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Search for tag "War (general)"

from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1799 in the year Napoleon, returning from Egypt, captured Jaffa and laid siege to Akka.

The French in Egypt were being threatened by the British Fleet. Napoleon's objective was to compare the Ottoman government to come to terms with the French. He defeated the Turks on the Plain of Jereel and advanced as far as Nazareth and Safed but failed to capture Akka. He withdrew his forces in June of 1799. [Handbook of Palestine edited by H C Luke and E Keith Roach, McMillan, London, 1922 pp22-23, Handbook of Palestine]

Akka Napoleon I; History (general); War (general)
1804 - 1813 Russo-Persian War resulted in a Russian victory. The Battle of Aslan Duz on 31 October 1812 was the turning point in the war, which led to the complete destruction of the Persian army, thus leaving Fath Ali Shah with no other option but to sign the Treaty of Gulistan on 24 October 1813. Numerically, Persian forces had a considerable advantage during the war, a ratio of 5 to 1 over their Russian adversaries, however, the Persian forces were technologically backwards and poorly trained - a problem that the Persian government failed to recognize. With the Treaty of Gulistan Persia ceded what is now Georgia, Dagestan, parts of northern Armenia, and most of what now comprises modern Azerbaijan to Russia. Gulistan; Aslan Duz; Iran; Russia Russo-Persian War; Treaty of Gulistan; War (general); History (general); Iran, General history
1828 10 Feb Defeat of the Persians at the hands of the Russians. The Russo-Persian War of 1826–28 was the last major military conflict between the Russian Empire and Iran. The war ended following the occupation of Tabriz and had even more disastrous results for Persia than the 1804-1813 war. The ensuing Treaty of Turkmenchay, signed on 10 February 1828 in Torkamanchay, Iran, stripped Persia of its last remaining territories in the Caucasus, which comprised all of modern Armenia, the southern remainder of modern Azerbaijan, and modern Igdir in Turkey. Through the Gulistan and Turkmenchay treaties Persia had lost all of its territories in the Caucasus to Russia making them the unquestioned dominant power in the region. [BBRSM55] Tabriz; Turkmenchay; Iran Russo-Persian War; War (general); History (general); Iran, General history
1839 (In the year) Defeat of Persia at the hands of the British. [BBRSM55] Iran War (general); British history; History (general); Iran, General history
1843 10 Jan The sacking of the holy city of Karbalá at the hands of the Turks. Thousands of its citizens were killed even those who had taken refuge in the Shrines of Imám Husayn or 'Abbás. [BBRSM55, HotD10, DB36-37] Karbala; Iraq Ottoman Empire; War (general); History (general)
1870 19 Jul – 1871 10 May Franco-Prussian War was a conflict between the Second French Empire of Napoleon III and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia. The conflict was caused by Prussian ambitions to extend German unification and French fears of the shift in the European balance of power that would result if the Prussians succeeded.
  • See KA90 for Bahá'u'lláh's reference to this and KAN121 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's interpretation.
  • Germany; France Franco-Prussian War; War (general); History (general); Napoleon III
    1870 1 - 2 Sep Battle of Sedan. Napoleon III suffered defeat at the hands of Kaiser Wilhelm I. It resulted in the capture of Emperor Napoleon III and large numbers of his troops and for all intents and purposes decided the war in favour of Prussia and its allies, though fighting continued under a new French government. Napoleon went into exile in England, where he died in 1873.
  • Bahá'u'lláh referred to this in KA86.
  • Sedan; France; Germany; United Kingdom Franco-Prussian War; War (general); History (general); Napoleon III; Kaiser Wilhelm I; Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book)
    1877 – 1878 As a result of the war between Russia and Turkey some 11 million people were freed from the Turkish yoke. Adrianople was occupied by the Russian ally, Bulgaria. The Ottoman enemies were brought to the gates of Istanbul. [BKG262; GPB225]
    • See BKG460 for the Siege of Plevna.
    Edirne (Adrianople); Plevna; Turkey; Russia War (general); History (general)
    1905. 5 Sep The Treaty of Portsmouth formally ended the 1904–05 Russo-Japanese War. It was signed on September 5, 1905,[1] after negotiations from August 6 to August 30, at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard in Kittery, Maine, United States.[2] U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt was instrumental in the negotiations and won the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts. Were it not for US diplomacy and the military restraint displayed by the other European nations, the Russo-Japanese war might have become the first world war. [Wikipedia]
  • According to some historians, the 1905 Russo-Japanese War was the first truly modern war, involving as it did both the telegraph and the telephone, along with machine guns, barbed wire, illuminating star shells, mine fields, advanced torpedoes, and armored battleships. The war's resolution might also be called the world's first modern “peace,” inasmuch as its end came about through perhaps the first use of so-called multi-track diplomacy, involving not only the belligerents but also the United States and, significantly, input from civil society. [One Country]
  • Portsmouth; New Hampshire; United States; Russia; Japan Portsmouth Peace Treaty; Theodore Roosevelt; Peace; War (general); History (general)
    1911 21 Oct News of the Battle of Benghazi (17 October) was headline news. It was one of the opening salvos of the Turko-Italian War and began on the 17th of October when Italian invasion forces began their bombardment of the Turkish garrison. The Turks were forced to abandon the city and there were many lives lost, Italians, Turks and civilians.
  • His talk, The Pitiful Causes of War, and the Duty of Everyone to Strive for Peace. [ABF96-100 PT28-30]
  • See as well SoW Vol 2 No 14 November 23, 1911 p5 for His talk on the Battle of Benghazi.
  • Paris; France; Benghazi; Libya; Turkey; Italy Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; War (general); History (general); Peace
    1913 13 Apr `Abdu'l-Bahá was sick and the weather was bitterly cold. He went to the studio of Professor Robert A. Nadler of the Royal Academy of Art to sit for a portrait. He gave him a total of three sittings during His visit to Budapest. [AB387, MRHK368-9]
  • "The portrait is remarkable not only because of its art, but also because of its later miraculous fate. Reportedly, after heavy bombing in 1945, only that part of the building in which the painting was hung remained unharmed." [Renée Szanto-Felbermann Two Portraits p3, Rebirth: Memoirs of Renée Szanto-Felbermann p159]
  • The painting was purchased and taken to the Bahá'í World Centre in 1972. [SBBR14p118]
  • See SBBR14p108 for a picture of the portrait.
  • In the afternoon He visited the home of Sirdar Omrah Singh. [AB387]
  • In spite of a raging blizzard a good many attended His address at the hotel in the evening. [AB387]
  • Budapest; Hungary Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Robert A. Nadler; Abdul-Baha, Pictures and portraits; Portraits; World War II; War (general)
    1914 28 Jun The heir to the Austrian throne was assassinated in Sarajevo. Sarajevo; Serbia; Austria World War I; War (general); History (General)
    1914 28 Jul The Great War (1914–18) broke out in Europe. (28 July, 1914 to 11 November, 1918)

    Austria declared war on Serbia.

  • See Reading Reality in Times of Crisis: ‘Abdu’l-Bahá and the Great War by Amín Egea.
  • The world experienced horrors the like of which had never been seen with a long list of military engagements.

    The Battle of Verdun (February to December 1916) 130,000 unknown dead on both sides

    The first Battle of the Somme (July to November 1916) 1,000,000 casualties in four months

    The naval battle of Jutland (31 May to 1 June) 21 ships sunk.

  • Europe; Austria; Serbia World War I; War (general); History (general); Amin Egea
    1914 4 Aug England declared war on Germany. United Kingdom; Germany; Europe World War I; War (general); History (general)
    1914 1 Nov Turkey entered the war on the side of the Central Powers.
  • Palestine was blockaded and Haifa was bombarded. [GPB304]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá sent the Bahá'ís to the Druze village of Abú-Sinán for asylum. [AB411; DH124; GPB304, BWNS1297]
  • For `Abdu'l-Bahá in wartime see CH188–228.
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá had grown and stored corn in the years leading up to the war and was now able to feed not only local people but the British army. [AB415, 418; CH210; GPB304, 306]
  • Properties in the villages of Asfíyá and Dálíyá near Haifa were purchased by `Abdu'l-Bahá, and, at the request of Bahá'u'lláh, bestowed upon Díyá'u'lláh and Bahí'u'lláh. Land was also acquired in the villages of Samirih, Nughayb and 'Adasíyyih situated near the Jordan. 'Adasíyyah was the village occupied by Bahá'ís of Zoroastrian heritage that produced corn for the Master's household. The village of Nughayb is where the relatives of the Holy Family lived. [CH209-210]
    • See 'Adasiyyah: A Study in Agriculture and Rural Development by Iraj Poostchi. This village was purchased by 'Abdu'l-Bahá in 1901. He paid 400 Turkish gold lira for 920 hectares and then gifted 1/24th of the total area to the family from whom He had made the purchase.
    • Under the guidance of 'Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi this village became a model of agriculture and Bahá'í life. The Bahá'ís lost ownership after 1962 when Jordan implemented land reforms.
    • 'Adasiyyah is mentioned in the film Exemplar (17:40-18:50).
  • See as well `Abdu'l-Baha in Abu-Sinan: September 1914 by Ahang Rabbani.
  • See Senn McGlinn's Abdu’l-Baha’s British knighthood for more background.
  • Palestine; Israel; Abu-Sinan; Haifa; Asfiya; Daliya; Samirih; Nughayb; Adasiyyih (Adasiyyah); Jordan World War I; War (general); Druze; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Knighthood (KBE); British; Charity and relief work; Social and economic development; History (General); - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; Diyaullah; Bahaullah; Exemplar (film)
    1917 (in the year) Foreign troops occupied nearly all of neutral Iran. [AB416; BBRSM:87] Iran War (general); History (General); Iran, General history
    1917 6 Apr The United States entered World War I.
  • See CF36 for Shoghi Effendi's opinion of its participation in the war.
  • Europe; United States World War I; War (general); History (general); Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1918 8 Jan President Woodrow Wilson in a speech on war aims and peace terms to the United States Congress outlined his Fourteen Points. It was a statement of principles for peace that was to be used for peace negotiations in order to end World War I.
  • Wilson was influenced by the Bahá’í Teachings in formulating his Fourteen Points, at least three Bahá’í volumes were known to be in the White House. The Hidden Words appears on a 1921 listing of Wilson’s private library. Also, a compilation on peace given the President by a delegation of Washington Bahá’ís ‘turned up in general reference at the Library of Congress marked “transfer from the White House”‘. In addition, Abdul-Baha on Divine Philosophy (Boston, 1918) was said to have much influenced his thinking. [AY155]
  • Commenting on the Fourteen Points laid down by the President for the world community, the Master says that twelve of them derive from principles advocated by Bahá’u’lláh fifty years before, and that these Teachings had been spread worldwide through various publications, thus becoming known to leaders in Europe and America (Persian Tablets, vol. III, p. 312). [AY156-157]
  • US Office of the Historian.
  • United States; Washington DC Woodrow Wilson; Fourteen Points; History (general); Principles; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Abdul-Baha on Divine Philosophy; Peace; World peace (general); World War I; War (general); United States, Presidents
    1918 23 Sep "During the early years of World War I, though no longer imprisoned, ‘Abdu’l-Bahá faced repeated threats against His life by authorities who were antagonistic towards Him and the Bahá'ís. The Commander of the Ottoman fourth army corps had even threatened to crucify ‘Abdu’l-Bahá if the Turkish army were ever to be displaced out of Haifa." Lady Blomfield in London had learned of these threats and through her contacts in Cabinet, the British Army was instructed to protect Him and His family. [BWNS69, BWNS1202]

    The British army took the city in the 1st Battle of Haifa: The battle was won due to a courageous uphill assault by the Jodhpur Lancers of the Indian Army who took the German and Turkish artillery and machine gun emplacements on top of Mount Carmel by surprise. This attack is believed to have been one of the last cavalry charge in modern military history. Each year, on this date, the Indian Army commemorates this victory as Haifa Day. [AY104; BBR335; DH148, Scroll In 68095]

  • For details of the battle see BBR335-6.
  • For letters from the British authorities stating that `Abdu'l-Bahá is safe see BBR336-7.
  • For a photos see The Indian Weekender 5 October, 2018 as well as Wikipedia.
  • For videos see India Today, The Battle of Haifa Part 1, The Battle of Haifa Part II.
  • See the story as recounted by Col (Dr) Divakaran Padma Kumar Pillay.
  • See as well Battle of Haifa: The Last Great Cavalry Campaign in History by Ajeet Singh Choudhary. This article provides a comprehensive historical account of the Jodhpur Lancers and Battle of Haifa.
  • See PG85-86, on the 23rd of August, 1919 'Abdu'l-Bahá, in conversation with Major-General Watson, referring to the success of the British army in taking Haifa stated, "God hath wished it to be so, it was His Divine aid and assistance that made it possible." and "It was God that helped you from every standpoint."
  • Mount Carmel; Haifa; Israel World War I; War (general); History (general); Jodhpur Lancers; Indian Army; Armies; Germany; Turkey; Haifa Day; Abdul-Baha, Death threats to; BWNS; Lady Blomfield
    1918. 11 Nov The end of the First World War or the Great War.

    It was a global conflict originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. It led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history. An estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilians died as a direct result of the war, and it also contributed to later genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic, which caused between 50 and 100 million deaths worldwide. Military losses were aggravated by new technological and industrial developments and the tactical stalemate caused by gruelling trench warfare. It was one of the deadliest conflicts in history and precipitated major political changes, including the Revolutions of 1917–1923, in many of the nations involved. Unresolved rivalries at the end of the conflict contributed to the start of World War II about twenty years later. [Wikipedia]

  • During the war Iran suffered horribly. It is estimated that during one year 120,000 people died of disease and starvation. The Bahá'í communities established relief centres to care for the believers and not a single Bahá'í starved or was even in need. [PG111]
  • Persia; Iran World War I; War (general); History (general)
    1919 28 Jun The Treaty of Versailles was concluded. The United States never signed the Treaty of Versailles, never joined the League of Nations which President Wilson's foes derisively referred to as ‘Wilson’s League’. The USA made separate treaties with Germany and the other Central Powers. Wilson died on the 3rd of February, 1924. [AY160-169; US Office of the Historian]

    Shoghi Effendi's tribute is as follows:

    "To ... President ... Woodrow Wilson, must be ascribed the unique honour, among the statesmen of any nation, whether of the East or of the West, of having voiced sentiments so akin to the principles animating the Cause of Bahá’u’lláh, and of having more than any other world leader, contributed to the creation of the League of Nations—achievements which the pen of the Centre of God’s Covenant acclaimed as signalizing the dawn of the Most Great Peace, whose sun, according to that same pen, must needs arise as the direct consequence of the enforcement of the laws of the Dispensation of Bahá’u’lláh." [CoF36]

    Versailles; France Treaty of Versailles; Woodrow Wilson; League of Nations; History (general); World War I; War (general); World peace (general); Peace; Most Great Peace
    1938 27 Nov In a letter to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the British Isles, Shoghi Effendi outlined the attitudes and obligations of Bahá’ís regarding military service. [BW17:384–5; UD122–3] United Kingdom Armed forces; Military; Weapons; War (general)
    1939 Ridván The first Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Budapest was elected. There were about 14 believers in the community, mostly of Jewish ancestry. This caused difficulty for the community in the Nazi persecutions that followed. [Rebirth: Memoirs of Renée Szanto-Felbermann p108]

          According to the description of Renée Szántó-Felbermann, they could not even meet in Budapest: „It was at their (the Sugárs) house in Alag (today part of Budakeszi) that we elected the first Spiritual Assembly in the history of Hungary, Ridvan 1939. When we boarded the train for Alag, in order to avoid suspicion, we Bahá’ís did not remain together, but went by twos and threes. The same procedure was repeated on our arrival to Alag. It was a memorable, unforgettable evening, that Feast of Ridván in the small house at Alag fragrant with spring flowers. We were all deeply moved. And our dear Bertha Matthiesen was radiant. … Jenő Sugár was elected chairman, Mária Kleinberger became treasurer and I continued as secretary.” [www.bahai.hu]

  • See www.bahai.hu for a list of community members.
  • Ms Bertha Matthiesen spent a lot of time in Hungary between 1937 and 1939 when most declarations took place and the first spiritual assembly was formed. [www.bahai.hu]
  • Mr Emeric Sala (Imre Szalavetz) a Canadian Bahá'í who was born in Hungary visited Budapest in 1933 and in 1937. [www.bahai.hu]
  • Canadian travel teacher Ms Lorol Schopflocher visited Budapest in March-April 1937. [www.bahai.hu]
  • Budapest; Hungary Local Spiritual Assembly; World War II; War (general); Persecution, Hungary; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Jews
    1939. 4 Jun In a letter addressed to the National Spiritual Assembly of the British Isles written on behalf of the Guardian he urged them to "appeal to the government for exemption from active military service in a combatant capacity, stressing the fact that in doing so they are not prompted by any selfish considerations but by the sole and supreme motive of upholding the Teachings of their Faith, which make it a moral obligation for them to desist from any act that would involve them in direct warfare with their fellow-humans or any other race or nation." [UD128]
  • See other correspondence on this theme: UD122; UD134; UD259
  • United Kingdom Armed forces; Military; Weapons; War (general)
    1939 3 Sep World War II began with Britain and France declaring war on Germany after Germany invaded Poland. Europe; Germany; United Kingdom; France; Poland World War II; History (general); War (general)
    1945 8 May The war in Europe ended.
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s response see MA80–1, PP185 and UD175.
  • For the war’s effect on the Bahá’í community worldwide see BW17:80.
  • See CF36 for Shoghi Effendi’s opinion of the significance of the role of the United States in the war.
  • Europe World War II; War (general); History (general)
    1945 2 Sep The war in Japan ended. Japan World War II; War (general); History (general)
    1945 24 Oct The United Nations was formally established.
  • For the relationship of the Bahá’í Faith to the United Nations see BW16:327–52.
  • See SDC64-65 for 'Abdu'l-Bahá's prophetic statement, written in 1875, "True civilization will unfurl its banner...".
  • The temporary headquarters for the United Nations was established in Lake Success, NY in a warehouse formerly occupied by the Sperry Gyroscope Company. (1946-1952).
  • San Francisco; California; United States United Nations; Secret of Divine Civilization (book); Collective security; Prophecies; World War II; War (general); Peace; History (general)
    1946. 20 Jul The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States enquired of the Guardian whether the existence of the United Nations in its present form changed the attitude of the Baha'is toward military duties which might require the taking of human life. The Guardian's reply, written by his secretary, was:

      ...the Bahá'ís should continue to apply, under all circumstances, for exemption from any military duty that necessitates the taking of life. There is no justification for any change of attitude on our part at the present time.

    The Universal House of Justice amplified this later statement:

      There is no objection in a Bahá'í enlisting voluntarily in the armed forces of a country in order to obtain a training in some trade or profession, provided that he can do so without making himself liable to undertake combatant service. [BW17:384–5]
    United States Armed forces; Military; Weapons; War (general)
    1948 (In the year) War broke out in Palestine.
  • See DH118 for the effect on the Bahá’ís.
  • Palestine War (general); History (general)
    1948 21 - 22 Apr The 2nd Battle of Haifa: A Jewish offensive to gain control of the strategic port of Haifa. Prior to the 30-hour battle, the Arab population of Haifa was estimated to be 65,000 compared to 70,000 Palestinian Jews. At the end of the operation, the Arab population was reduced to about 4,000 people. [Battle of Haifa] Haifa War (general); History (general)
    1949. 9 Dec The General Assembly of the United Nations adopted the Resolution entitled Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide.
  • It was largely through the one-man campaign of a Polish jurist, Raphael Lemkin, someone who had lost family members in the Nazi holocaust, and who had invented the term "genocide", that the Resolution was adopted. [In Search of a Better World by Payam Akhavan p91-92]
  • The attitude at the time could be summed up in the words "Never again!" however the world would have to wait another 50 years before the International Criminal Court would be established to provide any real meaning to this Resolution.
  • See IBM and the Holocaust: The Strategic Alliance Between Nazi Germany and America's Most Powerful Corporation by Edwin Black. It is the stunning story of IBM's strategic alliance with Nazi Germany -- beginning in 1933 in the first weeks that Hitler came to power and continuing well into World War II. As the Third Reich embarked upon its plan of conquest and genocide, IBM and its subsidiaries helped create enabling technologies, step-by-step, from the identification and cataloging programs of the 1930s to the selections of the 1940s. A book review.
  • Genocide; United Nations; Justice; Law, International; World War II; War (general); History (general)
    1951 Sep National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States provided guidance on military service. [BN No 247 September 1951 p4] United States Armed forces; Military; Weapons; War (general)
    1965. 20 Sep The obligation that Bahá'ís should seek exemption from combatant service was specifically affirmed by the Universal House of Justice in a letter to the American National Spiritual Assembly. That letter said:

      It is for each believer, under pain of his own conscience, to determine for himself what his actions should be, bearing in mind that the application of these principles is the spiritual obligation of every Bahá'í. It is rather for your Assembly to see that adequate instruction is provided so that the friends will let these principles be mirrored forth in their actions, and that they will be so steadfast in their love for Bahá'u'lláh that it would be unthinkable for them to willingly place themselves in a position where they must take human life. [Universal House of Justice letter to the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States ref41]
    United States Armed forces; Military; Weapons; War (general)
    1969 Jun For the Bahá'í position on military service see War, Governance, and Conscience in This Age of Transition by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States published by the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States in the National Bahá'í Review. United States Armed forces; Military; Weapons; War (general)

    from the main catalogue

    1. `Abdu'l-Baha in Abu-Sinan: September 1914, by Ahang Rabbani, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 13 (2005). The story of Abdu'l-Bahá's relocating the Haifa/Akka Bahá'í community of some 140 people to a nearby Druze village to keep them safe during World War I. [about]
    2. Abdu'l-Baha's 1912 Howard University Speech: A Civil War Myth for Interracial Emancipation, by Christopher Buck, in Abdu'l-Bahá's Journey West: The Course of Human Solidarity, ed. Negar Mottahedeh (2013). Overview of the event, press coverage, publications of the speech, the Emancipation Proclamation "myth" and its historical influence, the role of whites, and the rhetoric of progress. [about]
    3. Achieving Reconciliation in a Conflicting World, by Ismael Velasco, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 18:1-4 (2008). The dynamics of conflict against the backdrop of globalization, and religion's role in fostering unity. A "logic of reconciliation" will allow us to find harmony among ideas, individuals, and communities. [about]
    4. Alleged Pro-German activities: Edward C. Getsinger, Case #317323, by Federal Bureau of Investigation (1918). Forty pages of FBI files investigating Edward C. Getsinger and possible Bahá'í opposition to the war, or alleged pro-German sentiment. Includes Edward and Lua Getsinger's passport applications. [about]
    5. Bahá'í Tradition, The: The Return of Joseph and the Peaceable Imagination, by Todd Lawson, in Fighting Words: Religion, Violence, and the Interpretation of Sacred Texts, ed. John Renard (2012). Overview of the status of violence in the Bahá'í tradition, and the historical/social conditions in which these doctrines were articulated. [about]
    6. Beyond Death's Grey Land, by Sidney Edward Morrison, in dialogue magazine, 1:2 (1986). Reflections from a Bahá'í perspective on the Vietnam War, the nature of war, dehumanizing humanity, and being a soldier. [about]
    7. Century of Light, by Universal House of Justice (2001). Survey of the history and dramatic changes of the 20th Century and the Bahá'í Faith's emergence from obscurity, "demonstrating on a global scale the unifying power with which its Divine origin has endowed it." [about]
    8. Compilation of the Holy Utterances of Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá, Concerning the Most Great Peace, War and Duty of the Bahá'ís toward their Government, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (1918). An early compilation, prepared for the Tenth Annual Convention, April 1918. [about]
    9. Dawn over Mount Hira and Other Essays, by Marzieh Gail (1976). A collection of essays on various topics of interest to Bahá'í studies and history. Most of these were first published in Star of the West and World Order between 1929 and 1971. [about]
    10. Declaración de la Comunidad Internacional Bahá'í ante la Conferencia Internacional de las Naciones Unidas sobre la Relación Entre el Desarme y el Desarrollo, by Bahá'í International Community (1987). El Año Internacional de la Mujer. Nueva York, Nueva York, 24 de agosto-11 de septiembre de 1987 [about]
    11. Desarme y la Paz, El, by Bahá'í International Community (1985). [about]
    12. German Baha'i Community under National Socialism, The: A Historical Perspective With Postscript and Notes, by Harry Liedtke (1999). Two versions of an article on why Bahá’ís, as an international Community or as individuals, did not play an active role in preventing the rise of the Nazis. In truth, they acted heroically and did exactly what was asked of them by the Guardian. [about]
    13. Good of the World and the Happiness of the Nations, The: A Study of Modern Utopian and Dystopian Literature, by Elham Afnan, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1:4 (1989). The Bahá'í Writings, with their new understanding of human destiny, can bridge the gap between utopian visions of progress from 19th-century literature and dystopian visions of 20th-century fiction, disillusioned by war and social and economic disasters. [about]
    14. Humanitarian Responses to Global Conflicts, by Universal House of Justice (2015). A letter to and response from the House about why Bahá'ís do not condemn the 2014 attacks on Gaza, and principles to consider when addressing conflicts. [about]
    15. Humanity of Evil, The: Bahá'í Reflections on the film The Act of Killing, by Bernardo Bortolin Kerr (2014). The theology of evil throughout history and in Bahá'í thought; ways in which people de-humanize and become alienated from their own selves; on forgiveness and merciful love in the face of justice and punishment. [about]
    16. In re. Bahá'í Temple Unity (Alleged German Religious Propaganda): Alfred S. Lunt, Case #304495, by Federal Bureau of Investigation (1918). Seven pages of FBI files investigating Alfred S. Lunt and Mirian Sevasly and possible Bahá'í opposition to the war. [about]
    17. International Criminal Court: A Bahá'í Perspective, by Dan Wheatley, in Associate, 33-34 (2001). Brief history of the ICC, and Bahá'í support of it. [about]
    18. Just War from the Bahá'í Perspective, by Vargha Taefi (2006). A Bahá'í view is that the individual's will is subordinate to society's will. Comparison of this attitude with contemporary international political theory, and on justifying war as "humanitarian intervention." [about]
    19. Letter to Martha Root, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1920). A letter to believers in America. [about]
    20. Living Purposefully in a Time of Violence, by Holly Hanson (2001). Contemplation of Bahá'í responses to the global issues raised by 9/11. [about]
    21. Martyrdom in Jihad, by Jonah Winters (1997). Unlike Judeo-Christianity, Islam does not contain a core of martyrdom. Rather, it occurs in three disparate areas: war/jihad, asceticism, and Shi'ism. I examine the relationship between jihad and martyrdom and their classical and contemporary meanings. [about]
    22. Mediation, Transformation and Consultation: A Comparative Analysis of Conflict Resolution Models, by Guy Sinclair, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). The Bahá'í principle of consultation as a framework for mediation, transformation, and the process of conflict resolution. The need for dialogue between all those concerned with such goals. [about]
    23. Message on World Peace, by Universal House of Justice (2019). Letter about important steps the world made towards world peace, and the current situation, in relation to the activities the Bahá'ís are involved with. [about]
    24. Migrants and Refugees in Europe, by Universal House of Justice (2015). Principles to guide the response of the Bahá’í community to the dramatic social changes concerning the 2015 influx into Europe of people fleeing conflict in the Middle East, especially Syria. [about]
    25. Off the Grid: Reading Iranian Memoirs in Our Time of Total War, by Negar Mottahedeh, in Middle East Research and Information Project (2004). Observations on contemporary culture and gender issues in Iran. [about]
    26. Orientation of Hope and Lessons in World Crisis, The, by Alain Locke, in Bahá'í World, vols. 5 and 9 (1936). Two essays meditating on the relevance of Bahá'í principles to the period preceding and during the Second World War. [about]
    27. Political Non-Involvement and Obedience to Government: Compilation by Peter Khan with Cover Letter from Secretariat, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi (2003). Current world events can cause confusion and anguish among those seeking global peace. Rather than being drawn into prevailing attitudes and disputes, Bahá'ís must hold a broader long-term perspective. [about]
    28. Power and the Bahá'í community, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 19 (2018). While Bahá'í social teachings may have sounded new and exciting a century ago, that is no longer the case today. The problem the world faces is not in the principles that would lead to a better society, but in their application. [about]
    29. President Wilson and the Bahá'í Connection, by Paul Pearsall, in Herald of the South (1988). Short overview of myths and facts on the Wilson-Bahá'í connection. Includes addenda on the League of Nations, by Vincent Littrell, and on the Fourteen Points, by Bahram Nadini. [about]
    30. Protecting the Human Family: Humanitarian Intervention, International Law, and Bahá'í Principles, by Brian D. Lepard, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 13:1-4 (2003). The moral and legal problems raised by the use of military force to aid human rights victims. Relevant Bahá’í ethical principles and how these might assist us to reform existing international law to better protect all members of the human family. [about]
    31. Public Discourse on Race: Abdu'l-Bahá's 1912 Howard University Speech, by Christopher Buck (2012). Presentation at Louhelen Bahá’í School on ‘Abdu’l-Bahá and the black intelligentsia, his views of the Civil War and the Emancipation Proclamation, and his message to African Americans and the "Whites." [about]
    32. Questions and Answers on War and Related Issues (2003). Compilation of passages and commentary on the military, political activism, disarmament, pacifism, and collective security. [about]
    33. Qur'an and Violence against Non-believers, The, by Ted Brownstein (2017). An examination of two sections of The Qur'an that supposedly authorize the slaughter of innocent non-Muslims. [about]
    34. Reading Reality in Times of Crisis: 'Abdu'l-Bahá and the Great War, by Amin Egea, in Bahá'í World (2021). How ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s analysis of the crises of His time was profoundly distinct from contemporaneous “progressive” movements and thinkers. [about]
    35. Remembering 'Abdu'l-Baha's Call for Unity, a Century after World War I, by Bahá'í World News Service (2018). Collection of newspaper articles and photographs of Abdu'l-Bahá, on the general theme of unity in the face of war. [about]
    36. Replacing the Sword with the Word: Bahá'u'lláh's Concept of Peace, by Nader Saiedi, in Bahá'í World (2019). The writings of Bahá'u'lláh reconstruct foundational concepts such as mysticism, religion, and social order; theories of peace, including democratic, Marxist, and sociological. [about]
    37. Responding to an Attack on Humanity, by Alan Bryson (2010). Reflections on the events of 9/11. [about]
    38. Responding to the War in Ukraine, by Universal House of Justice (2022). Actions Bahá'ís are taking in response to the invasion of Ukraine; the role of prayers and acts of service in bringing about a future without destructive weapons. [about]
    39. Revisiting Vietnam: A Case for Reading "Those War Books", by David Langness, in dialogue magazine, 1:3 (1986). Brief reviews of a dozen books about the Vietnam war. [about]
    40. Ridván 2022: Bahá'í Era 179. Annual message to the Bahá'ís of the world. [about]
    41. Saving Private Ryan: Review, by Milan Voykovic and Shamim Razavi, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 8 (1998). Review of film, with thoughts for Bahá'ís: Is there such a thing as a "just war"? What forms of "sacrifice" can be justified? When should collective ethics override individual conscience? [about]
    42. Time of Peril, Prospects for Peace, by Glenford Mitchell (2001). Talk at the Bahá'í Unity Center in Atlanta. [about]
    43. Translation list (2009). Index to talks, letters, and other items translated from Persian and Arabic to English by Adib Masumian; listed here for the sake of search engines and tagging. [about]
    44. War, Governance, and Conscience in This Age of Transition, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States, in The Bahá'í National Review, 20 (1969). A whitepaper on issues of Bahá'í involvement in the military services. [about]
     
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