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1865 (In the year) French diplomat Joseph Comte de Gobineau published Religions et les Philosophies dans l'Asie Centrale, over half of which is devoted to a study of the Bábí movement. He relied heavily on the Násikhu't-Taváríkh (The History to Abrogate All Previous Histories) written by Lisánu'l-Mulk. Bahá'u'lláh had condemned this account as "a falsification of history, one which even an infidel would not have had the effrontery to produce". [SUR36-37]
  • "The Comte de Gobineau’s work with its obvious parallels drawn between the life and martyrdom of the Báb with that of Jesus Christ, was the most influential volume in carrying the story to Western minds. The English poet and cultural critic Matthew Arnold, in A Persian Passion Play, wrote that the chief purpose of Gobineau’s book was to give a history of the career of Mirza Ali Mahommed…the founder of Bâbism, of which most people in England have at least heard the name. The notion that most people in England, in Arnold’s view, were aware of the Báb indicates how deeply His fame had penetrated into far-off societies." [Tales of Magnificent Heroism: The impact of the Báb and His followers on writers and artists by Robert Weinberg.
  • Gobineau's work was written when Mírzá Yahyá was still known as the nominal head of the Bábí Faith between 1855 and 1858 when Gobineau was First Secretary and Chargé d'Affaires of the French Legation. Two embassy employees during his time there were ardent supporters of Mírzá Yahyá, one of whom was his brother-in-law. (He served as the Ambassador from March 1862 until September 1863.)
  • This work attracted a number of other European intellectuals, including E. G. Browne of Cambridge, who eventually became the most prolific western writer and researcher of the Bábi religion. [BBR17, MCS483; 500; 512 The Comte de Gobineau’s Religions et Philosophies dans l’Asie Centrale (1865)—with its obvious parallels drawn between the life and martyrdom of the Báb with that of Jesus Christ—was the most influential volume in carrying the story to Western minds. The English poet and cultural critic Matthew Arnold, in A Persian Passion Play, wrote that the chief purpose of Gobineau’s book was to give a history of the career of Mirza Ali Mahommed…the founder of Bâbism, of which most people in England have at least heard the name. The notion that most people in England, in Arnold’s view, were aware of the Báb indicates how deeply His fame had penetrated into far-off societies.
  • France; Iran Joseph Comte de Gobineau; Babi studies; Edward Granville Browne; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Matthew Arnold
    1870 19 Jul – 1871 10 May Franco-Prussian War was a conflict between the Second French Empire of Napoleon III and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia. The conflict was caused by Prussian ambitions to extend German unification and French fears of the shift in the European balance of power that would result if the Prussians succeeded.
  • See KA90 for Bahá'u'lláh's reference to this and KAN121 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's interpretation.
  • Germany; France Franco-Prussian War; War (general); History (general); Napoleon III
    1870 1 - 2 Sep Battle of Sedan. Napoleon III suffered defeat at the hands of Kaiser Wilhelm I. It resulted in the capture of Emperor Napoleon III and large numbers of his troops and for all intents and purposes decided the war in favour of Prussia and its allies, though fighting continued under a new French government. Napoleon went into exile in England, where he died in 1873.
  • Bahá'u'lláh referred to this in KA86.
  • Sedan; France; Germany; England Franco-Prussian War; War (general); History (general); Napoleon III; Kaiser Wilhelm I; Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book)
    1873. 12 Apr Birth of Hippolyte Dreyfus, the first French Bahá'í, in Paris. Named by Shoghi Effendi a Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá. Paris; France Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; First Bahais by country or area; Births and deaths
    1899 Spring On her return from pilgrimage, May Bolles established the first Bahá'í group on the European continent in Paris. [AB159; BBRSM106; BFA2:151; GPB259; SBBH1:93]
  • For information on those who became Bahá'ís in Paris, including Thomas Breakwell, the "first English believer"and Hippolyte Dreyfus, the "first Frenchman to embrace the Faith", and Laura Barney see BFA2:151–2, 154–5; and GBP259-260.
  • Paris; France May Maxwell (Bolles); Thomas Breakwell; Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; Laura Clifford Barney
    1899. 3 Dec Charles Mason Remey became a Bahá'í in Paris through May Bolles. [BFA2:151–2] Paris; France Charles Mason Remey; May Maxwell (Bolles)
    1900 26 Nov Agnes Baldwin Alexander wrote to `Abdu'l-Bahá declaring her belief in Bahá'u'lláh. [BFA2:159; SBR176]
  • She had heard of the Bahá'í Faith from Charlotte Dixon while staying in a pension in Rome. She stayed in Rome for three months studying prophecies then travelled to Paris for further study with May Bolles for another three and one half months. [BFA2:159; SBR176]
  • She left Paris in the Spring of 1901 for London, New England, Oakland, Ca and finally Honolulu. On returning to Hawaii in December 1901 she became the first Bahá'í to set foot in Hawaii. [BFA2:159–60; SBR177]
  • Rome; Italy; Paris; France; Oakland; California; London; United Kingdom; Honolulu; Hawaii Agnes Alexander; May Maxwell (Bolles); Charlotte Dixon
    1901 summer Thomas Breakwell, an Englishman living in the United States, learned of the Bahá'í Faith in Paris from May Bolles. Within three days he became a believer and immediately wrote to `Abdu'l-Bahá. [AB74–5; BW7:707]
  • For May Bolles' own account see SW7:707–11.
  • He is the first male British Bahá'í. [BFA2:154]
  • He is designated by Shoghi Effendi the `first English believer'. [GPB259]
  • He is the first Western Bahá'í to pay Huqúqu'lláh. [BW7:70]
  • See also AB74–80; BFA2:154; SEBW6572.
  • Paris; France Thomas Breakwell; May Maxwell (Bolles); Huququllah; First Bahais by country or area; Firsts, Other
    1901 (In the year) Hippolyte Dreyfus heard of the Bahá'í Faith from May Bolles in Paris and soon after accepted it. [AB81–2]
  • He was designated by Shoghi Effendi the `first Frenchman to embrace the Faith'. [GPB259]
  • He was the first European Bahá'í to visit Iran. [AB81]
  • After his marriage to Laura Clifford Barney they adopted the surname Dreyfus-Barney. [AB81]
  • Paris; France Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; May Maxwell (Bolles); Laura Clifford Barney
    1902 (In the year) The publication of Le Livre des Sept Preuves in Paris by A. L. M. Nicolas. It was a French translation of the Báb's Dalá'il-i-Sab'ih. [BBR39] Paris; France Bab, Writings of; Seven Proofs; A.L.M. Nicolas; Translation; Publications
    1902 13 Jun Thomas Breakwell died from tuberculosis in Paris. (b. 31 May, 1872 in Woking) [AB77; BBD46; SEBW70]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá appeared to know this without being told. [AB78-9; SEBW70]
  • Shoghi Effendi designated him one of three`luminaries shedding brilliant lustre on annals of Irish, English and Scottish Bahá'í communities'. [MBW174]
  • See AB79, SEBW71–2 and SWAB187–9 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's eulogy.
  • See wikipedia for an account of his life.
  • See Cimetière de Pantin for the location of his resting place c/w photos.
  • See The Life of Thomas Breakwell by Rajwantee Lakshiman-Lepain. iiiii
  • Woking; England; Paris; France Thomas Breakwell; In Memoriam;
    1902 (In the year) Since the assassination of the Sháh's father in 1896 the Bahá'í community in Iran had been scapegoated and the oppression was increasing. In 1902 Muzaffar al-Din Sháh and his prime minister were in Paris staying at the Elysèe Palace Hotel. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had a petition for him and Lua Getsinger was asked to deliver it. She and Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney requested an audience with the Sháh but they were refused by the prime minister. She was told that he was not receiving anyone as his son was gravely ill and likely to die. Lua asked if he would see her the following day should his son be healed and consent was granted. That night the Bahá'ís of Paris held a prayer vigil till dawn. As promised, Lua was granted access and put the petition directly in the Sháh's hand. She heard him say that he would do all that was within his power but in 1903 a savage rash of persecution broke out and, upon the advice of his prime minister, the Sháh did nothing believing that it was better to let the restless population vent rage on the Bahá'ís then on the rich and powerful foreigners who might have been victimized. The prime minister was replaced in mid-1903 and the persecutions eased. In 1907 the Sháh did intervene on behalf of the Bahá'ís. [Find a grave; LDNW18-19]
  • For other accounts see The Flame p66-70 and LGHC59-60.
  • See article by Mariam Haney entitled In Behalf of the Oppressed. [SoW Vol 15 No 8 November, 1924 p230]
  • Paris; France Persecution, Iran; Lua Getsinger; Muzaffarid-Din Shah; Shahs; Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; Petitions
    1905 (In the year) The first publication of The Seven Valleys in the West. It was translated from Persian into French by Hippolyte Dreyfus and Chirazi and was bound with The HIdden Words (Les Paroles cachées). This French translation was further translated into English by Julie Chanler in 1933 (or 1936), accounts differ. [About the Seven Valleys and the Four Valleys; BEL1.112] France; United States Haft Vadi (Seven Valleys); ; Bahaullah, Writings of; Translation; Publications; Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney
    1905 (In the year) A.L.M. Nicolas published his book Seyyed Ali dit le Bab. It was the first work by a western author dedicated entirely to the Báb.
    It is "(a) history of the Bábí movement up to 1852. Nicolas gives a list of sources for this book on pp. 48-53. It is interesting to note that among his oral sources are four of the leading Bahá'ís of that period, who had been designated by Bahá'u'lláh as 'Hands of the Cause': Mírzá 'Alí-Muhammad, 'Ibn-i-Asdaq: Mullá 'Al-Akbar-i-Sháhmírzádí, Hají Akhund; Mírzá Muhammad-Táqíy-i-Abharí, 'Ibn-i-Abhar; and Mírzá Hasan-i-Adíb. The other two oral sources named are Siyyid 'Ismu'lláh, who was presumably Siyyid Mihdíy-i-Dihají, and Mírzá Yahyá, Subh-i-Azál." [BBR38-39]
  • The preamble to his book has an image that is supposedly of the Báb, but the portrait does not seem to be an authentic representation.

  • William Miller also reproduced Nicolas’s image on page 17 of his polemical work, The Bahá'í Faith: Its History and Teachings. (South Pasadena, CA: William Carey Library, 1974). [‘The Bab in the World of Images’, Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 19, June 2013, 171–90.]
  • See also WOB83 for other missionaries who wrote polemics against the Bahá'í Faith.
  • Paris; France Bab, Writings of; A.L.M. Nicolas; Criticism and apologetics; William McElwee Miller; Babi studies; First publications; Publications
    1905 (In the year) The publication of Le Beyan Arabe in Paris by A. L. M. Nicolas. It was a French translation of the Arabic Bayán. [BBR39] Paris; France Bab, Writings of; Bayan-i-Arabi (Arabic Bayan); A.L.M. Nicolas; Translation; Publications
    1907 (In the year) Lady Blomfield and her daughter Mary learned of the Faith at a reception in Paris. [CH1–2; ER95; SBR22; SEBW101, SCU17]
  • For accounts of Lady Blomfield's life see ER88–97 and SEBW101–10.
  • Paris; France Lady Blomfield; Mary Blomfield
    1911 - 1914 The publication of Le Beyan Persan in Paris by A. L. M. Nicolas. It was a French translation of the Persian Bayán and was published in four volumes. [BBR39] Paris; France Bab, Writings of; A.L.M. Nicolas; Bayan-i-Farsi (Persian Bayan); Translation; Publications
    1911. 9 Aug When 'Abdu'l-Bahá was about to depart on his first voyage to the West He wrote to Albert Smiley, host of the annual Lake Mohonk Conference on International Arbitration. On the 22nd of August, 1911 while in Thonon-les-Bains He wrote to H.C. Phillips, secretary of the Mohonk arbitration institution. These letters were unique because He usually didn't initiate correspondence. He was, undoubtedly, making arrangements to speak at their annual conference as Ali Kuli Khan had recently done.
  • The letter. [SoW Vol 2 No 15 December 12, 1911 p3]
  • While crossing the Atlantic on the S.S. Cedric He told a newspaperman, "I am going to America at the invitation of the Peace Congresses of that place, as the fundamental principles of our Cause are universal peace, the oneness of the world of humanity and the equality of the rights of men..." When the ship docked in New York and the gangplank was lowered, the press clambered aboard to interview him and he told them, "Our object is... the unity of mankind... I have come to America to see the advocates of universal peace..." [Who Will Bell the Cat The Story of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Visit to Lake Monhonk by Janet Ruhe-Schoen]
  • These meetings at Lake Mohonk were instrumental in the creation of the Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague, Netherlands. [Wikepedia]
  • Egypt; Thonon-les-Bains; France; Lake Mohonk Albert Smiley; H.C. Phillips; Ali Kuli Khan; Lake Mohonk Conference on International Arbitration; Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 11 Aug The beginning of `Abdu'l-Bahá's first Western tour. [AB139]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá departed from Egypt with a party of four on the S. S. Corsica for Marseilles, Thonon-les-Bains and London. [AB139; GPB280; SBR22, SoW Vol 2 no.10 8 September, 1911 p7]
  • Subsequent research has shown that the ship was not the S.S. Corsica as stated in GPB280 but rather the L'Orenoque. See 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Paris page 6 note 47.
  • See BW1:130 for a list of cities He visits between 1911 and 1913.
  • It is believed that funds for ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s teaching journeys to the West were provided by an oil-rich believer in Baku, Áqa Músá Naqiof (alternate spelling Musa Naghiyev)(yet another alternate spelling Báqirof) (1849-1919). [AY11; ABF295note684]
  • Baku; Alexandria; Egypt; Marseilles; Thonon-les-Bains; France; London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha in Egypt; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; S. S. Corsica; Orenoque; Ships; Funds; Donations; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Musa Naghiyev; Musa Naqiof
    1911 16 Aug After four and half days of travel over 2500 kilometres L'Orénoque arrived in Marseille, France's major port on the Mediterranean. 'Abdu'l-Bahá was met by Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney who had recently married (28 April). He and his wife would be 'Abdu'l-Bahá's constant companions in France and would later be in His company in England and the eastern United States. They had already met 'Abdu'l-Baha in Palestine and Laura stayed there between 1904 and 1906. [ABF8]
  • He stayed at the Hôtel Louvre de la Paix at 53, la Canebière (today a C&A department store). [ABF9]
  • Marseille; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; Laura Clifford Barney; Orenoque; Ships
    1911 18 Aug 'Abdu'l-Bahá had an exchange of telegrams with Wellesley Tudor Pole from the Theosophical Summer School in Derbyshire, England where he had just presented a lecture on the Bahá'í Faith. [ABF9-10, SoW Vol 2 no10 p.7] Marseille; France; Derbyshire; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Wellesley Tudor Pole; Theosophical Society
    1911 19 Aug 'Abdu'l-Bahá sent a telegram to Charles Mason Remey in America inviting him to join HIm in Europe. [SoW vol2 no.12 (16 October 1911) p9, ABF10] Marseille; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Charles Mason Remey
    1911 20 Aug 'Abdu'l-Bahá and His party left Marseille and traveled by train to Geneva, arriving late in the day and checking into the Hôtel de la Paix. Marseille; France; Geneva; Switzerland Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911. 21 Aug 'Abdu'l-Bahá and His party took a ferry from Geneva to Thonon-les-Bains and were met by Laura Dreyfus-Barney. They stayed at the Hôtel du Parc. He wrote to His sister, Bahíyyih Khánum. It was she that He had placed in charge of the affairs of the Faith in His absence. [ABF12-13, LTDT172-173]
  • About this time He also wrote to His wife, Munírih Khánum. [ABF14]
  • Geneva; Switzerland; Thonon-les-Bains; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Munirih Khanum
    1911 22 Aug The Master sent for Juliet Thompson who had been waiting in London for His permission to join Him. [DJT157, ABF14-15]
  • See LGHC140-142 for Juliet's letter to Lua Getsinger, then teaching in California at 'Abdu'l-Bahá's request.
  • See SoW Vol 2 No 14 November 23 1911 p9 for her account of her time with 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Switzerland.
  • Thonon-les-Bains; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Juliet Thompson
    1911 23 Aug 'Abdu'l-Bahá went for a carriage ride in the nearby hills. ["With 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Switzerland" by Juliet Thompson, SoW Vol 2 no 14 (Nov 23, 1911) p9-13, ABF15]
  • Later that day, by chance, 'Abdu'l-Bahá encountered the Persian prince, Sultán-Mas'ud Mírzá Zillu's-Sultán (1850-1918), the eldest son of Násirid-/dín Sháh, (1850-1918) in the Parc Hotel. He was in voluntary exile in Europe accompanied by his four sons. At various times, he had been the governor or governor-general of various provinces in Iran from 1862 to 1907 and had persecuted the Bahá'ís zealously. He was responsible for ratifying the execution of the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs in 1879. Upon meeting 'Abdu'l-Bahá he presented his excuses but 'Abdu'l-Bahá forgave him by saying "All those things are in the past. Never think of them again." [DJT172-3, ABF17; ABW411]
  • Annie Boylan arrived in Thonon-les-Bains from America by way of Lausanne. 'Abdu'l-Bahá is reported to have told her that the building of the Shrine of the Báb was the fulfillment of the prophecy that "the Lord would come and rebuild the temple that had been torn down". He added that the Tomb of the Báb and that of Bahá'u'lláh were considered the first Mashriqu’l-Adhkar. [SoW vol 11. no. 1 (March 21, 1920) p1-15, ABF18] iiiii
  • Thonon-les-Bains; France; Isfahan; Iran Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Zillus-Sultan; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Annie Boylan; Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1911 22 Aug - 3 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá took up residence at Thonon-les-Bains on Lake Leman (Lake Geneva). [AB140; GPB280; SBR219]
  • While there He encountered Zillu's-Sultán, the eldest son of the Sháh of the time, Násirid-Dín Sháh. It was he who had ratified the execution of the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs and at least 100 others. The whole family was in exile in Geneva at this time. 'Abdu'l-Bahá was very courteous to this man who had been such an inveterate enemy of the Cause. [DJT172, AY19, GPB201] .
  • The Master sent for Juliet Thompson who had been waiting in London for His permission to join Him.
  • During His stay he had a visit from Annie Boylan, a member of the New York community that was experiencing disharmony. Unaware of Bahá'í election procedures, a group that was unhappy with the disunity and ineffectiveness of the Council had organized a vote to be rid of several of its Council members. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had written to the community a short time before recommending that the Council be expanded from 9 to 27 members so that all factions could be represented. He also recommended that women be included on the Council and that the name be changed to "the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of New York". This apparently addressed the problem of disunity because the New York community went on to contribute significantly to the progress of the Faith on a national level. [DJT181, BFA2p338]
  • Horace Holley, who lived at Quattro Torri, Siena, Italy at the time, along with his wife Bertha Herbert and baby daughter Hertha, visited 'Abdu'l-Bahá on the 29th and 30th of August. Please see his Religion for Mankind p 232-237 for a pen portrait of 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • He met with Elizabeth Stewart and Lillian Kappes who were on their way to Tehran. [find reference]
  • It would appear that He returned to Marseilles and travelled to London by sea. [SCU22-23]
  • Thonon-les-Bains; Lake Leman; Marseille; France; Switzerland; Italy; London; United Kingdom; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies; Unity; Zillus-Sultan; Persecution; Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Juliet Thompson; Horace Holley; Elizabeth Stewart; Lillian Kappes; Ships
    1911 24 Aug Tammaddun'ul-Mulk and Juliet Thompson arrived in Thonon-les-Bains from London via Geneva. She had landed in Southampton on board the Lusitania from America on the 25th of July.

    Juliet Thompson had been in Paris in 1899 and had been part of the nascent Bahá'í community there along with May Maxwell and Lua Getsinger. In addition, she had met 'Abdu'l-Bahá in 'Akká in 1909.

  • She, like many others, was anxious to know when He might come to America. He replied that the unity of the believers would be His invitation. There had been strong differences of opinion among the believers in America and one of those points was in their understanding of the station of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. Some believed Him to be an ordinary man who, through spiritual practice, had attained HIs station, implying that all could do the same. Others insisted that He was the return of Christ. The differences among the believers in New York was such that an election for the New York Bahá'í Board of Council had been influenced to excluded one of the incumbents. 'Abdu'l-Bahá insisted that the Board be increased to 19 members to ensure his re-election. [ABF19]
  • London; United Kingdom; Thonon-les-Bains; France Tammaddunul-Mulk; Juliet Thompson; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911. 25 Aug 'Abdu'l-Bahá spent the morning with Juliet Thompson, part of the afternoon with Bahrám Mírzá and then visited the Gorges du Pont du Diable on the Dranse river at Le Jotty some 15 km south of Thonon-les-Bains. He travelled by automobile and was accompanied by Juliet and the Dreyfus-Barneys. [ABF27-28, DJT174-178]
  • See Images of the Gorges du Pont du Diable.
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá and Juliet discussed dreams. He instructed her to write down her dream and said dreams were of three types: (1) those caused by some bodily disorder, (2) symbolic dreams and (3) dreams in which future events are clearly foretold. [ABF32]
  • Thonon-les-Bains; Le Jotty; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Gorges du Pont du Diable; Dreams and visions
    1911. 26 Aug 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk to those gathered at the hotel on the theme of unity. Present was Annie Boylan, a New York believer who had made the journey to present her case against another New Yorker, Howard MacNutt whom she believed was unfit to serve the Cause. [ABF31-33, DJT180-184] Thonon-les-Bains; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Howard MacNutt; Annie Boylan
    1911 27 Aug 'Abdu'l-Bahá and His party took a ferry to Vevey. a resort town on the other side of Lake Geneva (Lake Leman). Vevey was the location of the Dreyfus summer home and it was near here that Lady Blomfield and her daughters finalized the translation of Paris Talks [ABF33-44, DJT186, SoW vol 2 no 14]
  • He took a room at the Park Hôtel Mooser where He took some rest and also met Edith Sanderson and her mother. With the assembled friends He discussed immortality and divorce.
  • The party returned by ferry to Thonon-les-Bains, stopping at Évian-les-Bains. [DJT196-197]
  • In the afternoon He met with Lillian Frances Kappes and Elizabeth Harnill Stewart who had just arrived from America on their way to teach at the Tarbiyát School for girls in Iran. The school for boys had been in operation since 1897 and the school for girls was just being established in. [ABF43, SoW vol 2 no 18, SoW vol 2 no 14]
  • Thonon-les-Bains; Vevey; Switzerland; Evian-les-Bains; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Lady Blomfield; Edith Sanderson; Lillian Kappes; Elizabeth Harnill Stewart; Tarbiyat School; Bahai schools; Paris Talks (book)
    1911 28 Aug In the morning 'Abdu'l-Bahá's visitor was Sultán-Husayn Mírzá, the eldest son of Zillu's-Sultán. Between 1879 and 1906 he had served as either governor or deputy governor of Khuzestán, Lorestán, Yazd, Fárs, Burujerd and Kurdistan. He was responsible for the martyrdoms in Yazd in 1891 and again in 1903. He had been exiled with his father in 1908.
  • As a footnote, in his latter years he became a devoted Bahá'í. [DJT206]
  • Later He gave a talk in Arabic that was published in its entirety by the leading Egyptian newspaper, Al-Ahram. [ABF45-48, SoW vol 5 no 10, Far Stretching River (translation by Mohsen Enayat)]
  • Thonon-les-Bains; France; Yazd; Iran Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Sultan-Husayn Mirza; Mohsen Enayat; Seven martyrs of Yazd; Seven martyrs; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Yazd upheaval
    1911 29 Aug Horace Holley and his wife Bertha arrived from Italy with their baby daughter Hertha. They stayed two days. He described their experience in A Pilgrimage to Thonon published in 1911 and in Religion for Mankind p232-237. [ABF49-51; BEL7.1220] Thonon-les-Bains; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Horace Holley
    1911 30 Aug 'Abdu'l-Bahá spent the morning in Thonon-les-Bain and took the ferry to Geneva after dinner. He stayed at the Hôtel de la Paix located at 11, Quai du Mont-Blanc. [ABF5154, DJT208] Thonon-les-Bains; France; Geneva; Switzerland Horace Holley; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 3 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá left London for Paris. [AB154; SBR25, In the Footsteps of 'Abdu'l-Bahá p22]
  • See ABL113 for details of His last day in London. He left from Victoria Station.
  • He was accompanied by many Bahá'ís from England who attended many of the public meeting at which He spoke in Paris. This group included Marion Jack. [NBAD47]
  • He remained in Paris for nine weeks. [AB159; GPB280]
  • For details of His visit see AB159–68.
  • For `Abdu'l-Bahá's talks given in Paris see PT.
  • London; United Kingdom; Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Marion Jack; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of
    1911 4 Oct It is quite probable that 'Abdu'l-Bahá stayed with Hippolyte and Laura Dreyfus-Barney at 15, rue Greuze for a couple of nights before moving to the apartment at 4, avenue de Camoēns which had been prepared for Him by them. The apartment was in a building that was relatively new having been built in 1910. It was one block away from the Trocadéro Gardens and the Eiffel Tower stood just across the River Seine. It had a drawing room that could easily accommodate 75-100 people and came with a French maid who performed the domestic functions and who answered the bell. The apartment was purchase by the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of France in 1996. [ABF62, 65, 68-71, 85 Sur les pas de 'Abdu'l-Bahá à Paris by Paul Hakim, SoW Vol 2 No 14 p3-4]
  • Some members of His entourage stayed at the Grand Hötel de Passy (now Hötel Passy-Eiffel) some ten minutes walk away. [ABF84]
  • Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Avenue de Camoens
    1911 5 Oct 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk at 46, avenue de Malakoff (today avenue Raymond Poincaré) at the home of Edith Sanderson and her mother Margaret Sanderson. [ABF62; The Holy Spirit is the source of Life] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Edith Sanderson
    1911 6 Oct 'Abdu'l-Bahá invited a number of Persian students then in Paris to His apartment. [ABF63-65] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 14 Oct 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk at the home of Hippolyte and Laura Dreyfus-Barney. This was the first of His Parisian talks which were published. [ABF68] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Paris Talks (book)
    1911 15 Oct In the morning 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk at His apartment at #4 Avenue de Camoens. During the talk Muhammad Qazvíní and Siyyid Hasan Taqízásih entered the room. The former had written an introduction for and was the force behind the publication of Kitáb-i-Nuqtatu'l-Káf, a book that supposedly was an early history of the Faith but in reality was heavily biased to the the views of Mírzá Yahya. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had had Mírzá Abdu'l-Fadl write a refutation to the book. Both men had additional dinner engagements with 'Abdu'l-Bahá during His visit. ['Abdu'l-Bahá's Meetings with Two Prominent Iranians, World Order, Fall 1998 Vol 30, no 1 pp35-46, ABF71-76]
  • In the afternoon all were invited to meet Him at #22 rue Ledru- Rollin pré-Saint-Germais-sur-Seine outside the walls of Paris. The purpose was to visit a project run by Mons. V. Ponsonaille and his wife to provide some comfort to the poor children in an underprividged quarter of the city. For an account of this event see Glimpses of Abdul'Bahá in Paris by Alice Beede.[ABF76-79]
  • Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Kitab-i-Nuqtatul-Kaf; Criticism and apologetics; Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Muhammad Qazvini; Siyyid Hasan Taqizasih
    1911 16 Oct 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk before a group of English Bahá'ís which was given the title The Duty of Kindness and Sympathy towards Strangers and Foreigners. [PT15-17]
  • In the evening He spoke at the Dreyfus-Barney home. [ABF79-82]
  • Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 17 Oct In the morning 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke in HIs apartment about doing the will of God and not just speaking about it. [SoW Vol 2 no 16 December 31, 1911 p3]
  • In the afternoon He met again with some students and others at the Hôtel de Passy. [ABF84-85]
  • Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 18 Oct In the morning 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk entitled, The Power and Value of True Thought Depend upon Its Manifestation in Action. [PT17-19, ABF85-87, SoW Vol 2 no 16 December 31, 1911 p3-4] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 19 Oct In the morning 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke of healing. God is the Great Compassionate Physician Who Alone Gives True Healing. [PT19-21, ABF87-89; SoW Vol 2 No 16 December 31, 1911 p4] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 20 Oct In the morning 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke of the relationship between East and West, The Need for Union Between the Peoples of the East and West. [PT21-22,ABF89-90]
  • The evening talk was given at the Dreyfus-Barney home. God Comprehends all: He Cannot be Comprehended. [PT23-27, ABF9295]
  • The talk, The Sun of Truth, shown as being given on the 22nd of October, was perhaps delivered this day. [PT20-33, ABF100-102]
  • Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 21 Oct News of the Battle of Benghazi (17 October) was headline news. It was one of the opening salvos of the Turko-Italian War and began on the 17th of October when Italian invasion forces began their bombardment of the Turkish garrison. The Turks were forced to abandon the city and there were many lives lost, Italians, Turks and civilians.
  • His talk, The Pitiful Causes of War, and the Duty of Everyone to Strive for Peace. [ABF96-100 PT28-30]
  • See as well SoW Vol 2 No 14 November 23, 1911 p5 for His talk on the Battle of Benghazi.
  • Paris; France; Benghazi; Lybia; Turkey; Italy Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; War (general); History (general); Peace
    1911 23 Oct In the morning He gave a talk, The Light of Truth is now Shining Upon the East and West. [PT33-35; ABF103-104; SoW Vol 2 No 16 December 31, 1911 p5] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 24 Oct In the morning 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk, The Universal Love. [PT3539, ABF104-108] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 25 Oct In the morning He spoke of His imprisonment. The Imprisonment of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [PT39-41; ABF108-109; SoW Vol 2 No 16 December 31, 1911 p6] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 26 Oct In the morning 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk at His apartment. God's Greatest Gift to Man. [PT41-43]
  • A different version of the same talk was recorded by Mary Hanford Ford. [ABF111-112]
  • In the evening 'Abdu'l-Bahá was driven to 59, avenue de La Bourdonnais by Hippolyte Dreyfus where He spoke at the Société théosophique of Paris. This talk was reported in a number of French newspapers and was published in Talks by Abdul Baha Given in Paris p117-124. [ABF1113-118]
  • Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 27 Oct In the afternoon 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk at His apartment on the relation between God and man entitled, The Clouds that Obscure the Sun of Truth. [ABF1118-119, PT43-45]
  • A second talk was given at His apartment, The Benefits of God to Man. [ABF120-121, PT49-51].
  • In the evening He spoke at the Dreyfus-Barney home. He spoke about how religious leaders have mislead their congregations into denying the divinity of other Manifestations. Religious Prejudices. [ABF121-124, PT45-49]
  • Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 28 Oct 'Abdu'l-Bahá's morning talk at His apartment was on the theme that God was the creator of all existence and therefore all men are as brothers. It was named, Beauty and Harmony in Diversity. [ABF125-126, PT51-54] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 29 Oct The title for 'Abdu'l-Bahá's morning talk was Worldly riches do not help Spirit. [ABF133, SoW vol 2 no 16 p4-5]
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá was invited to dinner at 29, rue Brézin, the home of Madeleine Jenny Sacy, the widow of French Bahá'í Gabriel Sacy (1858-1903). He had known Sacy in Egypt where he died unexpectedly. Sacy had been a Syrian Christian who, upon becoming a Bahá'í had a remarkable faculty for interpreting the prophecies of the Old and New Testaments.
  • That same day He spoke at the home of the sister of Hippolyte Dreyfus, Yvonne and Paul Mayer May at 21, boulevard Beauséjour. [ABF135]
  • Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 30 Oct His morning talk was titled The True Meaning of the Prophecies Concerning the Coming of Christ. [ABF136-139, PT54-57] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 31 Oct 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke at His apartment on the theme of The Holy Spirit, the Intermediary Power between God and Man. [ABF139-141, PT57-59] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 1 Nov His talk this day, the Feast of All Saints, was The Two Natures in Man. [ABF143-144, PT60-62] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 2 Nov 'Abdu'l-Bahá's morning talk in His apartment concerned Material and Spiritual Progress. [ABF146-149, PT62-64] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 3 Nov The morning talk in His apartment was on The Evolution of Matter and Development of the Soul. [ABF149-151, PT64-67]
  • The Persian students who had been frequent visitors paid one last visit before departing for their place of study.
  • In the evening He spoke at the Dreyfus-Barney home on the evolution of matter and the development of the soul. [ABF152]
  • Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 4 Nov In the morning at His apartment 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke about The Spiritual Meetings in Paris. [PT67-68, ABF152-153] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 5 Nov 'Abdu'l-Bahá delivered an address entitled The Two Kinds of Light. [ABF155-156, PT68-70] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 6 Nov This morning's talk at His apartment was Spiritual Aspiration in the West. [ABF161-163, PT70-72]
  • In the evening He spoke at the studio of Edwin and Josephine Scott at 17, rue Boissonade, American artists living in Paris. The lecture has been called Lecture Given at a Studio in Paris. [ABF163-165, PT72-74] Another version of the lecture, this time entitled, Aims and Ambitions of Bahaies: Spoken by Abdul Baha in Paris, November 6th, 1911 was published in Star of the West. [SoW vol 2 no 19 p3]
  • Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 7 Nov His morning talk was on Bahá’u’lláh. [ABF165-169, PT75-79] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 8 Nov His morning talk at His apartment was Good Ideas Must Be Carried into Action. [ABF169-170, PT79-81] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 9 Nov The morning talk at 4, avenue de Camoëns was on The True Meaning of Baptism by Water and Fire. [ABF171-172, PT81-83]
  • In the afternoon He was invited to speak to the Alliance Spiritualiste at Salle de l'Athénée, 21, rue du Vieux-Colombier. Discourse at “l’Alliance Spiritualiste was the title given to His talk. The meeting was attended by about 40 people. Spiritualism was a religion found in part on the writings of the Swedish mystic Emmanuel Swedenborg (1699-1772). [PT83-88; SoW Vol 2 No 17 Janurary 19, 1912 p2]
  • Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 10 Nov In the morning He gave a talk at His apartment on the The First Principle—Search after Truth. [PT135-137; ABF180-181, SoW Vol 3 no1 p3-4]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk later entitled The Evolution of the Spirit at 15 Rue Greuze, Paris, the home of the Dreyfus-Barneys. [Paris Talks p88-94; ABF182-186]
  • Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
    1911 2 Dec `Abdu'l-Bahá left Paris for Marseille by train from the Gare de Lyon arriving late in the day. Little is known about His stay in that city save for one talk. [ABF246]
  • See ABF256-260 for some of the places that 'Abdu'l-Baha visited while in Paris for which the visits are undated. Included in the list is His visit to the Senat of the French Republic [PUP72].
  • There are also a number of undated talks and fragments of talks the have been published in a variety of sources. [ABF261-264]
  • See ABF264-268 for a list of persons with whom 'Abdu'l-Bahá had undocumented visits.
  • Paris; Marseille; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Life of
    1911 6 Dec 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk on materialism at a meeting of theosophists, possible at 25, Boulevard Baille. For the text of this talk see ABF247-254. Marseille; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Theosophical Society
    1911 7 Dec 'Abdu'l-Bahá departed Marseille for Egypt on board Le Portugal. It travelled to Beirut via Alexandria and Port Said and reached Alexandria on the 12th of December. [ABF255-256; AB167; GPB280; SBR25]
  • Letter from Ahmad Sohrab. [SoW Vol 2 No 16 December 31, 1911 p9]
  • Marseille; France; Alexandria; Egypt Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha in Egypt; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Ships
    1912. 11 Apr Hippolyte and Laura Dreyfus Barney sailed on the SS Kaiserin Auguste Victoria from Cherbourg for New York to be with 'Abdu'l-Bahá for a few months. [ABF285]
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá had invited Louisa Mathew to come to America and accompany Him. [Documentary: 'Abdu'l-Baha's Initiative on Race from 1921: Race Amity Conferences 34:00]
  • Cherbourg; France; New York Laura Dreyfus Barney; Hippolyte Dreyfus Barney
    1912 18 Dec 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk at which E. G. Browne was present. He visited `Abdu'l-Bahá several more times while in London. [SoW Vol III no19 2Mar1913 p4, AB346, ABTM277-278]
  • Hájí Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardakání (Hájí Amín) arrived in London from Paris with three young Persian. He spoke neither English nor French and had had some difficulty in getting from Paris to London. He crossed the English Channel and then found himself back in Paris. His second attempt was successful. [SoW Vol III no19 2Mar1913 p4, AB346–7, ABTM278]
  • London; United Kingdom; Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Edward Granville Browne; Haji Amin (Abul-Hasan-i-Ardikani)
    1913 21 Jan `Abdu'l-Bahá left London for Paris. [AB371]
  • The visit to Paris lasts several weeks. [AB372; SBR220]
  • London; United Kingdom; Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1913. 23 Jan After His morning talk He visited and had lunch with Natalie Clifford Barney, the sister of Laura Dreyfus Barney and the daughter of Alice Pike Barney, probably at her salon at 20, rue Jacob.
  • On this day, or perhaps the next, He met the famous French philosopher and writer, Henri Bergson. (Nobel prize for literature 1928). He was a professor at the College de France. 'Abdu'l-Bahá impressed him with His simple proof for the existence of God. [ABF302-304, Bahá'íes de France]
  • Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Natalie Clifford Barney; Henri Bergson
    1913 6 Feb `Abdu'l-Bahá visited Versailles. [AB376] Paris; Versailles; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1913 17 Feb For the text of an interview, originally published in Abdul Baha on Divine Philosophy, with Pasteur Monnier during which 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke on the relationship between the Bahá'í Faith and Christianity, see Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 3:1 (1993), with notes by Khazeh Fananapazir.
  • Pasteur Henri Monnier (b. 1871) was the "Professor á la Faculté libre de théologie protestante de Paris", Vice-president of the Protestant Federation of France and Pastor of the Etoile Church [from International Who's Who, 1st ed.]
  • Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Christianity; Interfaith dialogue; Henri Monnier, Pasteur; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of
    1913 30 Mar `Abdu'l-Bahá traveled from Paris to Stuttgart. [AB379]
  • He told His attendants to wear European dress and to discard their oriental headgear. [AB379]
  • He did not tell the Bahá'ís of Stuttgart of His arrival in advance. [AB379]
  • The party arrived on the 1st of April and took rooms in Hotel Marquardt, near the train station. Then He asked His attendant to telephone the Bahá'ís to announce His arrival and invite them to the hotel. [AB379-380]
  • Paris; France; Stuttgart; Germany Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1913 1 May `Abdu'l-Bahá left Stuttgart and returned to Paris. [AB391] Stuttgart; Germany; Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1913 12 Jun `Abdu'l-Bahá left Paris for Marseilles, arriving the same evening. [AB395]

    In total 'Abdu'-Bahá spent about 171 days in Paris.

    3 October to 2 December 1911 - 60 days          
     21 January to 30 March 1913 - 69 days          
           1 May to 12 June 1913 - 42 days          
                          Total   171 days          
  • See David Merrick's map for the places visited by 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Paris.
  • See PG117-118 for 'Abdu'l-Bahá continuing concern for Paris in 1919.
  • Paris; Marseille; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1913 13 Jun `Abdu'l-Bahá left Marseilles on the S. S. Himalaya for Port Said. [AB395]
  • He sent a telegram to Haifa instructing the many pilgrims awaiting His return to come to Port Said. Because of the great numbers who came, there wasn't sufficient hotel accommodations and a large tent was erected on the roof in which to hold meetings. [SoW Vol 4 No 7 p121]
  • Marseille; France; Port Said; Egypt Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha in Egypt; S. S. Himalaya; Ships; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Pilgrims; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline
    1913. 16 - 21 July The 6e Congrès International du Progrès Religieux (Chrétiens Progressifs et Libres-Croyants) [6th International Congress of Religious Progress (Progressive Christians and Free Believers)] was held in Paris. Over twenty of the clergy that 'Abdu'l-Bahá had met in His travels in Britain, Canada, the United States and France attended. 'Abdu'l-Bahá's photograph was published amongst those invited to attend and inserted in the proceedings of the Congress. Hippolyte Dreyfus presented the Bahá'í address. [ABF411note 977] Paris; France International Congress of Religious Progress; Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney
    1914 (In the year) 'Abdu'l-Bahá was forced to expel Tammaddun'ul-Mulk for corrupt behaviour. He was from Shiraz and had been living in Paris for several years. He had been part of His entourage in 1911. [ABF19] Shiraz; Tihran; Iran; Paris; France Tammaddunul-Mulk; Covenant-breaker
    1919 18 Jan The commencement of the Paris Peace Conference in Versailles.
  • Ali Kuli Khan was named as a member of Persia’s Peace Delegation to the Versailles. [SUP45]
  • Paris; Versailles; France Paris Peace Conference; Peace
    1919 28 Jun The Treaty of Versailles was concluded. The United States never signed the Treaty of Versailles, never joined the League of Nations which President Wilson's foes derisively referred to as ‘Wilson’s League’. The USA made separate treaties with Germany and the other Central Powers. Wilson died on the 3rd of February, 1924. [AY160-169; US Office of the Historian]

    Shoghi Effendi's tribute is as follows:

    "To ... President ... Woodrow Wilson, must be ascribed the unique honour, among the statesmen of any nation, whether of the East or of the West, of having voiced sentiments so akin to the principles animating the Cause of Bahá’u’lláh, and of having more than any other world leader, contributed to the creation of the League of Nations—achievements which the pen of the Centre of God’s Covenant acclaimed as signalizing the dawn of the Most Great Peace, whose sun, according to that same pen, must needs arise as the direct consequence of the enforcement of the laws of the Dispensation of Bahá’u’lláh." [CoF36]

    Versailles; France Treaty of Versailles; Woodrow Wilson; League of Nations; History (general); World War I; War (general); World peace (general); Peace; Most Great Peace
    1920 20 Apr Shoghi Effendi left Haifa for France with the intention of taking up his study of English at Oxford University. As instructed by 'Abdu'l-Bahá he stayed in a sanitarium in Neuilly (Maison d'Hydrothérapie et de convalescence du Parc de Neuilly, 6 Boulevard du Château, Neuilly-sur-Seine) before leaving for England in July. [SEO58]
  • See AY179-186 for and account of Shoghi Effendi's stay in the Paris area. According to Marzieh Gail he was probably in the area from about the 9th of April until the 13th of July.
  • Haifa; Oxford; United Kingdom; Neuilly; France Shoghi Effendi at Oxford; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Balliol College (Oxford University)
    1920. 11 Jun Shoghi Effendi made application to Balliol College at Oxford University as a non-collegiate student for a period of two years. [PG134] Neuilly; France; Oxford; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi at Oxford; Balliol College (Oxford University); Universities; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline
    1920. 19 Jul Shoghi Effendi departed from France two weeks after receiving 'Abdu'l-Bahá's permission to study at Oxford. According to Dr J. Fallscheer, the German woman physician that 'Abdu'l-Bahá had engaged to attend to the ladies of His household, 'Abdu'l-Bahá had decided to send Shoghi Effendi to England while he was still in high school. [PG137-138] Paris; France; Oxford; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi at Oxford; Balliol College (Oxford University); Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Fallscheer, Dr J.
    1928 20 Dec Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney, (b. 12 Apr 1873, Paris, France, d. 20 Dec 1928, Paris, France), Disciple of Abdu’l-Bahá, passed away in Paris. He was buried in Cimetiere de Montmartre in Paris. [UD84–5]
  • See Find a grave for a succinct biography.
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s eulogy of him see BW3:210–14 and UD84–5.
  • Paris; France Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam
    1936 (In the Year) The publication of Massacres de Babis en Perse by A.L.M. Nicolos. Paris; France A.L.M. Nicolas; Massacres de Babis en Perse; Publications
    1939 28 Feb The passing of Louis Alphonse Daniel Nicolas, signing A.-L.-M. Nicolas, (b. March 27 , 1864 in Rasht, Iran) in Paris. He was an historian and French orientalist, official interpreter of the Legation French abroad, and France's consul general in Tabriz.
          After reading Gobineau's Trois ans en Asie, 1855-1858 he checked all the information Gobineau had written in his book, corrected some of it, and then began to translate the writings of the Báb. Seduced by this young doctrine, he converted to Bábism and thus became the first Western Bábí. He wrote various works Seyyed Ali Mohamed dit le Báb (1905) and was the first to translate a work of the Báb into French: the Arabic Beyan and the Persian Beyan, an Essai sur le Chéikhisme (1911) and several articles in newspapers such that Review of the Muslim World. Nicolas became knight of the Legion of Honour in 1909.
  • Moojan Momen says of him, "No European scholar has contributed so much to our knowledge of the life and teachings of the Báb as Nicholas. His study of the life of the Báb and his translations of several of the most important books of the Báb remain of unsurpassed value." [BBR36]
  • His important collection of manuscripts were auctioned and the items relevant to the Bahá’í and Bábí Faiths are purchased by the Bahá’í World Centre.
  • See BW8p885-887 for An Interview with A. L. M. Nicolas of Paris by Edith Sanderson.
  • A chronological list of his publications:
    • Le Livre des Sept Preuves [Dalá'il-i-Sab'ih translated from Persian into French], Paris, 1902, 68 pp.
    • A propos de deux manuscrits 'Bábís' de la Bibliothèque Nationale, Revue de l'Histoire des Religions, Paris, volume 47, 1903, pp. 58-73
    • Le Béyan Arabe [Bayán al-'arabiyya translated from Arabic into French], Paris, 1905, 235 pp.
    • Seyyed Ali Mohammed dit le Báb [biography of the Báb, selections translated into English in this volume], Paris, 1905, 458 pp.
    • En Perse : Constitution [translation by A.L.M. Nicolas], Revue du Monde Musulman, Paris, volume 1, 1907 (décembre 1906), p. 86-100
    • Sur la Volonté Primitive et l'Essence Divine d'après le Báb, Revue de l'Histoire des Religions, Paris, volume 55, 1907, pp. 208-212
    • Essais sur le Chéïkhisme, 4 volumes :
    • Cheïkh Ahmed Lahçahi, Paris, volume 1, 1910
    • Séyyèd Kazem Rechti, Paris, volume 2, 1914
    • Le Chéïkhisme. La Doctine, Paris, volume 3, 1911 [extract from Revue du Monde Musulman]
    • La Science de Dieu, Paris, volume 4, 1911
    • Le Club de la fraternité [translation of an article by Atrpet by A.L.M. Nicolas], Revue du Monde Musulman, Paris, volume 13, 1911, pp. 180-184
    • Le Dossier russo-anglais de Seyyed Ali Mohammed dit le Báb, Revue du Monde Musulman, Paris, volume 14, 1911, pp. 357-363
    • Le Béyan Persan [Bayán-i-fársí translated from Persian into French], four volumes, 1911-1914
    • Abdoul-Béha et la situation, Revue du Monde Musulman, Paris, volume 21, 1912, pp. 261-267
    • Le Béhahis et le Báb, Journal Asiatique, Paris, volume 222, 1933, pp. 257-264
    • Qui est le successeur du Báb? Paris, 1933, 16 pp.
    • Quelques Documents relatifs au Babisme, Journal Asiatique, Paris, volume 224, 1934, pp. 107-142
    • Le Báb astronome, Revue de l'Histoire des Religions, Paris, volume 114, 1936, pp. 99-101
    • Massacre de Babis en Perse, Paris, 1936, 42 pp. [A Short Biography of A. L. M. Nicholas by Peter Terry 2008]
  • Rasht; Iran; Paris; France A.L.M. Nicolas; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Translation; First believers
    1939 3 Sep World War II began with Britain and France declaring war on Germany after Germany invaded Poland. Europe; Germany; United Kingdom; France; Poland World War II; History (general); War (general)
    1940 25 May Shoghi Effendi and Rúhíyyih Khánum left for England via Menton and Marseilles after having obtained a visa for Britain in Rome. A few days later the Italians enter the war against the Allies. [PP179] Rome; Italy; Menton; Marseilles; France; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; World War II
    1940 2 Jun Shoghi Effendi and Rúhíyyih Khánum left St Malo, France, for England one day before the city was occupied by the Nazis. Shoghi Effendi seemed acutely aware of the danger to himself and to the Faith should he fall into the hands of the Nazis because the Cause had already been banned in Germany and his inveterate enemy, the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, was allied with them. [PP 179–80] St Malo; France Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; World War II
    1953 29 Oct Opal Jensen arrived on Réunion Island from the United States and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455]
  • She was later declared a Covenant-breaker.
  • Reunion; France Knights of Bahaullah; Covenant-breakers
    1954 25 Mar Leland Jensen arrived on Réunion Island from the United States and ws named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455]
  • He was later declared a Covenant-breaker.
  • Reunion; France Leland Jensen; Knights of Bahaullah; Covenant-breakers
    1955 8–15 Feb The first people to become Bahá’ís in Réunion, Paul and Françoise Tayllamin (8 Feb) and Jean Donat and Julien Araye (15 Feb), enrolled. Reunion; France First Bahais by country or area
    1955 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Réunion was formed. Reunion; France LSA
    1958 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of France was formed. [BW13p274]
  • For the message of the Custodians to the French National Convention see MC86–9.
  • France National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1960 30 Apr – 10 May Twenty–four national spiritual assemblies and five national conventions sent messages of support to the Custodians, repudiating the claim made by Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [MC199–202]
  • The National Spiritual Assembly of France voted to recognize Remey's claim. [MC203]
  • BWC; Haifa; France NSA; Custodians; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship
    1960 5 May Hand of the Cause Abu’l-Qásim Faizí was sent by the Custodians to France to meet with the National Spiritual Assembly and Bahá’ís of France. [MC197]
  • After consultation, five members of the assembly continued to support Charles Mason Remey in his claim to be the second Guardian and resigned from the assembly. The national assembly was dissolved. [MC203]
  • BWC; Haifa; France Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Abul-Qasim Faizi; NSA; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship
    1971 (In the year) The first Gypsies, six adults and six youth, the first to become Bahá’ís in France, enrolled at a campsite near Le Bourget airport. France First believers by background
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Réunion was formed with its seat in St Pierre. [BW15:199]
  • For picture see BW15:155.
  • St Pierre; Reunion; France National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1974 18 Aug Laura Clifford Dreyfus-Barney, (b. 30 Nov 1879, Cincinnati, Hamilton County, Ohio, USA) passed away in Paris. [BW16:296]
  • For her obituary see BW16:535–8.
  • She was buried at Cimetiere de Passy, Paris, City of Paris, Île-de-France, France.
  • She is best known for having compiled the Bahá'í text Some Answered Questions from her interviews with `Abdu'l-Bahá during her visit to Akka between 1904 and 1906. [Wikipedia]
  • See Laura Barney’s Discipleship to ‘Abdu’l-Bahá: Tracing a Theological Flow from the Middle East to the United States, 1900–1916 by Layli Maria Miron in The Journal of Bahá’í Studies 28.1-2 2018.
  • She was the only Western woman to have been designated as "Amatu'l-Bahá" (Handmaid of Bahá) by 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [Some Answered Questions" and Its Compiler by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani published in Lights of Irfan, 18, pages 445; M9YA314]
  • At the end of the war she placed her faith in the League of Nations and represented the International Council of Women in that body, playing an important role in cultural exchange. She was the only woman named by the League Council to sit on the Sub-Committee of experts on Education, a post which she held for many years, beginning in 1926. On 23 July 1925 she was appointed Chevalier de la Legion d’Honneur. In that same year she formed under the aegis of the League of Nations the ‘Liaison Committee of Major International Organizations to promote through Education better Understanding between Peoples and Classes’ and became a permanent member of the committee as well as its liaison officer. In 1934 she became a member of the Advisory Committee of the League of Nations on Teaching; she was also a member of the French Committee on Intellectual Co-operation. [BW15p537]
  • See A Glimpse into the Life of Laura Dreyfus-Barney by Mona Khademi for a brief biography of Laura Barney and her family.
  • My Interview with Laura Dreyfus-Barney by Jack McLean (1967)
  • Paris; France Laura Clifford Barney; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Amatul-Baha (title); Some Answered Questions
    1976 3 – 6 Aug An International Teaching Conference was held in Paris, attended by some 5,700 Bahá’ís. [BW17:81; DM416; VV33]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW17:131–2.
  • For the message of Kurt Waldheim, Secretary-General of the United Nations, see BW17:140.
  • For pictures see BW17:109, 117–19.
  • Paris; France; Europe Kurt Waldheim; United Nations; United Nations, Secretary-Generals; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching
    1984 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Martinique was formed with its seat in Fort-de-France. [BW19:62, 155]
  • See BW19:523 for picture.
  • Fort-de-France National Spiritual Assembly, formation;
    1990 (In the year) The formation of the European Bahá'í Business Forum in France with members from 26 countries in Europe and elsewhere. [VV115]
  • Formed by a group of Bahá'ís active in business and management meeting in Chamonix, France, due to concern about the decline of ethics and values in business.
  • Forum created to promote the moral and spiritual wisdom and principles of the great religious traditions of the world (sources included Judaism, Hinduism, and Christianity as well as the 19th century revelation of Bahá'u'lláh) such as adherence to the principles of justice, respect, trustworthiness, integrity and unity.
  • Beginning as an informal network, its membership grew requiring the election of a Governing Board.
  • Members have attached importance to sharing their broad experience and to contributing to the improvement of management in emerging free-market economies of Central and Eastern Europe. [ebbf]
  • Chamonix; France; Europe European Bahai Business Forum (EBBF); Business; ebbf
    1990 1 - 2 Sep The European Bahá'í Business Forum was formed at a meeting in Chamonix, France, attended by people from eight countries. [BINS244:8; VV115]
  • For picture see VV115.
  • Chamonix; France European Bahai Business Forum (EBBF); Business
    1993 (In the year) EBBF was registered in Paris as an official non-profit association. Its statutes provided that membership was open to Bahá'ís and non-Bahá'ís alike. [ebbf] Paris; France European Bahai Business Forum (EBBF); Business
    1993 15 Apr The passing of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Stanley Theodore Bagley, (b.2 February, 1912 in Bertrand, Missouri). He had been a pioneer to Belgium, France, Guadeloupe, Martinique, the United States as well as Sicily where he and his family, wife Florence, son Gerry and daughters Susan and Carol, received the Knighthood for their service. [BW93-94p319; BWIM63-65] United States; Belgium; France,; Guadeloupe; Martinique; Sicily Knights of Bahaullah; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Stanley Bagley
    1994 May 22 The first Bahá'í Children and Youth Conference of Martinique was held in Fort-de-France, attended by 22 people. [BINS318:4–5] Fort-de-France; Martinique Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth
    2019. 11 Oct ‘Ali Nakhjavani, (b. 19 September, 1919 in Baku, Azerbaijan) former member of the Universal House of Justice (1963-2003), passed away in Molsheim, Alsace, France. He was 100 years old. The Universal House of Justice requested all National Assemblies that memorial services be held for him. [BWNS1361]
  • After his father's death when he was two years old, his family was advised by 'Abdu'l-Bahá to move to Haifa where he grew up. In 1939 he received the Bachelor of Arts degree with distinction from the American University of Beirut, and then in the early 1940s he relocated to Iran, residing first in Tehran, then Tabriz and finally in Shiraz. In 1950 he was elected to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís Iran where he served until the following year.
  • In 1951 he and his family moved to Uganda to assist with the development of the Bahá'í community in that country. He made his living as a teacher and lecturer. During his early years there, Enoch Olinga became a Bahá'í, and in 1953 Mr Nakhjavání and his wife Violette, along with Mr Olinga and two other Bahá'ís, travelled from Uganda to Cameroon to help spread the Bahá'í Faith in that country.
  • From 1954-61 he was a member of the Auxiliary Board in Africa, and later from 1956 to 1961 he was served on the Bahá'í National Spiritual Assembly of Central and East Africa.
  • In 1961 he was elected to the International Bahá'í Council and so moved to Haifa. In 1963 he was elected to the Universal House of Justice during its inaugural convention, and served as a member of that body until 2003. [Find a grave]
  • For a video tribute to Mr Nakhjavani see YouTube.
  • Baku; Azerbaijan; Beirut; Lebanon; Molsheim; France Ali Nakhjavani; In Memoriam; American University of Beirut; Enoch Olinga; Violette Nakhjavani; International Bahai Council

    from the main catalogue

    1. Abdu'l-Baha in Britain and France (1911-1913) (2018). Annotated, detailed map of places and dates (link offsite). [about]
    2. 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Encounter with Modernity during His Western Travels, by Wendi Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). Abdu'l-Baha's responses to the West's technology and innovations on the one hand, vs. its archaic racist and sexual philosophies on the other. [about]
    3. 'Abdu'l-Baha's Meeting with Two Prominent Iranians, by Muhammad Qazvini, in World Order, 30:1 (1998). Muhammad Qazvini's and Siyyid Hasan Taqizadeh's descriptions of their 1911 meetings with `Abdu'l-Baha in Paris. Preceded by a brief biography of Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
    4. Account of How I Became a Bahá'í and My Stays in Paris in 1901 and 1937, An: Written at the Request of Mrs. Laura Dreyfus-Barney, by Agnes Baldwin Alexander (1958). [about]
    5. Babi and Bahá'í Religions 1844-1944: Some Contemporary Western Accounts, by Moojan Momen (1981). A lengthy collection of first-hand reports and mentions of the Babi and Baha'i religions in contemporaneous accounts and newspapers. [about]
    6. Divine Simplicity: Remembering the last Hand of the Cause of God, 'Ali-Muhammad Varqa, by Jack McLean (2008). Biography of Dr. Varqa, partly based on interviews with people who knew him in Iran. [about]
    7. Germany, France, Italy, and Switzerland, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 4:1 (1994). Compilation of new perspectives on the future of European civilization. Includes introduction by Julio Savi. [about]
    8. Glimpse of Abdu'l-Bahá in Paris, by Alice R. Beede, in Star of the West, 2:18 (1912). Short account of a brief meeting in Paris, and brief speech by Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
    9. Inayat Khan's meeting with 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Paris, by Inayat Khan (1913). One-paragraph recounting of Khan, the founder of "Universal Sufism," meeting with Abdu'l-Baha in 1913. [about]
    10. Journal Diary of European Baha'i Travels: April - November 1948, by Charles Mason Remey (1948). A record of Remey's visits across Europe, from England to Germany. Includes coverage of Bahá'í participation in the first U.N. convention on Human Rights, held in Geneva. [about]
    11. Les religions et les philosophies dans l'asie centrale, by Joseph Arthur Gobineau (1866). A lengthy early account of Babi history by French Orientalist and diplomat Comte de Gobineau, who served as France's envoy to Iran in 1855-1863. [about]
    12. Letter to the Ecole des Jeunes May Bolles Maxwell Conference, by Ruhiyyih (Mary Maxwell) Khanum (1997). [about]
    13. Mayflowers in the Ville Lumière: The Dawning of Bahá'í History in the European Continent, by Julio Savi, in Lights of Irfan, 12 (2011). In intellectual and artistic Paris of the fin de siècle, a young American becomes the catalyst for the spiritual awakening of a group of early believers. The paper examines the mysterious ways through which they came to recognize the dawn of the new era. [about]
    14. Paris Talks, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1972). [about]
    15. Quelques Rencontres Importantes entre les Communautés Protestante et Bahá'íe en France , by Jan T. Jasion (2019). History of the relationship between the Faith in France and the Protestant community, 1870-1913 (with photographs). [about]
    16. Questions and Answers 1950-51, by Mirra Alfassa (1951). The Mother's recollections of Abdu'l-Baha speaking to her about sacrifice and suffering. [about]
    17. Sabiduria de 'Abdu'l-Bahá, La, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1996). Spanish translation of Paris Talks. [about]
    18. Seyyèd Ali Mohammed, dit le Bâb, by A.L.M. Nicolas (1905). The first detailed biography of The Bab written in a Western language. [about]
    19. Tablet of Maqsud, by Universal House of Justice (2001). Date of the revelation of the Tablet of Maqsúd and its mention of "Two great powers." [about]
    20. "Two Great Powers" in the Lawh-i Maqsud, by Ismael Velasco (2014). On the identity of the two countries that arose against the followers of Moses, referenced by Baha'u'llah — likely Russia and France or Russia and Germany. [about]
    21. Wisdom and Wit of Roger White, The: Two Reviews, by Marzieh Gail and Hilda Phillips, in dialogue magazine, 1:4 (1987). Reviews of White's books One Bird One Cage One Flight and A Sudden Music. [about]
    22. Words of Long Ago, by Mirra Alfassa (1912). Transcript of a talk The Mother delivered to some Baha'is in Paris in 1912 by request of Abdu'l-Baha; reflections inspired by the departure of Abdu'l-Baha from Paris in June 1913. [about]
     
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