 5 November.
For Western accounts of the incident see BRR432–4.
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
|1911 23 Aug
||'Abdu'l-Bahá went for a carriage ride in the nearby hills. ["With 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Switzerland" by Juliet Thompson, SoW Vol 2 no 14 (Nov 23, 1911) p9-13, ABF15]
Later that day, by chance, 'Abdu'l-Bahá encountered the Persian prince, Sultán-Mas'ud Mírzá Zillu's-Sultán (1850-1918), the eldest son of Násirid-/dín Sháh, (1850-1918) in the Parc Hotel. He was in voluntary exile in Europe accompanied by his four sons. At various times, he had been the governor or governor-general of various provinces in Iran from 1862 to 1907 and had persecuted the Bahá'ís zealously. He was responsible for ratifying the execution of the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs in 1879. Upon meeting 'Abdu'l-Bahá he presented his excuses but 'Abdu'l-Bahá forgave him by saying "All those things are in the past. Never think of them again." [DJT172-3, ABF17; ABW411]
Annie Boylan arrived in Thonon-les-Bains from America by way of Lausanne. 'Abdu'l-Bahá is reported to have told her that the building of the Shrine of the Báb was the fulfillment of the prophecy that "the Lord would come and rebuild the temple that had been torn down". He added that the Tomb of the Báb and that of Bahá'u'lláh were considered the first Mashriqu’l-Adhkar. [SoW vol 11. no. 1 (March 21, 1920) p1-15, ABF18] iiiii
- Annie Boylan had been on pilgrimage in October of 1908. [WMSH60]
|Thonon-les-Bains; France; Isfahan; Iran
||Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Zillus-Sultan; Annie Boylan; Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Other; Persecution
||The tombs of the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs in Isfahán were demolished by a mob. [BBR437]
For Western responses see BBR437-9.
||Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Cemeteries and graves; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution; Persecution, Mobs
|1933 23 Oct
||Keith Ransom-Kehler died of smallpox in Isfahán after a year of intensive travel around Iran. [BW5:24, 398; BN No 80 January 1934 p11]
For her obituary see BW5:389–410.
She was buried near the grave of the King of Martyrs. [BW5:398]
For a picture of her grave see BW5:399.
Shoghi Effendi named her America’s ‘first and distinguished martyr’. [BW5:398]
Shoghi Effendi elevated her to the rank of Hand of the Cause on 28 October, 1933. [BW5:398, MoCxxii]
See message from the Guardian dated 30 October 1933.
For her mission in Iran see BW5:23–7.
See also PP306–7.
See Other People Other Places by Marzieh Gail (pages 176-181) for a pen portrait of Keith Ransom-Kehler.
See Bahá'í Chronicles.
Photo of her grave. [BW9p68]
||Keith Ransom-Kehler; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Cemeteries and graves; Names and titles; Firsts, Other
||A Memorial to Keith Ransom Kehler was erected in Isfahan to
commemorate her work in Iran. She was the second American Bahá'í to die in Iran while serving the Cause. See picture. [BN No 169 Jul 1944 p8
||Keith Ransom-Keller; In Memoriam
|1955 16 May
||The Bahá’í centre at Isfahán, Iran, was taken over. [BW18:390]
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Haziratul-Quds
|1997 4 Jul
||Masha'llah Enayati, a 63-year-old man, died in custody while in prison in Isfahan after being severely beaten. [One Country Jul-Sep 1998 Vol 10 Issue 2]
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
|1999 19 Apr
||The Islamic Revolutionary Court in Isfahan sentenced Sina Hakiman (10 yrs), Farzad Khajeh Sharifabadi (7 yrs), Havivullhh Ferdosian Najafabadi (7 yrs) and Ziaullah Mirzapanah (3yrs) for crimes against national security. All four were among the thirty-six who were arrested in late September and in early October, 1998 in a concerted government crackdown against Bahá’í education in fourteen cities in Iran.
It was reported that over 500 homes were raided in an attempt to crack down on the Bahá’í Open University. Files, equipment and other property used by the University were seized. From report by Human Rights Watch Academic Freedom Committee.
||Bahai Institute for Higher Education (BIHE); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Education; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases; Human Rights; Education; persecution,
|2008 27 - 28 Sep
||The Bahá'í Cemetery of Isfahan, known as Gulestan-e Javid [Eternal Garden], was attacked by a certain group and some 2,500 trees and an irrigation system were destroyed. Windows of a hall at the end of the cemetery were broken and the walls were blackened by incendiary materials.
[Iran Press Watch 35; Iran Press Watch 48]
See youtube video.
||Persecution, denial of burial
|2020. 18 Nov
||The United Nations General Assembly had passed a resolution condemning human rights violations in Iran and calling on Iran to honour the human rights of all its citizens, including members of the Bahá'í faith.
The resolution asks Iran to “eliminate, in law and practice… all forms of discrimination on the basis of thought, conscience, religion or belief, including economic restrictions… [and] the denial of and restrictions on access to education, including for members of the Bahá'í faith.” It also urges an end to “other human rights violations against persons belonging to recognized and unrecognized religious minorities.”
This deprivation of the freedom to practice their religion is a breach of Article 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Article 18 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. The United Nations covenant holds that every person has the right to freedom of religion, freedom of converting religion, as well as freedom of expression, individually or collectively; openly or secretly.
Just four days after the UN resolution was passed there were raids on Bahá'í homes in Tehran, Karaj, Isfahan and its suburbs, Mashhad and Kerman. [Iran Press Watch 22 November 2020; Iran Press Watch 23 November 2020]
|Tihran; Karaj; Isfahan; Mashhad: Kerman; Iran
||United Nations; Persecution, Iran; BWNS
|2020. 22 Nov
||Over a hundred government agents raided the shops and homes of tens of Baha'is across Iran, on 22 November 2020, and demanded that they hand over their property deeds. The simultaneous raids were staged in at least seven cities around the country and came just hours into a 15-day national lockdown imposed to slow coronavirus infections in the country.
The raids took place in the capital Tehran, as well as Karaj, Isfahan, Mashhad, Kerman, Shahin-Shahr and Baharestan. Witnesses reported that the agents ignored all the government’s own health protocols while at the homes of the Baha'is.
|Tihran; Isfahan; Mashhad; Kerman; Shahin-Shahr; Baharestan; Iran
from the Main Catalogue
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- Babi and Bahá'í Religions 1844-1944: Some Contemporary Western Accounts, by Moojan Momen (1981). A lengthy collection of first-hand reports and mentions of the Bábí and Bahá'í religions in contemporaneous accounts and newspapers. [about]
- Bahá'í Martyrdoms in Persia in the Year 1903 AD, by Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali (1917). A memoir by Abdu'l-Bahá, erroneously credited to Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali, published in English as a 28-page book in 1904 and 1917, covering events from March-September 1903. [about]
- Ideology, Ethics, and Philosophical Discourse in Eighteenth-Century Iran, by Juan Cole, in Iranian Studies, 22:1 (1989). Intellectual biography as a discipline assumes that the life and thought of an individual can shed light on an epoch. This paper examines 1700s Iran via the Shi'i scholar Mohammad Mehdi Niraq (d. 1794). No mention of the Bábí or Bahá'í Faiths. [about]
- Iran: Province of Isfahan, by Moojan Momen (1994). [about]
- Massacres de Babis en Perse, by A.L.M. Nicolas (1936). On events in 1903 in Rasht, Isfahan, Yazd, and Tehran, written by a French consul in Iran. [about]
- Persecutions of Babis in 1888-1891 at Isfahan and Yazd, by Various, in Materials for the Study of the Babi Religion (1918). Eyewitness or historical accounts of specific events, uprisings, and attacks, as collected by E.G. Browne. [about]
- Tablet to Shaykh Kazim-i-Samandar II, by Bahá'u'lláh, in Eminent Bahá'ís in the Time of Bahá'u'lláh (1985). [about]
- Treatise on Persecution of Bahá'ís in 1903, by Abdu'l-Bahá, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 14 (2007). Events in Isfahán and Yazd from March-September 1903. [about]
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