|1870 19 Jul – 1871 10 May
||Franco-Prussian War was a conflict between the Second French Empire of Napoleon III and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia. The conflict was caused by Prussian ambitions to extend German unification and French fears of the shift in the European balance of power that would result if the Prussians succeeded.
See KA90 for Bahá'u'lláh's reference to this and KAN121 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's interpretation.
||Franco-Prussian War; War (general); History (general); Napoleon III
|1870 1 - 2 Sep
||Battle of Sedan. Napoleon III suffered defeat at the hands of Kaiser Wilhelm I. It resulted in the capture of Emperor Napoleon III and large numbers of his troops and for all intents and purposes decided the war in favour of Prussia and its allies, though fighting continued under a new French government. Napoleon went into exile in England, where he died in 1873.
Bahá'u'lláh referred to this in KA86.
||Sedan; France; Germany; England
||Franco-Prussian War; War (general); History (general); Napoleon III; Kaiser Wilhelm I; Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book)
|1877. 26 Sep
||Birth of Siegfried Schopflocher, Hand of the Cause of God, in Germany.
||Furth; Bavaria; Germany
||Siegfried Schopflocher; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
|1883. 15 Apr
||Birth in Goslar, Germany, of Dr Artur Eduard Heinrich Brauns, a prominent German Bahá'í, named by Shoghi Effendi a Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá.
||Artur Eduard Heinrich Brauns; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Births and deaths
|1905 (In the year)
||A Bahá'í group was established in Germany soon after the arrival of the first Bahá'í in the country, Dr. Edwin Fischer, in Stuttgart. He was dentist and a returned emigrant to the United States. German-born Alma Knobloch also became a Bahá'í in the United States 1903, before Fischer, but arrived in Germany in 1907. [BBRSM:107, 219; BWNS390]
||Edwin Fischer; Alma Knobloch; First Bahais by country or area
|1905 (In the year)
||A Bahá'í group was established in Germany. [BBRSM219]
|1909 (In the year)
||Karl Kruttner, a professor in Bohemia, became a Bahá'í, the first person to do so in the Austro-Hungarian empire.
||Karl Kruttner; First Bahais by country or area
||Louis Gregory travelled to Stuttgart after his visit with 'Abdu'-Bahá in Egypt. “When he went to Stuttgart,” ‘Abdu’l-Bahá wrote of him, “although being of black color, yet he shone as a bright light in the meeting of the friends.” [239 Days in America]
Members of that community, Miss Alma Knobloch, Mr and Mrs Herrigel and Mr Haiges went to London when 'Abdul-Bahá was visiting that city.
When He was Paris in October, Mr and Mrs Eckstein and Mr and Mrs Häfner and their child went to that city and were photographed with Him. From the 13th to the 16th of October, Miss Margarethe Döring remained with 'Abdul-Bahá and had the honour of living in the house occupied by Him; from the 19th to the 22nd, Miss Anna Kastlin, Miss Julie Stäbler and Mrs Schweizer were in Paris and during the three days of their visit were received six times in private audience. [SoW Vol 2 No 17 January 19, 1912 p8]
|1911. 30 Nov - 7 Dec
||It was about this time that 'Abdu'l-Bahá sent four Bahá'ís to Germany to assist with the teaching and the consolidation of the Faith. They were: Lady Blomfield, a Mrs Earl, Mírzá Asadu'lláh-i-Isfáhaání and Mirza Ahmad Sohrab. They remained in Stuttgart until the 7th of December.
Lady Blomfield then travelled to Vevey, Switzerland to be with her daughters and to continue working on the collected talks of 'Abdu'l-Bahá for publication. They stayed at the Hôtel Belvedere. [ABF255-256, 275]
||Paris; Stuttgart; Germany; Vevey; Switzerland
||Lady Blomfield; Mrs Earl, Mirza Asadu'llah-i-Isfahaani; Mirza Ahmad Sohrab; Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
|1913 30 Mar
||`Abdu'l-Bahá traveled from Paris to Stuttgart. [AB379]
He told His attendants to wear European dress and to discard their oriental headgear. [AB379]
He did not tell the Bahá'ís of Stuttgart of His arrival in advance. [AB379]
The party arrived on the 1st of April and took rooms in Hotel Marquardt, near the train station. Then He asked His attendant to telephone the Bahá'ís to announce His arrival and invite them to the hotel. [AB379-380]
||Paris; France; Stuttgart; Germany
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
|1913 3 Apr
||'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke to a large audience in the City Museum. The talk was translated into English by Ahmad Sohrab and then rendered into German by Herr Eckstein. [AB380-382]
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour;
|1913 7 Apr
||`Abdu'l-Bahá traveled to Bad Mergentheim by automobile to visit the hotel and mineral bath owned by Consul Schwarz, (Later named Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá by Shoghi Effendi). [AB383]
Later, in 1916 the local Bahá'í community commemorated the visit with the dedication of a monument, a life-sized likeness of the head of 'Abdu'l-Bahá on a granite stone about two metres in height. The Nazis removed it in 1937 but it was replaced in 2007. [BWNS524]
||Bad Mergentheim; Germany
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Cars; Consul Schwarz; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Monuments; Abdul-Baha, Pictures and portraits; Portraits; World War II; BWNS
|1913 8 Apr
||`Abdu'l-Bahá returned to Stuttgart, then left in the evening for Budapest, changing trains in Vienna the next morning. To this date no travel teacher had visited Budapest and there were no resident believers. [ABM316]
The trip was made at the invitation of, among others, Mr and Mrs Lipót Stark. the Secretary General of the Theosophical Society, who had given a lecture entitled "The Bahá'í Movement" on the 25th of February, 1912 and the text of the lecture had been published in the Esperanto periodical Teozofia (Theosophical). [SBBR14p110]
`Abdu'l-Bahá was accompanied by Wilhelm Herrigel to serve to translate into German. [AB384]
||Stuttgart; Germany; Budapest; Hungary
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Trains; Wilhelm Herrigel
|1913 24 Apr
||`Abdu'l-Bahá left Vienna and returned to Stuttgart, where He arrived in the early hours of the next morning. [AB389]
||Vienna; Austria; Stuttgart; Germany
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
|1913 1 May
||`Abdu'l-Bahá left Stuttgart and returned to Paris. [AB391]
||Stuttgart; Germany; Paris; France
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
|1914 (Early to middle of the year)
||The defection of Dr Amín Faríd, (b. 1882, d. 1953)`Abdu'l-Bahá's translator while in America, became known publicly. His mother was a sister of Munirih Khanum, wife of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [AB407]
For his activities against `Abdu'l-Bahá see AB230, 402, 407–9.
Dr. Aminu'lláh Faríd travelled to Europe in defiance of the wishes of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. In the absence of Lady Blomfield in London, a meeting at the Kingsway Hall had been arranged for him. Dr Lutfu'lláh prevented Dr Farid from speaking. Mason Remey and George Latimer were in London at the time. 'Abdu'l-Bahá also sent Dr Habibu'lláh Khudákhsh (later called Dr Mu'ayyad) and 'Azíz'lláh Bahádur to go to Europe to counter his activities. They were in Stuttgart when the war broke out. He recalled all four to the Holy Land (Sep-Oct). [AB407-409; Concerning Covenant-breakers: Excerpt by 'Abdu'l-Bahá translated by Ahang Rabbani] iiiii
Laura and Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney were dispatched to the United States where Mrs Chevalier had been acting as Dr Farid's emissary. [AB408]
For a description of his activities as a young man in 'Akká see M9YA108.
||United States; London; United Kingdom; Stuttgart; Germany
||Ameen Fareed (Amin Farid); Covenant-breakers; Lutfullah Hakim; Charles Mason Remey; George Latimer; Habibullah Khudakhsh; Habib Muayyad; Azizllah Bahadur; Laura Clifford Barney; Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; Chevalier, Mrs
|1914 4 Aug
||England declared war on Germany.
||United Kingdom; Germany; Europe
||World War I; War (general); History (general)
|1919 22 Feb
||The "Self-Publishing of the Bahá'í Association" was replaced by the establishment of the "Publishing House of the German Bahá'í Federation GmbH". This publishing house was founded by eighteen Bahá'ís with a share capital of 25,000 marks. [German Bahá'í website archive]
||Harlan and Grace Ober made a pilgrimage to visit 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Haifa. They returned via Germany and England where they had the privilege of meeting Shoghi Effendi, then a student at Oxford.
In Germany, at the suggestion of 'Abdu'l-Bahá they went to Leipzig where they spoke about the Faith at the Theosophical Society where two persons accepted the Faith. One was future Hand of the Cause Dr Hermann Grossmann and the other was Frau Lina Benke who shared the message with her husband George Adam Benke, the first European martyr. [BW13p869]
||Haifa; Germany; Leipzig; Oxford
||Harlan Ober; Grace Ober; pilgrimage; Hermann Grossmann; Lina Benke; George Benke
|1920 After Jul
||The first Argentineans to become Bahá'ís, Hermann Grossman and his sister Elsa Grossman, accepted the Faith in Leipzig in 1920.
They were born in Argentina and emigrated to Germany in 1909.
Dr Grossman heard of the Faith at a public meeting given by Harlan and Grace Ober at the Theosophical Society. [BW13:869]
||Herman Grossmann; Elsa Grossman; Harlan and Grace Ober; Theosophical Society; First Bahais by country or area
||Two Bahá'í publications began, Sonne der Wahrheit, meaning Sun of Truth, and Wirklichkeit, meaning Reality. [BWNS1289; German Bahá'í website archive]
||Sonne der Wahrheit (Sun of Truth); Wirklichkeit (Reality); - Periodicals; First publications; Publications; BWNS
||Shoghi Effendi sent verbal messages through Consul Schwarz to Germany and Ethel Rosenberg to Britain to form local spiritual assemblies and to arrange for the election of a national spiritual assembly in each country. [CB293; ER209, 211-12; PP56]
||Germany; United Kingdom; United States; Canada
||Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Consuls; Albert Schwarz; Ethel Rosenberg; National Spiritual Assemblies; NSA; Local Spiritual Assemblies; LSA; Spiritual Assemblies; Executive Board
||The formation of the National Spiritual Assembly of Germany and Austria. [GPB333]
||National Spiritual Assembly, formation
||Of the 38 localities where Bahá'ís resided in Europe, 26 were in Germany. [BBRSM182]
||The first German Bahá’í summer school was held, at Esslingen. [BBRSM182; BW5:44]
UD98 and BW5p30 put this date as 1932.
||Summer schools; First summer and winter schools
|1937 21 May
||All Bahá’í activities and institutions were banned in Germany by a special order of the Reichsführer SS and the Gestapo Chief of Staff Heinrich Himmler when he banned the Bahá'í Faith in Germany. He blamed it on the religion’s “international and pacifist tendencies.” The Nazi government increasingly targeted the Bahá'ís after Himmler’s edict, first by tearing down the public memorial to 'Abdu’l-Bahá in Bad Mergntheim and then, in 1939, making mass arrests of the former members of the National Spiritual Assembly. Bahá'ís went to jail, some for very long periods, without charges. In 1942, more mass arrests occurred. Many of the Bahá'ís from Germany and the surrounding countries disappeared in the Nazi concentration camp system.
[BBRSM185; Bahá'í Teachings; German Bahá'í website archives]
||Persecution, Germany; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Bans; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Court cases; World War II
|1938 to 1955
||The fourth Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh was Jináb-i-Valíyu'lláh Varqá, the third son of Varqá the martyr. He was born in Tabriz and after the death of his father and brother he was raised by his grandmother, a fanatical Muslim. At the age of 16 his uncle removed him from the home and taught him the Faith. He attended the American University at Beirut and spent summers with 'Abdu'l-Bahá and accompanied the Master to America and served as His interpreter. He returned to Iran where he served on local and national assemblies and was made a Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh in 1938 at a time when the observance of the law spread throughout Iran. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
He was elevated to a Hand of the Cause of God in 1951 and passed away in Tubingen, Germany in 1955 while taking a treatment for an illness. [BW13p831-834]
||Tubingen; Germany; Tabriz; Iran; Beirut; Lebanon; Akka
||Varqa, Valiyullah; Huququllah; Huququllah, Trustees of; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; American University of Beirut; Varqa
|1939 3 Sep
||World War II began with Britain and France declaring war on Germany after Germany invaded Poland.
||Europe; Germany; United Kingdom; France; Poland
||World War II; History (general); War (general)
|1944 2 May
||The German government held a public trial of some of the jailed Bahá'í leaders in Darmstadt. Dr. Hermann Grossmann was allowed to testify as a witness for the defense about the non-political nature of the Bahá'í Faith and the attitude of the trial had been pre-ordained. The government found the Bahá'ís guilty, levied large fines and banned all Bahá'í institutions ordering that they be immediately disbanded.
[Bahá'í Teachings; German Bahá'í website archives]
||Persecution, Germany; Hermann Grossmann
|1945 14 Aug
||The German Bahá’ís, 80 per cent of whom lived in the American sector of occupied Germany, obtained permission to re-organize. [BBRSM185]
A US soldier stationed in occupied post-war Germany, John Eichenauer, helped during the first days of the reconvening of the community. The American Bahá'ís sent money, food and literature, and aided them in rebuilding the administrative structures. [BWNS390]
Brief mention of this event is made in this film on Vimeo.
||Persecution, Germany; Persecution, Other; Persecution; World War II; BWNS; John Eichenauer
||The National Spiritual Assembly of Germany and Austria was re-established. [BN No 187 September 1946 p8-9]
It was elected for the first time since 1937.
Three American servicemen, Bruce Davison, John Eichenauer, and Capt Henry Jarvis rendered service to the stricken community.
It would appear that there was no Austrian representation at this National Convention nor at the National Convention the following year. [BW11p30]
||National Spiritual Assembly, formation
||The Germano-Austrian teaching plan, the German Five Year Plan(1948–53), comprising of internal goals only, was launched. [BBRSM158]
Some goals were:
- To double the number of Local Spiritual Assemblies from fourteen to twenty-eight, increasing the Bahá’í membership in each community
- To raise the number of localities in Germany and Austria where Bahá’ís reside
- To deepen the understanding of the friends in the operation of the Administrative Order
- To encourage deeper study of the teachings
- To construct the National Hazíratu’l-Quds in Frankfurt
- To enrich Bahá’í literature with two publications by March 1949, fifteen by March 1950, six by March 1951 and nine by 1952
|1953 19 Apr
||Shoghi Effendi announced plans to build a House of Worship in Frankfurt. [BW13:733; LDG191–2]l
For the difficulties in pursuing the project see BW13:733–7.
||Langenhain; Frankfurt; Germany; Europe
||Mashriqul-Adhkar, Langenhain; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
|1955 12 Nov
||Hand of the Cause of God Valíyu’lláh Varqá passed away in Stuttgart.
For his obituary see BW13:831–834.
Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
||Varqa, Valiyullah; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Varqa
||Shoghi Effendi called for the convocation of a series of Intercontinental Conferences to be held successively in Kampala, Uganda; Sydney, Australia; Chicago, United States; Frankfurt, Germany; and Djakarta, Indonesia. [BW13:311–12; MBW125]
||BWC; Kampala; Uganda; Sydney; Australia; Chicago; United States; Frankfurt; Germany; Djakarta; Indonesia
||Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade
|1958 25–29 Jul
||The fourth Intercontinental Conference was held at the mid-point of the Crusade and convenesdin Frankfurt, Germany. [BW13:327]
Amelia Collins, who had been designated by the Guardian as his representative, attended, accompanied by ten other Hands of the Cause. [BW13:327]
For the message of the Custodians to the conference see MC102–6.
For a report of the conference see BW13:327–9.
||Frankfurt; Germany; Europe
||Amelia Collins; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade
||Separate national spiritual assemblies were formed for Germany and Austria. [BW13p274, 283; BBRSM186]
For the letter of the Custodians to the national convention of Austria see MC158–60.
||National Spiritual Assembly, formation
|1960 20 Nov
||The cornerstone of the fifth House of Worship was laid in Langenhain, Germany, by Hand of the Cause of God Amelia Collins. [BW13:739; MC238, 245, 249–50]
See also MoC14–15, 236.
||Langenhain; Frankfurt; Germany; Europe
||Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Langenhain; Foundation stones and groundbreaking; Amelia Collins
|1962 16 Nov
||The superstructure of the European House of Worship near Frankfurt was completed and the Temple was turned over to the Bahá’ís by the contractor. [BW13:737; MoC15]
||Langenhain; Frankfurt; Germany
|1964 4 Jul
||The House of Worship in Langenhain, Germany, was dedicated. [BW14:483–4]
For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW14:485–6.
For pictures see BW14:482, 483, 485, 491.
For a description of the teaching conference accompanying the dedication see BW14:586–8.
See also MC14–15; PP432–4.
See this brief film on Vimeo on the life of Anneliese Bopp and her part in the building of this Temple.
Location: Frankfurt, Germany (near the village of Langenhain in the Taunus Hills)
Foundation Stone: 20 November 1960 by Hand of the Cause Amelia Collins representing the World Centre. She placed Sacred Dust from the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh in the foundations.
Construction Period: 1960-1964
Site Dedication:4 July 1964 Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum represented the Universal House of Justice.
Architect: Teuto Rocholl (plans approved by Shoghi Effendi)
Seating:450 – 600
Dimensions: Diameter at the base: 158ft, Inner diameter: 23m (69ft), Inner height of the dome: 24m (72ft). Height 20.5m (93ft)
Dependencies: A home for the aged.
Note: The construction of this temple was delayed by legal roadblocks instigated by church opposition, both Protestant and Catholic.
References: BW14p483, BW14p483-484, BW18p104, CEBF241
|Langenhain; Frankfurt; Germany; Europe
||Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Langenhain; Amelia Collins; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Teuto Rocholl; Architects; Boxes containing dust, earth or plaster; Bahaullah, Shrine of; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1967 5 – 10 Oct
||Six Intercontinental Conferences were held simultaneously in Panama City, Wilmette, Sydney, Kampala, Frankfurt and New Delhi to celebrate the centenary of the proclamation of Bahá’u’lláh to the kings and rulers of the world in September/October of 1867. [BW 14:221]
For the message of the Universal House of Justice to the conferences see BW14:221–2.
For descriptions of each conference see BW14:223–58.
See CG68-69 for a brief description of the Intercontinental Conference in Kampala.
The six Hands of the Cause representing the Universal House of Justice at the conferences travelled to Adrianople to visit the House of Bahá’u’lláh before dispersing to the conferences. [BW14:236, 458; VV2]
||Panama; Wilmette; US; Sydney; Australia; Kampala; Uganda; Frankfurt; Germany; New Delhi; India
||Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Intercontinental; Tablets to Kings and rulers; Centenaries
|1968 7 Jul
||The passing of Hand of the Cause Hermann Grossmann in Neckargemünd, near Heidelberg, (b.16 February, 1899) [BW15p416-421]
Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent of Hands of the Cause on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
For his biography see Herman Grossmann: Hand of the Cause of God, A Life for the Faith by Susanne Pfaff-Grossmann.
For his obituary see BW15:416–21.
For cable of the Universal House of Justice see BW15:416 and WG157–8.
Alternatively see Mess63-86p135.
||In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, First Contingent; Herman Grossmann
|1971 (In the year)
||In Germany, Hermann Zimmer resurrected the claims of Ruth White in a small book published in 1971 (English translation in 1973), A Fraudulent Testament devalues the Bahá'í Religion into Political Shogism.
In Switzerland, Francesco Ficicchia wrote a comprehensive attack aimed mainly at the Bahá'í administration, Der Bah'ismus Weltreligion der Zunkunft? (Evangelische Zentralstelle für Weltanschauungsfragen, Quell Verlag, Stuttgart, 1981).
Both of these works were financed and distributed by Evangelical Protestant organizations in Germany. [The Covenant and Covenant-breaker by Moojan Momen]
Information on the "Free Baha'is" available at their website Free Baha'i Faith.
||Covenant-Breakers; Hermann Zimmer; Ruth White; Francesco Ficicchia; Charles Seeburger; Free Baha'is; Jack McLean
||At the behest of the Universal House of Justice, two conferences were held for Persian-speaking Bahá’ís resident in Europe, one in Germany and one in London. [BW17:194]
||Germany; London; United Kingdom; Europe
||Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; Conferences, Persian-speaking Bahais; Persian diaspora
|1981 1 Jan
||The publication of Der Bahā'ismus, Weltreligion der Zukunft?: Geschichte, Lehre und Organisation in Kritischer Anfrage (Bahá'ism-Religion of the Future? History, Doctrine and Organization: A Critical Inquiry) by Francesco Ficicchia under the auspices of the Central Office of the Protestant Church for Questions of Ideology in Germany. This book was distributed by the Protestant Church and became the most widespread book on the Bahá'í Faith in German, and as such was widely accepted as a critical academic publication. At the time of its distribution a decision was taken to not dignify the publication with a rebuttal. This proved to be an error. Making the Crooked Straight was published in 1995 in German and translated/published by George Ronald Publishers in 2000. The purpose of the book, as the name suggests, was to address the distorted views presented in Ficicchia's publication. [MCSintroduction]
See The Refutation of Francesco Ficicchia and the Dangers of Silence by Jack McLean.
||Opposition; Criticism and apologetics; Making the Crooked Straight (book); Bahai Scholarship; A.L.M. Nicolas; Edward Granville Browne; Baron Viktor Rosen; Alexander Tumansky; Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Alfred von Kremer; propaganda; persecution, Iran; propaganda
|1984 28 Feb
||The passing of Renée Szanto-Felbermann (b 21 June, 1900, d. 28 February, 1984) in Freiburg, Germany. She is considered the first to declare her faith in Hungary. [BW19p633]
She is the author of The Memoirs of Renée Szanto-Felbermann, published in London by the Bahá'í Publishing Trust. It is the autobiography of a woman of Jewish heritage who was the first Hungarian Bahá'í. Particularly interesting is the period as Jewish-Bahá'í in Hungary during the Nazi era. [BEL7.2521]
||Freiburg; Germany; Hungary
||First Bahais by country or area; In memoriam; Births and deaths
||Representatives of 17 national spiritual assemblies in Europe and North America, together with senior representatives of the Offices of the Bahá’í International Community, met in Germany to discuss their external affairs. [AWH56; VV105]
|1989 18 Dec - 1990 2 Jan
||During the Youth Winter School in Traben-Trarback participants from 12 countries including East Germany, Romania, Hungary and the Soviet Union gathered for the first time since the Second World War. [BINS215:2]
||Traben-Trarback; Germany; Eastern Europe; Soviet Union; Russia
||Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; Conferences, International; Winter schools; First conferences
|1989 18 Dec - 1990 2 Jan
||West Berlin Bahá’í communities were joined by 26 Bahá’ís from six European countries and the United States in proclamation and teaching activities among East Germans. [BINS215:2]
More than 50,000 copies of a shortened version of the Peace Statement and other Bahá’í materials were distributed at four major border checkpoints in West Berlin and at the Brandenburg Gate. [BINS215:2]
||Promise of World Peace (statement); Teaching
|1990 (In the year)
||With the approval of the Universal House of Justice, the Bahá'í administrative institutions of the eastern and western parts of Germany were re-united. [BINS230:2]
||East; West; united
|1991. 5 Feb
||The highest legal authority in Germany, the Federal Constitutional Court, overturned the decisions of a number of lower courts that had refused to register the by-laws of a Local Spiritual Assembly on the grounds that the authority granted to the National Spiritual Assembly in the document violated the legal principle requiring the autonomy of all legally incorporated associations.
The case was first brought before the District Court of Tübingen when the legal administrator refused to register the Local Assembly on the 8th of December, 1983. The decision was appealed on the 5th of May 1985 to the High State Court in Sturrgart and rejected on the 27th of January 1986. News of the decision caused other jurisdictions to demand that local assemblies amend their By-Laws or face cancellation of their existing incorporation. The National Spiritual Assembly was in danger of the same fate. An appeal was submitted in March of 1986.
The ruling affirmed Bahá'í community, by it’s right as a recognized religion, recognized by public knowledge and by the testimony of scholars of comparative religion, had the right to a legal identity. [AWH87]
See Ridván Message 1991.
For complete details of the case see Mess86-01p206-235.
||LSA; NSA; By-laws; Legal recognition
||The Bahá'ís of East and West Germany were united at their 61st convention for the first time after the war. [VV113]
|1992 7 Mar
||The first local spiritual assembly in Eastern Germany was formed in Erfurt. [BINS267:3]
||The Local Spiritual Assembly of Leipzig, Germany, was re-formed 56 years after its dissolution during the time the Faith was banned. [BW93–4:82]
|1994 Jul 20 – 25
||The European Bahá'í Youth Council sponsored five regional ‘Shaping Europe' conferences, in Berlin, Bucharest, St Petersburg, Barcelona and Wolverhampton, United Kingdom. [BINS323:3–5; BW94–5:177–8, 189]
||Berlin; Germany; Bucharest; Romania; St Petersburg; Russia; Barcelona; Portugal; Wolverhampton; United Kingdom; Europe
||Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Youth
|2007 7 Apr
||A memorial removed by the Nazis when the Bahá'í Faith was outlawed in 1937 was restored by municipal authorities in the resort town of Bad Mergentheim in Germany. The stone commemorates the visit of 'Abdu'l-Bahá on April 7-8, 1913. The new memorial was unveiled on 7 April, by Mayor Lothar Barth accompanied by Bahman Solouki, a representative of the Bahá'í community of Germany. Please see the news story for pictures of both the original and the replacement monuments. [BWNS524]
||Bad Mergentheim; Germany
||Abdul-Baha, Pictures and portraits; Portraits; Monuments; Opposition; BWNS
|2009 7 – 8 Feb
||Regional Conferences were held in Frankfurt, Germany and Padua, Italy. [Padua, Frankfurt]
||Frankfurt; Germany; Padua; Italy
|2010 27 Apr
||The passing of Dr Nossrat Peseschkian (b. 18 June, 1933 in Iran d. 27 April, 2010 in Wiesbaden, Germany). He came to Germany in 1954 for his studies in medicine at the universities of Freiburg, Frankfurt am Main and Mainz. After his medical specialization and his dissertation, he had his postgraduate training in psychotherapy in Germany, Switzerland, Austria and the United States. Prof. Peseschkian was the founder and leading figure in the growth and development of Positive Psychotherapy for almost 40 years. As an international lecturer, he had traveled to 67 countries worldwide. A global network of over 100 local, regional and national centres of Positive Psychotherapy has been established in 33 countries to date. Among his works is the book "Oriental Stories as Tools in Psychotherapy: The Merchant and the Parrot", which included short stories from Persia and other countries that can be used in psychotherapy. [Wikipedia]
||Nossrat Peseschkian; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Psychology; Stories; Persian literature
|2012 20 Feb
||The passing of Anneliese Bopp, former Counsellor member of the International Teaching Centre at Bad Bruckenau, Northern Bavaria, Germany. [BWNS892]
First appointed to the Continental Board of Counsellors at Ridván 1970, she served at the International Teaching Centre from 1979 until 1988.
See Vimeo for a short biographical film on Anneliese Bopp entitled Miss Anneliese Bopp: A Champion of Faith.
||Bad Bruckenau; Germany
||Anneliese Bopp; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; International Teaching Centre; BWNS
|2017. 17 Dec
||The announcement by the Universal House of Justice of the passing of former House member Mr. Hartmut Grossmann.
"...he poured out his life in uninterrupted service to the Cause of Bahá’u’lláh, as a teacher, pioneer, and member of the National Spiritual Assemblies of Germany (1963-1969) and Finland (1977-1980), the Continental Board of Counsellors in Europe, (1980-1988) the International Teaching Centre (1988-2003) and, ultimately, of the Universal House of Justice (2003-2008)." [BWNS1228]
He was the son of Hand of the Cause of God Hermann Grossmann (1899-1968). He was predeceased by his wife Ursula. [BWNS622; Bahá'í Chronicles]
||Hartmut Grossmann; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; BWNS
||Religions for Peace is the world’s largest inter-religious coalition. Their mandate is to work to transform violent conflict, advance human development, promote just and harmonious societies. It is comprised of a world council of religious leaders and bodies from over 125 countries.
Its organization, built over its 50-year history, comprises of six regional Interreligious Councils and is built on the principle of religious representation that reflects the fabric of religious demography.
The Bahá'í International Community’s Principal Representative, Ms. Bani Dugal, was elected as a co-president and member of the World Council of Religions for Peace to become part of the 51 member council of co-presidents. The election, which is held every five years, was held in August in Lindau, Germany. Ms. Dugal was elected by over 700 voting delegates.
Dr. Azza Karam, Professor of Religion and Development at the Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam, Netherlands and former senior advisor on culture at the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) was elected as the body’s new secretary-general, becoming the first woman to hold the post. At UNFPA, she also served as chairperson of the UN task force on engagement with faith-based organizations.
||Baha'i International Community; Bani Dugal; Religions for Peace; Azza Karam
|2019. 30 Aug
||The passing of Dr Udo Schaefer (b. October 19, 1926 in Heidelberg, Germany). He enrolled as a Bahá'í in 1948 and became one of the most important contemporary theologians of the Bahá'í Faith, well known for his scholarship and his defence of the Faith. He came from a family of musicians and his early studies were in in that field but he changed streams and became a lawyer. [FaceBook]
English translations of his work include:
His publications in German.
His publications in French
His publications in Spanish
His publications in other languages, (Russian, Portuguese, Dutch and Farsi).
||In Memoriam; Udo Schaefer