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from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1848. c. 26 Jun - 17 Jul The Conference of Badasht

Bahá'u'lláh, who hosted and directed the event, rented three gardens, one for Quddús, another for Táhirih and the third for Himself. [Bab168; GPB31, 68; MF200]

The conference coincided with the removal of the Báb to Tabríz for interrogation in July. It was held near the village of Sháhrúd in Semnan province. [BBRSM23; DB292]

  • `The primary purpose of that gathering was to implement the revelation of the Bayán by a sudden, a complete and dramatic break with the past — with its order, its ecclesiasticism, its traditions, and ceremonials. The subsidiary purpose of the conference was to consider the means of emancipating the Báb from His cruel confinement in Chihríq.' [BBRSM23; BKG43; DB297–8; GPB31, 157]
  • From the beginning of His ministry the Báb had implicitly claimed some higher spiritual station than merely that of being the "bábu'l-imám" and in the early months of 1848 while still in prison in Máh-Kú He put forward these claims to his companions. He proclaimed HImself to be the Imam Mahdi, the promised Q´'im (He who will arise), the inaugurator of the Resurrection and the abrogator of the Islamic holy law. [BBRSM23]
  • Bab167 says that the Bábís did not come to Badasht to make plans to rescue the Báb.
  • It was attended by 81 believers and lasted 22 days. [BKG43–4, 46; DB292–3; GPB312]
  • Each day Bahá'u'lláh revealed a Tablet, and on each believer He conferred a new name. Each day an Islamic law was abrogated. Henceforth, when the Báb was addressing the believers, He used the new name that Bahá'u'lláh had bestowed upon them. [DB293; GPB32]
  • See BKG44–5; DB293 and MF201 for the story of the central event, Táhirih's confrontation with Quddús and removal of her veil.
      Ṭáhirih, seizing upon the opportunity, arose and, unveiled, came forth from the garden. She proceeded towards the tent of Bahá’u’lláh crying out and proclaiming: “I am the Trumpet-blast; I am the Bugle-call!”—which are two of the signs of the Day of Resurrection mentioned in the Qur’án. Calling out in this fashion, she entered the tent of Bahá’u’lláh. No sooner had she entered than Bahá’u’lláh instructed the believers to recite the Súrih of the Event from the Qur’án, a Súrih that describes the upheaval of the Day of Resurrection.
      [Twelve Table Talks given by ‘Abdu'l-Bahá in ‘Akká, no. 9, "Ṭáhirih and the Conference of Badasht"]
  • Also see Bab167–9; BBD31–2; BBRSM46; BKG43–7; DB292–8; RB2:353.
  • See The World-Wide Influence of Qurratul-'Ayn by Standwood Cobb.
  • Badasht; Tabriz; Shahrud; Chihriq; Iran Conference of Badasht; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Writings of; Quddus; Tahirih; Veils; Women; Womens rights; Gender; Equality; Bab, Life of; Bayan; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bab, Basic timeline; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Letters of the Living
    1848 19 - 20 Jul The Women's Rights Convention was held in the Wesleyan Chapel at Seneca Falls, NY. The principle organizer was Lucretia Mott, with Elizabeth Cady Stanton as its driving intellect. A significant role was played by an African-American man, an abolitionist and a recently freed slave, Frederick Douglass. The convention adopted a Declaration of Rights and Sentiments that consisted of 11 resolutions including the right for women to vote. The signatories were the 68 women and 32 men in attendance. The right for women to vote became part of the United States Constitution in 1920. [The Calling: Tahirih of Persia and her American Contemporaries p114-160, "Seneca Falls First Woman's Rights Convention of 1848: The Sacred Rites of the Nation" by Bradford W. Miller (Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8.3, 1998)]
  • This conference has been compared to the Conference of Badasht with respect to the emancipation of women and entrenched prejudices.
  • Tahirih and Women's Suffrage written by / on behalf of Universal House of Justice in which they deal with the question of the relationship between Táhirih and women's sufferage as well as the station of Táhirih herself.
  • Seneca Falls; New York; United States; Badasht; Iran Womens rights; Human rights; African Americans; Women; Gender; Equality; Conference of Badasht; Tahirih
    1850. 19 May The Governor sent a mob against Hujjat, (Mulla Muhammad-Ali) which was dispersed by Mír Saláh. The Governor sent to Tihrán for reinforcements and the town Zanján was split into two camps. [BW18:381]

  • See BBD245 and GPB45 for the story of Zaynab, the Bábí woman who dressed as a man and defended the barricades.
  • Zaynab and the Women of Zanjan.
  • The first episode of a podcast about Zaynab.
  • Tihran; Zanjan; Iran Governors; Hujjat; Mir Salah; Zaynab; Gender; Women; Equality; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Mobs; Persecution
    1852 16 – 27 Aug The martyrdom of Táhirih (Qurratu'l-'Ayn) in Tihrán. [BBR172–3; BBRSM:30; BW18:382; BKG87; MF203]
  • She was martyred in the Ílkhání garden, strangled with her own silk handkerchief which she had provided for the purpose. Her body was lowered into a well which was then filled with stones. [BBD220; DB622–8; GPB75]
  • See GPB73–5 for a history of her life.
  • See the story of her martyrdom and her life in the article in Radio France International.
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá is reported to have said:

      She went to that garden with consummate dignity and composure. Everyone said that they were going to kill her, but she continued to cry out just as she had before, declaring, “I am that trumpet-call mentioned in the Gospel!” It was in this state that she was martyred in that garden and cast into a well. [Talk by Abdu’l-Baha Given in Budapest to the Turanian Society on 14 April 1913 (Provisional)
    iiiii
  • Tihran; Iran Tahirih; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Women; Gender; Equality; Letters of the Living; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    2001. 25 - 27 Jun During the special session of the General Assembly on the HIV./AIDS pandemic held at the UN headquarters, the Bahá'í International Community circulated a written statement entitled HIV/AIDS and Gender Equality: Transforming Attitudes and Behaviors that emphasized the need to transform the attitudes and behaviors that spread the disease and directed attention to the important roles played by men and faith communities in turning the tide of the pandemic. [BIC History] New York,NY Baha'i International Community; United Nations; HIV/AIDS; Gender; Equality; BIC statements
    2021. 3 Feb To mark the 25th anniversary of the landmark Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action that resulted from the Fourth World Conference on Women in 1995, the Bahá'í International Community released a film that reflected on the advances made toward the goals for gender equality articulated in the declaration.
    The feature-length film called Glimpses into the Spirit of Gender Equality premiered at a virtual screening before a gathering of UN officials, ambassadors of member states, non-governmental organizations, and other civil society actors.
      “The film examines advances in the area of equality of women and men at the level of the grassroots and their connection with the conversations that have been unfolding at the UN, drawing on examples inspired by Bahá’í community-building efforts in different countries around the world,” said Saphira Rameshfar, Representative of the BIC.
  • The film available on YouTube. [BWNS1485]
  • For the response to this film see BIC News.
  • New York Baha'i International Community; film; Gender; Equality; Saphira Rameshfar; Glimpses into the Spirit of Gender Equality

    from the chronology of Canada

    from the main catalogue

    1. The Woman Who Read Too Much: A Novel, by Bahíyyih Nakhjavani: Review, by Mary Sobhani (2018). [about]
    2. 1970-1995: Newspaper articles archive (1970). Collection of newspaper articles from 1970-1995. [about]
    3. 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Encounter with Modernity during His Western Travels, by Wendi Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). Abdu'l-Bahá's responses to the West's technology and innovations on the one hand, vs. its archaic racist and sexual philosophies on the other. [about]
    4. Activities in the Bahá'í World Community to Improve the Status of Women during the United Nations Decade for Women, by Bahá’í International Community (1985). Report presented to the World Conference to Review and Appraise the Achievements of the United Nations Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace [about]
    5. Additional Tablets, Extracts and Talks, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2018). 57 selections, updated 2019. [about]
    6. Advancing Toward the Equality of Women and Men, by Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity (2009). Issues that lie at the heart of the struggle for the equality of women and men, via the Institute’s efforts to generate systematic learning and gain new insights, in collaboration with others. [Link to PDF, offsite.] [about]
    7. Affirmative Action and the Jurisprudence of Equitable Inclusion: Towards a New Consensus on Gender and Race Relations, by Steven Gonzales, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 7:2 (1995). The principle of equity and the Bahá’í emphasis on unity in diversity as a basis for considering Affirmative Action in relationship to remedying past injustices to women and minorities. [about]
    8. Africanity, Womanism, and Constructive Resilience: Some Reflections, by Layli Maparyan, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 30:3 (2020). The meanings of the metaphor "pupil of the eye;" experiences of growing up African-American in the West; overcoming cosmological negation; the African worldview on nature, humanity, and creation; gendered expressions of African culture. [about]
    9. Ambivalence of Hostility and Modification: Patriarchy's Ideological Negotiation With Women, Modernity and Cinema in Iran, by Elnaz Nasehi, in International Journal of Advanced Research, 8:10 (2020). Passing mentions of the Bahá'í Faith in the context of how forces behind the Constitutional Revolution paved the way for the presence of women in public sphere and Iranian cinema. [about]
    10. Authority of the Feminine and Fatima's Place in an Early Work by the Bab, The, by Todd Lawson, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). While Tahirih inspired many in Europe and eventually America, she is very much a daughter of her own culture, history, mythology, and religion. She was a religious mystic who felt a new day arising in the world, and seen by some as the "return" of Fatima. [about]
    11. Baha'i Burial and Related Laws, by Bahá'u'lláh and Shoghi Effendi (2020). Applicability of laws; preparations for burial; prayers and services; cemeteries, graves, and tombstones; exhumation; honoring the dead; cremation and miscellaneous issues. [about]
    12. Bahá'í Cosmological Symbolism and the Ecofeminist Critique, by Michael W. Sours, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 7:1 (1995). Constituents of Bahá'í cosmological symbolism; introduction to the main feminist/environmentalist arguments; eschatological character of Bahá'í cosmological symbolism; Bahá'í eschatology provides answers to many feminist and ecological objections. [about]
    13. Bahá'í Education: Sources of Guidance (2007). A lengthy compilation covering many subjects of interest to parents, teachers, and students, such as education principles, curricula, pedagogy, psychology, gender, infants, and institutions. [about]
    14. Bahá'í Faith and the Singapore Women's Movement, The: Challenges for the Next Millennium, by Phyllis Ghim-Lian Chew, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 4 (1999). On the relationship between religion and the fight for women's rights after the founding of the Singapore Council of Women; the interplay between gender, religion and the women's movement; challenges for the next millennium with regards to equality. [about]
    15. Bahá'u'lláh and Liberation Theology, by Juan Cole, in Revisioning the Sacred: New Perspectives on a Bahá'í Theology, Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions vol. 8 (1997). The idea of liberation and equality is central to Bahá'í theology; the poor in the 19th century Middle East; Bahá'u'lláh and the poor; Tablet to the Kings on wealth and peace; laws of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas and Huququ'lláh; state social welfare. [about]
    16. Bahá'u'lláh's Symbolic Use of the Veiled Ḥúríyyih, by John S. Hatcher and Amrollah Hemmat, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 29:3 (2019). Analyzing some of the meanings behind the appearance of the Veiled Maiden, as alluded to by Bahá'u'lláh in His letters. [about]
    17. Bahá'í Faith and Peace Psychology, The: The Potential for Science and Religion to Collaborate, by Rhett Diessner, in Peace Psychology Bulletin, 3:3 (1994). On the potential for Bahá’í peace initiatives, coupled with empirical peace psychology approaches, regarding: ethnicity and peace, feminism and peace, and peace and education. [about]
    18. Base Espiritual de la Igualdad, La, by Bahá'í International Community (1985). [about]
    19. Being and Becoming: A Photographic Inquiry with Bahá'í Men into Cultures of Peace, by Chuck Egerton (2020). How Bahá’í men experience and perform their masculinities as told through their stories and photographs; the theories of Bourdieu's habitus, the mirror of visual introspection through photography, and indigenous "Sacred Relationship"; conflict resolution. [about]
    20. Bushido (Chivalry) and the Traditional Japanese Moral Education, by Nozomu Sonda, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). Japanese virtues explained by Nitobe in 1900 in comparison with the Bahá'í perspective on moral education. [about]
    21. Calling, The: Tahirih of Persia and Her American Contemporaries, by Hussein Ahdieh and Hillary Chapman (2017). Simultaneous, powerful spiritual movements swept across both Iran and the U.S in the mid-1800s. On the life and martyrdom of Tahirih; the 1848 Seneca Falls Convention and the conference of Badasht; spiritualism and suffrage. [about]
    22. Commentary on "Equality of Women: The Bahá'í Principle of Complementarity," by Linda O'Neil: Response, by Nancy Lease, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 3:4 (1991). [about]
    23. Condicion juridica y social de la mujer, La, by Bahá'í International Community (1988). [about]
    24. Conferencia Mundial del Año Internacional de la Mujer: Declaración presentada por la Comunidad Internacional Bahá'í, by Bahá'í International Community (1975). Declaración presentada por la Comunidad Internacional Bahá’í (en carácter consultivo con el Consejo Económico y Social — Categoría II) Ciudad de México, México, 1975. [about]
    25. Conferencia Mundial para el Examen y la Evaluación de los Logros del Decenio de las Naciones Unidas para la Mujer: Igualdad, Desarrollo y Paz, by Bahá'í International Community (1985). Informe presentado por la Comunidad Internacional Bahá'í acerca de las actividades de la Comunidad Bahá'í Mundial para mejorar la condición de la mujer durante el Decenio de las Naciones Unidas para la Mujer y Programas Futuros para el Adelanto de la Muje [about]
    26. Considerations Relating to the Inheritance Laws of the Kitab-i-Aqdas, Some, by Sen McGlinn, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 5:1 (1995). Gender distinctions in the Bahá'í inheritance laws might at first glance seem to favor male heirs, but the laws actually create a symmetrical equality. [about]
    27. Dawn over Mount Hira and Other Essays, by Marzieh Gail (1976). A collection of essays on various topics of interest to Bahá'í studies and history. Most of these were first published in Star of the West and World Order between 1929 and 1971. [about]
    28. Demographics of the United States National Spiritual Assembly, by Archives Office of the United States Bahá'í National Center (2016). Percentage of women, African-Americans, Native Americans, Asian Americans, and Latino Americans serving on the U.S. and Canadian NSAs from 1922-2015. [about]
    29. Dialogue between Yin-Yang Concepts and the Bahá'í Faith, The, by Phyllis Ghim-Lian Chew, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 6 (2001). Yin-yang, a pivotal theory in Chinese thought influencing government, architecture, relationships, and ethics, has many similarities with the Bahá’í Faith, including the origin of matter, the nature of history, man-woman relationships, and health. [about]
    30. Discussion with Farida Vahedi, Executive Director of the Department of External Affairs, National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of India, A, by Michael Bodakowski and Katherine Marshall (2011). Overview of Vahedi's life and work, history of the Faith in India and development projects, the Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity, and issues regarding migration and protection of women and girls. [about]
    31. Effect of Philosophical and Linguistic Gender Biases on the Degradation of Women's Status in Religion, The, by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:1 (1997). Women’s rights have been undermined for centuries; philosophical and linguistic gender-related biases and their effect on the degradation of women’s status in religion; suggestions for eradicating the causes of inequality in order to hasten world unity. [about]
    32. Electoral Process, Bahá'í: Clarifications, and Three Way Tie, by Universal House of Justice (2012). How to resolve a 3-way tie when 2 parties are minorities; when voting, should one consider age distribution, diversity, and gender. [about]
    33. Elegibilidad de las Mujeres en la Casa Universal de Justicia, by Universal House of Justice (1988). [about]
    34. Equality and Baha'i Principles in Northern Ireland, by Edwin Graham, in Solas, 1 (2001). A paper in two parts: (1) the development of equality legislation in Northern Ireland, and (2) the Bahá’í Teachings in relation to equality and the extent to which Northern Irish legislation applies or does not apply them. [about]
    35. Equality of Women, The: The Bahá'í Principle of Complementarity, by John S. Hatcher, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 2:3 (1990). The Bahá’í teachings simultaneously assert the equality of men and women whilst advocating in some cases distinct duties according to gender. This seems paradoxical, but there can be gender distinction without inequality in status or function.  [about]
    36. "Exploring Male Oppressions from a Family-Systems Perspective," by Janet Huggins: Commentary and Response, by Hoda Mahmoudi and Janet Huggins, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 4:3 (1991). [about]
    37. Extracts from Letters Written on Behalf of the Universal House of Justice on Transsexuality, by Universal House of Justice (2021). Extracts from three letters from 2017 and 2018, with updated or "additional" guidance on gender and sex-change operations. Compilation attached to a letter from the House dated 2021 February 4. [about]
    38. Family Life, by Báb, The and Bahá'u'lláh, in Compilation of Compilations, Volume 1 (1991). [about]
    39. Fasting period ends Sunday, by Ted Slavin, in St. Catharines Standard (2011). The Fast helps us remember the goals of eradicating poverty and achieving gender equality. [about]
    40. Father and the Maiden, The: The Abrahamic Patriarchate and the Divine Feminine, by Mark A. Foster (1999). While the outward structure of the Bahá'í Faith may be patriarchal, the spirit of the age is expressed in the divine feminine.  [about]
    41. Female Representations of the Holy Spirit in Bahá'í and Christian writings and their implications for gender roles, by Lil Osborn, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 4:1 (1994). A response to feminist theologian Mary Daly's argument that a male representation of God reinforces patriarchy with the suggestion that sexual equality is independent of, and unrelated to, gender images of the Divine. [about]
    42. Feminine Forms of the Divine in Bahá'í Scriptures, by Paula A. Drewek, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 5:1 (1992). Examples of the interaction between male and female principles in the writings. Complementarity of masculine and feminine images of divinity enriches our understanding of the divine–human encounter, but does not supplant the unity or unknowability of God. [about]
    43. Feminism, Men and the Bahá'í Faith, by Morgan Wilson, in 75 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in Australasia (1996). Separate reflections on feminism and on men and the Bahá'í Faith. The challenges faced by each are acknowledged and the need for a balance between the two asserted. [about]
    44. Feminist Movements in the Late Qajar Period, by Janet Afary and et al., in Encyclopaedia Iranica (1999). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
    45. Gender in Babi and Bahá'í Law, by Siyamak Zabihi-Moghaddam (2010). [about]
    46. Gender perspectives and the work of the United Nations, by Bahá'í International Community (2007). Statement to the UN Human Rights Council on integrating gender perspectives. [about]
    47. Goddess Religion, Ancient, by Universal House of Justice (1992). Ancient goddess religions and the role of the feminine in theology. [about]
    48. Hidden Words: References of 'Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi (1998). [about]
    49. Hindu Concept of God, The: Unity in Diversity, by Anjam Khursheed, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 2 (1997). The fundamental unity behind Hindu concepts of God and those found in the Semitic traditions, and the principle of unity in diversity, allow Hindu and Bahá'í beliefs to come together and further their common goal of uniting the world's religions. [about]
    50. How Individuals Can Improve Their Understanding of the Bahá'í Teachings, by Universal House of Justice (1994). On the inability of the finite human mind to fully grasp the import of the Teachings, and how individuals can improve their understandings, even while steeped in a climate of thinking which influences and biases their reading of scientific evidence. [about]
    51. Husband and Wife, Relationship between, by Universal House of Justice, in Messages from the Universal House of Justice, 1963-1986: The Third Epoch of the Formative Age (1996). The "functional" divisions between husband and wife in the Bahá'í Writings should be considered in the light of the general principle of equality between the sexes. [about]
    52. Immanence and Transcendence in Theophanic Symbolism, by Michael W. Sours, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 5:2 (1992). Bahá'u'lláh uses symbols to depict theophanies — the appearance of God and the divine in the realm of creation — such as "angel," "fire," and the prophets' claims to be incarnating the "face" or "voice" of God; these convey the transcendence of God. [about]
    53. In All the Ways that Matter, Women Don't Count, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 4:1 (1994). The Bahá'í goal of achieving sexual equality cannot be achieved merely by trying to advance the position of women in society, but rather society itself must be "feminized." [about]
    54. In search of Martha Root: An American Bahá'í feminist and peace advocate in the early twentieth century, by Jiling Yang (2007). Early life of Root, her four world teaching trips from 1919 to 1939 with a focus on peace advocacy, and gender and identity reflections on Tahirih. Link to thesis (offsite). [about]
    55. "In the Beginning Was the Word": Apocalypse and the Education of the Soul, by Ross Woodman, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 5:4 (1993). Hidden meanings in scripture and the soul are metaphorically identified with the huris, or brides. The bridegroom, Bahá'ulláh, enters union as the marriage of the Manifestation with the Maid of Heaven, who releases the Logos and the newly created soul. [about]
    56. Information Technology Strategies for the Promotion of Gender Equality, by Andrew Stranieri, in 75 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in Australasia (1996). Equal opportunity of women and men is best achieved if both genders embrace the changes now occurring in communication and information use. [about]
    57. Inheritance, by Seena Fazel, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 4:1 (1994). The apparent contradiction between sexual equality and the unequal inheritance laws contained in the Aqdas. [about]
    58. Inheritance Laws of Bahá'í Community: A Gendered Analysis of Inheritance Under the Kitab-i-Aqdas and the Indian Succession Act, by Ishita Kohli, in Indian Journal of Law and Legal Research, 3:1 (2021). Bahá'í laws create a symmetrical equality between sexes, via the principle of mutatis mutandis; the concept of private property and its effect on testamentary succession seen through a progressive and gender-neutral lens. [about]
    59. Inheritance Laws of the Baha'i Community and Gender Equality, by Sarthak Sharma, in International Journal of Legal Science and Innovation, 3:6 (2021). Examination of whether the Bahá'í Faith's teachings on gender-justice and equality are reflected in its inheritance laws and the Kitab-i-Aqdas; scholarly articles on this subject; comparison with Islamic provisions and law. [about]
    60. Inheritance Laws of the Kitab-i-Aqdas, by Sen McGlinn (1995). Conceptualizing the Kitab-i Aqdas as establishing a fixed and elaborate set of laws and requirements is misplaced; even in the most central issues there has been a radical development in Bahá'í law. [about]
    61. Integracion de la mujer en el desarrollo enocomico y social de America Latina y el Caribe, La, by Bahá'í International Community (1988). Revisión y evaluación crítica de algunos aspectos de la condición de la mujer en la region, incluso su integración en el mercado laboral, mujeres jefes de familia y el papel de la mujer en el comercio en el Caribe. [about]
    62. Interdependence of Bahá'í Communities, The: Services of North American Bahá'í Women to Iran, by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 4:1 (1991). Some early American Bahá’í women’s contribution to the development of the Iranian Bahá’í community. [about]
    63. Letter to Corinne True re Women on the House of Justice, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1909). Translation by Amín Faríd of a short letter stating that "men and women are equal in all rights save in the Universal House of Justice; for the Chairman and the members of the House of Justice are men according to the Text of the Book." [about]
    64. List of Articles on BahaiTeachings.org, by Christopher Buck (2014). List of online essays and articles by Christopher Buck. [about]
    65. Maid of Heaven, the Image of Sophia, and the Logos, The: Personification of the Spirit of God in Scripture and Sacred Literature, by Michael W. Sours, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 4:1 (1991). The Logos in Christianity and the Maiden for Bahá'u'lláh can be equated as one and the same eternal reality; the divine image of wisdom in Proverbs; Sophia and Logos are combined in the feminine personification of the Most Great Spirit. [about]
    66. Materials Provided by the Bahá'í World Centre on Gender in the Writings, and Matters of Translation, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi (2002). A collection of letters about gender pronouns in Writings, a compilation concerning the translations of Shoghi Effendi, the literary style of translation, and guidance on translating the Writings into indigenous languages. [about]
    67. Meetings for women only, by International Teaching Centre (1997). It is acceptable and perhaps even sometimes necessary for Bahá'ís to hold gender-segregated meetings. [about]
    68. Men and the Baha'i Faith: The role of indigenous men in the early Baha'i community in the British Isles, by Lil Osborn (2016). Includes slide-show included when presenting the paper at the Bahá'í Studies Seminar, Kellogg College, Oxford (July 2016). [about]
    69. Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-1986: Third Epoch of the Formative Age, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
    70. Mobilizing Institutional, Legal and Cultural Resources to Achieve Gender Equality, by Bahá'í International Community (2008). The central role of girls and women in human development; the need to end the cultural, institutional, and legal obstacles towards their progress and all forms of discrimination against them. [about]
    71. Modernity and the Millennium: The Genesis of the Bahá'í Faith in the Nineteenth-century Middle East [introduction only], by Juan Cole, in Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions (1998). Introduction and first 4 pages of Chapter One. [about]
    72. Monogamy, Sexual Equality, Marital Equality, and the Supreme Tribunal, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Questions about monogamy, the Supreme Tribunal, and the Bahá'í concept of equality of the sexes in light of some Bahá'í laws and history which appear to undermine it [about]
    73. Mujeres y Hombres, Una Sociedad para un Planeta Saludable, by Bahá'í International Community (1991). Exposición presentada al "World Women's Congress for a Healthy Planet", Miami, Florida, 8-12 Noviembre, 1991. [about]
    74. Munirih Khanum: Memoirs and Letters, by Munirih Khanum (1986). Autobiography of Khanum (1847-1938), the wife of Abdu'l-Bahá. Includes the arrangements for her marriage, her travel to Akka, her time with the wife of the Bab, and memorial letters written on the anniversaries of the passing of Abdu'l-Bahá. [about]
    75. National Spiritual Assembly members who are women, Percentage of, 1953-2007, by Bahá'í World Centre (1998). Two letters from the House, with attached tables, showing the number of women serving on NSAs 1953-1993, 1987-1997, and 1997-2007. Includes graphs showing numbers and percent of women serving on NSAs by continental region. [about]
    76. Nature of God, The: Some Extracts from the Bahá'í Writings, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (1992). Brief compilation on nature of God. [about]
    77. New Religious Movements, Tolkien, Marriage, by Universal House of Justice (1994). Various questions: new religious movements; Indian Letter of the Living; J.R.R. Tolkien; eternality of the marriage bond; illumination of Bahá'u'lláh's tablets. [about]
    78. Obligatory Prayer, Questions about, by Universal House of Justice (2000). Answers to four questions about reciting prayers at meetings; changing language gender; repetition of Greatest Name; and raising hands. [about]
    79. Off the Grid: Reading Iranian Memoirs in Our Time of Total War, by Negar Mottahedeh, in Middle East Research and Information Project (2004). Observations on contemporary culture and gender issues in Iran. [about]
    80. One Common Faith, by Universal House of Justice (2005). Review of relevant passages from both the writings of Bahá'u'lláh and the scriptures of other faiths against the background of contemporary crises. [about]
    81. Perceiving Differences: A Look at Gender and Equality, by Mark Brush, in dialogue magazine, 2:2-3 (1988). Observations on what Richard DeNovellis' "Personality Type Preference Indicator" tests show about ages and genders; laws of nature vs. laws of God. [about]
    82. Power and the Bahá'í community, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 19 (2018). While Bahá'í social teachings may have sounded new and exciting a century ago, that is no longer the case today. The problem the world faces is not in the principles that would lead to a better society, but in their application. [about]
    83. Preliminary Survey of the Bahá'í Community of Iran during the Nineteenth Century, A, by Moojan Momen, in Iran im 19. Jahrhundert und die Enstehung der Bahá'í Religion, ed. Christoph Burgel and Isabel Schayani (1998). On the early growth and consolidation of the Bahá'í community in Iran; its membership and social and geographical composition; persecution; institutional developments; communications with Bahá'u'lláh; the conversion of Jews and Zoroastrians; women. [about]
    84. Preparing Bahá'í Communities in the East and West to Embrace Gender Equality, by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in Lights of Irfan, 12 (2011). The way Abdu'l-Bahá dealt with the matter of gender equality, some of his writings revealed in honor of the Bahá’í women in Iran and North America, and the practical ways he educated Bahá'í men to accept women as their equals. [about]
    85. Promoting the Equality of Women and Men: The Role of the Covenant, by Janet A. Khan, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 10:1-2 (2000). The implementation of the principle of gender equality; the application of relevant Bahá’í law, including progressive clarification and application, the principle of convergence, and the exercise of restraint, all so as to ensure enduring change. [about]
    86. Question of Gender, A: A Forum on the Status of Men in Bahá'í Law, by Susan Maneck and Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in dialogue magazine, 2:1 (1987). Six authors address issues of theology, sociology, law, inheritance, equality, the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, marriage, and feminism raised by John and Linda Walbridge's article "Bahá'í Laws on the Status of Men" (World Order 1984). [about]
    87. Reflections of a Human Spirit in a Male Body, by William S. Hatcher (2008). Includes discussions of the nature of patriarchy, chauvinism, and feminism. [about]
    88. Reflections on Human Rights, Moral Development, and the Global Campaign to Eradicate Gender-Based Violence, by Michael L. Penn, in Bahá'í-Inspired Perspectives on Human Rights (2001). A review some of the most significant developments in human rights law designed to contribute to the advancement of women and the eradication of gender-based violence; insufficient attention has been given to the psycho-spiritual dimensions.  [about]
    89. Rewriting the Script: Some thoughts on gender roles and the Bahá'í Teachings, by Sonja van Kerkhoff (2000). A collection of visual and physical art exploring these themes. [about]
    90. Rights and Responsibilities in the Bahá'í Family System, by Hoda Mahmoudi and Richard Dabell, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 5:2 (1992). Duties ascribed in the Bahá’í teachings to the members of the family; complementary functions of women and men; the institution of marriage and family is fundamental in the development of a new society and global civilization based on equality and unity. [about]
    91. Role of the Feminine in the Bahá'í Faith, The, by Ross Woodman, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 7:2 (1995). On the terms 'Masculine' and 'Feminine' as referring to 2 interdependent energies at work within the Manifestation of God and throughout creation, including the human individual; the important role of the 'Feminine' principle in the Bahá’í Faith. [about]
    92. Role of the Feminine in the New Era, The, by Marion Woodman, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 2:1 (1989). The  unveiled feminine, symbolized by the unveiling of the Persian poet Táhirih at the conference of Badasht in 1848, announces a long-awaited coming of age or psychic integration. [about]
    93. Searching for May Maxwell: Bahá'í Millennial Feminism, Transformative Identity and Globalism in the New World Order, by Selena M. Crosson (2013). On forces influencing and shaping womens' roles in early Bahá’i culture, 1898-1940. A group of Western women, associated with Maxwell through ties of faith and friendship, was one of the first to establish a transnational feminist reform network. [about]
    94. Seed of Creation: A philosophical approach towards the status of Universal House of Justice in respect to Baha'i concept of creation, by Ahmad Aniss (1998). A philosophical approach towards the status of Universal House of Justice in respect to Bahá'í concept of creation. [about]
    95. Seneca Falls First Woman's Rights Convention of 1848: The Sacred Rites of the Nation, by Bradford W. Miller, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:3 (1998). Explores parallels between the Seneca Fails First Woman’s Rights Convention in the USA and the Badasht Conference in Iran, both in July 1848, in terms of the emancipation of women. [about]
    96. Sex, Gender, and New Age Stereotyping, by Lata Ta'eed, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 4:1 (1994). Advocates the abolishing of culturally produced differences between men and women and challenges gender inconsistencies inherent in many Bahá'í discussions. [about]
    97. Sexual Equality in the Bahá'í Community, by Shiva Tavana, in dialogue magazine, 1:3 (1986). Women are oppressed minorities who often feel isolated, even in Bahá'í communities. Bahá'ís need to explore new models of family life. Includes statistics on the percentages of female members of Bahá'í institutions. [about]
    98. Signs: Quranic Themes in the Writings of the Báb, by Todd Lawson, in elixir-journal.org, vol. 6 (2017). With the composition of the Qayyum al-asma, the Báb demonstrated the incredible breadth and depth of His knowledge and that He had fully interiorized, indeed embodied, the Quran. Selected themes briefly illustrated with quotations from the Qur'an. [about]
    99. Social Justice, Wealth Equity and Gender Equality: Bahá'ís and non-Bahá'ís of Alberta, by Leslie William Kuzyk (2003). Bahá'í theology takes distinctive positions on wealth distribution and gender equality. These issues are causal factors in a more just model of society. A social survey establishes empirically whether a Bahá'í population differs from common society. [about]
    100. Social Organization of Mentorship in Bahá'í Studies, The, by Will C. van den Hoonaard, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:3 (1998). Mentorship in contemporary Bahá’í Studies is influenced by gender inequality, generational differences, and a perceived hierarchical order of disciplines. How can these limitations be overcome? [about]
    101. Spiritual Inheritors, The, by Bahiyyih Nakhjavani, in dialogue magazine, 2:1 (1987). Reflections on growing up Bahá'í, and a report on a conference about capturing the power of the Six Year Plan to focus attention on the role of women in establishing global peace, the destiny of the women of North America, and equality of sexes. [about]
    102. Spiritual Oppression in Frankenstein, by Phyllis Sternberg Perrakis, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 9:4 (1999). Comparing Shelley’s depiction of a spiritual malaise in Frankenstein with Bahá’u’lláh’s definition in the Kitáb-i-Íqán of the oppression experienced at the end of a reigning spiritual dispensation by the soul who seeks God but does not know where to look. [about]
    103. Tahirih and Women's Suffrage, by Universal House of Justice, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 4:2 (1990). Two letters on Táhirih's association with women's suffrage, and the authenticity of the words "You can kill me as soon as you like, but you cannot stop the emancipation of women". [about]
    104. "Tahirih: A Religious Paradigm of Womanhood," by Susan Stiles Maneck: Commentary, by Janet Cundall, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 4:4 (1992). [about]
    105. "The active force and that which is its recipient", by Betty Hoff Conow, in dialogue magazine, 2:2-3 (1988). Metaphysics of gender and the Lawh-i-Hikmat; universal spiritualism; social indoctrination of gender roles. [about]
    106. Transsexuality, by Universal House of Justice (2002). Brief overview of the subjects of transsexuality, the acceptability of sex-change surgery, marriage, and the counselling role of Bahá'í institutions. [about]
    107. Transsexuality and Sex-Change Operations (2002). Short compilation of extracts from letters written on behalf of the Universal House of Justice in response to questions concerning the subjects of transsexuality and sex-change operations. [about]
    108. Two Books on the Life of Tahirih: Review, by Catherine Nash, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies (2019). Reviews of Rejoice in My Gladness: The Life of Táhirih and The Calling: Táhirih of Persia and Her American Contemporaries. [about]
    109. Two Wings of a Bird: The Equality of Women and Men, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States (1997). The emancipation of women, the achievement of full equality between the sexes, is essential to human progress and the transformation of society. [about]
    110. Unclipping the Wings: A Survey of Secondary Literature in English on Bahá'í Perspectives on Women, by Trevor R. J. Finch, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 4:1 (1994). Annotated bibliography of Bahá'í perspectives on women and women's issues. [about]
    111. Universal Language, Adoption of, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (2008). [about]
    112. Use of Masculine Pronouns and Images, by Research Department of the Universal House of Justice (2002). Overview of the use of gender terms in language, and a "cover letter" introduction to four compilations prepared by the Bahá'í World Centre which were attached to the cover letter. [about]
    113. Use of the Masculine Gender in the Bahá'í Writings, The: Extracts from Letters Written By and on Behalf of the Universal House of Justice (2002). Extracts from letters from the House of Justice from 1981-1999 on general principles in relation to this subject and the Bahá'í perspective on it. [about]
    114. Usuli, Akhbari, Shaykhi, Babi: The Tribulations of a Qazvin Family, by Moojan Momen, in Iranian Studies, 36:3 (2003). The emergence of the Usuli school in the evolution of Shi'is jurisprudence and theology in 18th and 19th-century Iran, viewed through the lens of the Baraghani family as it faced schisms of the Akhbari, Shaykhi, and Bábí movements. [about]
    115. What Do Bahá'ís Believe about Gender?, by Gleibys L. Buchanan, in Washington Post (2011). Bahá'ís believe that gender equality must be manifested as a social reality. [about]
    116. Why There are No Women in the Universal House of Justice, by Vladimir Chupin (2011). Upon learning that it is forbidden to elect women to the Universal House of Justice, many people become puzzled, given the Faith's strong emphasis on the equality of the sexes. This essay offers some perspectives. [about]
    117. Women, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá, in Compilation of Compilations, Volume 2 (1991). Explores the status of women in the world, the development of women, the role of education in that development, the Bahá'í concept of gender equality and the application of that principle to family life. Includes bibliography of related Bahá'í literature. [about]
    118. Women and Wisdom in Scripture, by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in Lights of Irfan, 16 (2015). Treatment of women in religion; influence of Bahá'í teachings in raising awareness about the plight of women and transforming attitudes across the globe; role of linguistic biases in degrading their status; role of wisdom in achieving gender equality. [about]
    119. Women Entrepreneurs: Catalysts for Transformation, by Diane Chamberlin Starcher (1997). Describes the dramatic rise in importance of women entrepreneurs and how feminine qualities contribute to their success. [about]
    120. Women on the House of Justice; meaning of "Umumi", by Universal House of Justice (1997). Clarifies that 'Abdu'l-Bahá, in a tablet to Corinne True, indeed refers to the Universal House of Justice when affirming that membership is confined to men only. Includes a portion of Corinne True's original query to 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [about]
    121. Women on the Universal House of Justice, by Universal House of Justice (1988). Response to a paper presented at a Bahá'í Studies conference which raised the possibility that women could one day be eligible for membership on the Universal House of Justice. [about]
    122. Women Serving as Continental Counselors or in the International Teaching Centre, Percentage of: 1980-2010, by Universal House of Justice (2013). Chart showing the percentage of women serving as members of the Continental Boards of Counsellors from 26 November 1980 — when the number of Boards was fixed at five — until November 2010. [about]
    123. Women's Education and Socio-Economic Development: The Pathways of Impact, by Geeta Gandhi Kingdon (2010). [about]
    124. Zaynab, by John Walbridge, in Amazons to fighter pilots, a biographical dictionary of military women (2003). Brief biography of a female Bábí fighter. [about]
     
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