Search for location "Yazd"
|1817. c. 1817
||Birth of Hand of the Cause Mullá Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardikání (Hájí Amín), in Ardikán, near Yazd.
||Ardikan; Yazd; Iran
||Haji Amin (Abul-Hasan-i-Ardikani); Hands of the Cause; Births and deaths
|1845. Jul (and months following)
||The Báb was released to the custody of His uncle, Hájí Mírzá Siyyid 'Alí. [DB151, LTDT13]
Báb was asked by Mírzá Abu'l-Qásim to attend a Friday gathering at the Mosque of Vakíl to appease the hostility and the curiosity of some of the residents of Shíráz and to clarify His position. The exact date of His attendance is unknown. He made a public pronouncement that He was neither the representative of the Hidden Imám nor the gate to him, that is, His station was higher. Many of those who witnessed His address became partisans. [Bab94–8; DB153–157]
see DB152 for pictures of the above mosque.
This time has been described by Shoghi Effendi as the `most fecund period' of the Báb's ministry. It marks the birth of the Bábí community. [Bab89–90]
During this time He was asked to speak in mosques and in colleges and He addressed gatherings in His home. The clergy sent their most able mullas to refute and humiliate Him without success. He never attacked the government or Islam but rather called out the corrupt clergy and the abuses of all classes of society. His fame and acceptance among the population grew. [DB157note1]
A considerable number of the Báb's followers had congregated in Isfahan at His instruction when He informed them He would not go to Karbilá when He returned from Mecca as He had previously stated. Upon hearing the news of the confinement of the Báb, Mullá Husayn and his companions, his brother and nephew, left Isfahán where they have been awaiting further instructions. They travelled to Shíráz in disguise. Mullá Husayn was able to meet secretly with the Báb several times in the house of His uncle. The Báb sent word to the remainder of His followers in Isfahán to leave and to travel to Shíráz in small, inconspicuous numbers. Among those gathered were some who were jealous of Múllá Husayn and the attention he received from the Báb. They threw their lot in with the detractors and were eventually expelled from the city for the unrest they caused. [DB160-162; Bab102–3; MH128–9]
After a time the presence of Mullá Husayn in Shíráz threatened to cause civil unrest. The Báb instructed him to go to Khurásán via Yazd and Kirmán and told the rest of the companions to return to Isfahán. He retained Mullá 'Abdu'l-Karím to transcribe His Writings. [Bab90, 102–3; DB170; MH130]
The Sháh sent one of the most learned men in Persia, Siyyid Yahyáy-i-Dárábí, (a town near Nayriz) surnamed Vahíd, (the peerless one) to investigate the claims of the Báb. He became an adherent of the Cause of the Báb. To him He revealed some 2,000 verses at one sitting of five hours and among the the Surih of Kawthar. Vahíd and 'Abdu'l-Karím spent three days and three nights transcribing this Tablet. Siyyid Yahyáy-i-Dárábí wrote to the Sháh and resigned his post. On the instructions of the Báb he journeyed home to acquaint his father with the new Message. As a result of his conversion most of the inhabitants of the town of Nayríz later became Bábís. [Bab90–4; BBD216; BBRSM41; CH21; DB171–7; GPB11–12; TN7–8; DB171-172note 2; Tablet of Patience (Surih Íabr): Declaration of Bahá’u’lláh and Selected Topics by Foad Seddigh p370; RoB1p325-331] iiiii
Another learned scholar, Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Zanjání, surnamed Hujjat, became a believer after reading only one page of the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá'. Several thousand of his fellow townspeople in Zanján became Bábís. [Bab100–2; BBD111; BBRSM16; GPB12; DB177-179]
Mírzá Ahmad-i-Azghandí, yet another learned man, who had compiled traditions and prophecies concerning the expected Revelation, became a believer as well. [GPB12–13]
||Shiraz; Isfahan; Khurasan; Yazd; Kirman; Nayriz; Iran; Karbala; Iraq
||Bab, Life of; Vakil Mosque; Mosques; Mulla Husayn; Bab, Family of; Muhammad Shah; Shahs; Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi); Hujjat; Qayyumul-Asma (book); Mirza Ahmad-i-Azghandi; Tahirih; Mirza Ahmad-i-Azghandi; Abdul-Karim
|1850 (Early in the year)
Vahíd clashed with the authorities in Yazd. He escaped and made a missionary journey through Fárs. [B178–9; DB466–71; BBRSM28, 216]
B204–5 says Lt-Col Sheil reported it to London in February; BBRSM28, 216 says it was January or February; DB466 sets it at Naw-Rúz 1850 and DB468 says that the siege carried on for 40 days.
See BBR106–9 for the various dates assigned to this event and for the difficulties in dating it.
||Yazd; Fars; Iran
||Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi)
||The house of Vahíd in Yazd was attacked by crowds and pillaged. The crowd was dispersed by Mullá Muhammad-Ridá. Vahíd left Yazd. [BW18:381; DB466–75]
||Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi); Mulla Muhammad-Rida; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Mobs; Persecution
|1850. 27 May-
|First Nayríz upheaval.
Vahíd traveled from Yazd towards Shíráz, eventually coming to Nayríz. He went to the Mosque of Jum‘ih where he ascended the pulpit and proclaimed the Cause of God. The governor moved against him and Vahíd ordered his companions to occupy the fort of Khájih. The siege that followed lasted a month. [B178, 204–5; BBR109–13; BW18:381; For23]
See RB1:325–31 for the story of Vahíd. See also GPB50, KI223.
See also B178–82; BBD171; BBR109–13; BBRSM28, 216; DB485–99; GPB42–4; RB1:264; TN245.
See BW19p381 for a chronicle of events.
The main events were:
- 27 May: Entry of Vahid into Nayriz; his address at the Jum‘ih mosque; the Governor made moves against him; Vahid ordered his companions to occupy the fort of Khájih..
- about 6 June: Arrival of Mihr-‘Ali Khan-i-Nuri with troops from Shiraz.
- about 8 June: Night sortie by Bábis routed troops.
- about 9 June: Prolonged fighting on this day led to many deaths on both sides.
- 17 June: Vahid, having received a promise of safety written on the Qur’án, left the fort for Mihr-‘Ali Khan’s camp.
- 21 June: The Bábis were, through treachery, induced to leave the fort, then set upon and killed.
- 24 June: The arrival in Shiraz of thirteen severed heads of Bábfs which were paraded through the town.
- 29 June: Martyrdom of Vahfd.
- 11 July: Mihr-‘Ali Khan arrived in Shiraz with Bábi’ prisoners and decapitated heads.
|Nayriz; Yazd; Shiraz; Iran
||Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi); Mosques; Jumih; Governors; Fort Khajih; Nayriz upheaval; Upheavals; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
|1851. 30 Apr
||Mullá Hasan-i-Fadíl was executed in Yazd when he refused to recant. [BW18:382]
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
|1851. 1 May
||Áqá Husayn was blown from a canon in Yazd. [BW18:382]
||Canons; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
|1851. 23 Jul
||Áqá Muhammad-Sádiq-i-Yúzdárání was beaten to death in Yazd after refusing to recant. [BW18:382]
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
|1865. c. 1865
||Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Arabic Tablet of Ahmad (Lawh-i-Ahmad) for Ahmad, a believer from Yazd. [RB2:107]
The Tablet may have been revealed as early as 1864.
See RB2:107–66 for the story of Ahmad. He had walked from Baghdad to Constantinople, a distance of 1,600km on his way to visit Bahá'u'lláh in Adrianople. He was some 220km away when he received the Tablet. Upon reading it he understood that Bahá'u'lláh wanted him to proclaim that Bahá'u'lláh was the promised successor to the Báb and so he immediately started his journey to Persia, a 3,200km trip.
See Bahá'í News No 432 March 1967 pg 1 for A Flame of Fire: The Story of the Tablet of Ahmad by A.Q. Faizi. Part 2 of the story can be found in the April 1967 edition. Alternatively see Blogspot and Bahá'í Library.
The Ocean of His Words by John Hatcher deals with this Tablet in chapter7.
See RB2:119–26 for an analysis of the Tablet.
Shoghi Effendi states that the Tablet has a special potency and significance. [DG60]
See "Ahmad, The Flame of Fire" by Darius Shahrokh.
See Commentaries on Three Major Tablets by John Kolstoe pages 1-86.
See Learn Well This Tablet by H. Richard Gurninsky, published by George Ronald Publisher, Oxford, 2000.
See YouTube On the Tablet of Ahmad by Richard Gurinsky.
||Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey; Yazd; Iran
||Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Lawh-i-Ahmad (Tablet of Ahmad; Lawh-i-Ahmad (Tablet of Ahmad (Arabic)); Ahmad of Yazd; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
||Mullá Muhammad-Ridá, Ridá'r-Rúh was poisoned in Yazd. [BW18:383]
||Mulla Muhammad-Rida (Ridar-Ruh); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
|1878 to 1881
||The law of the Huqúqu'lláh was put into practice because the work of teaching the Cause began to expand in Persia and in neighbouring countries and there was a need for funds but Bahá'u'lláh put restrictions on its collection. [ESW56]
The first Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh was Hájí Sháh-Muhammad-i-Manshádí, or Jináb-i-Sháh Muhammad from Manshád, Yazd who had become a believer in Baghdad. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
His title was Amínu'l-Bayán (Trustee of the Bayán).
He made many journeys between Iran and the Holy Land carrying donations and petitions from the friends and returning with Tablets and news.
See SABF47-48 for the story of the lost coin given as a donation by a very poor woman.
He was tasked with receiving the casket of the Báb after the location had been discovered by a number of believers. He transferred it to the Mosque of Imámzádih Zayd in Tehran where it was buried beneath the floor of the inner sanctuary of the shrine. It was consequently discovered and moved to a series of private homes in Tehran until 'Abdu'l-Bahá sent for it for the internment. [ISC-1963p32]
Hájí Sháh-Muhammad was in 'Akká when Áqá Buzurg, entitled Badí', came to confer with Bahá'u'lláh. He and Badí met on Mount Carmel as directed by Bahá'u'lláh.
He was killed as a result of wounds incurred during an attack during a Kurdish revolt. [RoB3p73]
||Iran; Yazd; Baghdad; Tihran
||Huququllah; Huququllah, Trustees of; Haji Shah-Muhammad-i-Manshadi (Aminul-Bayan); Bab, Remains of; Mosques; Firsts, Other
|1880. Early 1880s
||The first Zoroastrians became Bahá'ís, in Persia. [SBBH2:67; RoB3p268]
For information on these converts see SBBR2:67–93.
The revelation of Lawh-i-Haft Pursish (Tablet of Seven Questions) (Date unknown) in answer to the questions put to Bahá'u'lláh by Ustád Javán-Mard, the Secretary of the Council of Zoroastrians of Yazd. [RoB3p272]
See the Tablet of Seven Questions as translated by Shahriar Razavi.
||Zoroastrianism; Conversion; Bahaullah, Writings of; Lawh-i-Haft Pursish; Tablet of Seven Questions; Ustad Javan-Mard
|1882 (In the year)
||Mírzá `Alí-Muhammad Varqá was arrested in Yazd. He is sent to Isfahán where he was imprisoned for a year. [BW18p383]
||Yazd; Isfahan; Iran
||Varqa, Mirza Ali-Muhammad; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; Varqa
|1883 (In the year)
||Six Bahá'ís were arrested in Yazd and sent to Isfahán in chains. BW18:383]
Four Bahá'ís were arrested in Sarvistán, Fárs, and sent to Shíráz where they are bastinadoed. [BW18:383]
|Yazd; Isfahan; Sarvistan; Fars; Shiraz; Iran
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
|1891 (In the first half of the year)
||Bahá'u'lláh revealed Epistle to the Son of the Wolf addressed to Shaykh Muhammad-Taqíy-i-Najafí (Shaykh Najafí), a powerful Shi'a-Muslim priest of Isfahan, the son of Shaykh Muhammad-Báqir. [BBD78, 164; BKG382; RB4:368]
“Lawḥ-i-Burhán” (Tablet of the Proof) in which the acts perpetrated by Shaykh Muḥammad-Báqir, surnamed “ Dhi’b” (Wolf), and Mír Muḥammad-Ḥusayn, the Imám-Jum‘ih of Iṣfahán, surnamed “Raqshá” (She-Serpent), are severely condemned; or to the Lawḥ-i-Karmil (Tablet of Carmel) in which the Author significantly makes mention of “the City of God that hath descended from heaven,” and prophesies that “erelong will God sail His Ark” upon that mountain, and “will manifest the people of Bahá.” Finally, mention must be made of His Epistle to Shaykh Muḥammad-Taqí, surnamed “Ibn-i-Dhi’b” (Son of the Wolf), the last outstanding Tablet revealed by the pen of Bahá’u’lláh, in which He calls upon that rapacious priest to repent of his acts, quotes some of the most characteristic and celebrated passages of His own writings, and adduces proofs establishing the validity of His Cause." [GPB219]
It was revealed about a year before the ascension of Bahá'u'lláh. [GPB220]
It was Bahá'u'lláh's `last outstanding Tablet'. [BBD78; BKG382; GPB219]
For an analysis of its content, themes and circumstances of its revelation, see RB34:368–412.
For a study guide to the Tablet see RB4:433–40.
|Bahji; Yazd; Iran
||Lawh-i-Ibn-i-Dhib (Epistle to the Son of the Wolf); Aqa Najafi (Son of the Wolf); Shaykh Muhammad-Taqiy-i-Najafi (Shaykh Najafi); Lawh-i-Times (Tablet to the Times); Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1891 19 May
||The execution of the Seven Martyrs of Yazd. [BBRXXIX, BW18:384]
Seven Bahá'ís were executed on the order of the governor of Yazd, Husain Mírzá, Jalálu'd-Dín-Dawlih (the grandson of the shah and the son of Zillu's-Sultán) and at the instigation of the mujtahid, Shaykh Hasan-i-Sabzivárí. [BW18p384 ]
For their names see BW18:384.
For details of the executions see GBP201–2.
For Western reports of the episode see BBR301–5.
Bahá'u'lláh stated that a representative of Zillu's-Sultán. Hájí Sayyáh, visited Him in 'Akká in the hope of persuading Him to support his plot to usurp the throne. He was promised freedom to practice the Faith should He support him. Hájí Sayyáh was arrested in Tehran in April of 1891 and Zillu's-Sultán, afraid that he would be implicated in the plot to overthrow the king, inaugurated vigorous persecution of the Bahá'ís in Yazd in order to draw attention from himself and prove his loyalty to the crown and to Islam. Had Bahá'u'lláh reported this incident to the Shah, Zillu's-Sultán would have paid dearly for his disloyalty. [BBR357-358]
See also RB3:194–6 and SBBH2:77.
See Persecutions of Babis in 1888-1891 at Isfahan and Yazd by various witnesses and translated by E G Browne.
“The tyrant of the land of Yá (Yazd) committed that which has caused the Concourse on High to shed tears of blood.” from the Lawḥ-i-Dunyá (Tablet of the World) Tablets of Bahá’u’lláh, p. 85
||Jalalud-Din-Dawlih; Shaykh Hasan-i-Sabzivari; Seven martyrs of Yazd; Seven martyrs; Yazd upheaval; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Zillus-Sultan; Haji Sayyah; Shah; Lawh-i-Dunya (Tablet of the World)
|1891 after 19 May
||Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Lawh-i-Times, Tablet to the Times in which He recounted the circumstances of the martyrdoms in Yazd. [RB4:348–50, BW18p976-7]
||Akka; London; United Kingdom; Yazd; Iran
||Bahji; Times (newspaper); Newspapers; Press (media); Media; Lawh-i-Times (Tablet to the Times); Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Seven martyrs of Yazd; Seven martyrs; Yazd upheaval; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1891. 3 Oct
||Mullá Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Dihábádí was martyred, one of the Seven Martyrs of Yazd who were killed at the hands of Jalálu’d-Dawlih and Zillu’s-Sultan. [BW18:384]
||Mulla Muhammad-Aliy-i-Dihabadi; Jalalud-Dawlih; Zillus-Sultan; Seven Martyrs of Yazd; Seven martyrs; Yazd upheaval; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
|1893. 17 Jun
||Áqá Muhammad-Ridáy-i-Muhammadábádí was killed by three men on the orders of two of the `ulamá of Yazd. [BW18:384; GPB296]
He was the first to suffer martyrdom in the ministry of `Abdu'l-Bahá.
See GPB296 for details of his martyrdom.
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Firsts, Other
|1896 1 May
||The martyrdom of Hand of the Cause of God Varqa (‘Dove’), Mírzá ‘Ali-Muhammad. (b.1856 in Yazd, d. in Tehran) He and his young son,
Ruhu’lláh, were killed by, Hajib’ud-Dawleh, one of the Qajar courtiers, in fact, the Chief Steward, in the aftermath of the assassination of Nasir'd-Din Shah. Varqá was slashed to death before the eyes of his twelve-year-old son who, still refusing to recant, was strangled. [GPB296; BBRXXIX; SUR77; BW18p384; Bahá'í Encyclopedia Project]
For the story of their lives see MRHK405–22 and World Order: Winter 1974-1975, Vol. 9 No.2 p29-44 as well as LoF42-49.
For a Western account of the episode see BBR361–2.
‘Abdu’l-Bahá named him posthumously as a Hand of the Cause and Shoghi Effendi designated him as one of the Apostles of Bahá-u-lláh. [EB75-97 LoF42-49, BBR361-362, SoBSNBp225-229]
See Varqá and Son: The Heavenly Doves by Darius Shahrokh.
See also Bahá'í Chronicles.
See SoW Vol 12 No 4 (17 May 1921 (Volume 7 pg93) for a photo of Varqá, Ruhu'lláh and their two companions.
||Yazd; Tihran; Iran
||Varqa; Varqa, Mirza Ali-Muhammad; Varqa, Ruhullah; In Memoriam; Apostles of Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, referred to as such by Abdul-Baha; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
|1897 (In the year)
||The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Shaykh Muhammad-Ridáy-i-Yazdí (Mullá Ridá) while incarcerated in the Síyáh-Cháh. [RoB2p84-91; Bahaipedia; Wikipedia]
He was born in Muhammad-Ábád in the province of Yazd into a well-known family in about 1814. He was provided a good education and he became a divine known for his piety, eloquence and courage.
Mullá Ridá became a follower of the Báb in the early days of the Revelation. He recognized Bahá'u'lláh as the Promised One of the Bayan some time after 1855 upon reading Qasídiy-i-Varqá'íyyih, "Ode of the Dove". (Bahá'u'lláh had composed this ode while still in Sulaymáníyyih.)
He was a fearless teacher who was outspoken and often suffered imprisonment and torture. "Other than seventeen-year-old Badí, no one has surpassed Mullá Ridá's unusual power of endurance. The rare combination of endurance, eloquence, courage and humour made him that unique hero who illuminated the pages of the history of the Bahá'í Faith." [Extract from a Persian book called Masabih-i-Hidayat, Volume I by Azizu'llah-i-Sulaymani]
In one story of his courage in teaching and his endurance in withstanding abuse, he was found to be picking his teeth while being bastinadoed and, in another, while a elderly man he withstood a brutal flogging on his bare back in the prison yard. A witness to this flogging, Ghulám-Ridá Khán, a notable of Tehran who happened to be imprisoned at the same time, became a believer upon seeing his steadfastness under the lashing. [RoB1p84-91, EB89-111, LoF21-27]
'Abdu'l-Bahá referred to a few of the believers posthumously as being Hands of the Cause (see MF5 and BW14p446) Adib Taherzadeh points out that "since there are one or two others by the same name (Shaykh-Ridáy-i-Yazdí) it is not possible to identify him. However, some believe strongly that he is Mullá Muhammad-i-Ridáy-i-Muhammmad-Ábádí. [RoB4p186n]
||Muhammadabad; Yazd; Tihran; Iran; Azizullah Sulaymani
||Mulla Rida; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Bahaullah, Writings of; Hands of the Cause, referred to as such by Abdul-Baha; Shaykh Muhammad-Riday-i-Yazdi; Mulla Muhammad-i-Riday-i-Muhammmad-Ábadi; Hands of the Cause, referred to as such by Abdul-Baha; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Persecution, Iran
|1898. 1 Jun
||Áqá Ghulám-Husayn-i-Banádakí was killed by a mob in Yazd after refusing to deny his faith. [BW18:384]
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Mobs; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
||The Yazd Upheaval and in surrounding villages. [BBRXXX]
See BW18p385 for a chronicle of events by Moojan Momen:
This is said to be one of the bloodiest events to take place during the ministry of `Abdu'l-Bahá.
For Western responses see BBR385–98 and SBBH1:67.
For details of the martyrdom of Hájí Mírzáy-i-Halabí-Sáz during the upheaval see RB2:358–66.
For the effect on Bahá'ís of Zoroastrian background see SBBH2:80.
- 14 June: Yazd: Sayyid Muhammad-Ibrahim, the new Imam-Jum‘ih, preached against the Bahá’ís; rabble took to the streets; shop of Aqé Muhammad-Husayni-Attar and several other Bahá’ís looted.
- 15 June: Yazd: Hajl’ Mirzay-i-Halabf—Saz attacked with an axe and died later the same day.
- 22 June: Taft: Rabble attacked Bahá’ís’ houses killing six Bahá’ís.
- 24 June: Ardikan: Rabble attacked Bahá’í houses killing four Bahá’í’s.
- 26 June: Yazd: Nine Bahá’ís killed and many houses pillaged.
- Farashah: Haji’ Sayyid Javad-i-Muhammadabédi’ beaten to death.
- 27 June; Yazd: Rabble killed six Bahá’ís; Citadel besieged in the belief that Mulla ‘Abdu’l-Ghiani was there.
- Manshad: Rabble killed six Bahá’ís.
- Ardikan: Rabble set out for home of Sadru’s-Sultan but were turned back.
- 28 June; Yazd: On orders of the Governor, Jalalu’d—Dawlih, two Bahá’ís brought before him; one was blown from a cannon and another had his throat cut.
- Taft: Mulla Muhammad-Husayn killed.
- Manshad: Three Bahá’ís killed.
- Ardikén: Sadru’s-Sultan, his brothers, Nizamu’sh-Shiari‘ih and Mu‘tamadu’sh-Shari‘ih, his nephew, Diya’u’sh~Shari‘ih, and four others killed.
- Hanza: Fatimih Bigum killed.
- 29 June; Taft: Aqá Muhammad shot to death on decree of Shaykh Husayn-Daréz.gum; Aqa Muhammad-Háshim-Dalall killed as he fled Yazd.
- ‘Izzábéd: Hájí Ahmad-i-Muqani-Bashi’ killed.
- Hanzá: Mirzá Ahmad-i-Arzim beaten to death.
- 30 June; Taft: Hájí Muhammad-Isma'il killed.
- Manshád: Sayyid Husayn beaten to death.
- 1 July; Manshád: Three Bahá’ís killed.
- 2 July; Manshad: Mirzái Husayn stabbed to death.
- 3 July; Manshad: Aqá ‘Ali Muhammad shot to death.
- Banádak: Aqá Mirzá Muhammad-Huda and Aqá Muhammad-Husayn Of Yazd killed.
- 4 July; Manshád: Aqá Muhammad shot to death.
- ‘Abbásábád: Háji Muhammad-Husayn killed.
- 5 July; Manshád: Aqá ‘Alf-Akbar beaten then shot to death.
- ‘Abbásábéd: Hájí Ahmad-i-Kaffash beaten to death.
- 6 July; Manshad: Khadijih Sultzán Khanum thrown from top of a building and killed.
- Abbásábéd: Aqá ‘Ali-Akbar-i-Qassab beaten to death.
- 8 July; Manshad: Aqá Muhammad beaten and burned to death.
- 9 July: Manshad: Aqá Muhammad-‘Ali strangled to death.
- 10 July; Manshad: Shatir Husayn, Khabbz’i-i-Yazdi and Mirzá Muhammad-Ibráhim, Tabib-i-Khuramshéhi beaten to death.
- 11 July; Manshád Aqa Ghulám-Ridá shot and beaten to death.
- 12 July; Manshad: Three Bahá’ís killed,
- 13 July:Ibrihimabad;: Aqá Asadu'lláih killed and his head taken back 10 Manshad.
- Gavafshad: Ustéd Ridá shot to death.
- Banzadak: Aqa Ghulám-Ridá shot to death.
- Hanzá: Sayyid Muhammad-‘Ali and Mirzá Javád-i-Sabbagh shot to death.
- 14 July; Hadafl: AqéTAbdu‘r-Rasfil shot and his body burned.
- 15 July: Manshéd: Aqé Mullá Bahá’í’ burned alive then shot.
- 19 July; Qavámzábéd: Aqá ‘Ali-Ridáy-i-Sha‘r-báf killed.
||Yazd upheaval; Upheavals; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Zoroastrianism
||At the request of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, Hájí Mírzá Hadar-'Alí wrote Bahá'í Martyrdoms in Persia in the Year 1903 AD.
||Yazd; Isfahan; Iran
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Yazd upheaval
|1904 (In the year)
||The publication of Bahá'í Martyrdoms in Persia in the Year 1903 AD by Hájí Mírzá Haydar-Alí Isfaháni* and translated by Youness Afroukhteh. A second edition was published in 1917. [BEL 7.1147-7.1149]
When the persecutions throughout Iran were at their peak, in midsummer of 1903, ‘Abdu’l-Bahá wrote a proclamatory treatise outlining events leading to these pogroms, the motives and actions of the principle persecutors, and the intense sufferings of the Bahá’í community.
In retrospect, it appears that ‘Abdu’l-Bahá intended this treatise to be published in the West, galvanizing the support of prominent individuals, Bahá’í communities of the United States and Europe in general, and, the public at large. Towards this end, he instructed one of his secretaries, Dr. Younis Khan Afroukhtih, to translate this treatise, which presumably was done in collaboration with some English-speaking Bahá’ís visiting ‘Akká at the time. This work was further assisted by an English-speaking pilgrim of Jewish-descent from Hamadan, Dr. Arastoo Hakim, and was completed on 19 September 1903.
*The translated treatise was then sent to the United States It was received in Chicago on 29 October 1903 and its publication took place through the work of Bahá’í Publishing Society in 1904. However, for reasons not clear, it was published as a document prepared by Hájí Mírzá Haydar-‘Alí, a prominent Bahá’í residing in Haifa at that time. In this reference can be found a 2007 translation by Ahang Rabbani [Bahá'í Studies Review Vol 14 2007 p53-67]
|Yazd; Isfahan; Rasht; Ardakan; Taft; Manshad; Dih-Bala; Iran
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Publications; Yazd upheaval
|1911 28 Aug
||In the morning 'Abdu'l-Bahá's visitor was Sultán-Husayn Mírzá, the eldest son of Zillu's-Sultán. Between 1879 and 1906 he had served as either governor or deputy governor of Khuzestán, Lorestán, Yazd, Fárs, Burujerd and Kurdistan. He was responsible for the martyrdoms in Yazd in 1891 and again in 1903. He had been exiled with his father in 1908.
As a footnote, in his latter years he became a devoted Bahá'í. [DJT206]
Later He gave a talk in Arabic that was published in its entirety by the leading Egyptian newspaper, Al-Ahram. [ABF45-48, SoW vol 5 no 10, Far Stretching River (translation by Mohsen Enayat)]
||Thonon-les-Bains; France; Yazd; Iran
||Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Sultan-Husayn Mirza; Mohsen Enayat; Seven martyrs of Yazd; Seven martyrs; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Yazd upheaval
|1917 2 May
||The martyrdom of Mírzá Muhammad-i-Bulúr-Furúsh in Yazd. [BBRXXX, BBR443]
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
|1934 (In the year)
||The government of Iran took several measures against the Bahá’ís throughout the country. [BW18p389]
Nineteen Bahá’í schools are closed in Káshán, Qazvín, Yazd, Najafábád, Ábádih and elsewhere. [ARG109]
Bahá’í meetings were forbidden in many towns, including Tihrán, Mashhad, Sabzivár, Qazvín and Arák.
Bahá’ís centres in Káshán, Hamadán and Záhidán were closed by the authorities.
Some Bahá’í government employees were dismissed.
Some Bahá’í military personnel were stripped of their rank and imprisoned.
Bahá’ís in many places were harassed over the filling-in of marriage certificates, census forms and other legal documents.
||Iran; Kashan; Qazvin; Yazd; Najafabad; Abadih; Tihran; Mashhad; Sabzivar; Arak; Hamadan; Zahidan
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Education; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Tarbiyat School; Bahai schools
||Several prominent Bahá’ís were arrested in Yazd. [BW18:389]
They were imprisoned in Tihrán for four years; one died in prison. [BW18:389]
||Yazd; Tihran; Iran
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
|1948 - 1951
||The Bahá’í centre in Yazd, Iran, was attacked by a mob incited by Shaykh Khalisízádih. He was a man consumed with hatred toward religious minorities, most ferociously against the Bahá'ís in and around Yazd. He had some twenty hooligans on salary to harass, intimate and assault the local Bahá'ís. He had the tacit support of some local government officials who had been ordered by Prime Minister Haj 'Alí Razmara to ignore any complaints from Bahá'ís. [BW18p390; SCF105]
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution; Persecution, Mobs; Haziratul-Quds
|1950 (In the year)
||Ghulam Reza Akhzari and his son Nur Allah were killed near Yazd and Bahram Rawhani was murdered in Taft. [Towards a History of Iran’s Bahá'í Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani.]
||Yazd; Taft; Iran
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
|1950 3 Jan
||A woman named Sughrá and her five children were brutally murdered. Members of the Spiritual Assembly of fhte Bahá'ís of Yazd were falsely accused of ordering the crime. The accusations were orchestrated by the judicial authorities from Yazd who were influenced by Mullá Khálisizádih. The trial of these innocent individuals occurred in Tehran with the help of fundamentalist religious authorities. As a result the guilty were never prosecuted and many innocent individuals were imprisoned and executed. [SCF123117]
||Ábarqu; Yazd; Iran
||The arrest and imprisonment of Mr. Zabihullah Mahrami in Yazd because of his adherence to the Bahá'í. He was given a life sentence. [Planet Bahá'í]
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
|2005 15 Dec
||The death of Mr. Dhabihu'llah Mahrami, 59, who had been held in a government prison in Yazd under harsh physical conditions at the time of his death.
First arrested in 1995, Mr. Mahrami served in the civil service but at the time of his arrest was making a living installing venetian blinds, having been summarily fired from his job like thousands of other Bahá'is in the years following the 1979 Iranian revolution. Although Iranian officials have asserted that Mr. Mahrami was guilty of spying for Israel, court records clearly indicate that he was tried and sentenced solely on charge of being an "apostate," a crime which is punishable by death under traditional Islamic law. While Mr. Mahrami had been a lifelong Baha'i, the apostasy charge apparently came about because a civil service colleague, in an effort to prevent Mr. Mahrami from losing his job, submitted an article to a newspaper stating that he had converted to Islam. When it later became clear to Iranian authorities that Mr. Mahrami remained a member of the Bahá'í community, they arrested him and charged him with apostasy for allegedly converting from Islam to the Bahá'í Faith. On 2 January 1996, he was sentenced to death by the Revolutionary Court, a conviction that was later upheld by the Iranian Supreme Court.
The death sentence against Mr. Mahrami stirred an international outcry. The European Parliament, for example, passed a resolution on human rights abuses in Iran, making reference to Mr. Mahrami's case. The governments of Australia, Brazil, Canada, France, Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States also registered objections.
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Human rights; Court cases; BWNS
|2016 26 Sep
||The murder of Farhang Amiri in Yazd. [BWNS1133; Archives of Bahá'í Persecution in Iran]
See also Iran Wire4167.
In a message from the Universal House of Justice to the Bahá'ís in Iran dated the 19th of October, 2016, it stated
At the time of the murder of his father, Farhang was 13 months old. See entry for July 28th, 1955 for details of The Seven Martyrs of Hurmuzak.
See a paper by Kamyar Behrang entitled "Extrajudicial killings supported by law and Islamic jurisprudence" for an explanation of how a Bahá'í might be murdered with near impunity in Iran.
And at the age of sixty-three, that pure soul, that radiant and magnanimous soul, offered up his life in absolute meekness, hoisted the
ensign of martyrdom and attained his Beloved's presence in the realms above, and in the Abha Kingdom joined the company of the other martyrs of this Faith--among whom number his own noble father and six other relatives who, sixty-one years ago in Hurmuzak, near Yazd, sacrificed their lives in the path of the Blessed Beauty.
|Hurmuzak; Yazd; Iran
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Farhang Amiri; BWNS
||The men who admitted to stabbing and killing Farhang Amiri, a 63-year-old father of four children, in September 2016 in Yazd on the street outside his home in public view were sentenced by a court in Yazd.
The two brothers immediately admitted to have been motivated by religious hatred. "He was a Baha'i, we killed him to buy paradise for our seven generations". The older brother was sentenced to just 11 years in prison and two years away from home. The court justified the sentence by stating that according to the Islamic penal code, the accused and the victim are not equal for the general purpose of retributive justice. This astonishing provision clearly and deliberately deprives non-Muslims of the legal right to seek justice on equal-footing with the country's Muslim majority.
The younger man was sentenced to half of his brother’s sentence for aiding in the murder.
||Farhang Amiri; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Court cases; Court cases; Human rights; BWNS
from the Main Catalogue
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- Across Coveted Lands, by Henry Savage-Landor (1903). Brief mention of the Bahá'ís of Yazd. [about]
- Bahá'í Martyrdoms in Persia in the Year 1903 AD, by Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali (1917). A memoir by Abdu'l-Bahá, erroneously credited to Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali, published in English as a 28-page book in 1904 and 1917, covering events from March-September 1903. [about]
- Bahá'í World, The: Volume 18 (1979-1983), in Bahá'í World (1986). Periodic volumes that survey the global activities and major achievements of the Faith. [about]
- Bahá'u'lláh and the Fourth Estate, by Roger White, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). Bahá'u'lláh's response to the martyrdom of seven Bahá'ís in Yazd in May, 1891, and his relationship with the media. [about]
- Behind the Veil in Persia and Turkish Arabia: An Account of an Englishwoman's Eight Years' Residence Amongst the Women of the East, by M. E. Hume-Griffith (1909). Three-page history of the Bab and his execution, with reference to the persecutions in Yazd. [about]
- Early Zoroastrian Conversions to the Baha'i Faith in Yazd, Iran, by Susan Maneck, in Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions, vol. 2 (1984). A history of the gradual process of conversion among some Zoroastrians to the Bahá'í Faith in Iran from the 1880s to 1921, based on heretofore unstudied biographical materials. [about]
- Events and Tragedies of Manshád, The, by Muhammad-Tahir Malmiri (2007). Events and martyrs from the uprisings in Manshad and Yazd, in 1903. A translation of Haji Málmírí's Tarikh Shuhaday Yazd, pp. 432-503. [about]
- From Iran East and West, in Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions, Volume 2 (1984). Essays on Bahá'í history in the Middle East, the United States, and India. [about]
- Iran: Province of Yazd, by Moojan Momen (1994). [about]
- Martyrs of Manshad, by Siyyid Muhammad Tabíb Manshádi, in World Order, 28:1 (1996/2005). Detailed eyewitness account of martyrdoms in Iran in 1903. [about]
- Massacres de Babis en Perse, by A.L.M. Nicolas (1936). On events in 1903 in Rasht, Isfahan, Yazd, and Tehran, written by a French consul in Iran. [about]
- Memories of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, by Ali M. Yazdi, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). Recollections by a prominent Iranian-American Bahá'í. [about]
- Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-1986: Third Epoch of the Formative Age, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
- Persecutions of Babis in 1888-1891 at Isfahan and Yazd, by Various, in Materials for the Study of the Babi Religion (1918). Eyewitness or historical accounts of specific events, uprisings, and attacks, as collected by E.G. Browne. [about]
- Persian Stronghold of Zoroastrianism, A, by Mary Boyce (1977). Brief mention of Bahá'í converts to Zoroastrianism in Yazd. [about]
- Translation List: Provisional Translations of Baháʼí Literature (2009-2023). Index to talks, letters, and other items translated from Persian and Arabic to English by Adib Masumian; listed here for the sake of search engines and tagging. [about]
- Treatise on Persecution of Bahá'ís in 1903, by Abdu'l-Bahá, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 14 (2007-12). Events in Isfahán and Yazd from March-September 1903. [about]
- Ziba Khanum of Yazd: An Enslaved African Woman in Nineteenth-Century Iran, by Anthony Lee (2017). Issues of race, gender, slavery, and religion as experienced by an Afro-Iranian family in the 19th and 20th centuries; historiography of African women in Iran; the Herati-Khorasani family tree. [about]
- Zoroastrian Conversions to the Bahá'í Faith in Yazd, Iran, by Susan Maneck (1983). The Bahá'í Faith appealed to Zoroastrian messianic motifs, Iranian paradigms of legitimacy, and reforming elements within the Zoroastrian community. This study examines conversions in Yazd from the early 1880s to the beginning of the 20th century. [about]
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