Search for tag "Martyrdom"
|1850. 8 Jul
||The Báb, divested of His turban and sash, was taken on foot to the barracks in Tabríz. Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alíy-i-Zunúzí, Anís, threw himself at the feet of the Báb and asked to go with Him. [Bab153; DB507]
That night the Báb asked that one of His companions kill Him, rather than let Him die at the hands of His enemies. Anís offered to do this but was restrained by the others. The Báb promised that Anís will be martyred with Him. [Bab154–5; DB507–8]
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Martyrdom of; Turbans; Barracks; Anis Zunuzi (Mirza Muhammad-Aliy-i-Zunuzi); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1850. 9 Jul
||Martyrdom of the Báb
In the morning the Báb was taken to the homes of the leading clerics to obtain the death-warrants. [Bab155; DB508]
The warrants were already prepared. [Bab155–6; DB510]
Anís's stepfather tried to persuade him to change his mind. Anís's young son was also brought to ‘soften his heart' but Anís's resolve remained unshaken. [Bab156–7; DB509–10]
At noon the Báb and Mirza Muhammad-Ali Zunuzi, known as Anis were suspended on a wall in the square in front of the citadel of Tabríz in Sarbazkhaneh Square. They were shot by 750 soldiers in three ranks of 250 men in succession. [Bab157; DB512]
When the smoke cleared the Báb was gone and Anís was standing, unharmed, under the nail from which they were suspended. The Báb, also unhurt, was found back in his cell completing His dictation to His secretary. [Bab157–8; DB512–13]
See BBD200–1 and DB510–12, 514 for the story of Sám Khán, the Christian colonel of the Armenian regiment which was ordered to execute the Báb.
The Báb and Anís were suspended a second time. A new regiment, the Násirí, was found to undertake the execution. After the volleys, the bodies of the Báb and Anís were shattered and melded together. [Bab158; DB514]
See BBR77–82 for Western accounts of the event.
The face of the Báb was untouched. [Bab158]
At the moment the shots were fired, a gale sweeps the city, stirring up so much dust that the city remained in darkness from noon until night. [Bab158; DB515]
See CH239 and DH197 for the story of the phenomenon of the two sunsets.
During the night, the bodies were thrown onto the edge of the moat surrounding the city. Soldiers were posted to stand guard over them and, nearby; two Bábís, feigning madness, keep vigil. After paying bribes to the guards, tIhe bodies were removed and hidden under cover of darkness. [Bab159; TN27; LWS147]
See David Merrick's Outline for Researchers.
See Sen McGlinn's blog 750 Muskets.
See It was in the news.... In this blog SMK points out the parallel between the history of early Christianity and that of the Bábí-Bahá'í Faith.
||Bab, Martyrdom of; Bab, Life of; Bab, Remains of; Holy days; Anis Zunuzi (Mirza Muhammad-Aliy-i-Zunuzi); Sam Khan; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bab, Basic timeline; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1850. 10 Jul
||The Russian Consul had an artist make a sketch of the body of the Báb. [Bab159; DB518; TN28]
See BBR43 for details of the drawing made by Consul Bakulin.
||Russian officials; Consuls; Bab, Sketches of; Bab, Martyrdom of; Bab, Life of
|1850. 11 Jul
||The bodies were removed from the moat and taken to a silk factory. [B159–60; DB519]
The bodies were wrapped in a cloak and removed to a silk factory owned by one of the believer of Mílan and deposited in a small wooden casket. [B159–60; DB519]
See B159–60, DB518–22 and TN27–8, The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1952 Information Statistical & Comparative p20-22 for the story of the recovery of the bodies and eventual arrival in Haifa.
The soldiers reported that the bodies had been eaten by dogs. [B160; DB519]
- Shi‘is believe that dogs would not eat the flesh of ‘holy imams‘ as their bodies are not composed of the
same substance as that of ordinary people. [TN27-28]
- Some time later, at Bahá'u'lláh's instructions, the casket was transported to Tehran and concealed in the shrine of Imám-Sádih Hasan.
- And still later yet the remains were removed to the home of Hájí Sulaymán Khán and subsequently transferred to the shrine of Imám-Zádih Ma'súm.
||Bab, Martyrdom of; Bab, Remains of
|1950 9 Jul
||The Centenary of the Martyrdom of the Báb was commemorated.
For Shoghi Effendi’s message to the Bahá’ís on this occasion see BW12:191–3.
For accounts of commemorations around the world see BW12:205–8.
A small group of Bahá’í pilgrims visited the site of the Báb’s martyrdom and other places associated with His life. [BW12:217–26]
The columned arcade and parapet of the Shrine of the Báb were completed. [ZK284–5]
||Haifa; Mount Carmel; Iran; Worldwide
||Centenaries; Bab, Martyrdom of; Bab, Shrine of; Pilgrimage; Pilgrims
|1981. 29 Jul
||See the story of the martyrdom of pharmacist Dr. Parviz Firouzi,.
See the story of the martyrdom of medical doctor Dr Masroor Dakhili.
||Persecution, Iran; Martyrdom
from the main catalogue
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- 20,000 Martyrs, Source of Statements about, by Universal House of Justice (1984/2005). Two letters from the Research Department. [about]
- Additional Tablets and Extracts from Tablets Revealed by Bahá'u'lláh, by Bahá'u'lláh (2018/2023). 80 selections, updated August 2023. [about]
- Additional Tablets, Extracts and Talks, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2018/2023). 167 selections, updated August 2023. [about]
- Báb, Martyrdom of the (July 9), by Christopher Buck, in Religious Celebrations: An Encyclopedia of Holidays, Festivals, Solemn Observances, and Spiritual Commemorations (2011-09). [about]
- Babi and Bahá'í Religions 1844-1944: Some Contemporary Western Accounts, by Moojan Momen (1981). A lengthy collection of first-hand reports and mentions of the Bábí and Bahá'í religions in contemporaneous accounts and newspapers. [about]
- Babi Concept of Holy War, The, by Denis MacEoin, in Religion, 12:2 (1982). An influential and controversial article, one of the first modern academic examinations of Bábí history. Discusses Islamic jihad, Bábí jihad, martyrdom, and political struggles. [about]
- Babi Heroism and the Recovery of the Heroic, by Jack McLean (2009). In defining the three ages of Bábí-Bahá’í history, Shoghi Effendi named the first the Heroic Age, thus aligning the virtue of heroism and the Bahá’í Faith’s metaphor of historical time, with The Bab as the tragic hero. [about]
- Bábís of Nayriz, The: History and Documents, in Witnesses to Babi and Bahá'í History, vol. 2 (2006). Extensive collection of historical documents: autobiographies, narratives, genealogies and chronologies, the transition from the Bábí to the Bahá'í community, provisional translations, and a list of Bábí martyrs. [about]
- Behind the Veil in Persia and Turkish Arabia: An Account of an Englishwoman's Eight Years' Residence Amongst the Women of the East, by M. E. Hume-Griffith (1909). Three-page history of the Bab and his execution, with reference to the persecutions in Yazd. [about]
- Between Karbalá' and Tabríz: Contested Martyrdom Narratives, by Moojan Momen, in Martyrdom in the Modern Middle East, ed. Sasha Dehghani and Silvia Horsch (2014). On two models of martyrdom in the time after the Islamic Revolution in Iran, that of the ruling elite and that of the Bahá'is. The Bahá'í narrative is closer to the traditional Shiite, whereas modern Shiism is designed to foster the revolutionary spirit. [about]
- Birth of a Monotheistic Religion in Modernity, The: On Jihad and Martyrdom in the Baha'i Faith, by Sasha Dehghani, in Martyrdom in the Modern Middle East, ed. Sasha Dehghani and Silvia Horsch (2014). The Bahá'í Faith responds to major questions of modernity such as the claims of science, world peace, and women's rights. Elements of continuity between early Christianity and mystical Islam can be found in the abolishment of military jihad. [about]
- Birth of the Human Being, The: Beyond Religious Traditionalism and Materialist Modernity, by Nader Saiedi, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 21:1-4 (2011). We have arrived at a turning point in human evolution: the moment of the birth of the human being. This paper examines the development of this idea in the Writings of the Báb, Bahá’u’lláh, and ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, and its opposite concept, dehumanization. [about]
- Chosen Highway, The, by Lady Sarah Louisa Blomfield (1940/1967). Oral Bahá'í histories collected by an eminent early English Bahá'í, first published in 1940. [about]
- Concealment and Burial of the Báb, by Peter Terry, in A Most Noble Pattern: Collected Essays on the Writings of the Báb (2012). This chapter from A.-L.-M. Nicolas' seminal biography Seyyed Ali Mohammed dit le Bab (1905) tells the story of the death and burial of the Bab, compiled from the reports of several eye-witnesses consulted by the author.
- Dawn over Mount Hira and Other Essays, by Marzieh Gail (1976). A collection of essays on various topics of interest to Bahá'í studies and history. Most of these were first published in Star of the West and World Order between 1929 and 1971. [about]
- Dawn-Breakers: Nabil's Narrative of the Early Days of the Bahá'í Revelation, by Nabil-i-A'zam (1932). The extensive and preeminent history of Babism and the early Bahá'í Faith, by Nabil-i-A'zam [aka Mullá Muḥammad-i-Zarandí, aka Nabíl-i-Zarandí]. [about]
- Days of Remembrance: Selections from the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh for Bahá'í Holy Days, by Bahá'u'lláh (2017). Forty-five selections revealed for, or relating to, nine Bahá’í Holy Days. [about]
- Drama of the Kingdom, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Mary Basil Hall (1933). A play written in 1912 by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá while he was in London and adopted with permission by Mary Basil Hall (named Parvine by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá). [about]
- Dramatic Readings, by Marlene Macke (2017-2020). Nineteen screenplays prepared as part of a Writers' collective at Desert Rose Bahá'í Institute, either fictionalized dramatic presentations of pivotal events in Bahá'í history or adapted from historical books. [about]
- Dress for Mona, A: Abridged one-act version, by Mark Perry (2002). The story of Mona Mahmudnizhad. [about]
- Dying for God: Martyrdom in the Shii and Babi Religions, by Jonah Winters (1997). Religious and cultural meanings of martyrdom/witnessing, and their role in Shí'í and Bábí history. [about]
- Efforts to preserve the remains of the Bab: Four historical accounts, by Ahang Rabbani, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 11 (2003). Accounts by Mirza Hasan Adib Taliqani, Fadil Mazandarani, ‘Abdu’l-Husayn Avarih, and Aqa Husayn ‘Ali Nur. [about]
- Episode of The 'Báb', by E. Crawshay Williams, in Acoss Persia (1907). Brief overview of the Báb's execution. [about]
- Epistle to the Son of the Wolf (Lawh-i-Ibn-i-Dhib): Biography of Siyyid Ismail of Zavarih, by Iraj Ayman (1999). [about]
- European Bahá'í Youth Conference in Innsbruck, by Universal House of Justice (1983-07-04). Challenges facing European Bahá'í Youth, followed by consolation to Bahá'í youth in light of the 1983 martyrdoms of young Bahá'ís in Iran. [about]
- Eyewitness Account of the Massacre of Bahá'ís in Nayriz, 1909, by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in Lights of Irfan, 14 (2013). Shaykh Dhakariyya's rebellion in Nayriz culminated in the martyrdom of nineteen Bahá'ís on Naw Ruz, 1909, the same day Abdu'l-Bahá interred the remains of the Bab in the mausoleum on Mount Carmel. This is a history of both events. [about]
- Further extracts concerning the remains of the Bab in Tehran, by Asadu'llah Fadil Mazandarani and Avarih (n.d.). Two brief excerpts [about]
- Heroic in the Historical Writings of Shoghi Effendi and Nabil, The, by Jack McLean (2006). Unlike academic historians, Shoghi Effendi and Nabil interpret the events and characters they portray in moralistic terms. This paper explores the heroic motif through a literary framework in the model of Thomas Carlyle's concept of the prophet as hero. [about]
- Human Responses to Life Stress and Suffering, by Abdu'l-Missagh Ghadirian, in Bahá'í Studies Notebook, 3:1-2 (1983). The human response to stressful events; coping mechanisms, including those of Bahá'í martyrs; responses to social stressors. [about]
- Human Station in the Bahá'í Faith: Selected Sections: Philosophy and Knowledge of the Divine, by Ali Murad Davudi (2013). A collection of talks by the Bahá’í teacher and philosopher Dr. A. M. Dávúdí on selected philosophical topics, including one on the subject of the non-political nature of the Bahá’í Faith and non-involvement in partisan politics. [about]
- I am all the Prophets": The Poetics of Pluralism in Bahá'í Texts, by Juan Cole, in Poetics Today, 14:3 (1993 Fall). Literary analysis of a passage from Tablet of Blood (Súriy-i-Damm) in which Bahá'u'lláh identifies Himself with all the past Prophets and their sufferings, depicting himself mortally wounded on the field of battle, like Imám Husayn. [about]
- It Is Written: A Monologue Recounting the Episode of the Martyrdom of the Báb, by Naysan Sahba (2001-07). Fictional monologue of a character who participated in the execution of the Báb. [about]
- Letter to Mrs A.M. Bryant re interment of the remains of The Bab on Mt. Carmel, by May Woodcock and A.M. Bryant (1909). Brief description of the interment of the remains of the Bab on Mt. Carmel on 21 March 1909. [about]
- Martyrdom, by Todd Lawson, in Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World: Oxford Islamic Studies Online (2008?). Overview of the history of and sacred texts about martyrdom in Islam, with a passing mention of the Bahá'í Faith. [about]
- Martyrdom and Servanthood in the Bábí and Bahá'í Faiths: A Struggle to Defend a Cosmic Order, by Per-Olof Akerdahl, in Martyrdom in the Modern Middle East, ed. Sasha Dehghani and Silvia Horsch (2014). From mystical Islam stems the ideal of servanthood, which is preferred over a concept of martyrdom that includes physical death; on ideological motivations for the persecution of Bahá'ís in different socio-historical circumstances. [about]
- Martyrdom in Jihad, by Jonah Winters (1997). Unlike Judeo-Christianity, Islam does not contain a core of martyrdom. Rather, it occurs in three disparate areas: war/jihad, asceticism, and Shi'ism. I examine the relationship between jihad and martyrdom and their classical and contemporary meanings. [about]
- Martyrdom of the Bab, by David Merrick (2008). Martyrdom of the Bab, told in plain English and suitable for reading aloud. Based on many early accounts. [about]
- Martyrdom of the Bab: An Outline for Researchers, by David Merrick (2019-10-14). The events of the Martyrdom of the Bab, including the weeks before and days after, presented through complementary and contrasting accounts with commentary, suitable for anyone investigating the events in detail. [about]
- Military Metaphor in Bahá'í Sacred Literature, The, by Jack McLean (2005). Martial symbology is common in the Bahá'í Writings, especially those of Shoghi Effendi, yet the Writings are expressly pacifistic. This article examines the apparent contradiction. [about]
- Most Dramatic Chapter in the Spiritual History of Humankind, A: A Pictorial Essay, by Julio Savi, in Bahá'í World (2020-05). Introduction to the life of the Báb, with historical photo-realistic illustrations by Romanian artist Simina Boicu Rahmatian. [about]
- Mystery of Martyrdom, The, by Darius Shahrokh and Grace Shahrokh, in Windows to the Past (1992). Life stories of many early martyrs, and some explanations of what inspires self-sacrifice. [about]
- Notes on The Báb, Some, by Robert Stockman (1998). Brief overview of sources on the Bábí period, the Bab's history, and his writings. [about]
- Now They Are Hanging Women, by Jaine Toth (2018). Notes and script of a presentation on contemporary persecution of Bahá'ís in Iran; title taken from a newspaper headline for an article announcing the execution by hanging of ten Iranian Bahá’í women on June 18, 1983. [about]
- Police Forces Bearing Arms, Bahá'í Enlistment in, by Universal House of Justice, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 3:4 (1995-12). Two letters from the House on joining armed police forces, e.g. the Ulster Defence Regiment and the police force in Northern Ireland, and whether they would be allowed to bear arms. Also discussion of consummating marriage, and marrying an atheist. [about]
- Prince of Martyrs, The: A brief account of the Imam Husayn, by Abu'l-Qasim Faizi (1977). The story of the Third Imam, whose death in the year 680 became a pivotal event for Shi'i Islam. [about]
- Programs for the Observance of Bahá'í Holy Days (2014/2017/2021). Booklets from four devotional programs at the Wilmette House of Worship: 9th day of Ridván (2014), 1st day of Ridván (2017), martyrdom of The Báb (2017, and birth of Bahá'u'lláh (2021), with selections of relevant passages from the Writings. [about]
- Re-florescence of Historical Romance in Nabil, The, by Ruhiyyih (Mary Maxwell) Khanum, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 5 (1932–1934) (1934). Essay reflecting on the dominant themes of The Dawn-Breakers, an early narrative of Bábí history authored by Nabil-i-A'zam. [about]
- Remains of the Bab in Tehran, The, by Ahang Rabbani (1997). Brief bio of Aqa Husayn-'Ali Nur and an extract from Khatirat Muhajiri Az Isfahan, "Memoirs of a Refugee from Isfahan," discussing the history of these remains. Includes biographical notes. [about]
- Request for Designation as Martyr of Alonzo Twine, by Universal House of Justice (2015-03-23). In response to a request that Alonzo Twine, the first Bahá'í in the state of South Carolina, be named a Martyr to the Cause of Bahá’u’lláh, the House replied that there are no criteria for them to make such designations. [about]
- Reunion with the Beloved: Poetry and Martyrdom (2004-06). Poetry by or in honor of early Bábí and Bahá'í martyrs. Includes foreword by Hushmand Fatheazam, and discussion of the concept of martyrdom, cultural issues, and history of persecutions. [about]
- Service, Joy and Sacrifice: An Essay on Commentaries by 'Abdu'l-Bahá, by James B. Thomas, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 5 (2004). On the exemplary life of service to God and to humankind; choosing to change one's life from predominately one of self-interest to one of sharing; the spiritual transformation which often follows such a change. [about]
- Significance of the Day of the Martyrdom of the Bab, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2004-05). Provisional translation from Ayyam Tis`ih [The Nine Holy Days], pp. 187-8. [about]
- Station Wagon Odyssey: Baghdad to Istanbul; A famous American traveler continuing a journey across the Moslem East, by William O. Douglas, in National Geographic Magazine, CXV:1 (1959-01). Very short mention in this travelogue by a Supreme Court Justice of the United States. [about]
- Story of Anis Zunuzi, The, by Houri Falahi-Skuce (2020). Links to 53-minute video presentation with original music and narration. Includes transcript. [about]
- Sufferings of Bahá'u'lláh and Their Significance, The, by George Townshend, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 12 (April 1950-1954) (1956). Short essay on martyrdom and the Fire Tablet. [about]
- Tablet Concerning the Day of the Martyrdom of His Holiness, the Exalted One: Le Tablette Concernant l'Anniversaire du Martyre de Sa Sainteté, Exaltée, by Abdu'l-Bahá, in Ayyam-i-Tis'ih [The Nine Days] (1981). Three translations: a French version by Rochan Mavaddat, an English rendering from the French by Peter Terry, and an English translation from the original Persian by Khazeh Fananapazir. [about]
- The Story of Mona: 1965-1983, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canada (1985). Biography of Mona Mahmudnizhad, an Iranian teenager who, in 1983, together with nine other women, was sentenced to death and hanged in Shiraz on the grounds of being a member of the Bahá'í Faith. [about]
- The White Silk Dress, by Marzieh Gail, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 9 (1940-1944) (1945). An "intimate portrait" of Ṭáhirih first published Friday April 21, 1944. [about]
- Theology of Osama bin Laden, The: History and 9/11, by Susan Maneck (2001-09). Overview of the Muslim thinkers who influenced bin Laden and their motivations, and some historical context. [about]
- Translation List: Provisional Translations of Baháʼí Literature (2009-2023). Index to talks, letters, and other items translated from Persian and Arabic to English by Adib Masumian; listed here for the sake of search engines and tagging. [about]
- Windows to the Past, by Darius Shahrokh (1992). Deepening talks on 25 topics about Bahá'í history and teachings, downloadable in MP3 audio format and PDF transcripts. [about]
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