Search for location "Canada"
|1866. 1 Dec
||Birth of Marion Jack, prominent Bahá'í travel teacher, pioneer and artist, known affectionately as ‘General jack' for her services to the Bahá'í community, in Saint John, New Brunswick.
LDG1:217 for information on her pioneer work.
||Saint John; New Brunswick; Canada
||Marion Jack; Births and deaths
|1874 14 Nov
||Birth of William Sutherland Maxwell, Hand of the Cause of God, in Montreal.
||Sutherland Maxwell; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
|1901 2 Nov
||Birth of John Robarts, Hand of the Cause of God, in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.
||Waterloo; Ontario; Canada
||John Robarts; Births and deaths
|1902 (In the year)
|| Bahá'í groups were established in Canada and in the Hawaiian Islands. [BBRSM:106-7; BFA2:160; SBBH1:135]
||First Bahais by country or area
|1902 8 May
||May Bolles married Sutherland Maxwell in London and moved to Montreal later in the year. [BW8:635; GPB260, BFA2:156 ]
||London; United Kingdom; Montreal; Canada
||May Maxwell (Bolles); Sutherland Maxwell
|1905 (In the year)
||The Niagara Movement was a civil-rights group founded in 1905 near Niagara Falls. Scholar and activist W. E. B. Du Bois gathered with supporters on the Canadian side of Niagara Falls to form an organization dedicated to social and political change for African Americans. They had to meet on that side of the border since no hotel on the American side would allow them to register. Their list of demands included an end to segregation and discrimination in unions, the courts, and public accommodations, as well as equality of economic and educational opportunity. Although the Niagara Movement had little impact on legislative action, its ideals led to the formation of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1909.
||Niagara Falls; Ontario; Canada
||Niagara Movement; W.E.B. Du Bois
|1907 (In the year)
||It wass estimated that there were from 1,000 to 1,100 believers in North America by this date, with about 12 believers in Montreal and six Bahá'ís in other localities in Canada. [BFA2:230]
||United States; Montreal; Canada
|1909 (In the year)
||Sutherland Maxwell, Hand of the Cause of God, became a Bahá'í. [BFA2:156]
||Montreal; Quebec; Canada
||Sutherland Maxwell; Hands of the Cause
|1909 21 Mar
||On the same day as the interment of the sacred remains of the Báb on Mount Carmel the first American Bahá'í Convention opened in Chicago. [BFA2:XVII, 309; BW13:849; MBW142–3; SBBH1:146]
It was held in the home of Corinne True. [CT82–3]
It was attended by 39 delegates from 36 cities. [GPB262; SBBH1:146]
The Convention established the 'Bahá'í Temple Unity', incorporated to hold title to the Temple property and to provide for its construction. A constitution was framed and an Executive Board of the Bahá'í Temple Unity elected. This body became the future National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada. [BBD39; BBRSM:106; BW10:179; GPB349; PP397; SBBH1:146] iiiii
||Chicago; United States; Canada
||Conventions, National; Corinne True; Bahai Temple Unity; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; First conventions; NSA; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship)
|1912 (In the year)
||There were about two dozen Bahá'ís in Canada by this year. [BFA2:158]
|1912 30 Aug
||`Abdu'l-Bahá left Malden for Boston. He left Boston by train for Montreal, arriving at midnight. [239D:132; AB132; BW8:637]
He stayed in Montreal for ten days, living for four nights at the Maxwell residence. [239D:132]
See also `Abdu'l-Bahá in Canada.
||Malden; Boston; Montreal; Canada
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Trains; Maxwell residence; Montreal Shrine; Abdul-Baha in Montreal
|1912 1 Sep
||'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk at the Church of the Messiah, corner of Simpson and Sherbrooke Sts in Montreal. (Architects: The Maxwell Bros. Built 1907, destroyed by fire 1937) [PUP297]
Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. William Sutherland Maxwell,
716 Pine Avenue West, (now 1548 avenue des Pins, ouest) Montreal, Canada. [PUP302]
Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. William Sutherland Maxwell,
716 Pine Avenue West, (now 1548 avenue des Pins, ouest) Montreal, Canada. [PUP306]
||Montreal; Quebec; Canada
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; May Maxwell (Bolles); Sutherland Maxwell; Abdul-Baha in Montreal
|1912 2 Sep
||Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. William Sutherland Maxwell,
716 Pine Avenue West, (now 1548 avenue des Pins, ouest) Montreal, Canada. [PUP308]
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; May Maxwell (Bolles); Sutherland Maxwell; Abdul-Baha in Montreal
|1912 5 Sep
||Talk at St. James Methodist Church, 463 Saint Catherine Street, West,
Montreal, Canada. [PUP312]
See the film Abdu'l-Bahá in Canada.
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches; Abdul-Baha in Montreal
|1912 9 Sep
||`Abdu'l-Bahá was taken to the Grand Trunk Railway station where departed Montreal on His way to Buffalo
arrived in Buffalo by train from Montreal. [239D:139; AB265]
||Montreal; Canada; Buffalo
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Trains; ; Abdul-Baha in Montreal
|1915 (In the year)
||A plan to fund part-time travelling Bahá’í teachers in the USA and Canada was approved. There had been a great deal of reluctance to take this measure for fear of creating a "clergy" class but the vastness of the country and the fewness of believers of independent means as well as the impetus to teaching sparked by 'Abdu'l-Bahá's visit helped to take the decision. [BBRSM:105, 219]
||United States; Canada
||Subsidies; Funds; Travel teaching
||Shoghi Effendi sent verbal messages through Consul Schwarz to Germany and Ethel Rosenberg to Britain to form local spiritual assemblies and to arrange for the election of a national spiritual assembly in each country. [CB293; ER209, 211-12; PP56]
||Germany; United Kingdom; United States; Canada
||Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Consuls; Albert Schwarz; Ethel Rosenberg; National Spiritual Assemblies; NSA; Local Spiritual Assemblies; LSA; Spiritual Assemblies; Executive Board
|1922 10 Dec
||The first local assembly of Montreal was formed. [BW8:639, OBCC157, TG26]
||Montreal; Quebec; Canada
||A Plan of Unified Action to Spread the Bahá'í Cause Throughout the United States and Canada January 1, 1926-December 31, 1928 was formulated by The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada in response to Shoghi Effendi's message to the annual National Convention. [BA86-89]
It can be found at [Plan] The goals were (1) to unify the American Bahá'í community's efforts, (2) to increase the number of Bahá'ís, (3) to "penetrate the consciousness of the public with the spirit of Bahá'u'lláh", and (4) to raise $400,000 so that the construction of the first unit of the Temple's superstructure could begin. [SBBR14p160, BFA1p110]
This was the first of two Plans developed by the North American National Assembly in the years from 1926 to 1934 the second being "A New Plan of Unified Action To complete the Bahá'í Temple and promote the Cause in America (1931-1934)". [SBBR14p155-197]
The above two plans were the first to have the expansion and development of the Bahá'í community as a primary goal and it is likely that they provided the model for other plans organized by Shoghi Effendi and other National Assemblies. [SBBR14p155]
The first Plan of Unified Action indicates the ascendancy of those Bahá'ís who supported a centralizing authority over those who wanted a more amorphous system or no organization at all.[BiW177-8]
During the years of these two plans the National Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada developed practices commonly used in subsequent plans, organized propagation, a central budget and the modern form of the Nineteen Day Feast. [SBBR14p160]
- For an essay on this subject see "Some Aspects of the Establishment of the Guardianship" by Dr Loni Bramson-Lerche in SBBR5p253-293
|United States; Canada
||Teaching Plans; Teaching Plans, National; NSA
|1926 (In the year)
||Green Acre came under the direct supervision of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada. [GAP118]
Canadian Bahá'is played a significant role in redeeming the debts of Green Acre to prepare for its transference to trustees for the benefit of the National Spiritual Assembly. It became the first Bahá'í School to be legally placed under Bahá'í administrative authority in North America. [CBN 82 November, 1956 p2]
||Eliot; Maine; United States; Canada
||Green Acre; NSA United States and Canada
|1927 8 Jan
||The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada appointed seven people to a National Race Unity Committee. [SBR94; TMW166]
For the functions and challenges faced by the committee see TMW165–72.
||United States; Canada
||NSA; Race (general); Race Unity; Race Amity
||The American National convention was held in Montreal, a major subject of which was race relations. [TMw178]
Edwina Powell spoke on the subject, as she had been asked by Shoghi Effendi. [TMW178]
In her address, Sadie Oglesby recalled her conversations with Shoghi Effendi on the subject of race. [TMW178–80]
||Montreal; Quebec; Canada
||NSA; Conventions, National; Edwina Powell; Race (general); Sadie Oglesby
|1927 29 Apr - 1 May
||The third National Convention of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada was held at the Windsor Hotel in Montreal, the hotel where 'Abdu'l-Bahá stayed during His visit in 1912. [Bahá'í News No. 17 April, 1927]
||Montreal; Quebec; Canada; United States
||The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada drew up and published a ‘Declaration of Trust’ and ‘By-laws of the National Spiritual Assembly’. [BW2:89, BW10:180]
For text see BW2:90–8.
The Guardian described it as the Bahá’í ‘national constitution’ heralding ‘the formation of the constitution of the future Bahá’í World Community’. [GPB335; PP302–3]
The drafting was largely the work of Horace Holley with assistance from the lawyer Mountfort Mills. [SBR234]
In subsequent years the National Assemblies of India and Burma, of Egypt, Iraq, Persian and the British Isles all adopted this example almost verbatim. [UD101, BA134-5, SETPE1p145-6]
||United States; Canada
||NSA; Horace Holley; Mountfort Mills; Constitutions; By-laws; Recognition; Firsts, Other
|1928 11 - 12 Feb
||The ‘Conference for Inter-Racial Amity' was arranged by Inter-Racial Amity Committee of the Bahá’ís of Montreal’. There were three sessions in three venues: the YMCA, Channing Hall, and the Union Congregational Church. Speakers included Louis Gregory (‘International Lecturer on Race Relations’) and Agnes MacPhail, first Canadian woman Member of Parliament. [The Bahá'í 'Race Amity' Movement and the Black Intelligentsia in Jim Crow America: Alain Locke and Robert Abbot by Christopher Buck page 34, Bahá'í Studies Review, 17, pages 3-46, 2011, BW7p660]
See BW6p659-664 for the essay by Louis Gregory entitled "Racial Likenesses and Differences: The Scientific Evidence and the Bahá'í Teachings".
Date conflict: "The Origins of the Bahá'í Community of Canada, 1898-1948 by Will C. van den Hoonaard on page 90 says: "and on 2-4 March 1930 The Montreal Bahá'ís held Race Amity meeting." His source was the National Bahá'í Archives Canada, Notes on Montreal Bahá'í History.
||Montreal; Quebec; Canada
||Race (general); Race Amity; Race unity; Conferences, Race Amity; Agnes MacPhail; Louis Gregory
|1929 16 Mar
||In December of 1925 the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of United States and Canada adopted the "Unified Plan of Action" and among the resolutions was to raise some $400,000 over the following three years to construct the first unit of the superstructure of the Temple. By the end of 1926 only $51,000 had been collected and the following year was just as disappointing. At the National Convention in 1928 Fred Schopflocher's donation of $25,000 inspired contributions and the Fund rose to about $87,000 by March 1929. On this day Fred and Lorol Schopflocher contributed a further $100,000. [LoF388-389, SETPE1p162-163]
See May 1937 for another contribution of $100,000 from the Schopflochers.
||Montreal; Canada; Wilmette; United States
||Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Fred Schopflocher; Lorol Schopflocher; Unified Plan of Action; Funds
||There were still only 30 Bahá’ís in Canada by this date. [BBRSM186]
||Shoghi Effendi wrote to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada stating that the laws of fasting, obligatory prayer, the consent of parents before marriage, the avoidance of alcoholic drinks and monogamy should be regarded as universally applicable and binding. [CB313]
||United States; Canada
||Laws; Gradual implementation of laws; Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); - Basic timeline, Expanded; Obligatory Prayer
|1937 (In the year)
||Mrs Mabel Ives made an extended trip to Moncton, New Brunswick to teach the Faith. She was assisted by Rosemary Sala of St. Lambert. [TG102, 108]
||Moncton; New Brunswick; Canada
|1937. 11 Apr
||The passing of Dr. Zíá Bagdádí (b. February 9, 1882, Beirut, Lebanon) in Augusta, Georgia. He was buried in Westover Memorial Park, Augusta, Georgia.
Dr. Bagdádí attended the American University of Beirut and graduated as a physician. In September 1909, on ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s advice, he moved to Chicago to further his medical studies and soon emerged as a pillar of the Chicago Bahá’í community. A major translator of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s tablets into English and the editor of the Persian pages of Star of the West, he accompanied ‘Abdu’l-Bahá on much of His North American travels in 1912.
In the year 1929, Dr. Bagdádí wrote a book telling of his birthplace and travels in the Orient under the title, Treasures of the East. He wrote of his experiences in the presence of Bahá'u'lláh as a child.
He married Zeenat Khanum who was the daughter of Hasan Aqa Tabrizi, aunt of Ali Nakhjavani who went to the Holy Land to give information relating to the restoration of the house of ‘Abdu’llah Pasha. Zeenat’s sister was Fatimih Khanum (Ali Nakhjavani’s mother) who spent her youth in service to the Greatest Holy Leaf. These two sisters, when they were young girls in ‘Akka, nine and eleven years old, were accepted into the household of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá. They were married in the first Bahá’í marriage in Montreal, Canada which took place on April 30, 1914. [Bahá'í Chronicles]
||Augusta, Georgia; United States; Beirut; Lebanon; Montreal; Canada
||In Memoriam; Zia Bagdadi; Bagdadi family; Star of the West; Zeenat Khanum; Hasan Aqa Tabrizi; Fatimih Khanum; Ali Nakhjavani; House of Abdullah Pasha; American University of Beirut
||The First Seven Year Plan (1937-1944) was launched in North America. [BBD180; BBRSM158; BW7:17–18; MA9, 11-12, 87]
The Guardian's Seven Year Plan for the American Bahá'ís
For the role of individuals, local spiritual assemblies and the National Spiritual Assembly see MA11–12.
The Plan called for:
- the completion of the exterior of the Wilmette Temple. BW7:17–18; PP385]
- the establishment of a local spiritual assembly in each state and province of the United States and Canada. [PP385]
- the establishment of a centre in each of the republics of Latin America. [PP385]
|United States; Canada
||Seven Year Plan, US and CA (1937-1944); Teaching Plans; Teaching Plans, National; LSA; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette
|1938 (In the year)
||The first native person to become a Bahá’í in Canada, Melba Loft (née Whetung), a Chippewa, accepted the Faith.
|1940 (In the year)
||The Canadian Department of National Defence exempted Bahá’ís from combatant military duty.
||Exemption; Recognition; Military
||The first Canadian Bahá’í summer school was held, in Montreal. [BW9:28, TG84]
||Summer schools; First summer and winter schools
||Those elected to serve the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada were: George O. Latimer (Chairman), Allen B. McDaniel (Vice), Horace Holley (Secretary), Louis G. Gregory (Recording Secretary), Roy C. Wilhelm (Treasurer), Dorothy Baker. Amelia E. Collins, Philip G. Sprague, Leroy loss. The Assembly appointed Siegfried Schopflocher to serve as the Treasurer of the Canadian Bahá’í Fund. [
||North America; United States; Canada
||National Convention; George Latimer; Allen McDaniel; Horace Holley; Louis Gregory; Roy Wilhelm; Dorothy Baker; Amelia Collins; Philip Sprague; Leroy Ioas; Siegfried Schopflocher
|1945 20 Oct
||Emeric and Rosemary Sala of St. Lambert, Quebec departed on a four month tour of Central and South America. They visited 19 republics and Mr Sala gave seventy-nine talks. They visited many pioneers and paid homage at the grave of May Maxwell at Quilmes, about one hour from Buenos Aires. [TG93-101]
||Central America; Latin America; St Lambert; Quebec; Canada
||Emeric Sala; Rosemary Sala
||The Second Seven Year Plan of the United States and Canada (1946-1953) was launched. [BBR180; BBRSM158, 185; MA87-89, MA89]
For details of the plan see BW16:81–2.
This marked the end of the First Epoch and the beginning of the Second Epoch of the Formative Age. [CB316; CF5–6]
The Second Epoch was marked by the global spread of the Faith and concluded with the election of the Universal House of Justice.
||United States; Canada
||Seven Year Plan, US and CA (1946-1953); Teaching Plans; Teaching Plans, National; Formative Age; Ages and Epochs
||Rita Marshall, the first person native to St Vincent in the Caribbean to become a Bahá’í, accepted the Faith while in Halifax, Nova Scotia.
Her husband, Ernest Marshall, became a Bahá’í in November 1946.
||St Vincent; Halifax; Nova Scotia; Canada
||First Bahais by country or area
||The newly formed National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canada launched a Five Year Plan (1948-1953). [Ruhi 8.2 p46; BBRSM158]
Some objectives were;
- To incorporate the National Spiritual Assembly
- To establish national endowments
- To increase to thirty the number of Local Spiritual Assemblies
- To increase to one hundred the number of localities where Bahá’ís reside
- To form a group in Newfoundland
- To form a group in Greenland
- To enroll (Eskimos) Inuit and (Native Indians) First Nations in the Faith
||Teaching Plans; Teaching Plans, National
|1948 24 - 25 Apr
||The National Spiritual Assembly of the Dominion of Canada was established. [BBRSM:186; BW13:856; MBW143; PP397]
See BW11:160, 184 for pictures.
The first National Convention was held in the Maxwell's home (in 'Abdu'l-Bahá's home as will be the election of the Universal House of Justice some 15 years hence.) with 13/19 delegates from all the provinces attending. (Six were unable to attend due to a flood.) Those elected to the first National Spiritual Assembly were: Laura Davis, Rowland Estall, Lloyd Gardner, Doris Richardson, John Robarts, Emeric Sala, Rosemary Sala, Siegfried Schopflocher, and Ross Woodman. [TG110, OBCC269]
For a picture of the first Canadian National Spiritual Assembly see OBCC148.
||National Spiritual Assembly, formation; National Convention; Laura Davis; Rowland Estall; Lloyd Gardner; Doris Richardson; John Robarts; Emeric Sala; Rosemary Sala; Siegfried Schopflocher; Ross Woodman
|1949 30 Apr
||An Act to incorporate the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of Canada was passed. The act established the name, named the officers as directors, stated the location of the headquarters, defined the objectives, gave it the right to manage the affairs of the Bahá'ís, to make by-laws and to hold property. It was used as a model for registration/incorporation in other states.
The pdf for the Act can be found here.
The National Spiritual Assembly members at that time were John Aldham Robarts, of the city of Toronto, province of Ontario, manager; Emeric Sala, of the city of St. Lambert, province of Quebec, manufacturer; Dame Laura Romney Davis, wife of Victor Davis of the city of Toronto, province of Ontario; Siegfried Schopflocher, of the city of Montreal, province of Quebec, manufacturer; Rowland Ardouin Estall, of the city of Montreal, province of Quebec, insurance broker; Ross Greig Woodman, of the city of Toronto, province of Ontario, lecturer; Lloyd George Gardner, of the city of Toronto, province of Ontario, wholesaler; and Dame Doris Cecilia Richardson, wife of J. P. Richardson, of the city of Toronto, province of Ontario; and Dame Rosemary Scott Sala, wife of the said Emeric Sala, of the city of St. Lambert, province Corporate of Quebec.
See Shoghi Effendi's letter of 19 June, 1949 for his comments.
||NSA; Incorporation; Firsts, Other; Recognition
||Brian Burland, the first Bermudian to become a Bahá’í, accepted the Faith in Canada.
||First Bahais by country or area
|1951 (In the year)
||By this year the first Canadian Inuit had become a Bahá’í.
||First Bahais by country or area; First believers by background; Inuit
|1952 25 Mar
||Sutherland Maxwell, Hand of the Cause of God, passed away in Montreal. He died in the very room that the Master had slept in during His visit to Canada. (b.14 November, 1874) [DH143; MBW132; PP246; CBN undated Memorial Issue]
For his obituary see BW12:657–62.
Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
For his relationship with Shoghi Effendi and work on the superstructure of the Shrine of the Báb see PP236–43.
Shoghi Effendi named the southern door of the Báb’s tomb after him in memory of his services.
On June 16th, 1952, friends of the Montreal area gathered at the grave to place, under the headstone, an alabaster box that had been sent by the Guardian. The box contained a piece of plaster taken from the walls of the prison in Máh-Kú where the Báb had been incarcerated in 1847. Another piece of plaster from the same source had been placed under the first golden tile of the dome of the Shrine of the Báb. The superstructure of the Shrine had been designed by Sutherland Maxwell. [TG55]
Find a grave.
For a brief biography see LoF276-286.
||Sutherland Maxwell; Architects; Fortress of Mah-Ku; Gifts; Relics; Bab, Shrine of; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
|1953 20 Jun
||Shoghi Effendi designated the Maxwell home in Montreal as a Shrine. [MtC179]
||Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Montreal Shrine; Maxwell Home; Firsts, Other
|1953 27 Jul
||Siegfried (Fred) Schopflocher, Hand of the Cause of God, passed away in Montreal and was buried beside the grave of Sutherland Maxwell in Mount Royal Cemetery. He was born in Germany in 1877. [BW12:664-666, LOF390, TG119, CBNS 24 July 2014, Bahá'í Chronicles, SCRIBD, Schopflocher, Siegfried (1877–1953) by Will C. van den Hoonaard]
Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the second contingent on the 29th of February, 1952. [MoCxxiii]
See TG32, 228 and LoF384-390 for short biographies.
See Schopflocher, Siegfried by Will C. van den Hoonaard.
For his obituary see BW12:664–6.
He was known as the “Temple Builder” because of his great contributions to the completion of the first Mashriqu’l-Adhkár of the West. [BW12:664-666]
For a brief biography see Bahá'í Chronicles.
Find a grave.
||Siegfried Schopflocher; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Second Contingent; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette
|1953 8 Sep
||Jameson and Gale Bond arrived in Arctic Bay in the District of Franklin and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:451, SDSC127]
||Arctic Bay; Franklin; Canada
||Jameson Bond; Gale Bond; Knights of Bahaullah
|1953 23 Sep
||Ted and Joan Anderson arrived in Whitehorse, Canada, and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for the Yukon. [BW13:457]
||Knights of Bahaullah; Ted Anderson; Joan Anderson
|1953 20 Nov
||The formation of the Israel Branch of the Bahá'ís of Canada.
||Israel Branch of the Bahais of Canada
||John and Audrey Robarts with their two younger children, Patrick and Tina, left Toronto for their pioneer post in Mafeking (later Mafikeng), Buchuanaland (later Botswana and formerly Bophuthatswana). Older children Aldham and Gerald pioneered to Nigeria and a homefront post respectively. [LOF485-6; CBN No48 January 1954 p11]
Later the same year he was appointed to the newly established Auxiliary Board by Hand of the Cause of God Músá Banání. They returned to Canada some 13 years later. [LOF486, 491]
||Canada; Botswana; Nigeria; Africa
|1954 21 Apr
||Bruce Matthew arrived at Goose Bay and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for Labrador. [BW13:453]
||Goose Bay; Labrador; Canada
||Knights of Bahaullah
||The publication of Ade-rih-wa-nie-ton On-kwe-on-we Neh-ha: A Message to the Iroquois Indians in the Canadian Bahá'í News. This pamphlet was translated to the Mohawk language by Mr. Charles Cooke of Ottawa and there is reason to believe the translation was commissioned by the Québec Regional Teaching Committee. [Letter from the National Spiritual Assembly to Dr. C Buck 6 January 2021; CBN No69 Oct 1955 p4; CBN 45 April 1956 p.11]
See Deganawida, the Peacemaker by Dr Christopher Buck published in American Writers: A Collection of Literary Biographies Supplement XXVI (2015)
See as well Native Messengers of God in Canada?: A Test Case for Bahá'í Universalism by Christopher Buck published in Bahá'í Studies Review, 6, pages 97-133 London: Association for Bahá'í Studies English-Speaking Europe, 1996. Also Native Messengers of God in Canada? A test case for Bahá'í universalism, by Christopher Buck:Commentary by William P. Collins.
Also of interest on the same subject is his article Dr. David Ruhe’s Tribute to Indigenous Messengers of God.
See as well Messengers of God in North America, Revisited:
An Exegesis of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Tablet to Amír Khán by Christopher Buck and Donald Addison.
For information about the Tablet to Amír Khán see Tablet to Amir Khan and Tablet of the Holy Mariner by / on behalf of Universal House of Justice.
Bahá'í Universalism and Native Prophets by Christopher Buck.
See the series Indigenous Messengers of God.
||Indigenous Messengers of God; Iroquois; Native Americans
||Mary Zabolotny (later Mrs Ken McCulloch), of Ukrainian background, arrived on Anticosti Island, Canada, and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:449]
||Anticosti Island; Canada
||Knights of Bahaullah; Mary Zabolotny McCulloch; Islands
|1960 1 Jul
||Ben and Louise Whitecow (early Peigan believers) married in Calgary, Alberta, were the first Bahá’ís in Canada to have a legally recognized Bahá’í marriage. [BW13:687]
||Calgary; Alberta; Canada
||Weddings; Recognition; Firsts, Other
|1961 8 Jul
||The Custodians announced that mass conversion had begun in Ceylon, Central and East Africa, and Bolivia, while in Canada native peoples had begun to enter the Faith. [MoC293]
||Sri Lanka; Africa; Bolivia; Canada
||Custodians; Mass conversion; Native Americans; First Nations
|1962 22 May
||The first Athabascan Indian north of the Arctic Circle to become a Bahá’í, Charley Roberts, enrolled. [BW15:455]
||First Bahais by country or area; Native Americans
|1965 (In the year)
||William Carr visited Alert in Canada, only 800 km from the North Pole and the most northerly inhabited location in the world.
||William Carr; Arctic
|1966 12 Dec
||The Hand of the Cause John Robarts departed Africa from Cape Town after a stay of nearly 13 years. They were recalled from their pioneer post by the Universal House of Justice to help Canada win the goals of the Nine Year Plan. The objective was to raise 154 local assemblies by 1973 but the count had fallen from 68 to only 50, eighteen less than the number won during the Ten Year Plan and 104 short of the objective. [LNW158]
||Cape Town; South Africa; Canada
||John Robarts; Hands of the Cause
|1967. 24 - 26 Mar
||The Arctic Policy Conference was held in Toronto. Present were 16 attendees, Hand of the Cause John Robarts, representatives of the National Spiritual Assembly, the Auxiliary Board, the National Pioneer Committee and individuals involved in the teaching work in the Arctic. It was decided to establish Bahá'í houses in Frobisher Bay in the District of Franklin, Baker Lake in the District of Keewatin and Yellowknife in the District of Mackenzie. [SDSC278]
Photo of Bahá'í House in Baker Lake.
||Toronto; Frobisher Bay; Baker Lake; Yellowknife; Canada
||John Robarts; Bahai centres
|1967 29 Oct
||The launch of the Centenary of Bahá'u'lláh's proclamation to the kings and the rulers in Toronto. A 30-minute memorial service for Catherine Huxtable was added to the program that included an eulogy by Michael Rochester. [LNW176-179]
||Tablets to Kings and rulers; Centenaries; Catherine Huxtable
|1967. 11 Dec
||The Bahá'í Campus Club was inaugurated at the University of New Brunswick.
||Moncton; New Brunswick; Canada
||Bahai associations; Universities
|1969. 1 Jan
||The Fredericton Bahá'í community became a registered charitable organization.
||Fredericton; New Brunswick; Canada
|1970 26 Sep
||The passing of Florence Evaline (Lorol) Schopflocher (b. Florence Evaline Snyder in Montreal 24 July,1886).
Wife of Hand of the Cause of God Siegfried Schopflocher. For his "In Memoriam" see BW7p664.
She circled the globe nine times on travel teaching tours and visited some 86 countries, many of them multiple times. She travelled to Iran twice visiting parts not previously visited by Western Bahá'ís.
She visited the Guardian 11 times.
She had several audiences with King Faisal in Iraq and discussed the question of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád with him.
Favourite themes for her public talks were the World Order letters of Shoghi Effendi and the emancipation and education of women.
A radiant star went from the West to the East. [BW15p488-489]
Find a grave. She was not interred in the Mount Royal Cemetery in Montreal as stated in this reference. She was buried in the Mount Pleasant Cemetery in Eliot Maine.
|Montreal; Quebec; Canada
||Lorol Schopflocher; Siegfried Schopflocher; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; House of Bahaullah (Baghdad)
|1971 11 Feb
||The Montreal Municipality issued a permit recognizing the Maxwell home as a Bahá'í Shrine after nine years of negotiations and delays. With this struggle came a hidden blessing. For years the Shrine had been used as a Bahá'í Centre by the Montreal community, open also to friends of the area as a place to hold public meetings, open Feasts, and certain activities not always suited to it as a Shrine. The realization was made that it was a National Bahá'í Shrine and as such should not be used as a centre. [CBNApril1971p10]
||Montreal; Quebec; Canada
||Montreal Shrine; Legal recognition
|1974 (In the year)
||The Canadian Association for Studies on the Bahá’í Faith was created. [BW16:200]
For its history; terms of reference and programmes and publications see BW17:197–201.
||Bahai Studies, Associations for
|1975 (In the year)
||Elizabeth Martin, with the help of Chris Lyons produced film entitled Invitation. It was a memoir of Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum incorporating footage from Khánum's Andean trip along with memories of her childhood years in Montreal. [HNWE36]
||film; Invitation; Elizabeth Martin; Chris Lyons; Amatu'l-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum
|1975 2 – 4 Jan
||The first annual meeting of the Association for Bahá’í Studies is held at Cedar Glen, Bolton, Ontario. [BW17:198]
See also BBD201–2; VV23–5.
||Bolton; Ontario; Canada
||Conferences, Bahai studies; Bahai Studies, Associations for
|1976 (In the year)
||Elizabeth Martin with Chris Lyons made a film called Retrospective, a memoir of Hand of the Cause John Robarts. It included his reminiscences of the Guardian and of the early days of the Faith in Canada. [HNWE36]
||Film; Elizabeth Martin; Chris Lyons; John Robarts; Hands of the Cause
|1976 6 – 7 Nov
||The first Canadian Bahá’í Native Council was held in Tyendinaga, Ontario. [BW17:162]
||Tyendinaga; Ontario; Canada
||Dorothy Francis, an Aboriginal person from the Salteaux tribe, was awarded the Order of Canada for her services to Canadian native peoples and her efforts to preserve their culture. [BW17:103; VV29]
For a picture see BW17:103.
|1980 (In the year)
||The film Jubilee, commissioned by the Universal House of Justice and made by Elizabeth Martin, documented the dedication of the cornerstone for the House of Worship in Samoa.
She also made a second version of this film entitled Blessed Is the Spot which focused more directly on the dedication ceremonies.
The film The Bahá'ís was an introductory film on the development activities of the Bahá'í communities around the world was edited by Elizabeth Martin. [HNWE45]
||Documentaries; Elizabeth Martin; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Apia; Foundation stones and groundbreaking
|1980 2 May
||The first Bahá’í International Conference on Health and Healing was held in Ottawa, Canada, under the sponsorship of the Association for Bahá’í Studies. [BW 18:201]
||Bahai Studies, Associations for; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Health; Conferences, International; First conferences
|1981 - 2002
||A Persian-language Bahá’í quarterly journal entitled `Andalíb was published from 1981 to 2012 under the auspices of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of Canada. From issue no. 69, responsibility for the publication was moved to the Association of Bahá’í Studies in Persian (an agency of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of Canada).
Journals from Year 1 (138-9 BE, 1981-2), Issue 1: Winter to Year 23 (162 BE, 2005-6), Issue 90: Spring are available online at the Afnan Library website.
||Thornhill; Ottawa; Canada
||Publications; Andalib (journal); Bahai Studies
||The Canadian Association for Studies on the Bahá’í Faith was renamed the Association for Bahá’í Studies. [BBD202; VV24–5]
||Bahai Studies, Associations for
|1982 (In the year)
||The Canadian Bahá’í International Development Service was established. [BBRSM154]
|1982 10 – 11 Apr
||The Bahá’í International Health Agency was established as an affiliate of the Association for Bahá’í Studies. [BW18:201; VV25]
||Bahai Studies, Associations for; Bahai International Health Agency
|1982 9 Jun
||The passing of Richard Edward St. Barbe Baker (b. 9 October, 1889 West End, Hampshire, England d. Saskatoon, Saskatchewan)
He was one of the foremost world famous environmentalists of the twentieth century, an ecologist, conservationist, forester, vegetarian, horseman, apiarist, author of some thirty books and numerous articles and a committed Bahá’í who rendered service to the Bahá’í Faith for more than fifty years.
He formally founded the Men of the Trees organization in England in 1924 and it soon spread to many other countries. (Shoghi Effendi enrolled as the first life member of the Men of the Trees.) Now known in many countries as the International Tree Foundation, it has a large membership of women and men from all walks of life. In 1978 Charles, Prince of Wales, became the society’s patron.
[Bahá'í Chronicles, BW18p802-805]
He was buried in the Woodlawn Cemetery in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan.
||Hampshire; United Kingdom; Saskatoon; Saskatchewan; Canada
||Richard St Barbe Baker; Men of the Trees; International Tree Foundation; Environment; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Cemeteries and graves
|1982 2 – 5 Sep
||A Bahá’í International Conference to mark the fiftieth anniversary of the passing of the Greatest Holy Leaf was held in Montreal, Canada, attended by 9,400 Bahá’ís from 101 countries. [BW18:100; VV61]
For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW18:161–2.
For a pictorial report see BW18:151–4.
||Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf)
|1983 (In the year)
||The film Heritage of the Martyrs, made by Elizabeth Martin, documented the fate of the Bahá'ís in Iran. [HNWE45]
||Film; Elizabeth Martin; Heritage of the Martyrs; Elizabeth Martin
|1983 21 - 23 Nov
||A brief entitled The Future of Canada: A Bahá’í Perspective was presented to The Royal Commission on the Economic Union and Development Prospects of Canada on behalf of the Canadian Bahá’í Community through the National Spiritual Assembly in Saskatoon. [The Future of Canada: A Bahá’í Perspective]
||Social and economic development; Ethics; Economics; Consultation; Agriculture; Women; Native Americans; Elderly; Education
||The International Bahá’í Refugee Office, responsible for coordinating efforts to resettle Iranian Bahá’í refugees, was established by the National Spiritual Assembly of Canada at the request of the Universal House of Justice. [BW19:50]
For a report of the work of the Office see BW19:50–3.
||International Bahai Refugee Office; Refugees
|1988 8 May
||The passing of Beatrice Owen Ashton (b. 17 May, 1890, Cleveland). She was buried in the Lake View Cemetery in Cleveland. [BW20p896-899]
She graduated from Vassar College in 1911 and in 1918 she learned of the Faith in Urbana, IL from Dr Jacob and Anna Kunz after meeting some Bahá'ís who had been picnicking. (See BW16p520 for In Memoriam for Anna Kunz)
In August of 1918 she married Frank Ashton at Green Acre. In post-war 1945, the National Spiritual Assembly appointed her as the international relief representative for Germany and the Philippines. During the summers from 1947 to 1953 she undertook teaching trips to Europe: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland. In April of 1952 she went on pilgrimage and met the Guardian for the first time. [BN no262, December, 1952 p5-7]
In addition to administrative tasks she worked on the production of Bahá'í World XIII and taught summer school classes at Green Acre, Louhelen and Geyserville as well as Beaulac, Banff and Toronto in Canada.
She pioneered to Lethbridge, Alberta from 1958 to 1966 and taught the Faith on the Peigan Reserve (now Piikini First Nation). When the Bahá'ís of Lethbridge elected their first Local Spiritual Assembly she went back to European teaching and made four trips to Norway by 1970.
From 1970 she served in Haifa in the Research Department, cataloging and indexing the Guardian's letters and correspondence but in 1972 she had to return to the US due to failing health.
In her latter years she made an index for Citadel of Faith as well as for Messages to America and indexed the Writings of the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh that Shoghi Effendi had translated.
Find a grave.
||Cleveland; OH; Lethbridge; Canada
||Beatrice Owen Ashton; Beatrice Ashton; Travel teaching; summer school
|1988 30 Jun - 3 Jul
||The Bahá’í Arts Council, Canada, held the first arts festival, ‘Invitation 88: A Festival of the Human Spirit’ at the University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario. [BINS179:2]
||London; Ontario; Canada
||Arts; Firsts, Other
|1989 3 Jul
||The passing of Bobbie Cowan in Invermere, BC. [AC297]
||Invermere; British Columbia; Canada
||Bobbie Cowan; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
||The founding of the Maxwell International Bahá'í School. It was a co-ed Bahá'í school located on Shawnigan Lake, British Columbia, Canada. It offered day students and boarding students from many parts of the world instruction from grades 7-12. Its educational philosophy was based on the principles of the Bahá'í Faith. The school was opened in a ceremony with guest of honour Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum (Mary Maxwell, daughter of May and Sutherland) and wife of the Bahá'í Faith's Guardian, Shoghi Effendi). A tree was planted in dedication to the opening of the school. In the early 2006-2007 school year, the school board decided to drop "Bahá'í" from its name, changing it to "Maxwell International School".
The school closed on its 20th anniversary in 2008. [Wiki]
||Shawnigan Lake BC; British Columbia; Canada
||Maxwell International School; Bahai schools; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Maxwell International School
|1990 22 Feb
||Jalál Kházeh, (b. 24 February, 1897, Tihran) Hand of the Cause of God, passed away in Toronto. He was buried in York Cemetery in Toronto. [BINS219:90]
Note: VV123 says it was 20 February.
He was appointed a Hand of the Cause of God on the 6th of December, 1953 after the passing of Hand of the Cause of God Siegfried Schopflocher. [MoCxxiv]
See LoF164-167 for a short biography.
Find a grave.
||Jalal Khazeh; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Appointments
|1992 19 - 22 Jun
||Graduation ceremonies were held for the thirty-eight members of the first graduating class of the Maxwell International Bahá'í School. More than seven hundred participated in the ceremonies. ["Maxwell Eagle" Sep/Oct 1992 Vol IV no. 1 page 1]
||British Columbia; Canada
||Maxwell International School; Bahai schools
|1993 21 Mar
||The presentation of the first Race Unity Award by the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canada.
||NSA; Race unity; Race (general)
|1993 10 Apr
||The passing of Roger White, writer, editor and "poet laureate" of the Bahá'í community, in Richmond, British Columbia (b. in Toronto on 2 June 1929).
Served at the World Centre for some twenty years as a secretary and as manager of the publishing department when many important new volumes were published. Under the supervision of the Universal House of Justice, he was responsible for compiling and publishing volumes XIV to XIX of The Bahá'í World, as well as editing the invaluable compendium of volumes I to XII, published in 1981.
Published, at his own expense, a book of poetry called Summer Window for which he did the drawing on the front cover.
Another Song, Another Season (1979), The Witness of Pebbles (1981) and a tender and eloquent novel which presented a semi-fictionalized account of the early days of the Bahá'í Faith in Paris, A Sudden Music, was also published by George Ronald in 1983.
This was followed by a biographical tribute to the poet Emily Dickinson in the form of more than 100 poems: One Bird, One Cage, One Flight (Naturegraph, 1983).
A short, historical account of the martyrdom of 'Alí-Asghár of Yazd entitled The Shell and the Pearl was published by George Ronald in 1984.
Occasions of Grace (George Ronald, 1992) was published after he retired from service in Haifa in 1991 following a major heart surgery.
He returned to Canada and was diagnosed with terminal cancer shortly after.
His last two collected works of poetry were Notes Postmarked the Mountain of God (New Leaf, 1992) and The Language of There (New Leaf, 1992).
He also completed the text for Raghu Rai's photographic celebration of the Bahá'í House of Worship in New Delhi, Forever in Bloom. [Bahá'í Studies Review, Vol7, 1997]
See Bahá'í World 1994-95 pg249 for an article by Anne Boyles entitled "The Language of the Heart: Arts in the Bahá'í World Community" for mention of Roger White.
See The Journal of Bahá'í Studies Vol. 26 no 1-2, 2016 p91 "Reflections on the Art of My Poetry" by John Hatcher. It is based on a telephone interview with him shortly before his passing.
For obituary see BW92-93p276
Find a grave.
||Richmond; British Columbia; Canada
||Roger White; Poetry; In Memoriam; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Delhi; Lotus temple
||The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of Canada presented a paper entitled A Bahá’í Perspective on the Future of Canadian Foreign Policy to the Special Joint Parliamentary Committee reviewing Canadian Foreign Policy. [A Bahá’í Perspective on the Future of Canadian Foreign Policy]
||Foreign Policy; NSA Canada; Statements
||A Maoris teaching team visited British Columbia. The visit was reciprocated by The Journey of Teech-ma, the First Nations Travel Teaching Trip to the South Pacific. See entry for 24 March, 1997. [SDSC370]
||British Columbia; Canada; Australia; New Zealand
||First Nations; Maoris; Indigenous people; Travel teaching
|1997. 24 Mar - 16 May
||The nine member First Nations Travel Teaching Trip to the South Pacific, called "The Journey of Teech-ma" consisted of Canadian Bahá'ís from Kwakiutl, Nuu-Cha-Nuth, the Ojibway First Nations, a Yupik Bahá'í from Alaska and three non-Native Canadian friends. They shared their culture and their Faith with the Maori, other New Zealanders, the Aborigines and other Australians as well as the ne-Vanuatu peoples. See entry for 1994 (Summer). [SDSC370]
||New Zealand; Australia; Vanuatu; Canada
||First Nations; Travel Teaching; Pacific; Maoris; Aboriginal people; Indigenous people
|2000 22 Aug
||The passing of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Audrey Robarts (née FitzGerald) in her 96th year. She was buried with her husband, Hand of the Cause of God John Robarts, in the Ecumenical Cemetery in Rawdon. He had predeceased her on the 18th of June, 1991. [BW00-01p272]
After the passing of her husband she travelled to four countries in southern Africa in response to a request from the National Spiritual Assembly of Botswana where she was known as the "beloved mother of our country".
||Rawdon; Quebec; Canada
||Audrey Robarts; Knights of Bahaullah; Births and deaths; In Memoriam
|2003 3 Mar
||The passing of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Una Dean, née Townshend, in Edmonton, Canada. Una lived a full life of Bahá'í service. In 1946 she was the first Bahá'í in Dublin and was later a member of the first spiritual assembly. She also helped to form the first spiritual assembly in Liverpool. In October 1953 she was the first Bahá'i in Malta, a goal of the Ten Year Crusade. In 1954 she returned to Ireland to tend to her ailing father and to assist him in writing Christ and Bahá'u'lláh. After his passing in 1957 she moved to America, met and married her husband, Dick Dean, and moved to Edmonton where she served on the Local Assembly until 1987. [BW02-03p269]
||Edmonton; Alberta; Canada; Malta; Ireland; Liverpool; Dublin
||Una Dean; Una Townshend; Knights of Bahaullah; Births and deaths; In Memoriam
|2004 2 Apr
||The passing of Ola Pawlowska (b. Ola Clemens 14 February, 1910 in Lakta, outside Cacow, Poland) in Newfoundland, Canada. Knight of Bahá'u'lláh for St. Pierre and Miquelon, translator of the Writings (into Polish), pioneer to Poland, Luxembourg and Congo (30 years), Auxiliary Board Member. [BW'03-‘04pg236, BWNS248]
For her biography see Legacy of Courage: The Life of Ola Pawlowska, Knight of Bahá'u'lláh" by by Suzanne Schuurman, published by George Ronald in 2008.
||Lakta; Cacow; Newfoundland; Canada; St Pierre and Miquelon; Poland; Luxembourg; Congo
||Knights of Bahaullah; Ola Pawlowska; Births and deaths; BWNS
|2004 19 Apr
||The passing of Mr Aziz Ismayn Yazdi (b. Alexandria, Egypt in 1909) in Vancouver, Canada at the age of 94. Aziz Yazdi lived in Egypt, Syria, Iran, Iraq, Great Britain, Uganda, Kenya, Israel, and finally Canada. In 1968 he was appointed to the Continental Board of Counsellors in Central and East Africa and was an inaugural member of the International Teaching Centre in Haifa. [BWNS297, BW'03-‘04pg239]
||Vancouver; Canada; Egypt; Syria; Iran; Iraq; United Kingdom; Uganda; Kenya; Israel
||Aziz Ismayn Yazdi; Counsellors; International Teaching Centre, Members of; In memoriam; Births and deaths; BWNS
|2005 27 Nov
||The passing of prolific author and founding member of the Association for Bahá’í Studies of North America, Dr. William S. Hatcher, in Stratford, Ontario. (b. 20 September, 1935 in Charlotte, NC).
He served on the National Spiritual Assemblies of Switzerland (1962-65), Canada (1983-91) and the Russian Federation (1996).
He was an associate professor of mathematics at the University of Toledo for three years before coming to Canada in 1968 with his wife Judith. He served as professor of mathematics at the Université Laval until 1995.
He was appointed to the first Board of Trustees of the Huqúqu'lláh for Canada in November of 1991. [CBNJan92 p2; 14 November, 1991]
He was the author of vast number of articles and books including, Logic and Logos (1990), Love, Power and Justice (1998), and The Bahá'í Faith, The Emerging Global Religion (co-authored with Douglas Martin). [BWNS416, BW05-06p240-241]
The Universal House of Justice wrote in tribute: ”The Bahá’í world has lost one of its brightest minds, one of its most prolific pens. He will long be remembered for his stalwart faith, forceful exposition, and penetrating insights.”
The family of Dr. Hatcher built an on-line repository of his collected works. Contributions of
recordings of his talks or other works by William Hatcher can be submitted for consideration for the site by using the contact form.
||Stratford, ON; Canada
||William Hatcher; In Memoriam; BWNS
||In memory of Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum and because the Native people had such a special place in her heart and that of the Guardian, Violette and 'Ali Nakhjanání travelled throughout North America during the months of August and September visiting aboriginal believers. They visited Vancouver, Anchorage, Juneau before going to South Dakota, Montana, Arizona and Atlanta, Georgia where they spoke with 450 African-American believers. They visited the temple in Wilmette and then the Eskasoni First Nation in Nova Scotia.
The primary purpose of their visit was to meet with and encourage the aboriginal believers and to remind the of their responsibility and high destiny in the Faith. [CBN Vol 20 No 3 Winter 2007/2008 p23-25]
||First Nations; Vancouver; Anchorage; Juneau; Canada; South Dakota; Montana; Arizona; Atlanta; Wilmette; United States
||Violette Nakhjavani; Ali Nakhjavani; Teaching; Indigenous people; Native Americans
|2007. 14 Nov
||In a letter to the Students, Staff, Parents and Supporters of Maxwell International School the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canada announced that the school would close (at the end of the term). Financial considerations were cited as the reason.
Maxwell had provided an accredited academic program for grades 7–12 leading to British Columbia high school graduation certification.
The school had been established in 1989 as a non-profit educational institution with a strong emphasis on the performing arts. The Maxwell Dance Workshop used dance, music and drama to challenge young people to find new solutions for the issues facing their generation.
The school also had an ESL (English as a Second Language) program to accommodate foreign students who came from diverse religious and cultural backgrounds. [Maxwell International School on A-Channel News]
||Shawnigan Lake; Canada
||Maxwell International School; Bahai Schools; Dance; Dance Workshop
|2009 10 – 11 Jan
||Regional Conferences were held in Toronto, Canada and Guadalajara, Mexico. [BWNS687]
||Toronto; Canada; Guadalajara; Mexico
||Regional Conferences; BWNS
|2009 17 – 18 Jan
||Regional Conferences were held in Lae, Papua New Guinea, Vancouver, Canada and Managua, Nicaragua. [BWNS689]
||Lae; Papua New Guinea; Vancouver; Canada; Managua; Nicaragua
||Regional Conferences; BWNS
|2009 24 Feb
||The Canadian Parliamentary Sub-Committee on Human Rights adopted a strongly worded motion demanding the immediate release of the seven Bahá'í leaders held now for more than nine months without formal charges and no access to lawyers. Appearing before the committee were the Bahá'í Community of Canada’s Director of External Affairs, Susanne Tamas, and McGill Law Professor, Payam Akhavan. [Iran Press Watch 1597]
||Susanne Tamas; Payam Akhavan; persecution, Iran; Yaran
||Beth McKenty, longtime pioneer to Iqaluit, Nunavut, Canada received the Caring Canadian Award from the Governor General of Canada for her work in the community. [BWNS711]
||Iqaluit; Numavut; Iqaluit; Canada
||Awards; Beth McKenty; BWNS
|2009. 14 Apr
||The passing of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Gale Bond, née Keass (b. 13 November, 1919 in Emod, Hungary) in Cowichan, BC. [SDSC397]
See Sole Desire Service Cause An Odyssey of Bahá'í Service: Gale and Jameson Bond by Don Brown published by George Ronald for a biography.
||Emod; Hungary; Cowichan BC; Canada
||Gale Bond; In Memoriam; Knights of Bahaullah; Births and deaths
|2013 13 Aug
||The passing of former Universal House of Justice member Mr. Hushmand Fatheazam in Vancouver, Canada. He served on the Universal House of Justice for forty years since 1963. [BWNS964]
See Life of Hushmand Fatheazam as told by Fariborz Sahba.
||Hushmand Fatheazam; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; BWNS
|2013 20 Sep
||Deloria Bighorn, chairperson of the National Spiritual Bahá'ís of Canada, presented, on behalf of the Bahá'í Community of Canada, a submission to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission at the BC National Event held in Vancouver from September 18th to the 21st. The formal presentation followed a panel organized by the Canadian Bahá'í Community and Reconciliation Canada. The previous week 250 people listened to Chief Doug White, Chief Dr. Robert Joseph, and Dr. Paulette Regan from the Commission discussing the challenge of reconciliation. [T&R website, CBN 24 September, CBN 9 February, 2018, BWNS1248]
For the text see Submission of the Bahá’í Community of Canada to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission or download PDF.
The Bahá'í community also produced a short film, The Path Home, which it screened in Ottawa in association with the final national gathering.
||Native Americans; Indigenous people; Reconciliation; Cultural diversity; Human rights; Documentaries; BWNS; film; The Path Home (film)
|2018 1 - 7 Nov
||More than 7,500 people attended the Parliament of the World’s Religions held at the Metro Toronto Convention Centre.
This forum began in 1893 at the World Columbian Exposition in Chicago as an effort to promote an emerging international movement devoted to promoting dialogue among religions. Since that time, it has been held in Cape Town (1999), Barcelona (2004), Melbourne (2009) and Salt Lake City (2015). [Website] Bahá'í presenters were:
- Bani Dugal: “The Equality of Women and Men: Divine Imperative for an Age of Transition.”
- Hugh Locke: “Half the Sky, Half the Land: The Role of Women Farmers in Transforming Agriculture,”
- Payam Akhavan: “Equality and Justice, Global Perspectives” and
“Countering War, Hate, and Violence Assembly.”
- Emily Wright: “Making Interreligious Chaplaincy Education Meaningfully Inclusive” and “A New Cup of Grace—A Ukulele Opera
- Hooshmand Badee: “Interfaith Peacemaking Perspectives from Across the World.”
- Nader Saiedi: Presenting the new documentary film The Gate: Dawn of the Bahá’í Faith.
- Paul Hanley: “Man of the Trees: Richard St. Barbe Baker, the First Global Environmentalist.”
- JoAnn Borovicka: “Amazing Faiths! An Interactive Workshop on Interfaith Dialogue.”
- Robert Atkinson: “New Thoughts in Interfaith Spirituality.”
- Robert Stockman: “The Characteristics of Bahá’í Interfaith Dialogue.”
- Candace Hill: “From Shiraz to Chicago: Bahá’í Women of the East and the West”
- Edward Price: “The Divine Curriculum: Understanding the Báb, Divine Educator for the Modern Era.”
- Sovaida Maani Ewing: “Achieving World Peace: Bahá’í and Catholic Teachings.”
- Jean Muza: “Bahá’í Civic Engagement: How to Maneuver in America’s Divisive Political Landscape.”
- Robert Atkinson: “The Golden Rule as the Basis for a Global Justice System: An Interfaith Perspective with a Call to Action.”
- Edward Price: “The Divine Curriculum Concept as a Framework for Interfaith Inclusion and Love.”
|Toronto; Canada; Chicago; Cape Town; Barcelona; Melbourne; Salt Lake City
||World Parliament of Religions
|2019. 8 - 11 Aug
||The 43rd Annual Conference of the Association for Bahá'í Studies–North America was held in the Westin Hotel in Ottawa, Canada. The four day conference was attended by some 1,400 persons. [BWNS1347]
Plenary session recordings of past sessions are available for free streaming and downloading on the ABS Vimeo page.
||Ottawa; Ontario; Canada
||Association for Baha'i Studies–North America
|2020. 2 Jun
||The passing of Hossain Banadaki Danesh in Victoria, BC
His major publications were:
For a more complete list see his website.
Documents by Hossain Danesh on Bahai-library.com.
See his website. iiiii
- The Violence Free-Society: A Gift for Our Children. Bahá’í Studies. Vol. 6. 1979.
- Unity: The Creative Foundation of Peace. Bahá’í Studies Publications, Ottawa 1986.
- The Psychology of Spirituality. Paradigm Publishing, Manotick, Ontario 1994.
- The Violence Free Family. Building Block of a Peaceful Civilization. Bahá’í Studies Publications, Ottawa, Canada 1995.
- Conflict-Free Conflict Resolution (CFCR): Process and Methodology. with Roshan Danesh. Journal of Peace and Conflict Studies, Vol. 11, No. 2, Fall. (March 21, 2004).
- Unity of Faith and Reason in Action 2010.
- The Unity-Based Family. An Empirical Study of Healthy Marriage, Family, and Parenting. H.B. Danesh, MD, FRCP(C), with Azin Nasseri, PhD. Cambridge Scholars Publishing; 1 edition (1 April 2017).
|Victoria BC; Canada
|2020. 28 Sep
||The passing of former Universal House of Justice member James Douglas Martin (b. 24 February 1927 in Chatham, Ontario) in Toronto. [CBNS]
He was a member of the National Spiritual Assembly of Canada from 1960 to 1985 and served the last twenty years as the general secretary. In 1985. He was appointed director-general of the Bahá'í International Community's Office of Public Information at the World Centre. He served in that capacity until 1993 when he was elected to the Universal House of Justice. He retired from the House of Justice in 2005 due to considerations of age and related needs of the Faith. [BWNS1455]
In 1984 he co-authored the introductory text,The Bahai Faith: The Emerging Global Religion with his friend William S Hatcher.
His essay, The Missionary as Historian: William Miller and the Bahá'í Faith was a review of William McElwee Miller’s book The Bahá'í Faith: Its History and Teachings.
His series of talks entitled Historical Consciousness and the Divine Plan was packaged as a compact disc and has been made available on Bahá'í Library.
His paper Persecution of the Bahá'ís of Iran 1844-1984 published in Bahá'í Studies in 1984 is available in PDF.
His article Humanity's Coming Encounter with Baha'u'llah was published in American Bahá'í in 1992.
In 1998 his article Bahá'í Faith was published in Canadian Encyclopedia.
The Mission of the Bab: Retrospective 1844-1944 as published in Bahá'í World. [BW23p193]
|Toronto; Canada; Chatham; Ontario
||Douglas Martin; In Memoriam; Universal House of Justice, Members of
from the main catalogue
See all locations, sorted numerically or alphabetically.
- 1970-1995: Newspaper articles archive (1970). Collection of newspaper articles from 1970-1995. [about]
- A New Cycle of Human Power: Abdu'l-Bahá's Encounters with Modernist Writers and Artists, by Robert Weinberg, in Bahá'í World (2021). On the impact of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá on a number of individuals who were at the cultural vanguard of a society undergoing rapid, radical change. [about]
- A-de-rih-wa-nie-ton On-kwe-on-we Neh-ha: A Message to the Iroquois Indians, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canada (1956). Three items: 2021 cover letter from the National Spiritual Assembly of the Baha'is of Canada, the 1956 message to the Iroquois Indians in Mohawk and English, and a biography of the translator, "Charles A. Cooke, Mohawk Scholar," by Marius Barbeau. [about]
- Abdu'l-Baha in Montreal, by Jack McLean (2007). Overview of Abdu'l-Baha's visit to Canada in 1912, written in commemoration of its Centenary. [about]
- 'Abdu'l-Bahá in the West: A Biographical Guide of the People Associated with His Travels, by Jan Teofil Jasion: Review, by Anne Gordon Perry, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 25:3 (2015). [about]
- 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Encounter with Modernity during His Western Travels, by Wendi Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). Abdu'l-Baha's responses to the West's technology and innovations on the one hand, vs. its archaic racist and sexual philosophies on the other. [about]
- 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Prophecy "Indians Will Enlighten the World", by Christopher Buck and Kevin Locke (2019). Slide-show overview of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá's prophecy "these Indians will enlighten the whole world." [about]
- 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Visit to North America, 1912: A Preliminary Analysis, by Robert Stockman, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). Overview of the itinerary of this tour, the state of the Baha'i community and the general social context of the time, and some themes of Abdu'l-Baha's teachings. [about]
- Address to the 6th Annual Convention in Canada, by Ruhiyyih (Mary Maxwell) Khanum. Address to the Canadian National Convention. [about]
- Advent of Divine Justice, by Shoghi Effendi (1971). [about]
- Bahá'í Community of Canada, The: A Case Study in the Transplantation of Non-Western Religious Movements to Western Societies, by Will C. van den Hoonaard, in Origins of the Bahá'í Community of Canada, 1898-1948 (1996). [about]
- Baha'i Faith, by Douglas Martin, in The 1998 Canadian Encyclopedia (1997). Includes overview of the Baha'i Faith in Canada. [about]
- Bahá'í Faith and Globalization 1900-1912, The, by Robert Stockman, in Bahá'í and Globalisation (2005). Abdu’l-Baha’s thinking inspired much of the practice of Baha’i proselytising; overview of the practical activism of the early American Baha’is and the mutual bonds of assistance between the Baha’i communities of North America and Iran. [about]
- Baha'i Temple for Canada, A, by Susanna A. Khodarahmi-Bron (2003). Proposed design for a future possible temple in Markham, Ontario; characteristics of Baha'i temples; overview of symbolism and sacred place; influences on design of Canadian culture and architecture. [about]
- Black Roses in Canada's Mosaic: Four Decades of Black History, by Will C. van den Hoonaard and Lynn Echevarria-Howe (1994). Survey of African-Americans in Canada, their activities in the Baha'i community, and statistical information. [about]
- Broad Contours of the Canadian Baha'i Community, by Will C. van den Hoonaard and Deborah K. van den Hoonaard (1994). Historical and sociological overview of the Canadian Baha'i community. [about]
- Building Intercultural Community: Insights from Indigenous Bahá'í History, by Chelsea Horton, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 26:3 (2016). Bridging Baha'i communities with Indigenous populations in Canada and the United States was not easy, and was especially fraught for native believers, who also confronted tensions of intercultural understanding and sometimes outright racism. [about]
- Canadian Bahá'ís 1938-2000, The: Construction of Oneness in Personal and Collective Identity, by Lynn Echevarria-Howe, in Bahá'í and Globalisation (2005). On how globalization includes greater consciousness of the whole world, and a sociological perspective on how this consciousness has been nurtured within the Canadian Baha'i community. [about]
- Canadian National Convention functioning, by Universal House of Justice (1982). Reply to questions from an individual about the functioning of the National Convention in Canada with specific reference to the tellers report and the election of officers. [about]
- Choice of the West for Abdu'l-Bahá's Epoch-Making Trip, The, by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). Reasons for Abdu'l-Baha choosing Western nations for the climax of his ministry, and results he achieved in Europe and the United States. [about]
- Community Histories, in Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions, Volume 6 (1992). Essay on the diversity of Western Baha'i communities, followed by six histories of selected local communities in the United States, Britain, and Canada. [about]
- Concepts of Spirituality in The Works of Robert Houle and Otto Rogers with Special Consideration to Images of the Land , by Nooshfar B. Afnan (2000). The attitude of native Canadians toward the land and the prairies, as expressed through the work of two artists, their spiritual iconography, and Baha'i teachings regarding nature. [about]
- Cultural Reconciliation in Canada, by Universal House of Justice, in Baha'i Canada, 13:2 (2000). The Universal House of Justice suggests to the National Spiritual Assembly of Canada that their efforts at unity and reconciliation should focus on culture rather than on race. [about]
- Cultural Reconciliation in Canada - questions, by Universal House of Justice (2001). Reply from the House of Justice to a request for a reexamination of the assumptions on which its letter to Canada of 5 September 1999 was based. [about]
- Deganawida, the Peacemaker, by Christopher Buck, in American Writers: A Collection of Literary Biographies, 26 (2015). Biography of the Iroquois / Haudenosaunee prophet-like figure who lived around 600 or 900 years ago. [about]
- Demystifying Shoghi Effendi's Advent of Divine Justice: Condensed Deepening (2020). A study guide and compilation regarding the Guardian's call to action to American and Canadian Baha’is to engage spiritually in the path towards God. [about]
- Demystifying Shoghi Effendi's Advent of Divine Justice: Condensed Text and Deepening, by Hui Bau (2020). A condensed presentation of the Guardian's call to action to American and Canadian Baha’is to engage spiritually in the path towards God. The accompanying deepening uses a more visual format to help develop one's own plan of action. [about]
- Development and Decline of an Early Bahá'í Community: Saint John, N.B., 1910-1925 , by Will C. van den Hoonaard, in Community Histories: Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions, Volume 6 (1992). The brief early history of the Saint John Baha'is. Established in 1910, the Baha'i community struggled in the hostile environment of New Brunswick. In 1925 the community disappeared, to be reestablished only in recent times. [about]
- Divine Simplicity: Remembering the last Hand of the Cause of God, 'Ali-Muhammad Varqa, by Jack McLean (2008). Biography of Dr. Varqa, partly based on interviews with people who knew him in Iran. [about]
- Encouragement, Challenges, Healing, and Progress: The Bahá'í Faith in Indigenous Communities, by Alfred Kahn, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 26:3 (2016). On the challenges of community-building among Indigenous people, written from the perspective of a childhood spent among Baha'i pioneers on Native American land, and on reconciling traditional views with global Baha'i teachings. [about]
- Helen Frances Grand (1865-1944): Traces of a Bahá'í Life, by Marlene Macke (2020). Glimpse of one small facet of the Bahá’í Faith’s beginnings in cities like Toronto in the early decades of the 20th Century. [about]
- Human environment interactions and collaborative adaptive capacity building in a resilience framework, by Peter T. Bruss (2012). Lengthy study of human effects on the environment informed by a Baha'i perspective, with passing mentions of the Faith and the Native American Baha'i Institute. Link to offsite document. [about]
- Indigenous Messengers of God, by Christopher Buck and Kevin Locke (2014). 68 essays on Native American theology and history from the perspective of Baha'i teachings. [about]
- Journey Motif in the Bahá'í Faith, The: From Doubt to Certitude, by Roshan Danesh, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 22 (2012). The process of individual spiritual growth lies at the heart of human purpose. Bahá’u’lláh speaks about the collective spiritualization of humanity — creating new patterns of community and social relations — as the "journey" of the human body politic. [about]
- Legacy of `Abdu'l-Bahá's Visit to America, 1912, The, by Robert Stockman (2012). Overview of Abdu’l-Bahá’s trip to the U.S. and Canada, its impact, his social action and public discourse, and comparison with similar "travel-teaching" trips by Protap Chunder Mozoomdar and Swami Vivekanada (Hindus) and Anagarika Dharmapala (a Buddhist). [about]
- Letter to the United States and Canada on racism, 1961, by Ruhiyyih (Mary Maxwell) Khanum (1961). [about]
- List of Articles on BahaiTeachings.org, by Christopher Buck (2014). List of online essays and articles by Christopher Buck. [about]
- Many Messengers of God, A Native American Perspective: Deganawidah The Peacemaker, by Paula Bidwell (2011). Collection and analysis of proofs from the Baha'i Writings about prophets from indigenous cultures. Includes illustrated slide-show presentation of the paper. [about]
- Maps of the regions of North America, by Ralph Stockman Tarr and Frank Morton McMurry, in Complete World Geography (1912). Maps of the five regions of North America as published in an American geography book in 1912 and known to have been read by 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Haifa/'Akka while writing Tablets of the Divine Plan.
- May Maxwell and the Maxwells of Montreal, by Jack McLean (2019). Presentation of Violette Nakhjavani's book The Maxwells of Montreal. [about]
- Message to the Indian and Eskimo Bahá'ís of the Western Hemisphere, by Ruhiyyih (Mary Maxwell) Khanum (1969). An overview of the Baha'i Faith, written to the native Inuit and First Nations peoples of North America. [about]
- Messages to Canada, by Shoghi Effendi (1965). [about]
- Messages to Canada: 1999 edition, by Shoghi Effendi (1999). Updated and expanded version of the 1965 book. [about]
- Messengers of God in North America, Revisited: An Exegesis of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Tablet to Amír Khán, by Christopher Buck and Donald Addison, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). The indigenous peoples of the Americas have their own claim to wisdom tradition, which derive from Messengers of God to First Nations. This principle is anchored in the Tablet to Amír Khán Áhan. [about]
- Native American Vision and the Teachings of 'Abdu'l-Baha, by Paula Bidwell (2011). Presentation addressing issues of concern to Native Americans, cast in the light of statements of Abdu'l-Baha from his 1912 visit to the United States. [about]
- Native Bahá'ís: Bios of past and contemporary Bahá'ís of native ancestry (2014). Links to photographs and information from the 1910s to the present about Native Baha'is, both from the United States, Canada, Hawaii, and Alaska, and indigenous Baha'is elsewhere around the world. [about]
- Native Messengers of God in Canada?: A Test Case for Bahá'í Universalism, by Christopher Buck, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 6 (1996). Explores the possibility of including other great religious figures in the Baha'i category of "Manifestations of God" using the Iroquois prophet Deganawida as an example. [about]
- 'Never Again': Kevin Gover's Apology for the Bureau of Indian Affairs, by Christopher Buck, in Wicazo Sa Review: A Journal of Native American Studies, 21.1 (2006). This article does not mention the Baha'i Faith, but was published in a social justice and human rights journal and written by a Baha'i. [about]
- New Skin For An Old Drum, A: Changing Contexts of Yukon Aboriginal Bahá'í Storytelling, by Lynn Echevarria-Howe, in Northern Review, 29 (2008). On the construction of the religious self through the storytelling processes of Yukon Aboriginal Bahá’ís: how do people put together stories to construct their contemporary Bahá’í identity? [about]
- Notes on Words of the Guardian, by Virginia Orbison (1956). Ten pages of notes, preserved as an appendix to Orbison's lengthy manuscript "Diary of a Pilgrimage to the Holy Land, Made by Virginia Orbison, January 15 to February 11". [about]
- Personal Journey toward Reconciliation, A, by Patricia Verge, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 26:3 (2016). On the author's spiritual journey and how it has been entwined with First Nations people; tensions between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Bahá'ís; pioneering to the Nakoda community; and the importance of learning, listening, and personal transformation. [about]
- Plan of Unified Action to Spread the Bahá'í Cause, A: Throughout the United States and Canada January 1 1926 - December 31 1928, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada (1925). The first of two plans of systematic activity in Baha'i history, followed by "A new plan of unified action to complete the Baha'i temple and promote the cause in America 1926-1930." [about]
- Poems from a Misty Island, by Jack McLean (1997). Poetry written while on a two-year stay on Salt Spring Island, British Columbia. [about]
- Preparing Bahá'í Communities in the East and West to Embrace Gender Equality, by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in Lights of Irfan, 12 (2011). The way Abdu'l-Baha dealt with the matter of gender equality, some of his writings revealed in honor of the Bahá’í women in Iran and North America, and the practical ways he educated Baha'i men to accept women as their equals. [about]
- Quiet Exodus, A, by Geoffrey Cameron, in Literary Review of Canada (2013). Recent history of immigration law and practice in Canada, and the Baha'i community's involvement in governmental change. Includes addendum from Baha'i News Canada. [about]
- Ridván 1996 (Four Year Plan) - To the Followers of Bahá'u'lláh in North America: Alaska, Canada, Greenland and the United States: Bahá'í Era 153, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Country-specific portion of the annual message to the Bahá'ís of the world: North America. [about]
- Roger White: An Obituary: Writer and editor, "poet laureate" of the Bahá'í community (1929-1993), by Robert Weinberg, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 7 (1997). Brief biography, written as an obituary, of a famous Baha'i poet. [about]
- Rogers, Otto Donald, by Norman Zepp, in The 1998 Canadian Encyclopedia (1997). [about]
- Schopflocher, Siegfried, by Will C. van den Hoonaard (1993). Short biography of a prominent Baha''i from a German-Jewish background who served as a Hand of the Cause of God. [about]
- Schopflocher, Siegfried, by Will C. van den Hoonaard, in The Bahá'í Encyclopedia (2009). On the Canadian Bahá’í of German-Jewish background named by Shoghi Effendi a Hand of the Cause of God in 1952. [about]
- Social Activism Among Some Early Twentieth-Century Bahá'ís, by Will C. van den Hoonaard, in Socialist Studies, 2:1 (2006). Socialist involvement of some of Canada's earliest Baha'is, before and after the prohibition of involvement in political affairs. [about]
- Social Justice, Wealth Equity and Gender Equality: Bahá'ís and non-Bahá'ís of Alberta, by Leslie William Kuzyk (2003). Baha'i theology takes distinctive positions on wealth distribution and gender equality. These issues are causal factors in a more just model of society. A social survey establishes empirically whether a Baha'i population differs from common society. [about]
- Wisdom of the people: Potential and pitfalls in efforts by the Comanches to recreate traditional ways of building consensus, by Broome Benjamin J., in The American Indian Quarterly (2001). Includes mention that a few Indian nations have adopted the Baha'i "consultation" method of decision making. [about]
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