Search for tag "Gender"
|1848. c. 26 Jun - 17 Jul
||The Conference of Badasht
Bahá'u'lláh, who hosted and directed the event, rented three gardens, one for Quddús, another for Táhirih and the third for Himself. [B168; GPB31, 68; MF200]
The conference coincided with the removal of the Báb to Tabríz for interrogation in July. It was held near the village of Sháhrúd in Semnan province. [BBRSM23; DB292]
`The primary purpose of that gathering was to implement the revelation of the Bayán by a sudden, a complete and dramatic break with the past — with its order, its ecclesiasticism, its traditions, and ceremonials. The subsidiary purpose of the conference was to consider the means of emancipating the Báb from His cruel confinement in Chihríq.' [BBRSM23; BKG43; DB297–8; GPB31, 157]
From the beginning of His ministry the Báb had implicitly claimed some higher spiritual station than merely that of being the "bábu'l-imám" and in the early months of 1848 while still in prison in Máh-Kú He put forward these claims to his companions. He proclaimed HImself to be the Imam Mahdi, the promised Q´'im (He who will arise), the inaugurator of the Resurrection and the abrogator of the Islamic holy law. [BBRSM23]
Bab167 says that the Bábís did not come to Badasht to make plans to rescue the Báb.
It was attended by 81 believers and lasted 22 days. [BKG43–4, 46; DB292–3; GPB312]
Each day Bahá'u'lláh revealed a Tablet, and on each believer He conferred a new name. Each day an Islamic law was abrogated. Henceforth, when the Báb was addressing the believers, He used the new name that Bahá'u'lláh had bestowed upon them. [DB293; GPB32]
See BKG44–5, DB293 and MF201 for the story of the central event, Táhirih's confrontation with Quddús and removal of her veil.
Also see B167–9; BBD31–2; BBRSM46; BKG43–7; DB292–8; RB2:353.
|Badasht; Tabriz; Shahrud; Chihriq; Iran
||Conference of Badasht; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Writings of; Quddus; Tahirih; Veils; Women; Womens rights; Gender; Equality; Bab, Life of; Bayan; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bab, Basic timeline; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Letters of the Living
|1848 19 - 20 Jul
||The Women's Rights Convention was held in the Wesleyan Chapel at Seneca Falls, NY. The principle organizer was Lucretia Mott, with Elizabeth Cady Stanton as its driving intellect. A significant role was played by an African-American man, an abolitionist and a recently freed slave, Frederick Douglass. The convention adopted a Declaration of Rights and Sentiments that consisted of 11 resolutions including the right for women to vote. The signatories were the 68 women and 32 men in attendance. The right for women to vote became part of the United States Constitution in 1920. [The Calling: Tahirih of Persia and her American Contemporaries p114-160, "Seneca Falls First Woman's Rights Convention of 1848: The Sacred Rites of the Nation"
by Bradford W. Miller (Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8.3, 1998)]
This conference has been compared to the Conference of Badasht with respect to the emancipation of women and entrenched prejudices.
Tahirih and Women's Suffrage written by / on behalf of Universal House of Justice in which they deal with the question of the relationship between Táhirih and women's sufferage as well as the station of Táhirih herself.
||Seneca Falls; New York; United States; Badasht; Iran
||Womens rights; Human rights; African Americans; Women; Gender; Equality; Conference of Badasht; Tahirih
|1850. 19 May
||The Governor sent a mob against Hujjat, which was dispersed by Mír Saláh. The Governor sent to Tihrán for reinforcements and the town Zanján was split into two camps. [BW18:381]
See BBD245 and GPB45 for the story of Zaynab, the Bábí woman who dressed as a man and defended the barricades.
Zaynab and the Women of Zanjan.
|Tihran; Zanjan; Iran
||Governors; Hujjat; Mir Salah; Zaynab; Gender; Women; Equality; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Mobs; Persecution
|1852 16 – 27 Aug
||The martyrdom of Táhirih (Qurratu'l-'Ayn) in Tihrán. [BBR172–3; BBRSM:30; BW18:382; BKG87; MF203]
She was martyred in the Ílkhání garden, strangled with her own silk handkerchief which she had provided for the purpose. Her body was lowered into a well which was then filled with stones. [BBD220; DB622–8; GPB75]
See GPB73–5 for a history of her life.
See the story of her martyrdom and her life in the article in Radio France International.
||Tahirih; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Women; Gender; Equality; Letters of the Living; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1908 25 Apr
||Charles Mason Remey and Sydney Sprague sailed from New York for Iran and Russia. [BFA2:289]
For details of their journey see BFA2:289–95.
In Tihrán Táhirih Khánum, a Bahá'í woman with advanced ideas, hosted them at a meeting at which the women removed their veils. [BFA2:292–4]
They give Táhirih Khánum the address of Isabella Brittingham and the two women began a correspondence. [BFA2:294]
||New York; Tihran
||Charles Mason Remey; Sydney Sprague; Tahirih Khanum; Isabella Brittingham; Women; Gender; Equality
|1910 (In the year)
||Within a year of her arrival in Persia, Dr. Susan Moody opened the Tarbíyat School for Girls in Tihrán. [BBD221–2; BFA2:360–1]
Some of those serving at the school were:
Miss Lillian Kappes of Hoboken, New Jersey arrived in December of 1911 to serve as a teacher. She stopped in Thonon to visit 'Abdu'l-Bahá on the way. [SoW Vol 2 No 17 Jan 19. 1912 p2] She died on the 1st of December, 1920 of typhus and was buried there.
She was replaced by Genevieve Coy, a qualified psychologist, a Ph.D. in 1922 who was followed by Adelaide Sharp in 1929. Her mother, Clara Sharp joined her in 1931. [BFA2p361, AY233]
Elizabeth Stewart who served as a nurse at the school accompanied Lillian Kappes on her arrival. Miss Stewart served until 1924 when she returned to Philadelphia where she died in 1926. [ABF43]
Munírih Khánum Ayádí, the mother of Dr Karím Ayádí (later famed as the Shah much-trusted doctor) was Persia’s first official Director of the Tarbíyat School for Girls. She was widely recognized as exceptional, at a time when Persia’s Bahá’í women were only gradually emerging from their earlier state under Islam. Much respected by the men, her attitude toward them was one of total equality. Her greatness was in herself, her devotion to the Faith absolute, and she was made a member of such advanced committees as the Bahá’í Women’s Committee. Her views were moderated by her sense of humour, which included self-deprecation so that she never subjected you to her piety. One day during the Bahá’í Fast, she asked Marzieh Gall: ‘Do you think God would notice if I ducked into that room and sneaked a few puffs of tobacco?’ [AY333]
||Tarbiyat School; Bahai schools; Susan Moody; Lillian Kappes; Genevieve Coy; Adelaide Sharp; Clara Sharp; Elizabeth Stewart; Women; Equality; Gender; Social and economic development; Munirih Khanum; Karim Ayadi
|1917 (in the year)
||The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-Taqíy-i-Abharí (Ibn-i-Abhar). He was born in 1853/4 in Abhar.
For four years he suffered in Síyáh-Chál wearing the very same chains as Bahá’u’lláh had worn in 1852.
His services during the time of the Master included teaching journeys through Persia, the Caucasus and India. He also made some eleven journeys to the Holy Land with the permission of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá.
A special service rendered by Ibn-i-Abhar was the promotion of the education of women. He and his wife played an important part
in the advancement of women in Persian society.
In 1886 Bahá’u’lláh appointed him a Hand of the Cause. He died in 1917. [LoF13-16, BBD114, EB268; Bahaipedia]
||Abhar; Tihran; Iran; Caucasus; India
||Hands appointed by Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Ibn-i-Abhar (Mulla Muhammad Taqi); Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Chains; Women; Gender; Equality
|1944 (In the year)
||In Iran a Central Women’s Progress Committee was formed to organize women’s activities throughout the country. Some of the fundamental tasks accomplished by this committee and its supportive bodies in various localities included holding the first convention of Anjoman-e Tarraqī-e Neswān (Society for the Advancement of Women) in 1947 in Tehran following which local and regional conferences, educational gatherings, and regular classes for illiterate women were conducted. As a result of continued effort and educational training, particularly during the Four Year Plan (1946-1950) the Bahá'í Persian women were enabled to acquire sufficient self-confidence and social recognition to fill elective and appointive offices in the community.
[BW11p563; BW12p65; BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati]
||Central Women’s Progress Committee; Society for the Advancement of Women; Gender; Equality; Social and economic development
||Bahá’í women in Iran were accorded full rights to participate in membership of both national and local Bahá’í assemblies. [MBW65]
This removed the ‘last remaining obstacle to the enjoyment of complete equality of rights in the conduct of the administrative affairs of the Persian Bahá’í Community’. [MBW65]
||NSA; LSA; Women; Gender; Equality
|2000. 31 Oct
||The United Nations Security Council unanimously passed Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security. It was the first United Nations Security Council resolution to specifically mention the impact of conflict on women.
The Resolution formally acknowledged the changing nature of warfare, in which civilians are increasingly targeted, and women continue to be excluded from participation in peace processes. It specifically addressed how women and girls are disproportionally impacted by violent conflict and war and recognized the critical role that women can and were playing in peacebuilding efforts. UNSCR 1325 affirmed that peace and security efforts are more sustainable when women are equal partners in the prevention of violent conflict, the delivery of relief and recovery efforts and in the forging of lasting peace.
The four pillars of the resolution were Participation, Prevention, Protection, Relief & Recovery.
It was the first formal and legal document from the Security Council that required parties in a conflict to prevent violations of women's rights, to support women's participation in peace negotiations and in post-conflict reconstruction, and to protect women and girls from wartime sexual violence. Specifically, the key provisions called for:
See Background Paper by Françoise Nduwimana.
- Increase of representation and participation of women in decision-making at all levels.
- Specific attention to gender-based violence in conflict situations.
- Gender perspective in post-conflict processes.
- Gender perspective in UN programming, reporting and in Security Council missions.
- Gender perspective & training in UN peace support operations. [Wikipedia]
|New York, NY
||United Nations; Women; Gender; Peace; Human rights
|2001. 25 - 27 Jun
||During the special session of the General Assembly on the HIV./AIDS pandemic held at the UN headquarters, the Bahá'í International Community circulated a written statement entitled HIV/AIDS and Gender Equality: Transforming Attitudes and Behaviors that emphasized the need to transform the attitudes and behaviors that spread the disease and directed attention to the important roles played by men and faith communities in turning the tide of the pandemic. [BIC History]
||Baha'i International Community; United Nations; HIV/AIDS; Gender; Equality; BIC statements
|2021. 3 Feb
||To mark the 25th anniversary of the landmark Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action that resulted from the Fourth World Conference on Women in 1995, the Bahá'í International Community released a film that reflected on the advances made toward the goals for gender equality articulated in the declaration.
The feature-length film called Glimpses into the Spirit of Gender Equality premiered at a virtual screening before a gathering of UN officials, ambassadors of member states, non-governmental organizations, and other civil society actors.
“The film examines advances in the area of equality of women and men at the level of the grassroots and their connection with the conversations that have been unfolding at the UN, drawing on examples inspired by Bahá’í community-building efforts in different countries around the world,” said Saphira Rameshfar, Representative of the BIC.
The film available on YouTube.
For the response to this film see BIC News.
||Baha'i International Community; film; Equality of men and women; Saphira Rameshfar; Glimpses into the Spirit of Gender Equality
from the main catalogue
See all tags, sorted numerically or alphabetically.
- 1970-1995: Newspaper articles archive (1970). Collection of newspaper articles from 1970-1995. [about]
- 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Encounter with Modernity during His Western Travels, by Wendi Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). Abdu'l-Baha's responses to the West's technology and innovations on the one hand, vs. its archaic racist and sexual philosophies on the other. [about]
- Activities in the Bahá'í World Community to Improve the Status of Women during the United Nations Decade for Women, by Bahá’í International Community (1985). Report presented to the World Conference to Review and Appraise the Achievements of the United Nations Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace [about]
- Additional Tablets, Extracts and Talks, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2018). 57 selections, updated 2019. [about]
- Advancing Toward the Equality of Women and Men, by Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity (2009). Issues that lie at the heart of the struggle for the equality of women and men, via the Institute’s efforts to generate systematic learning and gain new insights, in collaboration with others. [Link to PDF, offsite.] [about]
- Affirmative Action and the Jurisprudence of Equitable Inclusion: Towards a New Consensus on Gender and Race Relations, by Steven Gonzales, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 7:2 (1995). [about]
- Ambivalence of Hostility and Modification: Patriarchy's Ideological Negotiation With Women, Modernity and Cinema in Iran, by Elnaz Nasehi, in International Journal of Advanced Research, 8:10 (2020). Passing mentions of the Baha'i Faith in the context of how forces behind the Constitutional Revolution paved the way for the presence of women in public sphere and Iranian cinema. [about]
- Authority of the Feminine and Fatima's Place in an Early Work by the Bab, The, by Todd Lawson, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). While Tahirih inspired many in Europe and eventually America, she is very much a daughter of her own culture, history, mythology, and religion. She was a religious mystic who felt a new day arising in the world, and seen by some as the "return" of Fatima. [about]
- Baha'i Burial and Related Laws, by Bahá'u'lláh and Shoghi Effendi (2020). Applicability of laws; preparations for burial; prayers and services; cemeteries, graves, and tombstones; exhumation; honoring the dead; cremation and miscellaneous issues. [about]
- Bahá'í Education: Sources of Guidance (2007). A lengthy compilation covering many subjects of interest to parents, teachers, and students, such as education principles, curricula, pedagogy, psychology, gender, infants, and institutions. [about]
- Bahá'u'lláh's Symbolic Use of the Veiled Ḥúríyyih, by John S. Hatcher and Amrollah Hemmat, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 29:3 (2019). Analyzing some of the meanings behind the appearance of the Veiled Maiden, as alluded to by Bahá'u'lláh in His letters. [about]
- Base Espiritual de la Igualdad, La, by Bahá'í International Community. [about]
- Bushido (Chivalry) and the Traditional Japanese Moral Education, by Nozomu Sonda, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). Japanese virtues explained by Nitobe in 1900 in comparison with the Baha'i perspective on moral education. [about]
- Calling, The: Tahirih of Persia and Her American Contemporaries, by Hussein Ahdieh and Hillary Chapman (2017). Simultaneous, powerful spiritual movements swept across both Iran and the U.S in the mid-1800s. On the life and martyrdom of Tahirih; the 1848 Seneca Falls Convention and the conference of Badasht; spiritualism and suffrage. [about]
- Condicion juridica y social de la mujer, La, by Bahá'í International Community. [about]
- Conferencia Mundial del Año Internacional de la Mujer: Declaración presentada por la Comunidad Internacional Bahá'í, by Bahá'í International Community. Declaración presentada por la Comunidad Internacional Bahá’í (en carácter consultivo con el Consejo Económico y Social — Categoría II) Ciudad de México, México, 1975 [about]
- Conferencia Mundial para el Examen y la Evaluación de los Logros del Decenio de las Naciones Unidas para la Mujer: Igualdad, Desarrollo y Paz, by Bahá'í International Community (1985). Informe presentado por la Comunidad Internacional Bahá'í acerca de las actividades de la Comunidad Bahá'í Mundial para mejorar la condición de la mujer durante el Decenio de las Naciones Unidas para la Mujer y Programas Futuros para el Adelanto de la Muje [about]
- Considerations Relating to the Inheritance Laws of the Kitab-i-Aqdas, Some, by Sen McGlinn, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 5:1 (1995). Gender distinctions in the Baha'i inheritance laws might at first glance seem to favor male heirs, but the laws actually create a symmetrical equality. [about]
- Dawn over Mount Hira and Other Essays, by Marzieh Gail (1976). A collection of essays on various topics of interest to Baha'i studies and history. Most of these were first published in Star of the West and World Order between 1929 and 1971. [about]
- Demographics of the United States National Spiritual Assembly, by Archives Office of the United States Bahá'í National Center (2016). Percentage of women, African-Americans, Native Americans, Asian Americans, and Latino Americans serving on the U.S. and Canadian NSAs from 1922-2015. [about]
- Dialogue between Yin-Yang Concepts and the Bahá'í Faith, The, by Phyllis Ghim-Lian Chew, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 6 (2001). Yin-yang, a pivotal theory in Chinese thought influencing government, architecture, relationships, and ethics, has many similarities with the Bahá’í Faith, including the origin of matter, the nature of history, man-woman relationships, and health. [about]
- Discussion with Farida Vahedi, Executive Director of the Department of External Affairs, National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of India, A, by Michael Bodakowski and Katherine Marshall (2011). Overview of Vahedi's life and work, history of the Faith in India and development projects, the Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity, and issues regarding migration and protection of women and girls. [about]
- Effect of Philosophical and Linguistic Gender Biases on the Degradation of Women's Status in Religion, The, by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:1 (1997). [about]
- Electoral Process, Bahá'í: Clarifications, and Three Way Tie, by Universal House of Justice (2012). How to resolve a 3-way tie when 2 parties are minorities; when voting, should one consider age distribution, diversity, and gender. [about]
- Elegibilidad de las Mujeres en la Casa Universal de Justicia, by Universal House of Justice (1988). [about]
- Equality and Baha'i Principles in Northern Ireland, by Edwin Graham, in Solas, 1 (2001). A paper in two parts: (1) the development of equality legislation in Northern Ireland, and (2) the Bahá’í Teachings in relation to equality and the extent to which Northern Irish legislation applies or does not apply them. [about]
- Equality of Women, The: The Bahá'í Principle of Complementarity, by John S. Hatcher, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 2:3 (1990). [about]
- Extracts from Letters Written on Behalf of the Universal House of Justice on Transsexuality, by Universal House of Justice (2021). Extracts from three letters from 2017 and 2018, with updated or "additional" guidance on gender and sex-change operations. Compilation attached to a letter from the House dated 2021 February 4. [about]
- Fasting period ends Sunday, by Ted Slavin, in St. Catharines Standard (2011). The Fast helps us remember the goals of eradicating poverty and achieving gender equality. [about]
- Father and the Maiden, The: The Abrahamic Patriarchate and the Divine Feminine, by Mark A. Foster (1999). [about]
- Female Representations of the Holy Spirit in Bahá'í and Christian writings and their implications for gender roles, by Lil Osborn, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 4:1 (1994). A response to feminist theologian Mary Daly's argument that a male representation of God reinforces patriarchy with the suggestion that sexual equality is independent of, and unrelated to, gender images of the Divine. [about]
- Feminine Forms of the Divine in Bahá'í Scriptures, by Paula A. Drewek, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 5:1 (1992). Examples of the interaction between male and female principles in the writings. Complementarity of masculine and feminine images of divinity enriches our understanding of the divine–human encounter, but does not supplant the unity or unknowability of God. [about]
- Feminism, Men and the Bahá'í Faith, by Morgan Wilson, in 75 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in Australasia (1996). [about]
- Gender in Babi and Bahá'í Law, by Siyamak Zabihi-Moghaddam (2010). [about]
- Gender perspectives and the work of the United Nations, by Bahá'í International Community (2007). Statement to the UN Human Rights Council on integrating gender perspectives. [about]
- Goddess Religion, Ancient, by Universal House of Justice (1992). Ancient goddess religions and the role of the feminine in theology. [about]
- Hindu Concept of God, The: Unity in Diversity, by Anjam Khursheed, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 2 (1997). The fundamental unity behind Hindu concepts of God and those found in the Semitic traditions, and the principle of unity in diversity, allow Hindu and Baha'i beliefs to come together and further their common goal of uniting the world's religions. [about]
- How Individuals Can Improve Their Understanding of the Bahá'í Teachings, by Universal House of Justice (1994). On the inability of the finite human mind to fully grasp the import of the Teachings, and how individuals can improve their understandings, even while steeped in a climate of thinking which influences and biases their reading of scientific evidence. [about]
- Husband and Wife, Relationship between, by Universal House of Justice, in Messages from the Universal House of Justice, 1963-1986: The Third Epoch of the Formative Age (1996). The "functional" divisions between husband and wife in the Baha'i Writings should be considered in the light of the general principle of equality between the sexes. [about]
- In All the Ways that Matter, Women Don't Count, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 4:1 (1994). The Bahá'í goal of achieving sexual equality cannot be achieved merely by trying to advance the position of women in society, but rather society itself must be "feminized." [about]
- In search of Martha Root: An American Bahá'í feminist and peace advocate in the early twentieth century, by Jiling Yang (2007). Early life of Root, her four world teaching trips from 1919 to 1939 with a focus on peace advocacy, and gender and identity reflections on Tahirih. Link to thesis (offsite). [about]
- "In the Beginning Was the Word": Apocalypse and the Education of the Soul, by Ross Woodman, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 5:4 (1993). [about]
- Information Technology Strategies for the Promotion of Gender Equality, by Andrew Stranieri, in 75 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in Australasia (1996). Equal opportunity of women and men is best achieved if both genders embrace the changes now occurring in communication and information use. [about]
- Inheritance, by Seena Fazel, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 4:1 (1994). The apparent contradiction between sexual equality and the unequal inheritance laws contained in the Aqdas. [about]
- Inheritance Laws of the Kitab-i-Aqdas, by Sen McGlinn (1995). [about]
- Integracion de la mujer en el desarrollo enocomico y social de America Latina y el Caribe, La, by Bahá'í International Community. Revisión y evaluación crítica de algunos aspectos de la condición de la mujer en la region, incluso su integración en el mercado laboral, mujeres jefes de familia y el papel de la mujer en el comercio en el Caribe. [about]
- Interdependence of Bahá'í Communities, The: Services of North American Bahá'í Women to Iran, by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 4:1 (1991). [about]
- Letter to Corinne True re Women on the House of Justice, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1909). Translation by Amín Faríd of a short letter stating that "men and women are equal in all rights save in the Universal House of Justice; for the Chairman and the members of the House of Justice are men according to the Text of the Book." [about]
- List of Articles on BahaiTeachings.org, by Christopher Buck (2014). List of online essays and articles by Christopher Buck. [about]
- Materials Provided by the Bahá'í World Centre on Gender in the Writings and Matters of Translation, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi (2002). A collection of letters about gender pronouns in Writings, a compilation concerning the translations of Shoghi Effendi, the literary style of translation, and guidance on translating the Writings into indigenous languages. [about]
- Meetings for women only, by International Teaching Centre (1997). It is acceptable and perhaps even sometimes necessary for Baha'is to hold gender-segregated meetings. [about]
- Men and the Baha'i Faith: The role of indigenous men in the early Baha'i community in the British Isles, by Lil Osborn (2016). Includes slide-show included when presenting the paper at the Baha'i Studies Seminar, Kellogg College, Oxford (July 2016). [about]
- Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-1986: Third Epoch of the Formative Age, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
- Mobilizing Institutional, Legal and Cultural Resources to Achieve Gender Equality, by Bahá'í International Community. [about]
- Modernity and the Millennium: The Genesis of the Bahá'í Faith in the Nineteenth-century Middle East [introduction only], by Juan Cole, in Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions (1998). Introduction and first 4 pages of Chapter One. [about]
- Monogamy, Sexual Equality, Marital Equality, and the Supreme Tribunal, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Questions about monogamy, the Supreme Tribunal, and the Baha'i concept of equality of the sexes in light of some Baha'i laws and history which appear to undermine it [about]
- Mujeres y Hombres, Una Sociedad para un Planeta Saludable, by Bahá'í International Community. Exposición presentada al "World Women's Congress for a Healthy Planet", Miami, Florida, 8-12 Noviembre, 1991. [about]
- Munirih Khanum: Memoirs and Letters, by Munirih Khanum (1986). Autobiography of Khanum (1847-1938), the wife of Abdu'l-Baha. Includes the arrangements for her marriage, her travel to Akka, her time with the wife of the Bab, and memorial letters written on the anniversaries of the passing of Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
- National Spiritual Assembly members who are women, Percentage of, 1953-2007, by Bahá'í World Centre (1998). Two letters from the House, with attached tables, showing the number of women serving on NSAs 1953-1993, 1987-1997, and 1997-2007. Includes graphs showing numbers and percent of women serving on NSAs by continental region. [about]
- Nature of God, The: Some Extracts from the Bahá'í Writings, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (1992). Brief compilation on nature of God. [about]
- New Religious Movements, Tolkien, Marriage, by Universal House of Justice (1994). Various questions: new religious movements; Indian Letter of the Living; J.R.R. Tolkien; eternality of the marriage bond; illumination of Baha'u'llah's tablets. [about]
- Obligatory Prayer, Questions about, by Universal House of Justice (2000). Answers to four questions about reciting prayers at meetings; changing language gender; repetition of Greatest Name; and raising hands. [about]
- Off the Grid: Reading Iranian Memoirs in Our Time of Total War, by Negar Mottahedeh, in Middle East Research and Information Project (2004). Observations on contemporary culture and gender issues in Iran. [about]
- Perceiving Differences: A Look at Gender and Equality, by Mark Brush, in dialogue magazine, 2:2-3 (1988). Observations on what Richard DeNovellis' "Personality Type Preference Indicator" tests show about ages and genders; laws of nature vs. laws of God. [about]
- Power and the Bahá'í community, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 19 (2018). While Baha'i social teachings may have sounded new and exciting a century ago, that is no longer the case today. The problem the world faces is not in the principles that would lead to a better society, but in their application. [about]
- Preliminary Survey of the Bahá'í Community of Iran during the Nineteenth Century, A, by Moojan Momen, in Iran im 19. Jahrhundert und die Enstehung der Baha'i Religion, ed. Christoph Burgel and Isabel Schayani (1998). [about]
- Preparing Bahá'í Communities in the East and West to Embrace Gender Equality, by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in Lights of Irfan, 12 (2011). The way Abdu'l-Baha dealt with the matter of gender equality, some of his writings revealed in honor of the Bahá’í women in Iran and North America, and the practical ways he educated Baha'i men to accept women as their equals. [about]
- Promoting the Equality of Women and Men: The Role of the Covenant, by Janet A. Khan, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 10:1-2 (2000). [about]
- Question of Gender, A: A Forum on the Status of Men in Bahá'í Law, by Susan Maneck and Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in dialogue magazine, 2:1 (1987). Six authors address issues of theology, sociology, law, inheritance, equality, the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, marriage, and feminism raised by John and Linda Walbridge's article "Baha'i Laws on the Status of Men" (World Order 1984). [about]
- Reflections of a Human Spirit in a Male Body, by William S. Hatcher (2008). Includes discussions of the nature of patriarchy, chauvinism, and feminism. [about]
- Reflections on Human Rights, Moral Development, and the Global Campaign to Eradicate Gender-Based Violence, by Michael L. Penn, in Bahá'í-Inspired Perspectives on Human Rights (2001). [about]
- Rewriting the Script: Some thoughts on gender roles and the Bahá'í Teachings, by Sonja van Kerkhoff (2000). A collection of visual and physical art exploring these themes. [about]
- Rights and Responsibilities in the Bahá'í Family System, by Hoda Mahmoudi and Richard Dabell, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 5:2 (1992). [about]
- Role of the Feminine in the Bahá'í Faith, The, by Ross Woodman, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 7:2 (1995). [about]
- Role of the Feminine in the New Era, The, by Marion Woodman, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 2:1 (1989). [about]
- Searching for May Maxwell: Bahá'í Millennial Feminism, Transformative Identity and Globalism in the New World Order, by Selena M. Crosson (2013). On forces influencing and shaping womens' roles in early Bahá’i culture, 1898-1940. A group of Western women, associated with Maxwell through ties of faith and friendship, was one of the first to establish a transnational feminist reform network. [about]
- Seed of Creation: A philosophical approach towards the status of Universal House of Justice in respect to Baha'i concept of creation, by Ahmad Aniss (1998). A philosophical approach towards the status of Universal House of Justice in respect to Baha'i concept of creation. [about]
- Seneca Falls First Woman's Rights Convention of 1848: The Sacred Rites of the Nation, by Bradford W. Miller, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:3 (1998). [about]
- Sex, Gender, and New Age Stereotyping, by Lata Ta'eed, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 4:1 (1994). Advocates the abolishing of culturally produced differences between men and women and challenges gender inconsistencies inherent in many Bahá'í discussions. [about]
- Sexual Equality in the Bahá'í Community, by Shiva Tavana, in dialogue magazine, 1:3 (1986). Women are oppressed minorities who often feel isolated, even in Baha'i communities. Baha'is need to explore new models of family life. Includes statistics on the percentages of female members of Baha'i institutions. [about]
- Social Justice, Wealth Equity and Gender Equality: Bahá'ís and non-Bahá'ís of Alberta, by Leslie William Kuzyk (2003). Baha'i theology takes distinctive positions on wealth distribution and gender equality. These issues are causal factors in a more just model of society. A social survey establishes empirically whether a Baha'i population differs from common society. [about]
- Social Organization of Mentorship in Bahá'í Studies, The, by Will C. van den Hoonaard, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:3 (1998). [about]
- Spiritual Inheritors, The, by Bahiyyih Nakhjavani, in dialogue magazine, 2:1 (1987). Reflections on growing up Baha'i, and a report on a conference about capturing the power of the Six Year Plan to focus attention on the role of women in establishing global peace, the destiny of the women of North America, and equality of sexes. [about]
- Spiritual Oppression in Frankenstein, by Phyllis Sternberg Perrakis, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 9:4 (1999). [about]
- Tahirih and Women's Suffrage, by Universal House of Justice, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 4:2 (1990). Two letters on Táhirih's association with women's suffrage, and the authenticity of the words "You can kill me as soon as you like, but you cannot stop the emancipation of women". [about]
- The active force and that which is its recipient", by Betty Hoff Conow, in dialogue magazine, 2:2-3 (1988). Metaphysics of gender and the Lawh-i-Hikmat; universal spiritualism; social indoctrination of gender roles. [about]
- Transsexuality, by Universal House of Justice (2002). Brief overview of the subjects of transsexuality, the acceptability of sex-change surgery, marriage, and the counselling role of Baha'i institutions. [about]
- Transsexuality and Sex-Change Operations (2002). Short compilation of extracts from letters written on behalf of the Universal House of Justice in response to questions concerning the subjects of transsexuality and sex-change operations. [about]
- Two Books on the Life of Tahirih: Review, by Catherine Nash, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies (2019). Reviews of Rejoice in My Gladness: The Life of Táhirih and The Calling: Táhirih of Persia and Her American Contemporaries. [about]
- Two Wings of a Bird: The Equality of Women and Men, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States (1997). The emancipation of women, the achievement of full equality between the sexes, is essential to human progress and the transformation of society. [about]
- Unclipping the Wings: A Survey of Secondary Literature in English on Bahá'í Perspectives on Women, by Trevor R. J. Finch, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 4:1 (1994). Annotated bibliography of Bahá'í perspectives on women and women's issues. [about]
- Universal Language, Adoption of, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (2008). [about]
- Use of Masculine Pronouns and Images, by Research Department of the Universal House of Justice (2002). Overview of the use of gender terms in language, and a "cover letter" introduction to four compilations prepared by the Baha'i World Centre which were attached to the cover letter. [about]
- Use of the Masculine Gender in the Bahá'í Writings, The: Extracts from Letters Written By and on Behalf of the Universal House of Justice (2002). Extracts from letters from the House of Justice from 1981-1999 on general principles in relation to this subject and the Bahá'í perspective on it. [about]
- Usuli, Akhbari, Shaykhi, Babi: The Tribulations of a Qazvin Family, by Moojan Momen, in Iranian Studies, 36:3 (2003). The emergence of the Usuli school in the evolution of Shi'is jurisprudence and theology in 18th and 19th-century Iran, viewed through the lens of the Baraghani family as it faced schisms of the Akhbari, Shaykhi, and Babi movements. [about]
- What do Baha'is believe about gender?, by Gleibys L. Buchanan, in Washington Post (2011). [about]
- Why There are No Women in the Universal House of Justice, by Vladimir Chupin (2011). Upon learning that it is forbidden to elect women to the Universal House of Justice, many people become puzzled, given the Faith's strong emphasis on the equality of the sexes. This essay offers some perspectives. [about]
- Women and Wisdom in Scripture, by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in Lights of Irfan, 16 (2015). Treatment of women in religion; influence of Baha'i teachings in raising awareness about the plight of women and transforming attitudes across the globe; role of linguistic biases in degrading their status; role of wisdom in achieving gender equality. [about]
- Women Entrepreneurs: Catalysts for Transformation, by Diane Chamberlin Starcher (1997). Describes the dramatic rise in importance of women entrepreneurs and how feminine qualities contribute to their success. [about]
- Women on the House of Justice; meaning of "Umumi", by Universal House of Justice (1997). Clarifies that 'Abdu'l-Baha, in a tablet to Corinne True, indeed refers to the Universal House of Justice when affirming that membership is confined to men only. Includes a portion of Corinne True's original query to 'Abdu'l-Baha.
- Women on the Universal House of Justice, by Universal House of Justice (1988). Response to a paper presented at a Baha'i Studies conference which raised the possibility that women could one day be eligible for membership on the Universal House of Justice. [about]
- Women Serving as Continental Counselors or in the International Teaching Centre, Percentage of: 1980-2010, by Universal House of Justice (2013). Chart showing the percentage of women serving as members of the Continental Boards of Counsellors from 26 November 1980 — when the number of Boards was fixed at five — until November 2010. [about]
- Women's Education and Socio-Economic Development: The Pathways of Impact, by Geeta Gandhi Kingdon (2010). [about]
- Zaynab, by John Walbridge, in Military Women Worldwide: A Biographical Dictionary (2003). Brief biography of a female Babi fighter. [about]