Search for tag "Bab, Writings of"
|1844. 22 May
||Declaration of the Báb's Mission
Two hours and eleven minutes after sunset Siyyid `Alí-Muhammad made His declaration to Mullá Husayn-i-Bushrú'í in the upper room of His House. [DB52-65]
“I am, I am, I am, the promised One! I am the One whose name you have for a thousand years invoked, at whose mention you have risen, whose advent you have longed to witness, and the hour of whose Revelation you have prayed God to hasten. Verily I say, it is incumbent upon the peoples of both the East and the West to obey My word and to pledge allegiance to My person.” [DB315-316]
See SI231 for information on the anticipated return of the Hidden Imam. See BBR2pg42-3 and DB57 for a list of signs by which the Promised One would be known.
See BW5p600-4 for a brief biography of William Miller the founder of the Adventist sect who, after intense study of the Bible, had predicted the return of Christ on March 21, 1844. See BW5p604 for mention of other Christians who made similar predictions.
See DB383 and BBR2pg25 for information on Mulla Husayn-i-Bushru’i. See CoB110 for the significance of the first believer.
See SBBH1:14 for a possible explanation for Mullá Husayn's presence in Shíráz at this time.
Nabíl-i-A`zam relates that Mullá Husayn was welcomed at the Báb's mansion by Mubárak, His Ethiopian servant. Others resident in this house at the time were Fiddih (f), responsible for the preparation of the food and the mother of Siyyid 'Alí-Muhammad, Zahrá Bagum. [DB53; KBWB5]
For more information about Mubarack see Black Pearls: Servants in the Household of the Bab and Baha'U'Llah p21-22.
He revealed the first chapter of the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá' (the Commentary on the Súrih of Joseph. The entire text would later be translated from the original Arabic by Táhirih. [B19–21; BBD190–1; BBRSM14–15; BKG28; BW12:85–8; BWMF16; DB52–65, 264, 216, BBR2pg14-15, GPB23, 73; MH56–71; SBBH17, HotD30]
This date marks the end of the Adamic Cycle of approximately six thousand years and the beginning of the Bahá'í Cycle or Cycle of Fulfilment. [BBD9, 35, 72; GPB100] Shoghi Effendi is quoted as saying that this is the second most important anniversary on the Bahá'í calendar. [ZK320]
The beginning of the Apostolic, Heroic or Primitive Age. [BBD35, 67]
See MH86–7 for an explanation of the implication of the word `Báb' to the Shí'í Muslims.
Three stages of the Báb's Revelation:
- Bahá'u'lláh has described this book as being `the first, the greatest, and mightiest of all books' in the Bábí Dispensation. [GPB23]
- See SBBH5pg1 for discussion on the Qayyumu’l-Asma’.
- This text was the most widely circulated of all the Báb's writings and came to be regarded as the Bábí Qur'an for almost the entirety of His mission. [BBRSM32]
- Images of the Qayyum al-asma' (‘Maintainer of the names’) can be see at the website of the British Library, Discovering Sacred Texts.
- He chose the title `Báb' and Mullá Husayn was given the title Bábu'l-Báb (the gate of the Gate).
- In the second year of the Revelation (from His confinement in the house of His uncle in Shíráz) He took the title of Siyyid-i-dhikr (dhikr means `remembrance of God') and gave the title `Báb' to Mullá Husayn. At Fort Tabarsí Mullá Husayn was called `Jináb-i Báb' by his companions.
- At His public declaration the Báb declared Himself to be the promised Qá'im. [MH87–8]
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Declaration of; Holy days; Bab, Writings of; Mulla Husayn; Qayyumul-Asma (book); Surih of Joseph; Tahirih; Bab, Life of; Cycles; Ages and Epochs; Heroic age; Qaim; Promised One; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bab, Basic timeline; Mubarak; Letters of the Living; Fiddih; Bab, House of (Shiraz)
|1844 Jul - Aug
||The intention of the Báb was to introduce the new Revelation slowly so as not to cause estrangement. He instructed the Letters of the Living to spread out and teach His Faith and to this end He assigned each one a special task, most often to their own native provinces. This is analogous to Christ's instructions to His disciples. He instructed them to record the name of every believer who embraced the Faith and to send their lists to His uncle, Hájí Mírzá 'Alí in Shíráz in a sealed envelope. His intention was to classify these lists once received into 18 sets of names with 19 names each (one Vahid meaning "Unity"). A list with the names of 18 Letters of the Living plus His own name would constitute the 19th set making one Kull-i-Shay (meaning "all things" with a value of 361). Thus fourteen Letters of the Living were dispatched; only Mullá Husayn and Quddús remained with Him. [BBRSM14–16, 36; SWB119; BBR2p36; DB92–4, 123; MH82–6; SBBH1:19]
To Mullá Husayn He had given the task of delivering a Tablet to Bahá'u'lláh in Tihrán and going to the court of the Sháh to apprise him of the Báb's cause. Mullá Husayn was not able to gain access to the Sháh. [B48–57; BBRSM15 BKG32–3; CH22–3; DB85-87, 96, 97; MH90–2, 102] He was also directed to send Him a written report on the nature and progress of his activities in Isfáhán, Tehran and in Khurásán. Not until He received this letter from Khurásán would He depart on pilgrimage. [DB123]
Mullá Husayn carried a Tablet revealed by the Báb for Muhammad Sháh to Tihrán . This was the first of a number of unsuccessful attempts to make him aware of the Revelation. [BBRSM20–1; MH102; SWB13]
Note: MH118-119 and DB127-128 indicate that Mullá Husayn had been in Tehran "between the months of Jámádí and Rajab". The first day of Jámádí, 1260 corresponds to 18 June, and the last day of Rajab to 15 August, 1844.
See RB2:303, `The Báb … sent Tablets to only two monarchs of His day — Muhammad Sháh of Persia and Sultán `Abdu'l-Majíd of Turkey.'
From Shiraz Mullá Husayn journeyed north to Isfahán where his message was rejected by the 'ulamás. Mullá Ja'far, the sifter of wheat, was the first and only one to embrace the Cause of the Báb in that city. There was however, a disciple of Siyyid Kazim, Mírzá Muhammad-'Alíy-i-Nahrí, who had been instructed to go to Isfahan some five years earlier to prepare the way for the advent of the new Revelation, who was receptive to the message of Mulla Husayn. He was instructed to go to Kirmán and acquaint Hájí Mírzá Karím Khán with the Message and then to travel to Shiraz. (This man's daughter was subsequently joined in wedlock with 'Abdu'l-Bahá.)[DB100]
Mullá Husayn then traveled to Káshán, about 130 miles from Isfahán. He had great success in that city but news of his conversion brought the wrath of the official clergy down upon him. [DB101note1; DB123-125]
He then went to Qum, another 100 miles from Káshán where he met with no success. After Qum he went to Tihrán. [MH98–101, DB101]
In Tihrán he took residence in a madrisih and first met with the leader of the shaykhí community, Hájí Mírzá Muhammad, but he failed to win him over. He did, however, manage to convince a number of souls in private conversations. [DB103note1] This same reference seems to indicate that his well-wishers assisted in delivering the Tablet to Muhammad Sháh and his minister, Hájí Mírzá Àqásí but they did not receive it. " the book was not submitted to thy presence, through the intervention of such as regard themselves the well-wishers of the government." [Selections from the Writings of the Báb page 13]
See Bab53–6; DB104–7, MH104–110 for the delivery of the Báb's Tablet to Bahá'u'lláh by the young student, Mullá Huhammad-i-Mu'allim, a native of Núr. Mullá Husayn did not meet Bahá'u'lláh on this occasion.
On receiving the Tablet of the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh accepted His Cause and asked that a gift of a loaf of Russian sugar and a package of tea be given to Mulla Husayn for delivery to the Báb. [DB106-107] See DB123-125 for his activities in Khán.
Mullá Husayn left for Khurásán, as he had been instructed, winning supporters for the Báb's Cause while there he wrote to the Báb regarding these new believers and Bahá'u'lláh's immediate response to the Báb's Revelation. [Bab56, DB128–9, MH118]
After Khurásán he travelled to Najaf and Karbilá where he was to wait for further instructions from the Báb. [DB86]
See MH121–2 for a discussion of the speed of Mullá Husayn's journey before the letter was dispatched to the Báb. It assumes that Mullá Husayn departed after the Báb met with all the Letters of the Living (date not before 2 July, 1844.) In fact both Mullá Husayn and Mullá 'Alíy-Bastámí had been dispatched before this meeting. [DB85-86, 92, HotD46]
||Kashan; Shiraz; Isfahan; Tihran; Mazandaran; Khurasan; Qum; Iran; Turkey
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Writings of; Bab, Speech to the Letters of the Living; Letters of the Living; Mulla Husayn; Bahaullah, Life of; Tablet to Bahaullah; Shahs; Mulla Jafar (sifter of wheat); Muhammad Shah; Sultan Abdul-Majid; First believers; Letters of the Living; Bab, Basic timeline; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Kull-i-Shay
|1844 c. 20 Dec
||The Báb made a declaration of His mission by standing at the Ka`bih, holding the ring of the door and repeating three times that He is the Qá'im.
On the last day of His pilgrimage, the 24th of December, He made an open challenge to Mírzá Muhammad-Husayn-i-Kirmání, known as Muhít, of the Shaykhí school promising him that He would answer any questions he might pose on the condition that he either refute His Cause or bear allegiance to it. He fled for Medina before honouring his promise to submit questions. The Báb, while in transit to Medina, wrote a reply to the questions which had perplexed Mírzá Muhít (The Epistle between the Two Shrines) and had it delivered to him in Karbilá. He remained unmoved by the precepts inculcated, his attitude to the Faith was one of concealed and persistent opposition. [DB137-138; SBBR5p103-104; Bab73–4; The Genesis of the Bábi-Bahá'í Faiths in Shíráz and Fárs p35 by A. Rabbani]
See DB137-138 for Mírzá Muhít's dealings with Bahá'u'lláh.
The Báb sent Quddus with an invitation to the Sharíf of Mecca acquainting him with the new Revelation. The Sharíf was too busy to respond. Years later he recognized his error in ignoring the epistle. [B71-74; BW12:89; DB138-140; GPB9, 89]
||Mecca; Saudi Arabia
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Pilgrimage of; Kabih; Qaim; Mirza Muhammad-Husayn-i-Kirmani (Muhit); Mirza Muhit; Shaykhism; Sharif of Mecca; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bab, Writings of
|1845. 27 Feb
||The Báb left Jiddah. [MS2]
He disembarked at Muscat and remained there for two months, awaiting news of the outcome of Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí's trial. [MS2]
He sent a letter to the Imám of Muscat. [MS2]
SBBH23 and The Genesis of the Bábi-Bahá'í Faiths in Shíráz and Fárs p35 by A. Rabbani] say the ship with the Báb left Jiddah on the 4th of March.
||Jiddah; Saudi Arabia; Muscat; Oman
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Pilgrimage of; Mulla Ali Bastami; Trials; Bab, Writings of; Imam of Muscat; Court cases; Persecution, Court cases
|1845 Feb - Mar
||The Báb returned to Búshihr. He sent Quddús to Shíráz with a letter addressed to His uncle Hájí Mírzá Siyyid `Alí who, upon receiving it, embraced his Nephew's Cause, the first, after the Letters of the Living, to do so in Shíráz. The Báb also entrusted Quddús with a treatise for him entitled Khasá'il-i-Sab`ih (`the Seven Qualifications') and promised him his impending martyrdom. Later he gave his life as one of the Seven Martyrs of Tehran, see 1850 19 or 20 Feb. [Bab77–8; DB142–3; MS2, GPB9-10]
To the departing Quddus He promised intense suffering in Shíráz and eventual martyrdom. [DB142-143]
Bab77 and GPB10 say the Báb arrived in Búshihr in February - March.
SSBH1p23 and BBRSM216 say 15 May, 1845.
Before leaving on pilgrimage the Báb had stated that He would return to Karbalá and asked His followers to congregate there. An explanation in part for the large following that had gathered there is the messianic expectation associated with the year 1261, a thousand years after the Twelfth Imám's disappearance in 260 A.H.. This gathering was perceived as a threat by the authorities. [BBRSM15, 45, 216; DB157–8; SBBH1p23, 32]
The Báb changed His plan to meet His followers in Karbalá and instructed them to go to Isfahán instead. A number abandon Him, regarding this as badá', `alteration of divine will'. [BBRSM16; DB158; MH125; SBBH23]
Some speculate that He did not go to Karbalá to avoid conflict and sedition. Many Bábís had gone to Karbalá armed in preparation for holy war, `jihád'. [BBRSM21–2; SBBH1:23]
||Bushihr; Iran; Shiraz
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Pilgrimage of; Bab, Family of; Bab, Uncles of; Uncles; Quddus; Haji Mirza Siyyid Ali; Dhasail-i-Sabih (Seven Qualifications); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; First believers; Bab, Writings of
|1847. c. 17 Apr
||The Báb sent a letter to the Sháh requesting an audience. [B121; DB229; TN11]
Some accounts maintain that the prime minister intervened in the correspondence between the Báb and the Sháh. En route to Tabríz the Báb wrote to various people, including the Grand Vizier, the father and uncle of Táhirih, and Hájí Sulaymán Khán. Hujjat learned of this last letter and sent a message to the Bábís of Zanján to rescue the Báb. The Báb declined their assistance. [Bab124–5; DB235–6]
See B126 for an account of the Báb's demonstration to His guards that He could have escaped had He so wished.
|Tabriz; Zanjan; Iran
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Writings of; Shah; Prime Ministers of Iran; Prime ministers; Grand Viziers; Tahirih; Haji Sulayman Khan; Hujjat
|1847 Jul to 1848 Apr
||The people of Máh-Kú show markeded hostility to the Báb on His arrival. Later they were won over by His gentle manners and His love. They congregated at the foot of the mountain hoping to catch a glimpse of Him. [Bab129; DB244–5]
At the beginning of the Báb's incarceration the warden `Alí Khán kept the Báb strictly confined and allowed no visitors. He had a vision of the Báb engaged in prayer outside of the prison gates, knowing that the Báb is inside. He became humble and permitted the Bábís to visit the Báb. [Bab129–31; DB245–8]
The winter the Báb spent in Máh-Kú was exceptionally cold. [DB252]
Many of the Báb's writings were revealed in this period. [GPB24–5]
It was probably at this time that He addressed all the divines in Persia and Najaf and Karbalá, detailing the errors committed by each one of them. [GPB24]
He revealed nine commentaries on the whole of the Qur'an, the fate of which is unknown. [DB31; GPB24]
He revealed the "Mother Book" of the Bábí Revelation, the Persian Bayán, containing the laws and precepts of the new Revelation in some 8,000 verses. It is primarily a eulogy of the Promised One. [BBD44–5; BBRSM32; BW12:91 GPB24–5; ESW165; SWB102, 159] It is possible that the latter part of the Persian Bayán was revealed while He was confined in Chihríq.
The Báb began the composition of the `smaller and less weighty' Arabic Bayán. [Bab132; BBD45; GPB25]
He stated in the Bayán that, to date, He had revealed some 500,000 verses, 100,000 of which had been circulated. [BBRSM32, GPB22]
In the Dalá'il-i-Sab'ih (Seven Proofs) the Báb assigned blame to the seven powerful sovereigns then ruling the world and censured the conduct of the Christian divines who, had they recognized Muhammad, would have been followed by the greater part of their co-religionists. [BBD63; BW12:96; GPB26]
The Báb wrote His `most detailed and illuminating' Tablet to Muhammad Sháh. [GPB26]
|Mah-Ku; Iran; Najaf; Karbala; Iraq
||Bab, Life of; Ali Khan; Bayan-i-Farsi (Persian Bayan); Bayan-i-Arabi (Arabic Bayan); Bayan; Dalail-i-Sabih (Seven Proofs); Bab, Writings of; Tablet to Muhammad Shah; Muhammad Shah; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
||The Báb was taken back to Chihríq, where He remained until June/July 1850. [Bab147; DB322; TN15]
Bab147 says He must have arrived in the first days of August.
On His return the Báb wrote a denunciatory letter to Hájí Mírzá Áqásí. The epistle was given the name Khutbiy-i-Qahríyyih (Sermon of Wrath). He sent it to Hujjat in Tihrán, who delivered it personally. [Bab147; DB323; GPB27]
The Báb completed the Arabic Bayán. [BBR45; GBP25]
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Writings of; Haji Mirza Aqasi; Hujjat; Bayan-i-Arabi (Arabic Bayan); Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1849. c. Jun - Jul
||The Báb, in prison in the castle of Chihríq, learned of the massacre at Shaykh Tabarsí and the martyrdom of Quddús. He was so overcome with grief that He was unable to write or dictate for a period of five or six months. [DB411, 430]
See the Tablet of Visitation for Mulla Muhammad 'Ali-i-Barfurushi (Quddús) revealed by the Báb.
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Writings of; Prison; Shaykh Tabarsi; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Quddus; Tablets of Visitation; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1850. Jun c.
||The Amír-Nizám, Mírzá Taqí Khán was determined to execute the Báb to halt the progress of His religion. On his orders the Báb was taken from Chihríq to Tabríz. [Bab152; BBR76–7; GPB51]
His guard took Him on a circuitous, much longer route through Urúmíyyih where His presence was noted by American missionaries. [Bab152; BBR73, 76]
Forty days before the Báb was to leave Chihríq He collected all His documents, Tablets, pen cases, seals, His agate rings, and His last Tablets to Mírzá 'Abdu'l-Karím Qazvíní, and put them in a coffer. He entrusted it to Mullá Báqir, one of the Letters of the Living, and instructed him to deliver it to His secretary. In the event that something should happen to Himself, the secretary was to proceed to Tihrán to deliver the box to ‘Jináb-i-Bahá', that is, Bahá'u'lláh. In His last Tablets, Mírzá Husayn-'Alí Núrí was referred to again and again as "Him Whom God shall make Manifest" also, He was referred to as "Bahá'u'lláh". [CH49; Bab151–2; DB504–5; TN25–6]
When the box was opened they found a Tablet in the form of a pentacle with 500 verses consisting of derivatives of the word ‘Bahá'. [Bab151–2; DB504–5; TN25–6]
This Blessed Tablet of the Bab was obtained in Cyprus by the Larnaca District Commissioner Claude Delaval Cobham, and he donated it to the British Library. It had been in the possession of Mirza Yayha in Famagusta. Mishkin-Qalam served Cobham toward the end of his 18 year exile in Cyprus, as a translator, which has nothing to do with this Tablet but it is interesting Baha’i history in Cyprus. [from an message from Anita Graves, National Bahá'í Archivist, Cyprus to Janis Zrudlo 25 April 2021.
- Here is a link to a similar tablet at the British Libary website.
- See Gate of the Heart 329-330 for a further explanation of the symbol of the pentagram and the circle.
|Chihriq; Tabriz; Urumiyyih; Tihran; Iran
||Mirza Taqi Khan; Bab, Life of; Missionaries; Mulla Muhammad Baqir-i Tabrizi; Letters of the Living; Bahaullah, Life of; Bab, Writings of; Relics; Box with writings; Boxes; Greatest Name; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1854 (prior to His departure for Sulaymaniyyih)
||"Mirza Yahya had never lifted a finger to protect the Faith of which he was supposed to be the nominal head. Now, incited and aided by Siyyid Muhammad and a few, very few, others of the same nature, Mirza Yahya began a secret campaign to discredit Baha'u'llah. He circulated wild rumours, ascribed to Baha'u'llah actions, opinions, views and intentions totally at variance with truth. These undercurrents and innuendoes became so perilous for the integrity of the Faith of the Bab, threatening it with bitter controversies and even fatal divisions, that Baha'u'llah reached the decision to take Himself away from Baghdad and from the society of men whom He knew - and who knew Him... "
"Mirza Aqa Jan himself has testified: 'That Blessed Beauty evinced such
sadness that the limbs of my body trembled.' He has, likewise, related, as
reported by Nabil in his narrative, that, shortly before Baha'u'llah's
retirement, he had on one occasion seen Him, between dawn and sunrise,
suddenly come out from His house, His night-cap still on His head, showing
such signs of perturbation that he was powerless to gaze into His face,
and while walking, angrily remark: 'These creatures are the same creatures
who for three thousand years have worshipped idols, and bowed down before
the Golden Calf: Now, too, they are fit for nothing better. What relation
can there be between this people and Him Who is the Countenance of Glory?
What ties can bind them to the One Who is the supreme embodiment of all
that is lovable?' 'I stood,' declared Mirza Aqa Jan, 'rooted to the spot,
lifeless, dried up as a dead tree, ready to fall under the impact of the
stunning power of His words. Finally, He said: "Bid them recite: 'Is there
any Remover of difficulties save God? Say: Praised be God! He is God! All
are His servants, and all abide by His bidding!' Tell them to repeat it
five hundred times, nay, a thousand times, by day and by night, sleeping
and waking, that haply the Countenance of Glory may be unveiled to their
eyes, and tiers of light descend upon them." He Himself, I was subsequently
informed, recited this same verse, His face betraying the utmost sadness." [BKG114]
For further information on the above incident and more on the prayer "Remover of Difficulties" by the Báb, see The Invocation 'Is There Any Remover of Difficulties Save God...' by Muhammad Afnan, translated by Adib Masumian.
||Misconduct of believers; Remover of Difficulties (invocation); Mirza Aqa Jan; Mirza Yahya; Bab, Writings of; Invocations
|1864. c. During time in Adrianople
||At some point near the end of His life the Báb had consigned His remaining papers, His seal, His qalam-dán (pencil-box) and His last Tablets to Mírzá 'Abdu'l-Karím Qazvíní with instructions to deliver them to Mírzá Husayn-'Alí Núrí should something happen to Himself. In His last Tablets, Mírzá Husayn-'Alí Núrí was referred to again and again as "Him Whom God shall make Manifest" also, He was referred to as "Bahá'u'lláh". Mírzá 'Abdu'l-Karím Qazvíní fulfilled this trust and these items remained in the possession of Bahá'u'lláh until the days of Adrianople. When Mírzá Yáhyá asked permission to see these articles Bahá'u'lláh consented but they were never returned. Yahyá kept these items as a support of his claim to leadership asserting that the Báb had given them to him. [CH49]
||Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey
||Bab, Life of; Bahaullah, Life of; Bab, Writings of; Mirza Abdul-Karim Qazvini; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Box with writings; Boxes; Relics
|1902 (In the year)
||The publication of Le Livre des Sept Preuves in Paris by A. L. M. Nicolas. It was a French translation of the Báb's Dalá'il-i-Sab'ih. [BBR39]
It may be downloaded here.
||Bab, Writings of; Seven Proofs; A.L.M. Nicolas; Translation; Publications
|1905 (In the year)
||A.L.M. Nicolas published his book Seyyed Ali dit le Bab.
It was the first work by a western author dedicated entirely to the Báb, His movement and His teachings. (Conflict: See 1865)
It is "(a) history of the Bábí movement up to 1852. Nicolas gives a list of sources for this book on pp. 48-53. It is interesting to note that among his oral sources are four of the leading Bahá'ís of that period, who had been designated by Bahá'u'lláh as 'Hands of the Cause': Mírzá 'Alí-Muhammad, 'Ibn-i-Asdaq: Mullá 'Al-Akbar-i-Sháhmírzádí, Hají Akhund; Mírzá Muhammad-Táqíy-i-Abharí, 'Ibn-i-Abhar; and Mírzá Hasan-i-Adíb.
The other two oral sources named are Siyyid 'Ismu'lláh, who was presumably Siyyid Mihdíy-i-Dihají, and Mírzá Yahyá, Subh-i-Azál."
The preamble to his book has an image that is supposedly of the Báb, but the portrait does not seem to be an authentic representation.
William Miller also reproduced Nicolas’s image on page 17 of his polemical work, The Bahá'í Faith: Its History and Teachings. (South Pasadena, CA: William Carey Library, 1974). [‘The Bab in the World of Images’, Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 19, June 2013, 171–90.]
See also WOB83 for other missionaries who wrote polemics against the Bahá'í Faith.
||Bab, Writings of; A.L.M. Nicolas; Criticism and apologetics; William McElwee Miller; Babism; First publications; Publications
|1905 (In the year)
||The publication of Le Beyan Arabe in Paris by A. L. M. Nicolas. It was a French translation of the Arabic Bayán. [BBR39]
||Bab, Writings of; Bayan-i-Arabi (Arabic Bayan); A.L.M. Nicolas; Translation; Publications
|1911 - 1914
||The publication of Le Beyan Persan in Paris by A. L. M. Nicolas. It was a French translation of the Persian Bayán and was published in four volumes. [BBR39]
||Bab, Writings of; A.L.M. Nicolas; Bayan-i-Farsi (Persian Bayan); Translation; Publications
|1976 (In the year)
||The publication of Selections from the Writings of the Báb compiled by the Research Department of the Universal House of Justice and translated by Habib Taherzadeh with the assistance of a Committee at the Bahá'í World Centre. [SWB]
||Selections from the Writings of the Bab; Habib Taherzadeh; publications; Bab, Writings of
|2019. 29 Oct
||The British Library published a blog to commemorate the Bicentenary of the Birth of the Báb. It is a commentary on the Star Tablet of the Báb or the
||London; United Kingdom
||British Museum and British Library; Bab, Writings of; Talismans; Haykal and daira; Exhibitions of Bahai manuscripts and relics; Moojan Momen
from the main catalogue
See all tags, sorted numerically or alphabetically.
- Analysis of the Salient Features of Risáliy-i-Ja'faríyyih, An, by Foad Seddigh, in Lights of Irfan, 20 (2019). This treatise, one of the major writings of the Báb, was written before He had disclosed His complete station of prophethood to the public. It comments on an Islamic prayer for the advent of the promised Qa'im. Includes translation. [about]
- Arabic Bayan, The: From A.L.M. Nicolas' French translation, by Báb, The (1980). [about]
- Arabic Grammar of the Báb, The, by William F. McCants (2002). Muslim detractors of the Bab have often criticized his grammar. Did the Bab make grammatical errors due to a poor knowledge of the language, or did he intentionally coin a new grammar? [about]
- Art and the Interconnectedness of All Things, by Todd Lawson, in UK Bahá'í, 30 (2020-03). Art as a mode of divine revelation in the Wrings and Calligraphy of the Báb. [about]
- Authority of the Feminine and Fatima's Place in an Early Work by the Bab, The, by Todd Lawson, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). While Tahirih inspired many in Europe and eventually America, she is very much a daughter of her own culture, history, mythology, and religion. She was a religious mystic who felt a new day arising in the world, and seen by some as the "return" of Fatima. [about]
- Autobibliography in the Writings of the Báb: Translation of the Khutba Dhikriyya, by Vahid Brown, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 6 (2005). A discussion of four of the Báb's autobibliographical works (the Kitáb al-Fihrist, al-Kitáb al-`Ulamá, al-Khutba al-Dhikriyya, and al-Khutba fí'l-Jidda) as related both to antecedents in Islamic literature and to the Báb's messianic self-conception. [about]
- Báb and 'Alí Muhammad, Islamic and Post-Islamic, The: Multiple Meanings in the Writings of Sayyid 'Alí Muhammad Shírází (1819-1850), by Zackery Mirza Heern, in Religions, 14:3 (2023). Writings of the Báb can be understood as a commentary on the Qur'án, the original Qur'án, and divine revelation; the metaphors and symbolism of Gate (Báb), Remembrance (Dhikr), and Point (Nuqtah). Link to article (offsite). [about]
- Báb's Bayan, The: An Analytical Survey, by Muhammad Afnan, in World Order, 31:4 (2000 Summer). Analysis of the Bayan and its contents: fundamental beliefs and worldview, moral principles, laws, administration of society, and future expectations. [about]
- Báb's Epistle on the Spiritual Journey towards God, The, by Todd Lawson, in Lights of Irfan, Book 3 (2002). A preliminary translation and discussion of the Bab's Risála fi's-Sulúk, one of his earliest extant compositions. It provides a brief discussion of the mystic quest, and sheds light on the Báb's relationship to the Shaykhi movement and to Sayyid Kázim. [about]
- Báb's Farewell Address to the Letters of the Living, The, by Báb, The and Nabil-i-A'zam (1844). The Báb's farewell speech to the Letters of the Living, extracted from Nabil-i-A'zam's The Dawn-Breakers, pp. 92-94. [about]
- Background and Centrality of Apophatic Theology in Bábí and Bahá'í Scripture, The, by Stephen Lambden, in Revisioning the Sacred: New Perspectives on a Bahá'í Theology, Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions vol. 8 (1997). History of the theological position of the incomprehensibility-unknowability of God in past major Abrahamic religions and its importance and significance for contemporary Bahá'ís. [about]
- Bahá'í Faith in the Arabic Speaking Middle East, The: Part 1 (1753-1863), by Ramsey Zeine, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 7 (2006). Bábí and early Bahá'í links to the Arab world and the Arabic language; the identity of the Faith is a fusion of Persian and Arab origins. [about]
- Bahá'í Revelation, The, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). Passages from Fire and Light and Selections from the Writings of the Bab published in Bahá'í World as a section titled "Part One: The Bahá'í Revelation." [about]
- Baha'i Sacred Texts, by Moojan Momen (2019). The Baha’i Faith is a scriptural religion. Momen explains the Baha’i beliefs about sacred texts and prophets, the transmission and distribution of the scripture and its role in the community. (Link to document, offsite.) [about]
- Baron Rosen's Archive Collection of Bábí and Bahá'í Materials, by Youli A. Ioannesyan, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). Baron V. R. Rosen's unpublished materials relating to Bábí and Bahá'í studies, including his correspondence with A. G. Tumanski and E. G. Browne, and official reports of Russian diplomats. [about]
- Barstow Collection: Contents, Index, and Compiler's Notes, by Thellie Lovejoy (2000). Introduction to and contents list of the 478 translated tablets and other English documents from the library of American collector Dwight Barstow. [about]
- Bayan (Bayán-i-Farsí and Bayán-i-'Arabí), The: Letters and Letters of the Living, by Universal House of Justice and Iraj Ayman (1994-10-02). [about]
- Bábís of Persia, The: II. Their Literature and Doctrines, by E. G. Browne, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 21:4 (1889-10). Overview of Bábí literature and doctrine. [about]
- Catalogue and Description of 27 Bábí Manuscripts, by E. G. Browne, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1892-07). Categorization, descriptions, and excerpts of 27 manuscripts by the Bab, Bahá'u'lláh, Abdu'l-Bahá, and Subh-i-Azal. [about]
- Catalogue and Description of 27 Bábí Manuscripts 2 (Continued from Page 499), by E. G. Browne, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1892-10). Categorization, descriptions, and excerpts of 27 manuscripts by the Bab, Bahá'u'lláh, Abdu'l-Bahá, and Subh-i-Azal. [about]
- Dutch Library Holdings (2000). Complete list of items relating to Bábí or Bahá'í studies housed in the three principle libraries in the Netherlands. [about]
- Dwight Barstow Collection (2000). Partial scans of the 478 translated tablets and other English documents from the archive of American collector Dwight Barstow. [about]
- Epistle of Sayyid 'Alí Muhammad 'the Báb' to Sultan Abdulmecid, by Necati Alkan, in Lights of Irfan, 4 (2003). The Bab's Tablet to Sultan Abdulmecid and some notes on early Bábís in the Ottoman Empire. [about]
- Excerpts from the Risáliy-i-Dhahabiyyih, by Báb, The (2001). On effulgences, essence, and unity of existence. [about]
- Gate of the Heart: Understanding the Writings of the Báb, by Nader Saiedi: Review, by Jack McLean (2009). Review of the book, expanded into an essay on the Bab's ethics, laws, and use of symbolism. [about]
- Gate of the Heart: Understanding the Writings of the Báb, by Nader Saiedi: Review, by Stephen Lambden, in The Journal of the American Oriental Society, 130:2 (2010-04). Though limited in scholastic accuracy, this book will be appreciated by those seeking an introduction to the life and writings of the Bab, and is a worthwhile volume that contributes significantly to the neglected field of Babi-Bahá'í studies. [about]
- Gate of the Heart: Understanding the Writings of the Báb, by Nader Saiedi: Review, by Robert Stockman, in Nova Religio, 14:1 (2010-08). [about]
- Gnostic Apocalypse and Islam, by Todd Lawson: Review, by Christopher Buck, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 18 (2012). [about]
- Grammar of the Divine, A: Translation, Notes, and Semi-Critical Edition of the Bāb's Risāla fī al-naḥw wa al-ṣarf, by William F. McCants, in A Most Noble Pattern: Collected Essays on the Writings of the Báb (2012). A critical edition of the Bāb’s "Treatise on Grammar" including the Arabic original, English translation, and notes; Shaykh Ahmad’s metaphysical grammar; the operation of God's will in the created world. [about]
- Haykal (pentacle talisman) Prayer for Protection, by Báb, The (n.d.). Original text of a prayer for protection, written in the Báb’s own hand, in the form of a pentacle. [about]
- Haykal or "Star Tablet" Written in the Báb's Own Hand: Form, Content, and Provisional Translation, by Dergham Aqiqi and Todd Lawson (2021-11). Detailed analysis of the content and translation of an undated haykal; the relation between the Báb’s composition and the Qur'an; scriptural/verbal and figural/artistic modes of revelation; symbolism of the star shape; role of repetition; dominion. [about]
- He Whom God Shall Make Manifest: Notes on Gematria, Tetractys, The Báb's identification of Him, and Opposition to Bahá'u'lláh, by Grover Gonzales (2020). On the Bab's use of numerology and cabalistic interpretation of scripture, and his use of amulets and talismans, as tools to help his disciples find and recognize the coming Manifestation, the "Qa'im," Man Yuzhiruhu'lláh. [about]
- Invocation 'Is There Any Remover of Difficulties Save God...', The, by Muhammad Afnan (2023). Short overview of the historical background of the Báb's invocation. [about]
- Iranian National Bahá'í Archives (INBA) (1976-1978). 105 volumes of Bahá'í writings and manuscripts, compiled before the Islamic revolution in Iran by the Bahá'í National Spiritual Assembly and distributed as photocopies to Bahá'í scholars and archives, for preservation. [about]
- Juan Cole manuscript and book collection: Shaykhi, Babi, and Baha'i texts (1997). Manuscripts and books in Cole's library and selected Iranian National Bahá'í Archive contents. [about]
- Kitab-i-Panj Sha'n, by John Walbridge, in Sacred Acts, Sacred Space, Sacred Time: Bahá'í Studies volume 1 (1996). Brief essay on, and partial translation of, this work of the Bab. [about]
- Languages of Revelation of the Bahá'í Writings, The, by Adib Masumian and Violetta Zein (2020). Statistical analysis of the languages of revelation (Arabic and Persian) of all major works of the Bab, Bahá'u'lláh, and Abdu'l-Bahá. [about]
- Le Béyan Persan, by Báb, The (1911-1914). French translation of the Persian Bayán, one of the principal writings of the Báb. [about]
- List of Baha'i Studies and Translations, by Stephen Lambden. A list of content available at Lambden's personal website, Hurqalya Publications, with select links to manuscripts, texts, introductions. Includes Shaykhi and Bábí studies, bibliographies, genealogies, provisional translations. [about]
- Loom of Reality: A Partial Inventory of the Works of the Central Figures of the Bahá'í Faith (2020/2023). A website with thematic compilations of quotations from the Bahá’í Writings and beyond, and a catalog of almost 25,000 works attributed to the Báb, Bahá’u’lláh, or Abdu’l-Bahá. [about]
- Maid of Heaven, The: A Personal Compilation, by Báb, The and Bahá'u'lláh (2020). Compilation of texts related to the Maid of Heaven, a personification of the “Most Great Spirit." [about]
- Marking the Bicentenary of the Birth of the Bāb, by Moojan Momen, in Asian and African Studies Blog (2019-09-24). Guest post for the launch of the British Library's "Discovering Sacred Texts" exhibition, on three unique haykal and calligraphy works of the Bāb and Bahā’u’llāh which are on display for the first time. [about]
- Mírzá Yahyá Azal, Designation of in the Writings of the Báb, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). [about]
- Mission of the Báb, The: Retrospective 1844-1994, by Douglas Martin, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 23 (1994-1995) (1996). The revelation of the Báb in the context of its impact on the Western writers of the period and its subsequent influence. [about]
- Most Noble Pattern, A: Collected Essays on the Writings of the Báb, `Alí Muhammad Shirazi (1819-1850) (2012). Sixteen essays by many of the leading specialists on the sometimes very difficult and challenging writings of the Báb. Includes link to audio recordings of a descendant of the Báb reading from his works. [about]
- New Religions and Religious Movements: The Common Heritage, by Moshe Sharon, in Studies in Modern Religions and Religious Movements and the Bábí Bahá'í Faiths (2004). The 19th Century; Croce’s religion of liberty; modern religious activity; the Qur'an and classical heritage; nature of revelation; magic and the names of God; mysticism of names and letters for the Bab; the letter bá'; Tafsir Basmalah. [about]
- Notes and Commentary on the Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh: Wilmette Institute study materials (2002). Large collection of outlines, commentaries, and study guides prepared by Wilmette Institute faculty. [about]
- Notes and Observations on some of the Writings of the Báb, by Moshe Sharon (2013). Only a small portion of the Bab's writings are available in English. This is a summary of the untranslated writings: main topics include legalism, esotericism, polarity, millenarianism, divine will, the Bayan, letters and numbers, creation, divine grace. [about]
- Notes on The Báb, Some, by Robert Stockman (1998). Brief overview of sources on the Bábí period, the Bab's history, and his writings. [about]
- Perfection and Refinement: Towards an Aesthetics of the Bab, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 12 (2011). The writings of the Bab have implications for the "plastic" arts; significance for native traditions; relevance to the performing arts; and the concept of refinement which comes across in both the person and the writings of the Báb. [about]
- Persian Bayan ("Exposition"): From A.L.M. Nicolas' French translation, by Báb, The (2020). Bayan-i-Farsi ("Persian Exposition"), translated from the original Persian into French by A.L.M. Nicolas (as Le Beyan Persan), then translated into English by Anonymous. [about]
- Persian Bayan, The: Partial translation, by Báb, The (2000). A partial provisional translation of the Persian Bayan. [about]
- Persian Bayan, The: From A.L.M. Nicolas' French translation, by Báb, The (2001-06). Four short chapters from The Báb's book of laws. Translation of Nicolas’s Le Beyán Persan, translated from the French, with reference to the Persian, by Ismael Velasco. [about]
- "Point" and "Letter" in the Writings of the Báb, by Muhammad Afnan, in Lights of Irfan, Book 2 (2001). In the Báb’s writings, the Point of Truth is the source of all existence in both the spiritual and the material world, and letters and words are given spiritual meaning. His system is distinctively different from that of the Hurúfís and Nuqtavís, however. [about]
- Prayer of the Bab "God Sufficeth...," Two versions of, by Universal House of Justice (1996-02-14). The original text of the prayer "God Sufficeth" has not been found, and there may be two versions. [about]
- Prophet in Modern Times, A, by Peter Terry (2008/2015). Partial translation of A.L.M. Nicolas' Seyyed Ali Mohammed dit le Bab, with extensive notes and explanations. [about]
- Provisional Translations of Selected Writings of the Báb, Baháʼuʼlláh, and ʻAbdu'l-Bahá, by Peyman Sazedj (2009-2011). Twenty-four translations from 2009, 2010, and 2011 copied from the defunct website peyman.sazedj.org. [about]
- Qayyum al-Asma' Sura 93: Chapter of the Bees (Qayyum al-Asma 93: Surat al-nahl): A commentary on the Sura of Joseph, "The Best of Stories", by Báb, The (2002). Translation, and lengthy commentary, on the Súratu’l-Nahl. [about]
- Qur'an Commentary as Sacred Performance: The Bab's tafsirs of Qur'an 103 and 108, the Declining Day and the Abundance, by Todd Lawson, in Der Iran um 19 Jahrhundert und die Enstehung der Bahá'í Religion (1998). Quranic commentary played a major role in the formation of the Bábí movement. Early Babis were impressed by the Bab's innovative interpretation of scripture. As the Bab's claims became more widely known, his language became less esoteric. [about]
- Qur'an Commentary of Sayyid 'Alí Muhammad, the Báb, The: Doctoral dissertation, by Todd Lawson (1987-07). A study of the Báb's two earliest works, partial commentaries on the Qur'an entitled "Tafsír súrat al-baqara" and "Tafsír súrat Yúsuf" (aka The Qayyum al-Asma), in an attempt to appreciate the Bab's attitude towards the Qur'an. [about]
- Readings from the Writings of The Báb, by Muhammad Afnan (2012). Link to audio recordings of a descendant of the Báb reading from two of his most important works, Qayyúm al-Asmá' "Surah to the Kings" and the Bayán-i-farsí (Persian Bayán). [about]
- Religious Authority and Apocalypse: Tafsír as Experience in an Early Work by The Báb, by Todd Lawson, in Unity in Diverity: Mysticism, Messianism and the Construction of Religious Authority in Islam, ed. Orkhan Mir-Kasimov (2013). Analysis of the Báb's commentary on the Qur'an's longest chapter, Surat al-baqara, regarded as his first significant work, which includes themes such as divine self-manifestation, the hierarchy of existence, eschatology, and religious authority. [about]
- Selección de los Escritos del Báb: Compilado por el Departamento de Investigación de la Casa Universal de Justicia, by Báb, The (1982). Spanish translation of Selections from the Writings of The Báb. [about]
- Sélection des Écrits du Báb, by Báb, The (1984/2016). [about]
- Selections from the Writings of the Báb, by Báb, The (1982). [about]
- Seven Proofs, The, by Báb, The (2008). English translation by Peter Terry of Nicolas' French translation of The Báb's "Seven Proofs." [about]
- Seyyèd Ali Mohammed, dit le Bâb, by A.L.M. Nicolas (1905). The first detailed biography of The Bab written in a Western language. [about]
- Signs: Quranic Themes in the Writings of the Báb, by Todd Lawson, in elixir-journal.org, vol. 6 (2017 Autumn). With the composition of the Qayyum al-asma, the Báb demonstrated the incredible breadth and depth of His knowledge and that He had fully interiorized, indeed embodied, the Quran. Selected themes briefly illustrated with quotations from the Qur'an. [about]
- Sources for Early Bábí Doctrine and History, The: A Survey, by Denis MacEoin (1992). Thorough, annotated list of writings and sources relevant to Bahá'í historical research. Includes index of first lines and titles of writings of The Báb (see scan #1). [about]
- St. Petersburg 19th Century Orientalist Collection of Materials on the Bábí and Bahá'í Faiths, The: Primary and Other Sources, by Youli A. Ioannesyan, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 7 (2006). The important work of Russian scholars up to 1917 in collecting Bábí and Bahá’í materials; a detailed listing of available materials. [about]
- Star Tablet of the Bab, The, by Moojan Momen, in Asian and African Studies Blog (2019-10-29). Guest post celebrating the bicentenary of the birth of the Bab with an account of one of the Bahá'í Faith's most important manuscripts, the Star Tablet, written in his own hand. [about]
- Stylistic Analysis of the Báb's Writings, A: Abridged Translation of Vahid Behmardi's Muqaddamih-yi dar bárih-yi sabk va siyáq-i áthár-i mubárakih-yi ḥaḍrat-i rabb a`lá, by Vahid Behmardi and William F. McCants, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). English translation by McCants of Behmardi's Persian article "Stylistic Analysis of the Báb’s Writings". [about]
- Tablet of the Báb Lawh-i-Vasaya, "Will and Testament"; Titles of Mírzá Yahyá, by Universal House of Justice (2004-05-28). Two questions: on the Tablet of the Bab "Lawh-i-Vasaya: The Will and Testament"; the nature of the appointment and titles of Mírzá Yahyá. Includes two attachments: Tablet of the Bab Lawh-i-Vasaya and excerpt from Making the Crooked Straight. [about]
- Tablet of Visitation for Mulla Muhammad 'Ali-i-Barfurushi (Quddús) (Ziyarat-Namih-i-Mullá Muhammad ‘Alí-i-Barfurushí), by Báb, The, in Rituals in Babism and Bahá'ísm, Pembroke Persian Series, Vol. 2 (1994). A tablet written by the Bab in honor of Quddus. [about]
- Tablet of Visitation for the wife of the Bab, Khadijih Begum, by Bahá'u'lláh (1997-10). Translation of and brief commentary on a tablet in honor of Khadijeh Bagum. [about]
- Tablet to Mullá Muhammad Báqir-i Tabrízí: Extracts, by Báb, The (1998). Extract from a Tablet of the Bab to the 13th Letter of the Living, in reply to his question about Man yuzhiruhu'lláh, "He Whom God will make Manifest." [about]
- Talk given by Hand of the Cause of God A.Q. Faizi, Australia, by Abu'l-Qasim Faizi, in Conqueror of Hearts (1969-11-21). Discussion of "Standards and Values, "Explanations from the Writings of the Báb," and "How to Study the Book of Íqán" [about]
- Texts, Sacred, Numbers and Classifications of, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 10 (2002/2010/2013). Three letters, from 2002, 2010, and 2013, about numbers of Sacred Texts catalogued by the Bahá'í World Center and their classification into "authenticated," "revised," and "transcribed." [about]
- Textual Resurrection: Book, Imám, and Cosmos in the Qur'án Commentaries of the Báb, by Vahid Brown, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 5 (2004). on the notions of textuality underlying the Báb's Qur'ánic commentaries; the history of Qur'ánic commentary in Islam as context; the Báb's readings of the Qur'án as 'messianic performances'. [about]
- Translation List: Provisional Translations of Baháʼí Literature (2009-2023). Index to talks, letters, and other items translated from Persian and Arabic to English by Adib Masumian; listed here for the sake of search engines and tagging. [about]
- Twofold Mission, A: Some Distinctive Characteristics of the Person and Teachings of the Báb, by Elham Afnan, in Bahá'í World (2019). Some features of the Bab's life and Writings highlighting the rare combination of qualities that have come to be associated with him. [about]
- Will and Testament: Translation and Commentary, by Báb, The (2004-09). Examination of four available manuscripts, dates of issue, variations, exclusions, verse numbering followed by a running commentary on its tone, message and implications for the future of the Bábí movement. [about]
- Will and Testament of The Báb, by Báb, The, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). One-page scan of a document commonly, though inaccurately, referred to as the "Will and Testament." [about]
- Women in the works of the Bab and in the Babi Movement, by Moojan Momen, in Encyclopaedia Iranica (2011). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
- Writings of the Bab, The: A Survey Based on English Language Sources, by Robert Stockman (2010). PowerPoint presentation on the scope, style, and history of the Writings of The Báb. [about]
- Yá 'Aliyyu'l-A'lá, by Research Department of the Universal House of Justice (1991-10-03). On the meaning and correct transliteration of "Yá 'Aliyyu'l-A'lá" (O Thou Most High"), where it can be found, and if it is an invocation to the Báb. [about]
- Yá Alláhu'l-Mustagháth": Original Source, Correct Transliteration and Translation, by Universal House of Justice (2001-12-28). About an invocation revealed by the Báb, prescribed for recitation in times of trouble and difficulty. [about]
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