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1828 10 Feb Defeat of the Persians at the hands of the Russians. The Russo-Persian War of 1826–28 was the last major military conflict between the Russian Empire and Iran. The war ended following the occupation of Tabriz and had even more disastrous results for Persia than the 1804-1813 war. The ensuing Treaty of Turkmenchay, signed on 10 February 1828 in Torkamanchay, Iran, stripped Persia of its last remaining territories in the Caucasus, which comprised all of modern Armenia, the southern remainder of modern Azerbaijan, and modern Igdir in Turkey. Through the Gulistan and Turkmenchay treaties Persia had lost all of its territories in the Caucasus to Russia making them the unquestioned dominant power in the region. [BBRSM55] Tabriz; Turkmenchay; Iran Russo-Persian War; War (general); History (general); Iran, General history
1847. Apr The Báb received a courteous message from the Sháh, who, on the advice of his prime minister, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí, assigned Him to the fortress of Máh-Kú in the province of Ádharbáyján. The Báb was taken to Máh-Kú via Tabríz. [Bab121–2, 124; DB229–32; GPB16; TN11–12] Mah-Ku; Adharbayjan; Tabriz; Iran Bab, Life of; Shah; Haji Mirza Aqasi; Fortress of Mah-Ku; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
1847. c. 17 Apr The Báb sent a letter to the Sháh requesting an audience. [B121; DB229; TN11]

Some accounts maintain that the prime minister intervened in the correspondence between the Báb and the Sháh. En route to Tabríz the Báb wrote to various people, including the Grand Vizier, the father and uncle of Táhirih, and Hájí Sulaymán Khán. Hujjat learned of this last letter and sent a message to the Bábís of Zanján to rescue the Báb. The Báb declined their assistance. [Bab124–5; DB235–6]

  • See B126 for an account of the Báb's demonstration to His guards that He could have escaped had He so wished.
  • Tabriz; Zanjan; Iran Bab, Life of; Bab, Writings of; Shah; Prime Ministers of Iran; Prime ministers; Grand Viziers; Tahirih; Haji Sulayman Khan; Hujjat
    1847 c. May - Jun The Báb arrived in Tabríz en route to Máh-Kú and was handed over to the officials of Nasir al-Din Mirza, to be imprisoned for forty days in the citadel of Tabriz, called the Ark. [BBR76; Connections by Vincent Flannery] He was well received by the general populace. He spent His time in seclusion, being allowed only two visitors. [Bab127–8; DB237–40; GPB18; TN12]
  • "A tumultuous concourse of people had gathered to witness His entry into the city … desirous of ascertaining the veracity of the wild reports that were current about Him … the acclamations of the multitude resounded on every side… Such was the clamour that a crier was ordered to warn the population of the danger that awaited those who ventured to seek His presence?" [DB237]
  • Tabriz; Iran Bab, Life of; Mah-Ku; Nasir al-Din Mirza
    1848. 30 Mar Mullá Husayn departed for Mázindarán, setting out on foot as the Báb has directed. [DB260; MH144]
  • The Báb told him to visit the Bábís in Khuy, Urúmíyyih, Marághih, Mílán, Tabríz, Zanján, Qazvín and Tihrán before proceeding to Mázindarán. In Mázindarán he was to find `God's hidden treasure'. [DB260; MH144]
  • In Tihrán he again met Bahá'u'lláh. [DB261; MH148]
  • Mazandaran; Khuy; Urumiyyih; Maraghih; Milan; Tabriz; Zanjan; Qazvin; Iran Mulla Husayn; Bahaullah, Life of; Bab, Life of Mulla Husayn
    1848. c. 26 Jun - 17 Jul The Conference of Badasht

    Bahá'u'lláh, who hosted and directed the event, rented three gardens, one for Quddús, another for Táhirih and the third for Himself. [Bab168; GPB31, 68; MF200]

    The conference coincided with the removal of the Báb to Tabríz for interrogation in July. It was held near the village of Sháhrúd in Semnan province. [BBRSM23; DB292]

  • `The primary purpose of that gathering was to implement the revelation of the Bayán by a sudden, a complete and dramatic break with the past — with its order, its ecclesiasticism, its traditions, and ceremonials. The subsidiary purpose of the conference was to consider the means of emancipating the Báb from His cruel confinement in Chihríq.' [BBRSM23; BKG43; DB297–8; GPB31, 157]
  • From the beginning of His ministry the Báb had implicitly claimed some higher spiritual station than merely that of being the "bábu'l-imám" and in the early months of 1848 while still in prison in Máh-Kú He put forward these claims to his companions. He proclaimed HImself to be the Imam Mahdi, the promised Q´'im (He who will arise), the inaugurator of the Resurrection and the abrogator of the Islamic holy law. [BBRSM23]
  • Bab167 says that the Bábís did not come to Badasht to make plans to rescue the Báb.
  • It was attended by 81 believers and lasted 22 days. [BKG43–4, 46; DB292–3; GPB312]
  • Each day Bahá'u'lláh revealed a Tablet, and on each believer He conferred a new name. Each day an Islamic law was abrogated. Henceforth, when the Báb was addressing the believers, He used the new name that Bahá'u'lláh had bestowed upon them. [DB293; GPB32]
  • See BKG44–5; DB293 and MF201 for the story of the central event, Táhirih's confrontation with Quddús and removal of her veil.
      Ṭáhirih, seizing upon the opportunity, arose and, unveiled, came forth from the garden. She proceeded towards the tent of Bahá’u’lláh crying out and proclaiming: “I am the Trumpet-blast; I am the Bugle-call!”—which are two of the signs of the Day of Resurrection mentioned in the Qur’án. Calling out in this fashion, she entered the tent of Bahá’u’lláh. No sooner had she entered than Bahá’u’lláh instructed the believers to recite the Súrih of the Event from the Qur’án, a Súrih that describes the upheaval of the Day of Resurrection.
      [Twelve Table Talks given by ‘Abdu'l-Bahá in ‘Akká, no. 9, "Ṭáhirih and the Conference of Badasht"]
  • Also see Bab167–9; BBD31–2; BBRSM46; BKG43–7; DB292–8; RB2:353.
  • See The World-Wide Influence of Qurratul-'Ayn by Standwood Cobb.
  • Badasht; Tabriz; Shahrud; Chihriq; Iran Conference of Badasht; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Writings of; Quddus; Tahirih; Veils; Women; Womens rights; Gender; Equality; Bab, Life of; Bayan; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bab, Basic timeline; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Letters of the Living
    1848. Jul After three months in Chihríq, the Báb, on the order of Háji Mírzá Áqási was taken under escort to Tabríz. He was to be tried for apostasy before a gathering of high-ranking religious leaders (Mujtahid) in the presence of the young crown prince Másiri'd-Dín Mírzá . [Bab137; BW18:380; TN14]
  • Just prior to His leaving, in June of 1848 He was seen in public discourse with His followers by a Russian student named Mochenin from St. Petersburg University. It is believed that he and Dr William Cormick were the only Westerners to have seen the Báb. [BBR75]
  • En route He stopped in Urúmíyyih for ten days where the governor, Malik-Qásim Mírzá, tested the Báb by offering Him an unruly horse to ride to the public bath. The horse remained docile under the Bab's control and was the same when He came out and rode him on the return. The local people were certain that they had witnessed a miracle and broke into the bath to procure His bath water. [Bab138; BBR74; DB309–11, EB86-87; For73]
  • A sketch of the Báb was made by local artist Aqa Bala Bayg from which he made a full-scale black and white portrait. Later Bahá'u'lláh directed that Aqa Bala Bayg make two copies of the portrait in water colour. The sketch and one of the water colours are now in the International Archives. [For73; EB87; Bab138–9, Juhúrú'l-Haqq by Asadu'lláh Fádil-i-Mázindarání p.48 quoted in World Order Winter 1974-95 p41]
  • See "The Báb in the World of Images" by Bijan Masumian and Adib Masumian. [Bahá'í Studies Review, Volume 19, Number 1, 1 June 2013, pp. 171-190(20)]
  • Chihriq; Tabriz; Urumiyyih; Iran Mochenin; Bab, Life of; Bab, Trial of; Portraits; Bab, Portrait of; Aqa Bala-Big Naqqash-bashi; Horses; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1848. last week
    in Jul
    Trial of the Báb

    The Báb arrived in Tabríz and was brought before a panel of which the 17-year-old Crown Prince Násiri'd-Dín Mírzá was the president. The Báb publicly made His claim that He was the Qá'im. This claim had also been announced to those gathered at Badasht. [Bab140–7; BBR157; BBRSM23, 216; BW18:380; DB314–20; GPB21–2; TN14]
  • The purpose of the public forum was to force the Báb to recant His views; instead He took control of the hearing and embarrassed the clergy. After considerable argument and discussion, they decided He was devoid of reason. [GPB22; BBRSM216]
  • The Báb was bastinadoed. [B145; BBD44; DB320; GPB22; TN14–15] This is the first formal punishment He received. [BBRSM20]
  • This constituted the formal declaration of His mission. [GPB22]
  • The clergy issued a fatwa or legal pronouncement against the Báb condemning Him to death for heresy, but to no purpose as the civil authorities were unwilling to take action against Him. [BBRSM19–20]
  • See Trial of the Báb: Shi'ite Orthodoxy Confronts its Mirror Image by Denis MacEoin.
  • He was first attended by an Irish physician, Dr William Cormick, to ascertain His sanity and later to treat Him for a blow to the face that occurred during the bastinado. Cormick is the only Westerner to have met and conversed with Him. [Bab145; BBR74–5, 497–8 DBXXXIL–XXXIII]
  • For an account of the life of Dr. William Cormick see Connections by Brendan McNamara.
  • See the YouTube video The Irish Physician Who Met The Báb.
  • Tabriz; Badasht; Iran Bab, Life of; Bab, Trial of; Nasirid-Din Shah; Qaim; Bastinado; William Cormick; Fatwa; Conference of Badasht; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded Le Journal de Constantinople 1848-1851 (first entry dated June 21 1848)
    1848. 12 Sep The accession of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh at Tabríz. [BBR482]
  • He was 17 years old. [BBR158; GPB37]
  • He ruled from 1848 to 1 May 1896 when he was assassinated on the eve of his jubilee. [BBD168; BBR482]
  • The first four years of his reign were marked by the `fiercest and bloodiest of the persecutions of the religion of the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh'. During the whole of his reign there were `sporadic persecutions and, in at least some cases, he himself was directly responsible for the death of the martyrs'. [BBR157]
  • For the first time in the Faith's history the civil and ecclesiastical powers banded together in a systematic campaign against it, one that was to `culminate in the horrors experienced by Bahá'u'lláh in the Síyáh-Chál' and `His subsequent banishment to Iraq'. [GPB37]
  • See BBRSM25 for an explanation of why the Bábí religion was a challenge to the secular regime.
  • See SB86 for a reason for Násiri'd-Dín Sháh's cruelty towards the Bábís and Bahá'ís.
  • See RB3:201 for an explanation of his lengthy reign.
  • He chose as his prime minister Mírzá Taqí Khán-i-Faráhání, known as a great reformer and a founder of modern Iran. [BBD221; BBR160]
  • It was not until the spring of 1849 that the new regime was in firm control.
  • His reform antagonized many and a coalition was formed against him. One of the most active proponents was the queen mother. She convinced the Shah that the prime minister wanted his throne. In October of 1851 the Shah dismissed him and exiled him to Kashan where he was murdered on the Shah's orders.
  • Tabriz; Iran; Iraq Nasirid-Din Shah; Qajar dynasty; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; History (general); Iran, General history; Mirza Taqi Khan-i-Farahani; Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Firsts, Other
    1850. Jun c. The Amír-Nizám, Mírzá Taqí Khán was determined to execute the Báb to halt the progress of His religion. On his orders the Báb was taken from Chihríq to Tabríz. [Bab152; BBR76–7; GPB51]
  • His guard took Him on a circuitous, much longer route through Urúmíyyih where His presence was noted by American missionaries. [Bab152; BBR73, 76]
  • Forty days before the Báb was to leave Chihríq He collected all His documents, Tablets, pen cases, seals, His agate rings, and His last Tablets to Mírzá 'Abdu'l-Karím Qazvíní, and put them in a coffer. He entrusted it to Mullá Báqir, one of the Letters of the Living, and instructed him to deliver it to His secretary. In the event that something should happen to Himself, the secretary was to proceed to Tihrán to deliver the box to ‘Jináb-i-Bahá', that is, Bahá'u'lláh. In His last Tablets, Mírzá Husayn-'Alí Núrí was referred to again and again as "Him Whom God shall make Manifest" also, He was referred to as "Bahá'u'lláh". [CH49; Bab151–2; DB504–5; TN25–6]
  • When the box was opened they found a Tablet in the form of a pentacle with 500 verses consisting of derivatives of the word ‘Bahá'. [Bab151–2; DB504–5; TN25–6]
  • This Blessed Tablet of the Bab was obtained in Cyprus by the Larnaca District Commissioner Claude Delaval Cobham, and he donated it to the British Library. It had been in the possession of Mirza Yayha in Famagusta. Mishkin-Qalam served Cobham toward the end of his 18 year exile in Cyprus, as a translator, which has nothing to do with this Tablet but it is interesting Baha’i history in Cyprus. [from an message from Anita Graves, National Bahá'í Archivist, Cyprus to Janis Zrudlo 25 April 2021.
    • Here is a link to a similar tablet at the British Libary website.
    • See Gate of the Heart 329-330 for a further explanation of the symbol of the pentagram and the circle.
  • Chihriq; Tabriz; Urumiyyih; Tihran; Iran Mirza Taqi Khan; Bab, Life of; Missionaries; Mulla Muhammad Baqir-i Tabrizi; Letters of the Living; Bahaullah, Life of; Bab, Writings of; Relics; Box with writings; Boxes; Greatest Name; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1850 29 Jun Vahíd was martyred in Nayríz. [Bab182; BW18:381; DB495, 499; GPB42; RB1:265]
  • See DB494 for details of his martyrdom.
  • His body was dragged through the streets to the accompaniment of drums and cymbals. [RB1:265; For24]
  • See SDH13 for a respectful opinion of Vahíd expressed by an enemy of the Cause, one of the army chiefs who had fought against Vahíd.
  • See PG109-110 for the story of Jenabeh Vahid's show of reverence towards the Báb.
  • Nayriz; Tabriz; Iran Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1850 29 Jun The Báb arrived in Tabríz. [BBR76]
  • BBRXXIX says He arrived on 19 June.
  • RR397 says He arrived two days after the government troops succeeded in suppressing the first Nayríz uprising.
  • Tabriz; Iran Bab, Life of; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1850. 8 Jul The Báb, divested of His turban and sash, was taken on foot to the barracks in Tabríz. Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alíy-i-Zunúzí, Anís, threw himself at the feet of the Báb and asked to go with Him. [Bab153; DB507]
  • That night the Báb asked that one of His companions kill Him, rather than let Him die at the hands of His enemies. Anís offered to do this but was restrained by the others. The Báb promised that Anís will be martyred with Him. [Bab154–5; DB507–8]
  • Tabriz; Iran Bab, Life of; Bab, Martyrdom of; Turbans; Barracks; Anis Zunuzi (Mirza Muhammad-Aliy-i-Zunuzi); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1850. 9 Jul Martyrdom of the Báb

    In the morning the Báb was taken to the homes of the leading clerics to obtain the death-warrants. [Bab155; DB508]

  • The warrants were already prepared. [Bab155–6; DB510]
  • Anís's stepfather tried to persuade him to change his mind. Anís's young son was also brought to ‘soften his heart' but Anís's resolve remained unshaken. [Bab156–7; DB509–10]
  • At noon the Báb and Mirza Muhammad-Ali Zunuzi, known as Anis were suspended on a wall in the square in front of the citadel of Tabríz in Sarbazkhaneh Square. They were shot by 750 soldiers in three ranks of 250 men in succession. [Bab157; DB512]
  • When the smoke cleared the Báb was gone and Anís was standing, unharmed, under the nail from which they were suspended. The Báb, also unhurt, was found back in his cell completing His dictation to His secretary. [Bab157–8; DB512–13]
  • See BBD200–1 and DB510–12, 514 for the story of Sám Khán, the Christian colonel of the Armenian regiment which was ordered to execute the Báb.
  • The Báb and Anís were suspended a second time. A new regiment, the Násirí, was found to undertake the execution. After the volleys, the bodies of the Báb and Anís were shattered and melded together. [Bab158; DB514]
  • See BBR77–82 for Western accounts of the event.
  • The face of the Báb was untouched. [Bab158]
  • At the moment the shots were fired, a gale sweeps the city, stirring up so much dust that the city remained in darkness from noon until night. [Bab158; DB515]
  • See CH239 and DH197 for the story of the phenomenon of the two sunsets.
  • During the night, the bodies were thrown onto the edge of the moat surrounding the city. Soldiers were posted to stand guard over them and, nearby; two Bábís, feigning madness, keep vigil. After paying bribes to the guards, tIhe bodies were removed and hidden under cover of darkness. [Bab159; TN27; LWS147]
  • See David Merrick's Outline for Researchers.
  • See Sen McGlinn's blog 750 Muskets.
  • See It was in the news.... In this blog SMK points out the parallel between the history of early Christianity and that of the Bábí-Bahá'í Faith.
  • Tabriz; Iran Bab, Martyrdom of; Bab, Life of; Bab, Remains of; Holy days; Anis Zunuzi (Mirza Muhammad-Aliy-i-Zunuzi); Sam Khan; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bab, Basic timeline; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1850. 10 Jul The Russian Consul had an artist make a sketch of the body of the Báb. [Bab159; DB518; TN28]
  • See BBR43 for details of the drawing made by Consul Bakulin.
  • Tabriz; Iran Russian officials; Consuls; Bab, Sketches of; Bab, Martyrdom of; Bab, Life of
    1850. 11 Jul The bodies were removed from the moat and taken to a silk factory. [B159–60; DB519]
  • The bodies were wrapped in a cloak and removed to a silk factory owned by one of the believer of Mílan and deposited in a small wooden casket. [B159–60; DB519]
  • See B159–60, DB518–22 and TN27–8, The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1952 Information Statistical & Comparative p20-22 for the story of the recovery of the bodies and eventual arrival in Haifa.
  • The soldiers reported that the bodies had been eaten by dogs. [B160; DB519]
  • Some time later, at Bahá'u'lláh's instructions, the casket was transported to Tehran and concealed in the shrine of Imám-Sádih Hasan.
  • And still later yet the remains were removed to the home of Hájí Sulaymán Khán and subsequently transferred to the shrine of Imám-Zádih Ma'súm.
  • Tabriz; Iran Bab, Martyrdom of; Bab, Remains of
    1866. Dec About a hundred Bahá'ís were arrested in Tabríz following a disturbance in which a Bábí is killed. [BBR251–3; BW18:382] Tabriz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1867. 11 Jan Three Bahá'ís were executed in Tabríz. Their arrest was precipitated by conflict and rivalry between the Azalís and the Bahá'ís. [BBR252–3; BKG237–8; BW18:382–3; RB2:61]
  • BW18:382 says this was 8 January.
  • Tabriz; Iran Azali Babis; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1881 (In the year) Michele Lessona (b. 20 September 1923 in Turin Italy, d. 20 July 1894 in Turin) was a writer, a philosopher, an explorer and an educator as well as a medical doctor. He was also a prominent scientist who had translated Darwin and went on to influence generations of Italian scientists.

    In 1862 he had been appointed physician to the diplomatic delegation sent to Persia to establish relations between the newly created Kingdom of Italy and the Persian government. There in Tabriz, Lessona met Daud Khan, who told him about the new Revelation. He met often with Gobineau, who had then become the French Ambassador to Persia and the two became lifelong friends. Most of Lessona’s information on the Bábi Faith came from these two sources, especially the latter. He found it difficult to get any first-hand information about the Babis, but did recognize, in 1962, that the successor to the Báb was living in Baghdad.

    Lessona organized two-part conference on the Bábi movement that was held in December of 1880. The following year he published the proceedings of the conference in a small monograph called I Bábi. It was the first Italian historical testimony on the Bábí - Bahá'í Faith. [Bahá'í Tributes; Bahá'í Teachings; BW12p900]

    Turin; Italy; Tabriz; Iran Michele Lessona; Comte de Gobineau; Babism
    1884 (In the year) Birth of Valíyu'lláh Varqá, Hand of the Cause of God, in Tabríz. [BW18:381-834] Tabriz; Iran Varqa, Valiyullah; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Varqa
    1896 (In the year) Áqá Siyyid Mihdíy-i-Yazdí was martyred in Tabríz. [BW18:384] Tabriz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1896 (In the year) `Abdu'l-Bahá was forced to withdraw from `Akká to Tiberias owing to the accusations levelled against Him by Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí. [SBBH1:77] Tiberias; Hisar; Khurasan; Tabriz; Khuzistan Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers
    1897 (In the year) Fifteen Bahá'ís were arrested in Saysán, Ádharbáyján. They were taken to Tabríz, imprisoned and fined. [BW18:384]
  • Three Bahá'ís were arrested in Nayríz on the orders of Áqá Najafí, the `Son of the Wolf'. [BW18:384]
  • The homes of several Bahá'ís in Hamadán were looted and ransacked after complaints by Jews of the town against Bahá'ís of Jewish background. [BW18:384]
  • Saysan; Adharbayjan; Tabriz; Nayriz; Hamadan; Iran Aqa Najafi (Son of the Wolf); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1897. Feb Six Bahá'ís were arrested in Mamaqán, Ádharbáyján. Three were bastinadoed and three were imprisoned in Tabríz. [BW18:384] Mamaqan; Adharbayjan; Tabriz; Iran Persecution, Adharbayjan; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1896-1897 In a gathering in Akka, 'Abdu'l-Bahá informed the friends of the threats of Siyyid Jamalud-Din-i-Afghani, a sometimes collaborator with Sultán 'Abdu'l-Maníd and an inveterate enemy of the Faith. He had vision of a pan-Islamic Ottoman state with the Sultan as the head of all Muslims. A short time after `Abdu’l-Bahá had spoken about him, a small growth appeared on the Siyyid’s tongue. The Sultan’s special physician was sent to attend him. In a number of operations, his tongue was cut several times until none was left and, soon after, he died. This was the end of a person whose tongue had spoken presumptuously towards the Cause of God and had committed such slander and calumny against the Faith. He has been called the "Protagonist of Pan-Islamism".
  • MBBA158 says his death occurred in 1901 or a short time after. In fact he died in March 1897. Two Azalis who had been associated with him, Shaykh Ahmad and Mírzá Áqá Khan, were caught up in his intrigues to rid Persia of its monarchy and were executed in Tabriz on the 15th of July, 1896 by the then Crown Prince Muhammad-'Alí Mirzá. [EGB23-28]
  • Akka; Tabriz; Iran Jamalud-Din-i-Afghani; Covenant-breakers; Muhammad-Ali Shah
    1907 25 Apr Karbalá'í Sádiq was martyred in Tabríz. [BW18:386] Tabriz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1938 to 1955 The fourth Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh was Jináb-i-Valíyu'lláh Varqá, the third son of Varqá the martyr. He was born in Tabriz and after the death of his father and brother he was raised by his grandmother, a fanatical Muslim. At the age of 16 his uncle removed him from the home and taught him the Faith. He attended the American University at Beirut and spent summers with 'Abdu'l-Bahá and accompanied the Master to America and served as His interpreter. He returned to Iran where he served on local and national assemblies and was made a Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh in 1938 at a time when the observance of the law spread throughout Iran. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
  • He was elevated to a Hand of the Cause of God in 1951 and passed away in Tubingen, Germany in 1955 while taking a treatment for an illness. [BW13p831-834]
  • Tubingen; Germany; Tabriz; Iran; Beirut; Lebanon; Akka Varqa, Valiyullah; Huququllah; Huququllah, Trustees of; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; American University of Beirut; Varqa
    1979 Sep Revolutionary committees in Shahsavár, ‘Ábádán and Tabríz, Iran, ordered the arrest of Bahá’ís. [BW18:255]
  • Among those arrested were members of local spiritual assemblies. [BW18:255]
  • Bahá’í homes in Tabríz were raided and literature seized. [BW18:255]
  • Shahsavar; Abadan; Tabriz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1980 Apr Eight Bahá’ís were arrested in Tabríz; five were released after signing an agreement not to take part in Bahá’í administrative activities. [BW18:256]
  • Two of the others, members of the local assembly, were put on trial and executed on 14 July 1982. [BW18:256]
  • Tabriz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1980. 13 Jul The execution by firing squad of Dr. Faramarz Samandari as well as another Bahá'í by the name of Yadollah Astani, a reputable Tabriz merchant. Dr Samandari had been arrested on April 22nd along with a number of other Bahá'ís in Tabriz who had gathered to discuss what could be done about the Bahá'ís who had been expelled from government employment.

    Raised in Babol he had studied medicine in Tehran, completed his military service then left for England to study English and then Canada. After completing his studies in which he trained as an otolaryngologist (ear, nose and throat specialist), he returned to Iran. His Canadian fiancee, Anita, followed and they were married in 1971. She and their three children, all under the age of seven, left Iran after the Revolution on the advice of the Canadian Embassy.

    He was 48 years old at the time of his execution and was considered one of the top microscopic ear surgeons in the world. He was an innovator who devised a new method of ear surgery for the treatment of deafness. The method, now used in a modernized form around the world, allows a surgeon to implant a small hearing aid behind the ear of a hearing impaired person in a way that cannot been seen. [Iran Wire]

    Tabriz; Iran; Babol; Iran Persecution, Iran; Yadollah Astani; Dr. Faramarz Samandari
    1980 14 Jul Two of the Bahá’ís arrested in Tabríz in April were executed. [BW18:256] Tabriz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1981. 29 Jul See the story of the martyrdom of pharmacist Dr. Parviz Firouzi,.
  • See the story of the martyrdom of medical doctor Dr Masroor Dakhili.
  • Tabriz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Martyrdom
    2011 Aug As of this time the Bahá'í community of Tabriz had been prohibited from burying their dead in that city and the bodies were being transferred by intelligence officers to the city of Miandoab, in West Azerbaijan province some 175km away. [Iran Press Watch 19720] Tabriz; Miandoab; Iran Persecution, denial of burial

    from the Chronology Canada

    date event locations tags see also
    1980. 13 Jul The execution by firing squad of Dr. Faramarz Samandari as well as another Bahá'í by the name of Yadollah Astani, a reputable Tabriz merchant. Dr Samandari had been arrested on April 22nd along with a number of other Bahá'ís in Tabriz who had gathered to discuss what could be done about the Bahá'ís who had been expelled from government employment.

    Raised in Babol he had studied medicine in Tehran, completed his military service then left for England to study English and then Canada. After completing his studies in which he trained as an otolaryngologist (ear, nose and throat specialist), he returned to Iran. His Canadian fiancee, Anita, followed and they were married in 1971. She and their three children, all under the age of seven, left Iran after the Revolution on the advice of the Canadian Embassy.

    He was 48 years old at the time of his execution and was considered one of the top microscopic ear surgeons in the world. He was an innovator who devised a new method of ear surgery for the treatment of deafness. The method, now used in a modernized form around the world, allows a surgeon to implant a small hearing aid behind the ear of a hearing impaired person in a way that cannot been seen. [Iran Wire]

    Babol; Tabriz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Yadollah Astani; Dr. Faramarz Samandari

    from the Main Catalogue

    1. Babi and Bahá'í Religions 1844-1944: Some Contemporary Western Accounts, by Moojan Momen (1981). A lengthy collection of first-hand reports and mentions of the Bábí and Bahá'í religions in contemporaneous accounts and newspapers. [about]
    2. Behind the Veil in Persia and Turkish Arabia: An Account of an Englishwoman's Eight Years' Residence Amongst the Women of the East, by M. E. Hume-Griffith (1909). Three-page history of the Bab and his execution, with reference to the persecutions in Yazd. [about]
    3. Declaration of the Bab (May 1844): A Survey of Sources for Researchers (2017). English Sources for the Declaration of the Bab placed in chronological/thematic order for comparison, with notes. [about]
    4. Dr. Cormick's Accounts of his Personal Impressions of Mirza 'Ali Muhammad, The Báb, by Dr. Cormick, in Materials for the Study of the Babi Religion (1848). A Westerner's account of meeting the Bab in 1848, and an account of separate incidents involving the persecution of Babis. [about]
    5. Episode of The 'Báb', by E. Crawshay Williams, in Acoss Persia (1907). Brief overview of the Báb's execution. [about]
    6. Five unpublished contemporary documents relating to The Bab's examination at Tabriz in 1848, in Materials for the Study of the Babi Religion (1848). [about]
    7. Flowers to `Akká, by Abu'l-Qasim Faizi, in Bahá'í News (1969). Some history of Sayessan, a Bahá'í village near Tabriz; of Mullá Asad’u’lláh, who prophesied the coming of the Bab; of Bahá'u'lláh's gift of seed potatoes; and Sayessani pilgrims travelling to Akka to meet Abdu'l-Bahá. Includes pictures. [about]
    8. Martyrdom of the Bab, by David Merrick (2008). Martyrdom of the Bab, told in plain English and suitable for reading aloud. Based on many early accounts. [about]
    9. Martyrdom of the Bab: An Outline for Researchers, by David Merrick (2019). The events of the Martyrdom of the Bab, including the weeks before and days after, presented through complementary and contrasting accounts with commentary, suitable for anyone investigating the events in detail. [about]
    10. Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-1986: Third Epoch of the Formative Age, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
    11. Station Wagon Odyssey: Baghdad to Istanbul; A famous American traveler continuing a journey across the Moslem East, by William O. Douglas, in National Geographic Magazine, CXV:1 (1959). Very short mention in this travelogue by a Supreme Court Justice of the United States. [about]
    12. Trial of the Báb: Answers given during the interrogation of the Báb (1997). Translation of source documents preserved from the 1848 trial. [about]
    13. Trial of the Báb: Alim-i Hashtrud's account (1997). Translation of source documents preserved from the 1848 trial. [about]
    14. Trial of the Bab: Mulla Muhammad Mamaqani's account (1997). Translation of source documents preserved from the 1848 trial. [about]
    15. Trial of the Báb: Questions, rebukes, statements made during the interrogation of the Bab (1997). Translation of source documents preserved from the 1848 trial. [about]
    16. Trial of the Báb: Shi'ite Orthodoxy Confronts its Mirror Image, by Denis MacEoin, in Studies in Honor of Clifford Edmund Bosworth 2: The Sultan's Turret (2000). Overview of, and documents preserved from, the Bab's 1848 trial for heresy against Islam. [about]
    17. Varqá, Wali-Alláh, by Iraj Ayman, in Encyclopaedia Iranica (2017). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
    18. Wild Asses, The: A Journey through Persia, by W. V. Emanuel (1939). Passing mentions of Babis in Tabriz and Zanjan. [about]
     
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