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from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1848. c. 26 Jun - 17 Jul The Conference of Badasht

Bahá'u'lláh, who hosted and directed the event, rented three gardens, one for Quddús, another for Táhirih and the third for Himself. [Bab168; GPB31, 68; MF200]

The conference coincided with the removal of the Báb to Tabríz for interrogation in July. It was held near the village of Sháhrúd in Semnan province. [BBRSM23; DB292]

  • `The primary purpose of that gathering was to implement the revelation of the Bayán by a sudden, a complete and dramatic break with the past — with its order, its ecclesiasticism, its traditions, and ceremonials. The subsidiary purpose of the conference was to consider the means of emancipating the Báb from His cruel confinement in Chihríq.' [BBRSM23; BKG43; DB297–8; GPB31, 157]
  • From the beginning of His ministry the Báb had implicitly claimed some higher spiritual station than merely that of being the "bábu'l-imám" and in the early months of 1848 while still in prison in Máh-Kú He put forward these claims to his companions. He proclaimed HImself to be the Imam Mahdi, the promised Q´'im (He who will arise), the inaugurator of the Resurrection and the abrogator of the Islamic holy law. [BBRSM23]
  • Bab167 says that the Bábís did not come to Badasht to make plans to rescue the Báb.
  • It was attended by 81 believers and lasted 22 days. [BKG43–4, 46; DB292–3; GPB312]
  • Each day Bahá'u'lláh revealed a Tablet, and on each believer He conferred a new name. Each day an Islamic law was abrogated. Henceforth, when the Báb was addressing the believers, He used the new name that Bahá'u'lláh had bestowed upon them. [DB293; GPB32]
  • See BKG44–5; DB293 and MF201 for the story of the central event, Táhirih's confrontation with Quddús and removal of her veil.
      Ṭáhirih, seizing upon the opportunity, arose and, unveiled, came forth from the garden. She proceeded towards the tent of Bahá’u’lláh crying out and proclaiming: “I am the Trumpet-blast; I am the Bugle-call!”—which are two of the signs of the Day of Resurrection mentioned in the Qur’án. Calling out in this fashion, she entered the tent of Bahá’u’lláh. No sooner had she entered than Bahá’u’lláh instructed the believers to recite the Súrih of the Event from the Qur’án, a Súrih that describes the upheaval of the Day of Resurrection.
      [Twelve Table Talks given by ‘Abdu'l-Bahá in ‘Akká, no. 9, "Ṭáhirih and the Conference of Badasht"]
  • Also see Bab167–9; BBD31–2; BBRSM46; BKG43–7; DB292–8; RB2:353.
  • See The World-Wide Influence of Qurratul-'Ayn by Standwood Cobb.
  • Badasht; Tabriz; Shahrud; Chihriq; Iran Conference of Badasht; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Writings of; Quddus; Tahirih; Veils; Women; Womens rights; Gender; Equality; Bab, Life of; Bayan; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bab, Basic timeline; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Letters of the Living
    1848 19 - 20 Jul The Women's Rights Convention was held in the Wesleyan Chapel at Seneca Falls, NY. The principle organizer was Lucretia Mott, with Elizabeth Cady Stanton as its driving intellect. A significant role was played by an African-American man, an abolitionist and a recently freed slave, Frederick Douglass. The convention adopted a Declaration of Rights and Sentiments that consisted of 11 resolutions including the right for women to vote. The signatories were the 68 women and 32 men in attendance. The right for women to vote became part of the United States Constitution in 1920. [The Calling: Tahirih of Persia and her American Contemporaries p114-160, "Seneca Falls First Woman's Rights Convention of 1848: The Sacred Rites of the Nation" by Bradford W. Miller (Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8.3, 1998)]
  • This conference has been compared to the Conference of Badasht with respect to the emancipation of women and entrenched prejudices.
  • Tahirih and Women's Suffrage written by / on behalf of Universal House of Justice in which they deal with the question of the relationship between Táhirih and women's sufferage as well as the station of Táhirih herself.
  • Seneca Falls; New York; United States; Badasht; Iran Womens rights; Human rights; African Americans; Women; Gender; Equality; Conference of Badasht; Tahirih
    1850. 19 May The Governor sent a mob against Hujjat, (Mulla Muhammad-Ali) which was dispersed by Mír Saláh. The Governor sent to Tihrán for reinforcements and the town Zanján was split into two camps. [BW18:381]

  • See BBD245 and GPB45 for the story of Zaynab, the Bábí woman who dressed as a man and defended the barricades.
  • Zaynab and the Women of Zanjan.
  • The first episode of a podcast about Zaynab.
  • Tihran; Zanjan; Iran Governors; Hujjat; Mir Salah; Zaynab; Gender; Women; Equality; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Mobs; Persecution
    1852 16 – 27 Aug The martyrdom of Táhirih (Qurratu'l-'Ayn) in Tihrán. [BBR172–3; BBRSM:30; BW18:382; BKG87; MF203]
  • She was martyred in the Ílkhání garden, strangled with her own silk handkerchief which she had provided for the purpose. Her body was lowered into a well which was then filled with stones. [BBD220; DB622–8; GPB75]
  • See GPB73–5 for a history of her life.
  • See the story of her martyrdom and her life in the article in Radio France International.
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá is reported to have said:

      She went to that garden with consummate dignity and composure. Everyone said that they were going to kill her, but she continued to cry out just as she had before, declaring, “I am that trumpet-call mentioned in the Gospel!” It was in this state that she was martyred in that garden and cast into a well. [Talk by Abdu’l-Baha Given in Budapest to the Turanian Society on 14 April 1913 (Provisional)
    iiiii
  • Tihran; Iran Tahirih; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Women; Gender; Equality; Letters of the Living; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1913. 28 Aug 'Abdu'l-Bahá revealed a tablet to an unnamed woman saying that only two things were not open to women, front-line military duties and service on the Universal House of Justice. He promised equality to men and "as regards tenderness of heart and abundance of mercy and sympathy" superiority. [PT182-184] Egypt Abdul-Baha, Life of; Women; Equality
    1917. 28 Jul The National Association of the Advancement of Colored People’s (NAACP) organized a Silent Protest Parade, also known as the Silent March, on 5th Avenue in New York City. This protest was a response to violence against African Americans, including the race riots, lynching, and outrages in Texas, Tennessee, Illinois, and other states. [Black Past]

    One incident in particular, the East St. Louis Race Riot, also called the East St. Louis Massacre, was a major catalyst of the silent parade. This horrific event drove close to six thousand blacks from their own burning homes and left several hundred dead.

  • In response to the rioting, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) sent W.E.B. DuBois and Martha Gruening to investigate the incident. They compiled a report entitled Massacre at East St. Louis, which was published in the NAACP’s magazine, The Crisis (Vol 14 # 5 p219-238). A year after the riot, a Special Committee formed by the United States House of Representatives launched an investigation into police actions during the East St. Louis Riot. Investigators found that the National Guard and also the East St. Louis police force had not acted adequately during the riots, revealing that the police often fled from the scenes of murder and arson. Some even fled from stationhouses and refused to answer calls for help. The investigation resulted in the indictment of several members of the East St. Louis police force.
  • New York; NY; St. Louis; MI NAACP; W.E.B. Du Bois; Martha Gruening; Race; Race inequality
    1919. (Late Winter until Early Autumn and beyond) "Red Summer" is the period from late winter through early autumn of 1919 during which white supremacist terrorism and racial riots took place in more than three dozen cities across the United States, as well as in one rural county in Arkansas.

    Some historians claim that the racial terror connected with “Red Summer” began as early as 1917 during the bloody massacre that occurred in East St. Louis, Illinois, a barbaric pogrom that would eventually set the stage for the 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre, one of the worst episodes of post-Civil War racial violence ever committed against Black Americans. The Tulsa Massacre left as many as 300 Black people dead and destroyed more than 35 square blocks of Greenwood, an all-Black community so wealthy, the philosopher Booker T. Washington called it “Negro Wall Street.” [Red Summer: When Racists Mobs Ruled]

  • See Wikipedia for a partial list of locations where such events took place in 1919 alone.

    It was against this backdrop of racial tension and hatred that the Baha'i community promoted racial amity. [SYH125-126]

  • United States Red Summer; Race; Race (general): Race amity; Race inequality; Race unity; Racism
    2000 22 - 26 May The United Nations Millennium Forum was held at United Nations Headquarters in New York. It attracted 1,350 participants from more than 106 countries and many others participated remotely via Internet. The purpose was to give organizations of civil society an opportunity to formulate views and recommendations on global issues to be taken up at the subsequent Millennium Summit in September to be attended by heads of state and government. Convened by the UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan, the Forum's overarching theme - "The United Nations for the 21st Century" - encompassed six main sub-themes in its declaration: 1) Peace, security and disarmament; 2) Eradication of poverty, including debt cancellation and social development; 3) Human rights; 4) Sustainable development and environment; 5) Facing the challenges of globalization: achieving equity, justice and diversity; and, 6) Strengthening and democratizing the United Nations and international organizations. The document was divided into three main areas: recommendations for governmental action; proposals for the United Nations; and actions to be undertaken by civil society itself. The Bahá’í International Community as an NGO representing a cross-section of humankind acted as a unifying agent in major discussions. Our principal representative at the United Nations, Techeste Ahderrom, was appointed to cochair a committee of non-governmental organizations. Lawrence Arturo and Diane 'Alá'í represented the Bahá'í International Community. [BW00-01p87-89, Letter from the Universal House of Justice dated 24 September 2000] New York; United States United Nations Millennium Forum and Summit; United Nations; United Nations Summits; United Nations conferences; Conferences; Millennium; Baha'i International Community; Peace; Security; Disarmament; Poverty; Social and economic development; Human rights; Sustainable development; environment; Globalization; Justice; Diversity; Prosperity; Equality; Solidarity; Tolerance; Nature; Cooperation; Interfaith dialogue; Techeste Ahderom; Lawrence Arturo; Diane Alai
    2000 6 - 8 Sep The General Assembly Millennium Summit was held at the United Nations Headquarters in New York and was attended by leaders of more than 150 nations. UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan presented a report entitled, "We The Peoples: The Role of the United Nations in the 21st Century". In which was presented an overview of the challenges facing humankind and suggested practical solutions. Some of the key themes addressed include health, environment, human rights and other social issues, international law, peace and rejuvenating the United Nations. It is striking that called upon by the Secretary-General of the United Nations to address so historic a gathering was Mr. Techeste Ahderom, the principal representative of the Bahá’í International Community to the United Nations, addressed the gathering as the spokesman of civil society. He was accorded this honour because he had presided as cochair at the earlier United Nations Millennium Forum. After all the national leaders had spoken and before the Summit had adopted its declaration on 8 September, Mr. Ahderom made a speech in which he conveyed to that unprecedented assemblage a report of the Forum. The text of his speech is enclosed herewith. On the last day a declaration was unanimously adopted that began by asserting: “We, Heads of State and Government, have gathered at United Nations Headquarters in New York from 6 to 8 September 2000, at the dawn of a new Millennium, to reaffirm our faith in the Organization and its Charter as indispensable foundations of a more peaceful, prosperous and just world.” [BW00-01p91-93, Letter from the Universal House of Justice dated 24 September 2000]
    • The text of Mr. Ahderom's speech can be found on the BIC's website and at BW00-01p243-247.
    • Millennium Declaration (in all UN working languages)
    • The Millennium Development Goals are to: (1) eradicate extreme poverty and hunger; (2) achieve universal primary education; (3) promote gender equality and empower women; (4) reduce child mortality; (5) improve maternal health; (6) combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases; (7) ensure environmental sustainability; and (8) develop a global partnership for development.
    • UN website.
    New York; United States United Nations Millennium Forum and Summit; United Nations; United Nations Summits; United Nations conferences; Conferences; Millennium; Bahai International Community; Peace; World peace (general); Security; Disarmament; Poverty; Social and economic development; Human rights; Sustainable development; Environment; Globalization; Justice; Diversity; Prosperity; Equality; Solidarity; Tolerance; Nature; Cooperation; Interfaith dialogue; Techeste Ahderom
    2001. 25 - 27 Jun During the special session of the General Assembly on the HIV./AIDS pandemic held at the UN headquarters, the Bahá'í International Community circulated a written statement entitled HIV/AIDS and Gender Equality: Transforming Attitudes and Behaviors that emphasized the need to transform the attitudes and behaviors that spread the disease and directed attention to the important roles played by men and faith communities in turning the tide of the pandemic. [BIC History] New York,NY Baha'i International Community; United Nations; HIV/AIDS; Gender; Equality; BIC statements
    2005. 14 -16 Sep The 2005 World Summit was a follow-up summit meeting to the United Nations' 2000 Millennium Summit, which led to the Millennium Declaration of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Representatives (including many leaders) of the then 191 (later 193) member states met in New York City for what the United Nations described as "a once-in-a-generation opportunity to take bold decisions in the areas of development, security, human rights and reform of the United Nations." [THE 2005 WORLD SUMMIT: AN OVERVIEW]
  • 2005 World Summit Outcome
  • Millennium Development Goals
    1. To eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
    2. To achieve universal primary education
    3. To promote gender equality and empower women
    4. To reduce child mortality
    5. To improve maternal health
    6. To combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases
    7. To ensure environmental sustainability
    8. To develop a global partnership for development
  • New York; United States United Nations Millennium Forum and Summit; United Nations; United Nations Summits; United Nations conferences; Conferences; Millennium; Bahai International Community; Peace; World peace (general); Security; Disarmament; Poverty; Social and economic development; Human rights; Sustainable development; environment; Globalization; Justice; Diversity; Prosperity; Equality; Solidarity; Tolerance; Nature; Cooperation; Interfaith dialogue
    2012. 15 Nov In contribution to the 57th Session of the Commission on the Status of Women the Bahá'í International Community issued a statement entitled Towards the Eradication of Violence Against Women and Girls.
  • PDF..
  • New York; New York Baha'i International Community; Equality; Women; statements
    2020. 9 -20 Mar The Bahá'í International Community submitted a statement entitled Developing New Dynamics of Power to Transform the Structures of Society to the Commission on the Status of Women in the follow-up to the Fourth World Conference on Women and to the twenty-third special session of the General Assembly.

    The statement can be found on the UN website.

    New York Baha'i International Community; Statements; Equality of men and women
    2020. 29 Jun The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Papua New Guinea issued a statement through its External Affairs department entitled Forging a Path to Gender Equality in response to a series of tragic events and a situation that intensified during the pandemic. [BWNS1439]
  • Statement on the External Affairs website.
  • Port Moresby; Papua New Guinea Equality; Women; Statements; Public discourse
    2021. 3 Feb To mark the 25th anniversary of the landmark Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action that resulted from the Fourth World Conference on Women in 1995, the Bahá'í International Community released a film that reflected on the advances made toward the goals for gender equality articulated in the declaration.
    The feature-length film called Glimpses into the Spirit of Gender Equality premiered at a virtual screening before a gathering of UN officials, ambassadors of member states, non-governmental organizations, and other civil society actors.
      “The film examines advances in the area of equality of women and men at the level of the grassroots and their connection with the conversations that have been unfolding at the UN, drawing on examples inspired by Bahá’í community-building efforts in different countries around the world,” said Saphira Rameshfar, Representative of the BIC.
  • The film available on YouTube. [BWNS1485]
  • For the response to this film see BIC News.
  • New York Baha'i International Community; film; Gender; Equality; Saphira Rameshfar; Glimpses into the Spirit of Gender Equality

    from the chronology of Canada

    from the main catalogue

    1. 1970-1995: Newspaper articles archive (1970). Collection of newspaper articles from 1970-1995. [about]
    2. Abdu'l-Baha's 1912 Howard University Speech: A Civil War Myth for Interracial Emancipation, by Christopher Buck, in Abdu'l-Bahá's Journey West: The Course of Human Solidarity, ed. Negar Mottahedeh (2013). Overview of the event, press coverage, publications of the speech, the Emancipation Proclamation "myth" and its historical influence, the role of whites, and the rhetoric of progress. [about]
    3. 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Encounter with Modernity during His Western Travels, by Wendi Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). Abdu'l-Bahá's responses to the West's technology and innovations on the one hand, vs. its archaic racist and sexual philosophies on the other. [about]
    4. Activities in the Bahá'í World Community to Improve the Status of Women during the United Nations Decade for Women, by Bahá’í International Community (1985). Report presented to the World Conference to Review and Appraise the Achievements of the United Nations Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace [about]
    5. Additional Tablets, Extracts and Talks, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2018). 57 selections, updated 2019. [about]
    6. Advancing Toward the Equality of Women and Men, by Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity (2009). Issues that lie at the heart of the struggle for the equality of women and men, via the Institute’s efforts to generate systematic learning and gain new insights, in collaboration with others. [Link to PDF, offsite.] [about]
    7. Affirmative Action and the Jurisprudence of Equitable Inclusion: Towards a New Consensus on Gender and Race Relations, by Steven Gonzales, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 7:2 (1995). The principle of equity and the Bahá’í emphasis on unity in diversity as a basis for considering Affirmative Action in relationship to remedying past injustices to women and minorities. [about]
    8. African Culture, Traditional, Aspects of, by Universal House of Justice (1998). Challenges and opportunities in the African continent; eliminating prejudices; dance and music; alcohol; hunting; initiation rites; the supernatural; tribal leadership; status of women. [about]
    9. Africanity, Womanism, and Constructive Resilience: Some Reflections, by Layli Maparyan, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 30:3 (2020). The meanings of the metaphor "pupil of the eye;" experiences of growing up African-American in the West; overcoming cosmological negation; the African worldview on nature, humanity, and creation; gendered expressions of African culture. [about]
    10. Ambivalence of Hostility and Modification: Patriarchy's Ideological Negotiation With Women, Modernity and Cinema in Iran, by Elnaz Nasehi, in International Journal of Advanced Research, 8:10 (2020). Passing mentions of the Bahá'í Faith in the context of how forces behind the Constitutional Revolution paved the way for the presence of women in public sphere and Iranian cinema. [about]
    11. Badasht, by Moojan Momen, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 3 (1989). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
    12. Bahá'í Cosmological Symbolism and the Ecofeminist Critique, by Michael W. Sours, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 7:1 (1995). Constituents of Bahá'í cosmological symbolism; introduction to the main feminist/environmentalist arguments; eschatological character of Bahá'í cosmological symbolism; Bahá'í eschatology provides answers to many feminist and ecological objections. [about]
    13. Bahá'í Faith and the Singapore Women's Movement, The: Challenges for the Next Millennium, by Phyllis Ghim-Lian Chew, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 4 (1999). On the relationship between religion and the fight for women's rights after the founding of the Singapore Council of Women; the interplay between gender, religion and the women's movement; challenges for the next millennium with regards to equality. [about]
    14. Bahá'u'lláh and Liberation Theology, by Juan Cole, in Revisioning the Sacred: New Perspectives on a Bahá'í Theology, Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions vol. 8 (1997). The idea of liberation and equality is central to Bahá'í theology; the poor in the 19th century Middle East; Bahá'u'lláh and the poor; Tablet to the Kings on wealth and peace; laws of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas and Huququ'lláh; state social welfare. [about]
    15. Bahá'í Faith and Peace Psychology, The: The Potential for Science and Religion to Collaborate, by Rhett Diessner, in Peace Psychology Bulletin, 3:3 (1994). On the potential for Bahá’í peace initiatives, coupled with empirical peace psychology approaches, regarding: ethnicity and peace, feminism and peace, and peace and education. [about]
    16. Base Espiritual de la Igualdad, La, by Bahá'í International Community (1985). [about]
    17. Bushido (Chivalry) and the Traditional Japanese Moral Education, by Nozomu Sonda, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). Japanese virtues explained by Nitobe in 1900 in comparison with the Bahá'í perspective on moral education. [about]
    18. Calling, The: Tahirih of Persia and Her American Contemporaries, by Hussein Ahdieh and Hillary Chapman (2017). Simultaneous, powerful spiritual movements swept across both Iran and the U.S in the mid-1800s. On the life and martyrdom of Tahirih; the 1848 Seneca Falls Convention and the conference of Badasht; spiritualism and suffrage. [about]
    19. Changing Reality: The Bahá'í Community and the Creation of a New Reality, by Moojan Momen, in História Questões & Debates, 43 (2005). The Bahá’í teachings criticize the socially created realities of warfare, environmental destruction, and the subordination of women, lower social classes and ethnic minorities, instead promoting a vision of global solidarity and individual worth. [about]
    20. Commentary on "Equality of Women: The Bahá'í Principle of Complementarity," by Linda O'Neil: Response, by Nancy Lease, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 3:4 (1991). [about]
    21. Condicion juridica y social de la mujer, La, by Bahá'í International Community (1988). [about]
    22. Conferencia Mundial del Año Internacional de la Mujer: Declaración presentada por la Comunidad Internacional Bahá'í, by Bahá'í International Community (1975). Declaración presentada por la Comunidad Internacional Bahá’í (en carácter consultivo con el Consejo Económico y Social — Categoría II) Ciudad de México, México, 1975. [about]
    23. Conferencia Mundial para el Examen y la Evaluación de los Logros del Decenio de las Naciones Unidas para la Mujer: Igualdad, Desarrollo y Paz, by Bahá'í International Community (1985). Informe presentado por la Comunidad Internacional Bahá'í acerca de las actividades de la Comunidad Bahá'í Mundial para mejorar la condición de la mujer durante el Decenio de las Naciones Unidas para la Mujer y Programas Futuros para el Adelanto de la Muje [about]
    24. Considerations Relating to the Inheritance Laws of the Kitab-i-Aqdas, Some, by Sen McGlinn, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 5:1 (1995). Gender distinctions in the Bahá'í inheritance laws might at first glance seem to favor male heirs, but the laws actually create a symmetrical equality. [about]
    25. Creating Intimacy: In the Community and With the Seeker, by Phyllis K. Peterson (1998). On how intimacy in the Bahá'í community can be created, using Bahá’í scriptures as guideline. We hunger for intimacy, which is a prerequisite for friendship and a key principle in teaching. Cases drawn from experiences of people who feel psychically hurt. [about]
    26. Dawn over Mount Hira and Other Essays, by Marzieh Gail (1976). A collection of essays on various topics of interest to Bahá'í studies and history. Most of these were first published in Star of the West and World Order between 1929 and 1971. [about]
    27. Demographics of the United States National Spiritual Assembly, by Archives Office of the United States Bahá'í National Center (2016). Percentage of women, African-Americans, Native Americans, Asian Americans, and Latino Americans serving on the U.S. and Canadian NSAs from 1922-2015. [about]
    28. Dialogue between Yin-Yang Concepts and the Bahá'í Faith, The, by Phyllis Ghim-Lian Chew, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 6 (2001). Yin-yang, a pivotal theory in Chinese thought influencing government, architecture, relationships, and ethics, has many similarities with the Bahá’í Faith, including the origin of matter, the nature of history, man-woman relationships, and health. [about]
    29. Discussion with Farida Vahedi, Executive Director of the Department of External Affairs, National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of India, A, by Michael Bodakowski and Katherine Marshall (2011). Overview of Vahedi's life and work, history of the Faith in India and development projects, the Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity, and issues regarding migration and protection of women and girls. [about]
    30. "Easy Familiarity," Explanations of, by Ruhiyyih (Mary Maxwell) Khanum and Ann Boylan (1912). Statements on displays of affection (hugging and kissing) between members of the opposite sex. Also questions on assembly infallibility, and whether one with a minority opinion should vote against his conscience. [about]
    31. Effect of Philosophical and Linguistic Gender Biases on the Degradation of Women's Status in Religion, The, by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:1 (1997). Women’s rights have been undermined for centuries; philosophical and linguistic gender-related biases and their effect on the degradation of women’s status in religion; suggestions for eradicating the causes of inequality in order to hasten world unity. [about]
    32. Elegibilidad de las Mujeres en la Casa Universal de Justicia, by Universal House of Justice (1988). [about]
    33. Emblems of Faithfulness: Pluralism in Meaning and Beauty in the Ordinary, by Helen Cheng and Catherine Nash, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 25:3 (2015). Memorials of the Faithful is notable for the diversity of personalities described, and the sheer ordinariness of many of those remembered lives. These two aspects of the text highlight some of the broader questions raised by the Bahá'í Faith. [about]
    34. Equality and Baha'i Principles in Northern Ireland, by Edwin Graham, in Solas, 1 (2001). A paper in two parts: (1) the development of equality legislation in Northern Ireland, and (2) the Bahá’í Teachings in relation to equality and the extent to which Northern Irish legislation applies or does not apply them. [about]
    35. Equality of Women, The: The Bahá'í Principle of Complementarity, by John S. Hatcher, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 2:3 (1990). The Bahá’í teachings simultaneously assert the equality of men and women whilst advocating in some cases distinct duties according to gender. This seems paradoxical, but there can be gender distinction without inequality in status or function.  [about]
    36. "Exploring Male Oppressions from a Family-Systems Perspective," by Janet Huggins: Commentary and Response, by Hoda Mahmoudi and Janet Huggins, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 4:3 (1991). [about]
    37. Faith, Theory, and Practice: Interracial Marriage as a Symbol of the Oneness of Humanity, by Benjamin Leiker (2004). [about]
    38. Family Life, by Báb, The and Bahá'u'lláh, in Compilation of Compilations, Volume 1 (1991). [about]
    39. Family Life, by Shoghi Effendi and Universal House of Justice (2008). Extracts on preserving the bond between husband and wife, parent-child relationships and responsibilities, and enhancing family life. [about]
    40. Fasting period ends Sunday, by Ted Slavin, in St. Catharines Standard (2011). The Fast helps us remember the goals of eradicating poverty and achieving gender equality. [about]
    41. Feminism, Men and the Bahá'í Faith, by Morgan Wilson, in 75 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in Australasia (1996). Separate reflections on feminism and on men and the Bahá'í Faith. The challenges faced by each are acknowledged and the need for a balance between the two asserted. [about]
    42. Feminist Movements in the Late Qajar Period, by Janet Afary and et al., in Encyclopaedia Iranica (1999). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
    43. Fifty Bahá'í Principles of Unity: A Paradigm of Social Salvation, by Christopher Buck, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 18 (2014). World religions are systems of salvation, liberation, or harmony, in direct response to the perceived human predicament. To Baha’is, this predicament is profound estrangement and the solution is world unity, from family to international relations. [about]
    44. For the Betterment of the World: The Worldwide Bahá'í Community's Approach to Social and Economic Development, by Office of Social and Economic Development (2018). Essays, photographs, and overviews of local projects around the world, illustrating how Bahá'í principles are being carried out in practice, prepared by the Office of Social and Economic Development of the Bahá'í International Community. [about]
    45. Foreigner: From an Iranian Village to New York City and the Lights That Led the Way, by Hussein Ahdieh and Hillary Chapman (2019). Biography of a young boy in Nayriz, Iran in the mid 20th-century, his reflection on the sad society; his experience as a immigrant in the United States, struggle to make the American dream, and helped the innovative Harlem Prep, a Bahá'í inspired School. [about]
    46. Goddess Religion, Ancient, by Universal House of Justice (1992). Ancient goddess religions and the role of the feminine in theology. [about]
    47. Husband and Wife, Relationship between, by Universal House of Justice, in Messages from the Universal House of Justice, 1963-1986: The Third Epoch of the Formative Age (1996). The "functional" divisions between husband and wife in the Bahá'í Writings should be considered in the light of the general principle of equality between the sexes. [about]
    48. In All the Ways that Matter, Women Don't Count, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 4:1 (1994). The Bahá'í goal of achieving sexual equality cannot be achieved merely by trying to advance the position of women in society, but rather society itself must be "feminized." [about]
    49. In search of Martha Root: An American Bahá'í feminist and peace advocate in the early twentieth century, by Jiling Yang (2007). Early life of Root, her four world teaching trips from 1919 to 1939 with a focus on peace advocacy, and gender and identity reflections on Tahirih. Link to thesis (offsite). [about]
    50. Information Technology Strategies for the Promotion of Gender Equality, by Andrew Stranieri, in 75 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in Australasia (1996). Equal opportunity of women and men is best achieved if both genders embrace the changes now occurring in communication and information use. [about]
    51. Inheritance, by Seena Fazel, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 4:1 (1994). The apparent contradiction between sexual equality and the unequal inheritance laws contained in the Aqdas. [about]
    52. Inheritance Laws of Bahá'í Community: A Gendered Analysis of Inheritance Under the Kitab-i-Aqdas and the Indian Succession Act, by Ishita Kohli, in Indian Journal of Law and Legal Research, 3:1 (2021). Bahá'í laws create a symmetrical equality between sexes, via the principle of mutatis mutandis; the concept of private property and its effect on testamentary succession seen through a progressive and gender-neutral lens. [about]
    53. Inheritance Laws of the Baha'i Community and Gender Equality, by Sarthak Sharma, in International Journal of Legal Science and Innovation, 3:6 (2021). Examination of whether the Bahá'í Faith's teachings on gender-justice and equality are reflected in its inheritance laws and the Kitab-i-Aqdas; scholarly articles on this subject; comparison with Islamic provisions and law. [about]
    54. Inheritance Laws of the Kitab-i-Aqdas, by Sen McGlinn (1995). Conceptualizing the Kitab-i Aqdas as establishing a fixed and elaborate set of laws and requirements is misplaced; even in the most central issues there has been a radical development in Bahá'í law. [about]
    55. Integracion de la mujer en el desarrollo enocomico y social de America Latina y el Caribe, La, by Bahá'í International Community (1988). Revisión y evaluación crítica de algunos aspectos de la condición de la mujer en la region, incluso su integración en el mercado laboral, mujeres jefes de familia y el papel de la mujer en el comercio en el Caribe. [about]
    56. Interdependence of Bahá'í Communities, The: Services of North American Bahá'í Women to Iran, by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 4:1 (1991). Some early American Bahá’í women’s contribution to the development of the Iranian Bahá’í community. [about]
    57. Is Economic Justice Possible?: Toward a New Conception of the Equitable Distribution of Wealth and Income, by Navid Sabet, in Bahá'í World (2020). Survey of the world's current economic condition, and on the implications of Bahá'í principles on the enormous challenge of building an economic system that is just, benefiting all of humanity. [about]
    58. Justice and Equality – a basis for change in our troubled world, by Layli Miller-Muro (2004). Transcript of the talk given at the 5th annual Margaret Stevenson Memorial Dinner and Lecture, July 17 2004. [about]
    59. Letter to Corinne True re Women on the House of Justice, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1909). Translation by Amín Faríd of a short letter stating that "men and women are equal in all rights save in the Universal House of Justice; for the Chairman and the members of the House of Justice are men according to the Text of the Book." [about]
    60. Lucha Contra el Hambre, La, by Bahá'í International Community (1985). Declaración a la 11a Sesión de Ministros del Consejo Mundial de la Alimentación de las Naciones Unidas, París, Francia, 1985. [about]
    61. Mary Magdalene: Lioness of God in the Bahá'í Faith, by Lil Osborn (2013). On the symbolic role of Mary Magdalene in the Baha’i tradition as a female archetype in the context of the doctrine of "return," and thus linked to the poet Tahirih, heroine of the Babi-Baha’i dispensation. [about]
    62. Materials Provided by the Bahá'í World Centre on Gender in the Writings, and Matters of Translation, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi (2002). A collection of letters about gender pronouns in Writings, a compilation concerning the translations of Shoghi Effendi, the literary style of translation, and guidance on translating the Writings into indigenous languages. [about]
    63. Meetings for women only, by International Teaching Centre (1997). It is acceptable and perhaps even sometimes necessary for Bahá'ís to hold gender-segregated meetings. [about]
    64. Men and the Baha'i Faith: The role of indigenous men in the early Baha'i community in the British Isles, by Lil Osborn (2016). Includes slide-show included when presenting the paper at the Bahá'í Studies Seminar, Kellogg College, Oxford (July 2016). [about]
    65. Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-1986: Third Epoch of the Formative Age, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
    66. Millennium Forum, by Universal House of Justice (2000). [about]
    67. Mobilizing Institutional, Legal and Cultural Resources to Achieve Gender Equality, by Bahá'í International Community (2008). The central role of girls and women in human development; the need to end the cultural, institutional, and legal obstacles towards their progress and all forms of discrimination against them. [about]
    68. Monogamy, Sexual Equality, Marital Equality, and the Supreme Tribunal, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Questions about monogamy, the Supreme Tribunal, and the Bahá'í concept of equality of the sexes in light of some Bahá'í laws and history which appear to undermine it [about]
    69. Mujeres y Hombres, Una Sociedad para un Planeta Saludable, by Bahá'í International Community (1991). Exposición presentada al "World Women's Congress for a Healthy Planet", Miami, Florida, 8-12 Noviembre, 1991. [about]
    70. Munirih Khanum: Memoirs and Letters, by Munirih Khanum (1986). Autobiography of Khanum (1847-1938), the wife of Abdu'l-Bahá. Includes the arrangements for her marriage, her travel to Akka, her time with the wife of the Bab, and memorial letters written on the anniversaries of the passing of Abdu'l-Bahá. [about]
    71. Mutilated Body of the Modern Nation: Qurrat al-'Ayn's Unveiling and the Persian Massacre of the Bábís, by Negar Mottahedeh, in Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East, 18:2 (1998). A Freudian interpretation of the extreme antipathy underlying common Iranian opposition to the Babis/Bahá'ís as being disruptive symbols of destabilizing modernism, with the stories of Qurratu'l-'Ayn's public unveiling a central element.    [about]
    72. National Spiritual Assembly members who are women, Percentage of, 1953-2007, by Bahá'í World Centre (1998). Two letters from the House, with attached tables, showing the number of women serving on NSAs 1953-1993, 1987-1997, and 1997-2007. Includes graphs showing numbers and percent of women serving on NSAs by continental region. [about]
    73. Native American Vision and the Teachings of 'Abdu'l-Baha, by Paula Bidwell (2011). Presentation addressing issues of concern to Native Americans, cast in the light of statements of Abdu'l-Bahá from his 1912 visit to the United States. [about]
    74. New Directions for Economics, by Gregory C. Dahl, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 28:1-2 (2018). How spiritual principles can be applied to economic life; Bahá'ís are called to concern themselves with the inequalities in the world and bring their personal lives and the actions of their communities more in line with principles of compassion. [about]
    75. Next Stage, The, by Douglas Martin, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 23:1-4 (2013). Bahá'í scholars find themselves at a stage in the Faith’s development where they must construct a discourse that is free of "haughty intellectualism." The Association for Bahá’í Studies can help promote the Bahá'í cause to institutions of higher learning. [about]
    76. One Common Faith, by Universal House of Justice (2005). Review of relevant passages from both the writings of Bahá'u'lláh and the scriptures of other faiths against the background of contemporary crises. [about]
    77. Perceiving Differences: A Look at Gender and Equality, by Mark Brush, in dialogue magazine, 2:2-3 (1988). Observations on what Richard DeNovellis' "Personality Type Preference Indicator" tests show about ages and genders; laws of nature vs. laws of God. [about]
    78. Power and the Bahá'í community, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 19 (2018). While Bahá'í social teachings may have sounded new and exciting a century ago, that is no longer the case today. The problem the world faces is not in the principles that would lead to a better society, but in their application. [about]
    79. Preliminary Survey of the Bahá'í Community of Iran during the Nineteenth Century, A, by Moojan Momen, in Iran im 19. Jahrhundert und die Enstehung der Bahá'í Religion, ed. Christoph Burgel and Isabel Schayani (1998). On the early growth and consolidation of the Bahá'í community in Iran; its membership and social and geographical composition; persecution; institutional developments; communications with Bahá'u'lláh; the conversion of Jews and Zoroastrians; women. [about]
    80. Preparing Bahá'í Communities in the East and West to Embrace Gender Equality, by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in Lights of Irfan, 12 (2011). The way Abdu'l-Bahá dealt with the matter of gender equality, some of his writings revealed in honor of the Bahá’í women in Iran and North America, and the practical ways he educated Bahá'í men to accept women as their equals. [about]
    81. Promoting the Equality of Women and Men: The Role of the Covenant, by Janet A. Khan, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 10:1-2 (2000). The implementation of the principle of gender equality; the application of relevant Bahá’í law, including progressive clarification and application, the principle of convergence, and the exercise of restraint, all so as to ensure enduring change. [about]
    82. Public Discourse on Race: Abdu'l-Bahá's 1912 Howard University Speech, by Christopher Buck (2012). Presentation at Louhelen Bahá’í School on ‘Abdu’l-Bahá and the black intelligentsia, his views of the Civil War and the Emancipation Proclamation, and his message to African Americans and the "Whites." [about]
    83. Qourrèt-oul-Aíne [Qurratu'l-`Ayn], by A.L.M. Nicolas, in Tahirih in History: Perspectives on Qurratu'l-'Ayn from East and West, ed. Sabir Afaqi (2004). First publication in English translation of early accounts of the life and death of Táhirih. These passages are from Seyyed Ali Mohammad dit le Bab (1905) by A.-L.-M. Nicolas, French diplomat and author. [about]
    84. Question of Gender, A: A Forum on the Status of Men in Bahá'í Law, by Susan Maneck and Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in dialogue magazine, 2:1 (1987). Six authors address issues of theology, sociology, law, inheritance, equality, the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, marriage, and feminism raised by John and Linda Walbridge's article "Bahá'í Laws on the Status of Men" (World Order 1984). [about]
    85. Reading Reality in Times of Crisis: 'Abdu'l-Bahá and the Great War, by Amin Egea, in Bahá'í World (2021). How ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s analysis of the crises of His time was profoundly distinct from contemporaneous “progressive” movements and thinkers. [about]
    86. Requisites for Family Unity: The Role of the Father in the Family, by Safoura Chittleborough, in The Family: Our Hopes and Challenges (1995). The importance of the family as a whole in child-rearing and the negative consequences of family breakdown. [about]
    87. Rewriting the Script: Some thoughts on gender roles and the Bahá'í Teachings, by Sonja van Kerkhoff (2000). A collection of visual and physical art exploring these themes. [about]
    88. Rights and Responsibilities in the Bahá'í Family System, by Hoda Mahmoudi and Richard Dabell, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 5:2 (1992). Duties ascribed in the Bahá’í teachings to the members of the family; complementary functions of women and men; the institution of marriage and family is fundamental in the development of a new society and global civilization based on equality and unity. [about]
    89. Role of the Feminine in the Bahá'í Faith, The, by Ross Woodman, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 7:2 (1995). On the terms 'Masculine' and 'Feminine' as referring to 2 interdependent energies at work within the Manifestation of God and throughout creation, including the human individual; the important role of the 'Feminine' principle in the Bahá’í Faith. [about]
    90. Role of the Feminine in the New Era, The, by Marion Woodman, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 2:1 (1989). The  unveiled feminine, symbolized by the unveiling of the Persian poet Táhirih at the conference of Badasht in 1848, announces a long-awaited coming of age or psychic integration. [about]
    91. Ruptured Spaces and Effective Histories: The Unveiling of the Babi Poetess Qurrat al-'Ayn-Tahirih in the Gardens of Badasht, by Negar Mottahedeh, in Occasional Papers in Shaykhi, Babi and Bahá'í Studies, 2:2 (1998). Implications of Tahirih's revolutionary act at Badasht in terms of a decisive break with Islamic history; also Shaykh Abu Turab's recollections of the event and his literary role in Nabil's Dawn-Breakers. [about]
    92. Searching for May Maxwell: Bahá'í Millennial Feminism, Transformative Identity and Globalism in the New World Order, by Selena M. Crosson (2013). On forces influencing and shaping womens' roles in early Bahá’i culture, 1898-1940. A group of Western women, associated with Maxwell through ties of faith and friendship, was one of the first to establish a transnational feminist reform network. [about]
    93. Seed of Creation: A philosophical approach towards the status of Universal House of Justice in respect to Baha'i concept of creation, by Ahmad Aniss (1998). A philosophical approach towards the status of Universal House of Justice in respect to Bahá'í concept of creation. [about]
    94. Selected Topics of Comparison in Christianity and the Bahá'í Faith, by Peter Mazal (1999). Comparison of Bahá'í and Christian morality, archetypal events and people (e.g. the ideal woman) in early Christian and Bábí-Bahá'í history plus concepts of Christ (Christology) and the Messiah compared to Prophets, Messengers and Manifestations of God. [about]
    95. Seneca Falls First Woman's Rights Convention of 1848: The Sacred Rites of the Nation, by Bradford W. Miller, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:3 (1998). Explores parallels between the Seneca Fails First Woman’s Rights Convention in the USA and the Badasht Conference in Iran, both in July 1848, in terms of the emancipation of women. [about]
    96. Sex, Gender, and New Age Stereotyping, by Lata Ta'eed, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 4:1 (1994). Advocates the abolishing of culturally produced differences between men and women and challenges gender inconsistencies inherent in many Bahá'í discussions. [about]
    97. Sexual Equality in the Bahá'í Community, by Shiva Tavana, in dialogue magazine, 1:3 (1986). Women are oppressed minorities who often feel isolated, even in Bahá'í communities. Bahá'ís need to explore new models of family life. Includes statistics on the percentages of female members of Bahá'í institutions. [about]
    98. Social Justice, Higher Education and the Oneness of Humankind, by Filip Boicu (2016). Notions of social justice can be reconfigured and connected to a positive ideology for universities with the understandings of the unity of humankind, the process of globalization in the light of unity, and the role of universities as a medium for change. [about]
    99. Social Justice, Wealth Equity and Gender Equality: Bahá'ís and non-Bahá'ís of Alberta, by Leslie William Kuzyk (2003). Bahá'í theology takes distinctive positions on wealth distribution and gender equality. These issues are causal factors in a more just model of society. A social survey establishes empirically whether a Bahá'í population differs from common society. [about]
    100. Spiritual Inheritors, The, by Bahiyyih Nakhjavani, in dialogue magazine, 2:1 (1987). Reflections on growing up Bahá'í, and a report on a conference about capturing the power of the Six Year Plan to focus attention on the role of women in establishing global peace, the destiny of the women of North America, and equality of sexes. [about]
    101. Spiritual Oppression in Frankenstein, by Phyllis Sternberg Perrakis, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 9:4 (1999). Comparing Shelley’s depiction of a spiritual malaise in Frankenstein with Bahá’u’lláh’s definition in the Kitáb-i-Íqán of the oppression experienced at the end of a reigning spiritual dispensation by the soul who seeks God but does not know where to look. [about]
    102. Táhirih: A Religious Paradigm of Womanhood, by Susan Maneck, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 2:2 (1989). Táhirih, the Bahá'í archetypal paradigm of womanhood, is remembered by Bahá’ís as the courageous, eloquent, and assertive religious innovator whose actions severed the early Bábís from Islam completely. [about]
    103. Tahirih and Women's Suffrage, by Universal House of Justice, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 4:2 (1990). Two letters on Táhirih's association with women's suffrage, and the authenticity of the words "You can kill me as soon as you like, but you cannot stop the emancipation of women". [about]
    104. "Tahirih: A Religious Paradigm of Womanhood," by Susan Stiles Maneck: Commentary, by Janet Cundall, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 4:4 (1992). [about]
    105. "The active force and that which is its recipient", by Betty Hoff Conow, in dialogue magazine, 2:2-3 (1988). Metaphysics of gender and the Lawh-i-Hikmat; universal spiritualism; social indoctrination of gender roles. [about]
    106. Theses on Modernity and the Bahá'í Faith, by Mikhail Sergeev, in Studies in Bahá'í Philosophy, vol. 4 (2015). On how new religious movements respond to modernity; cycles of religion; project of modernity; culture vs. civilization; the Bahá'í extension of modernity; Bahá'í departure from modernity; separation of religion and state. [about]
    107. True Foundation of All Economics, The, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (2000). Book-length compilation ordered by chapters covering 26 themes on the economy, welfare, development, women's employment, work ethics, morality, agriculture, extremes of wealth and poverty, profit-sharing, health and alcohol, consultation. [about]
    108. Two Books on the Life of Tahirih: Review, by Catherine Nash, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies (2019). Reviews of Rejoice in My Gladness: The Life of Táhirih and The Calling: Táhirih of Persia and Her American Contemporaries. [about]
    109. Two Wings of a Bird: The Equality of Women and Men, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States (1997). The emancipation of women, the achievement of full equality between the sexes, is essential to human progress and the transformation of society. [about]
    110. Unclipping the Wings: A Survey of Secondary Literature in English on Bahá'í Perspectives on Women, by Trevor R. J. Finch, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 4:1 (1994). Annotated bibliography of Bahá'í perspectives on women and women's issues. [about]
    111. Use of Masculine Pronouns and Images, by Research Department of the Universal House of Justice (2002). Overview of the use of gender terms in language, and a "cover letter" introduction to four compilations prepared by the Bahá'í World Centre which were attached to the cover letter. [about]
    112. Use of the Masculine Gender in the Bahá'í Writings, The: Extracts from Letters Written By and on Behalf of the Universal House of Justice (2002). Extracts from letters from the House of Justice from 1981-1999 on general principles in relation to this subject and the Bahá'í perspective on it. [about]
    113. Usuli, Akhbari, Shaykhi, Babi: The Tribulations of a Qazvin Family, by Moojan Momen, in Iranian Studies, 36:3 (2003). The emergence of the Usuli school in the evolution of Shi'is jurisprudence and theology in 18th and 19th-century Iran, viewed through the lens of the Baraghani family as it faced schisms of the Akhbari, Shaykhi, and Bábí movements. [about]
    114. Violence Against Women and Children, by Universal House of Justice, in American Bahá'í (1993). Explains the nature and treatment of all forms of violent oppression against the weak. [about]
    115. Vision of Race Unity: America's Most Challenging Issue, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States (1991). A formal statement from the US NSA on "the most challenging issue confronting America." [about]
    116. Wealth, Redistribution of, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (n.d.). Extract from "Jurisprudence and the Distribution of Wealth" followed by compilation "The Redistribution of Wealth — Some Specific Measures." [about]
    117. What Do Bahá'ís Believe about Gender?, by Gleibys L. Buchanan, in Washington Post (2011). Bahá'ís believe that gender equality must be manifested as a social reality. [about]
    118. Why There are No Women in the Universal House of Justice, by Vladimir Chupin (2011). Upon learning that it is forbidden to elect women to the Universal House of Justice, many people become puzzled, given the Faith's strong emphasis on the equality of the sexes. This essay offers some perspectives. [about]
    119. Women, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá, in Compilation of Compilations, Volume 2 (1991). Explores the status of women in the world, the development of women, the role of education in that development, the Bahá'í concept of gender equality and the application of that principle to family life. Includes bibliography of related Bahá'í literature. [about]
    120. Women and Wisdom in Scripture, by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in Lights of Irfan, 16 (2015). Treatment of women in religion; influence of Bahá'í teachings in raising awareness about the plight of women and transforming attitudes across the globe; role of linguistic biases in degrading their status; role of wisdom in achieving gender equality. [about]
    121. Women on the House of Justice; meaning of "Umumi", by Universal House of Justice (1997). Clarifies that 'Abdu'l-Bahá, in a tablet to Corinne True, indeed refers to the Universal House of Justice when affirming that membership is confined to men only. Includes a portion of Corinne True's original query to 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [about]
    122. Women on the Universal House of Justice, by Universal House of Justice (1988). Response to a paper presented at a Bahá'í Studies conference which raised the possibility that women could one day be eligible for membership on the Universal House of Justice. [about]
    123. Zaynab, by John Walbridge, in Amazons to fighter pilots, a biographical dictionary of military women (2003). Brief biography of a female Bábí fighter. [about]
     
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