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from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1873. Early part Bahá'u'lláh completed the revelation of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas in the southeast corner room of the house of `Údí Khammár. [BBD132; BKG351; DH46; GPB213; RB3:275; SA248; BBS145]
  • See A Description of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas by Shoghi Effendi.
  • There is evidence to suggest that at least some of the work was written earlier as confirmed by the book's reference to the fall of Napoleon III in 1870 and there is further evidence to suggest that parts of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas were revealed as early as 1868. [SA16–17, 248]
  • For the significance of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas see BKG351–3, BW15:87–91, GPB213–15 and RB3:275–399.
  • For analyses of its significance, content and application, see RB3:275–399 and SA248–52.
  • Akka Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Laws; House of Udi Khammar; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Dating of Writings; Tablets to kings and rulers; Napoleon III; Gradual implementation of laws; Charters of the Bahai Faith
    1873 (In the year) The revelation of the obligatory prayers.

    "Many of the laws of the Báb...are carefully designed in a way that testifies that the advent of Him Whom God shall make manifest was impending....The Báb never revealed the words of the (obligatory) prayer itself, thus making the implementation of this law dependent on the arrival of the Promised One." [GH366]

    The original Bahá'í obligatory prayer, mentioned in the Kitab-i-Aqdas, involved nine cycles of movement starting with a bow (rak`ah) and was to be said morning, noon, and afternoon. It probably called for three rak`ahs at each time. Bahá'u'lláh revealed the text but did not release it in order to avoid provoking conflict with Muslims. (This prayer was one of the documents in the cases taken by `Abdu'l-Bahá's brothers shortly after the passing of Bahá'u'lláh.) Some time later, after the writing of the Kitab-i-Aqdas but before that of its supplement Questions and Answers, Bahá'u'lláh wrote a second set of obligatory prayers which are in use today. Three alternative forms were provided: a very short prayer to be said between noon and sunset; a somewhat longer prayer to be said in the morning, the afternoon, and the evening; and a long prayer to be said once during twenty-four hours. [Prayer and Worship by John Walbridge]

  • See Entering into Obligatory Prayer: Introduction and Commentary by Ismael Velasco.
  • See as well the message from the Universal House of Justice message of 28 November 2000 with commentary from Ismael Vlasco, Peter Terry and Michael Sours.
  • Obligatory Prayer; Prayer; Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Questions and Answers (Kitab-i-Aqdas); Laws
    1873 (In the year) The Law of the Huqúqu'lláh that had first been ordained by the Báb in 1848 in the Persian Bayán (chapter 19 of unit 5), was reiterated in the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, verses 227-233 and in the Questions and Answers.
  • At first Bahá'u'lláh declined to accept the Huqúq from the believers stating that the funds were not needed. [Huqúqu'lláh: The Right of God p9]
  • When Bahá’u’lláh revealed The Kitáb-i-Aqdas, He ordered it not to be released for a while. The reason for this He states in a Tablet was because it contained the law of Ḥuqúq, and He worried that the friends may not obey it, or even worse, may come to the wrong conclusions. The very thought that some people, in their immaturity, might possibly assume that the Ḥuqúq was intended for Bahá’u’lláh’s personal use was extremely painful to Him. [Huqúqu'lláh The Right of God Study Guide by Firaydoun Javaheri 2015 p8]
  • "After the Kitáb-i-Aqdas had been revealed in response to the pleas of the friends, Bahá’u’lláh withheld it from publication for some time and even then, when a number of devoted Bahá’ís, having learned of the law, endeavored to offer the Ḥuqúqu’lláh, the payment was not accepted. The Tablets of Bahá’u’lláh show His acute consciousness of the way in which material wealth has been permitted to degrade religion in the past, and He preferred the Faith to sacrifice all material benefits rather than to soil to the slightest degree its dignity and purity. Herein is a lesson for all Bahá’í institutions for all time." [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1987]
  • Huququllah, Basic timeline; Huququllah; Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Questions and Answers (Kitab-i-Aqdas); Gradual implementation of laws
    1887. 27 Oct "When Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Kitáb-i-Aqdas He withheld the publication of certain laws. These included the text of the Obligatory Prayers. In one of His Tablets Bahá'u'lláh orders His amanuensis, Mírzá Áqá Ján, to send a copy of the Obligatory Prayers to Persia as a favour to Mullá 'Alí-Akbar who had asked for them. He confirms that the Obligatory Prayers had been revealed a few years earlier." [RoB4p299-300]
  • (It) "was shared with Hand of the Cause Alí Akbar SháhMírzádeh Hajji Akhund in the Lawh-i Bishárát-i 'Uzma (Tablet of the Most Great Glad-tidings), and thus diffused among the community. [Kitáb-i-Aqdas: the Obligatory Prayers Notes by the Universal House of Justice, Ismael Velasco, Peter Terry, Michael Sours]
  • See Kitáb-i-Aqdas: Tablet Study Outline .
  • Akka; Iran Obligatory prayer; Haji Akhund (Mulla Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi); Laws; Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Gradual implementation of laws; Bahaullah, Writings of
    1903 (In the year) The passing of Mullá Zaynu'l-'Ábidín, surnamed Zaynu'l-Muqarrabín (the Ornament of the Near Ones) in 'Akká. He is sometimes referred to as Jináb-i-Zayn (The Excellent Zayn), or Harfu'z-Zá (the Letter Z). He was born in Rajab, one of the villages of Najafábád near Isfahán to a family of Muslim clerics in May 1818. He had first heard of the Báb's claim while on pilgrimage in Karbilá in 1844 and became a believer in 1851. He met Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád after His return from Kurdistán in 1856. He was among the believers who were exiled from Baghdád in July of 1868 and under his leadership and guidance the believers in Mosul became a model community. He was invited by Bahá'u'lláh to come to 'Akká in Sep-Oct 1885 and shortly after that Baha'u'lláh asked that the community in Mosul be abandoned. [EB274-276; MoF150-154; TN412-425]

    Jináb-i-Zaynu’l-Muqarrabín was well versed in Islamic jurisprudence. After the revelation of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, he was authorized to submit questions concerning the laws. The treatise, titled Questions and Answers, an appendix to the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, is a compilation he made of Bahá’u’lláh’s answers to questions concerning the laws of the Most Holy Book. It took more than two decades for "Questions and Answers" to be published in Persian and much longer to be published in English and other languages. [KA9]

  • See Some Answered Questions" and Its Compiler by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani published in Lights of Irfan, 18, pages 425-452. In this paper the author compares the similarities and differences of Questions and Answers and Some Answered Questions.
  • For an image Zaynu’l-Muqarrabín see Picture Gallery (miniature by Ethel Rosenberg). This image can also been found in RoB1p78
  • He was named as one of the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • Rajab; Najafabad; Iran; Mosul; Iraq Zaynul-Muqarrabin (Mulla Zaynul-Abidin); Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Laws; Questions and answers (Kitab-i-Aqdas); Risalih-i-Sual va Javab (Questions and Answers); Ethel Rosenberg; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Apostles of Baha'u'llah
    1927 May The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada drew up and published a ‘Declaration of Trust’ and ‘By-laws of the National Spiritual Assembly’. [BW2:89, BW10:180]
  • For text see BW2:90–8.
  • The Guardian described it as the Bahá’í ‘national constitution’ heralding ‘the formation of the constitution of the future Bahá’í World Community’. [GPB335; PP302–3]
  • The drafting was largely the work of Horace Holley with assistance from the lawyer Mountfort Mills. [SBR234]
  • In subsequent years the National Assemblies of India and Burma, of Egypt, Iraq, Persian and the British Isles all adopted this example almost verbatim. [UD101, BA134-5, SETPE1p145-6]
  • United States; Canada NSA; Horace Holley; Mountfort Mills; Constitutions; By-laws; Recognition; Firsts, Other
    1928 (In the year) The publication of Bahá'í Administration, a collection of communications to the American Bahá'í community from the Guardian between 1922 and 1929. Revisions were published in 1933, 1936, 1941 and 1945. Additional messages and an expanded index was added in 1968. [WOBpv, BAiv]

    "His letters to Bahá’í institutions and to Bahá’ís in general began almost at once, and many will be found in Bahá’í Administration, beginning January 21, 1922. Early or late, his communications were not merely writings, they were the dynamic that moved the Bahá’í world. These letters in effect built the Administrative Order, its most vital features being found there. They taught the Bahá’í Assemblies how to be, how to consult, what their duties were. The book also contains the Declaration of Trust and By-Laws drawn up by the international lawyer Mountfort Mills, carefully reviewed by Shoghi Effendi, and adopted in 1926 by the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada, at this time under one jurisdiction. (Khan, back in America by then. Shoghi Effendi wished all National Spiritual Assemblies to adopt, with necessary local adaptations, this Declaration of Trust and ByLaws, which set forth the character and objectives of Bahá’í communities worldwide." [Cited from AY304]

    Bahai Administration (book); Shoghi Effendi, Writings of; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Publications; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Declaration of Trust and By-Laws; Mountfort Mills; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Administrative order; Shoghi Effendi, Works of
    1931 Nov The New York Bahá’í community drafted the by-laws of a Bahá’í local assembly. [GPB335]
  • These by-laws became the pattern for all local Bahá’í constitutions throughout the world. [BBRSM122; GPB335; PP303]
  • New York; United States By-laws
    1934 (In the year) The Declaration of Trust was legalized in Egypt as a result of the work of Montfort Mills and 'Abdu'l-Jalíl Bey Sa'ad. This greatly facilitated future transactions with the Government. [BW9p598] Egypt Montfort Mills; Abdul-Jalil Bey Saad; Declaration of Trust and By-Laws
    1934. 26 Apr The first national convention of the Bahá'ís of Iran was held in Tehran over a period of eight days. The social and religious affairs of the national community prior to this time had been directed by the former Central Assembly of Tehran. Following the formation of the National Spiritual Assembly, the by-laws of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States were translated into Persian and adopted with modifications. Also, national committees were appointed to help the National Spiritual Assembly with specific tasks. [GPB333; BW6p22-23; WOB99; BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati]
  • ARG83, 118 (photo) says that 1933 was the date of the first National Convention.
  • BW6p94 says that 1935 was the date of the first National Convention.
  • Tihran; Iran By-laws; Conventions, National; Central Assembly of Tehran; National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1935 Oct Shoghi Effendi wrote to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada stating that the laws of fasting, obligatory prayer, the consent of parents before marriage, the avoidance of alcoholic drinks and monogamy should be regarded as universally applicable and binding. [CB313] United States; Canada Laws; Gradual implementation of laws; Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); - Basic timeline, Expanded; Obligatory Prayer
    1942 25 Jun The passing of 'Abdu'l-Jalíl Bey Sa'ad who was, for many years, the president of the National Spiritual Assembly and a judge in the Civil Courts in Egypt. Through his sustained effort the Declaration of Trust was recognized as valid and legalized in 1934.
  • He made an important contribution in translating into Arabic. Among his accomplishments were The Dawn-Breakers, Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era, Laws of Personal Status and Rules of Procedure.
  • In 1941 he employed the Declaration of Trust as an instrument to induce the Ministry of Civil Defence to grant permission to build the Hazíratu'l-Quds in Cairo. While supervising this project in the intense heat he fell ill and died suddenly after an operation.
  • Shoghi Effendi appointed him to the rank of Hand of the Cause of God on the day of his passing. [MoC597-599]
  • Egypt Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Abdul Jalil Bey Saad; Declaration of Trust and By-Laws; Haziratul-Quds; Dawn-Breakers (book); Esslemont; Arabic language; Translation
    1974. 9 Jun In a letter to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Iceland, the Universal House of Justice reiterated the laws not yet binding on the Bahá'ís of the West in the Kitab-i-Aqdas. [9 June 1974] Iceland; BWC Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Laws
    1984 Ridván Delegates at the United States National Convention petition the Universal House of Justice requesting that the law of Huqúqu’lláh be made binding on the American Bahá’ís. [AWH30; ZK146–77]
  • The Universal House of Justice replied that it is not yet the time to take this step. [AWH30, Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 6 August, 1984]
  • United States Huququllah, Basic timeline; Conventions national; UHJ; Gradual implementation of laws
    1991. 5 Feb The highest legal authority in Germany, the Federal Constitutional Court, overturned the decisions of a number of lower courts that had refused to register the by-laws of a Local Spiritual Assembly on the grounds that the authority granted to the National Spiritual Assembly in the document violated the legal principle requiring the autonomy of all legally incorporated associations.
  • The case was first brought before the District Court of Tübingen when the legal administrator refused to register the Local Assembly on the 8th of December, 1983. The decision was appealed on the 5th of May 1985 to the High State Court in Sturrgart and rejected on the 27th of January 1986. News of the decision caused other jurisdictions to demand that local assemblies amend their By-Laws or face cancellation of their existing incorporation. The National Spiritual Assembly was in danger of the same fate. An appeal was submitted in March of 1986.
  • The ruling affirmed Bahá'í community, by it’s right as a recognized religion, recognized by public knowledge and by the testimony of scholars of comparative religion, had the right to a legal identity. [AWH87]
  • See Ridván Message 1991.
  • For complete details of the case see Mess86-01p206-235.
  • Tubingen; Germany LSA; NSA; By-laws; Legal recognition
    1991 Ridván The Universal House of Justice announced that the law of Huqúqu'lláh would become universally applicable at Ridván 1992. [AWH91–2, 174, Ridván 1991] Worldwide Huququllah; Gradual implementation of laws
    1992 Ridván The announcement by the Universal House of Justice that the Law of Ḥuqúqu’lláh was to be in effect for the members of the entire world community. Prior to this time, it was only binding on the Eastern believers, regardless of where they lived. [Ridván Message, AWH106, 175, BW92–3:28, CBN Jan91 p2] BWC; Worldwide; Haifa Huququllah, Basic timeline; Huququllah; Gradual implementation of laws; Laws; Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1995 Jun 8 – 11 The first European Bahá'í Conference on Law and International Order was held at De Poort Conference Centre, Netherlands. [BINS345:4] Groesbeek; Netherlands; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; Conferences, Law; Laws; First conferences; De Poort
    1999 28 Dec In a message from the Universal House of Justice addressed to the Bahá'ís of the world, some laws of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas which had not yet been universally applied were put into effect. Those were the laws that directly foster the devotional life of the individual and of the community which pertained to obligatory prayer, fasting and recitation of the Greatest Name ninety-five times a day.
  • Those laws of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas that were not yet universally applicable were delineated in the message dated 8 February, 2001.
  • BWC Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Laws; Gradual implementation of laws; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Obligatory prayer; Greatest Name; Fasting
    2000. 23 Feb In a message from the Department of the Secretariat to an individual, the Universal House of Justice explained the principle behind the application of Bahá'í law. [23 February 2000] BWC Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Laws
    2015 21 Mar The implementation of the Badí' Calendar on the first day of the tenth Váhid of the first Kull-i-Shay’ of the Bahá’í Era.

    "Báb introduced the calendar and its broad pattern of periods and cycles, months and days. Bahá’u’lláh provided essential clarifications and additions. Aspects were elucidated by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, and arrangements for its adoption in the West were put in place at the direction of Shoghi Effendi, as described in the volumes of The Bahá’í World. Still, ambiguities surrounding some Islamic and Gregorian dates, as well as difficulties in the correlation of historical observances and astronomical events with explicit statements in the Text, left certain issues unresolved. When responding to questions concerning the calendar, both ‘Abdu’l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi left these matters to the Universal House of Justice. Of its many features, three required clarification for the calendar’s uniform application: the means for the determination of Naw-Rúz, the accommodation of the lunar character of the Twin Holy Birthdays within the solar year, and the fixing of the dates of the Holy Days within the Badí‘ calendar." [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 10 July, 2014] (notes below extracted from the message)

    The Festival of Naw-Rúz: The birthplace of the Abhá Beauty, will be the spot on the earth that will serve as the standard for determining, by means of astronomical computations from reliable sources, the moment of the vernal equinox in the northern hemisphere and thereby the day of Naw-Rúz for the Bahá’í world.

    The Festivals of the Twin Birthdays: They will now be observed on the first and the second day following the occurrence of the eighth new moon after Naw-Rúz. This will result in the observance of the Twin Birthdays moving, year to year, within the months of Mashíyyat, ‘Ilm, and Qudrat of the Badí‘ calendar, or from mid-October to mid-November according to the Gregorian calendar.

    The dates of the Holy Days are: Naw-Rúz, 1 Bahá; the Festival of Riḍván, 13 Jalál to 5 Jamál; the Declaration of the Báb, 8 ‘Aẓamat; the Ascension of Bahá’u’lláh, 13 ‘Aẓamat; the Martyrdom of the Báb, 17 Raḥmat; the Day of the Covenant, 4 Qawl; and the Ascension of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, 6 Qawl. These dates have been fixed within the solar calendar in accordance with explicit statements of Bahá’u’lláh, ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, and Shoghi Effendi. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 10 July, 2014]

  • See Introduction to Badí‘ Calendar.
  • BWC Badi calendar; Bahaullah, Birth of; Bab, Birth of; Naw-Ruz; Holy days; Twin Holy days; Gradual implementation of laws; Laws; - Basic timeline, Expanded

    from the chronology of Canada

    from the main catalogue

    1. All Abide by His Bidding: The Universal Law of God, by Peter Terry (2007). On the liberty of the individual vis-à-vis the laws of God guiding people to making the "right" choices. [about]
    2. Applicability of the Laws and Ordinances of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, by Universal House of Justice (2001). List of laws and ordinances of the Aqdas not yet universally applied (as of 2001). [about]
    3. Application of Bahá'í Laws, by Universal House of Justice (2000). On the application of Bahá’í law and how its procedures differ from civil law, with discussion of the examples of Huququ'llah, obligatory prayer, and fasting. [about]
    4. Badí' (Bahá'í) Calendar: An Introduction, The, by Moojan Momen (2014). Summary of the nature of Bahá'í calendar, the way the Badí' calendar works, and the reason for the 2014 revisions inaugurated by the Universal House of Justice. [about]
    5. Baha'i Burial and Related Laws, by Bahá'u'lláh and Shoghi Effendi (2020). Applicability of laws; preparations for burial; prayers and services; cemeteries, graves, and tombstones; exhumation; honoring the dead; cremation and miscellaneous issues. [about]
    6. Bahá'í Community, The: A Summary of Its Organization and Laws, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi (1947). An early manual and compilation on Bahá'í administration, community, and laws. [about]
    7. Bahá'í Law, by Roshan Danesh (2021). Bahá'í law in its historical, cultural, social, religious, political, and legal contexts, within processes and discourses of social change and legal revitalization within Islamic societies; responses to modernity, colonization, and justice movements. [about]
    8. Bahá'í Shrines, by John Walbridge, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 3 (1989). [about]
    9. Baha'u'llah's Prophetology: Archetypal patterns in the lives of the founders of the world religions, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 5.1 (1995). Explores the theory that the lives of the prophet-founders of the world religions have in some ways re-capitulated each other. [about]
    10. Balance hath been Appointed, The: Some Thoughts on the Publication of the Kitab-i-Aqdas, by Udo Schaefer, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 3:1 (1993). Significances of the Aqdas and the possible impact of its publication (1992) upon its Western audience. [about]
    11. Because Baha'u'llah said so: Dealing with a non-starter in moral reasoning, by Arash Abizadeh, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 5:1 (1995). Discusses a popular but misleading versus more philosophically responsible approaches to revelation. [about]
    12. Behold the Man: Baha'u'llah on the Life of Jesus, by Juan Cole, in Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 65:1 (1997). Bahá'u'lláh's lessons from the Judeo-Christian experience for founding a new, post-Islamic religion; invoking Christ to illuminate contemporary situations within Babi-Bahá'í history; implications for his relations with Middle Eastern Christians. [about]
    13. Biographies of Jamal-i-Burujirdi, by Adib Taherzadeh and Dariush Lamie (1998). Three short biographies of about the man who asked to be exempt from the laws of the Aqdas. [about]
    14. Capital Punishment and Amnesty International (n.d.). Letter from the House to Amnesty International on the death penalty. [about]
    15. Challenges for Bahá'í Youth in a Western Way of Life, by Universal House of Justice (2013). Difficulties young people might face in upholding Bahá'í ideals and standards of behaviour in the context of Western culture and sexual mores. [about]
    16. Choice Wine: The Kitab-i Aqdas and the Development of Bahá'í Law, by Anthony Lee (1995). The Kitab-i Aqdas was not intended to establish a new law code (shari'a) similar to the one known to 19th century Muslim jurisprudence, but rather to discard that approach to law in favor of a more organic promulgation of ethical principles. [about]
    17. Commentary on the Kitab-i Aqdas, verse one, by Sen McGlinn (1997). Meanings why recognition of God and his Manifestations are the first two laws of the Aqdas. [about]
    18. Comparative Lives of the Founders of the World Religions, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 5.1 (1995). Table comparing the lives of the Founders of the world's religions. [about]
    19. Concept of Divine Law, The, by Mehrdad K. Meshgin, in The Kitáb-i-Aqdas: Studies from the First National Conference on the Holy Book, vol. 1 (1996). The changing impact of divine law on society; legal principles current in Europe are derived largely from the works on jurisprudence and the legal decision of Muslim theologians; Bahá'u'lláh's social teachings offer flexibility to address new concerns. [about]
    20. Crime and Punishment: Bahá'í Perspectives for a Future Criminal Law, by Udo Schaefer, in Law and International Order. Proceedings of the first European Bahá'í Conference on Law and International Order (1996). There is a moral crisis at the present time due to the decline of religion. The Bahá'í teachings uphold the principles of divine justice, individual responsibility, moral education, and the fear of God. [about]
    21. Death Penalty, The: Australian Legal Institutions vs the Bahá'í Faith?, by Roger Le Lievre, in 75 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in Australasia (1996). The Bahá'í teachings accept the application of the death penalty as a punishment for murder as an expression of retributive justice. [about]
    22. Deconstructing and Reconstructing the Shari'a: Babi and Baha'i Solutions to the Problem of Immutability, by Denis MacEoin (1997). Ways in which the Bab and Bahá'u'lláh adopted and changed the Islamic shari`a in their own, new codes of law. [about]
    23. Exemption, by Bahiyyih Nakhjavani, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 3:1 (1993). Thoughts on Bahá'u'lláh's meaning in "exempting" women from certain Bahá'í obligations, especially pilgrimage. [about]
    24. Extracts from Letters Written by or on Behalf of Shoghi Effendi Regarding the Absence of Clergy in the Baha'i Faith, by Shoghi Effendi (1998). Compilation included with a memorandum from the House of Justice from 1998/02/11 regarding the abolition of the priesthood. [about]
    25. Family Law in Iran, by Sen McGlinn (2001). Detailed overview of 20th-century Iranian laws regarding marriage, divorce, marriage rights and duties, dowry, and inheritance. Contains passing mentions of the Bahá'í Faith. [about]
    26. Fast, Bahá'í (March 2, by Christopher Buck, in Religious Celebrations: An Encyclopedia of Holidays, Festivals, Solemn Observances, and Spiritual Commemorations (2011). [about]
    27. Forces of Our Time, The, by Hooper Dunbar, in dialogue magazine, 1:3 (1986). Excerpt from a talk presented at the "Prepare for Peace" conference, Long Beach, California, August 1985. [about]
    28. Gender in Babi and Bahá'í Law, by Siyamak Zabihi-Moghaddam (2010). [about]
    29. Goddess Religion, Ancient, by Universal House of Justice (1992). Ancient goddess religions and the role of the feminine in theology. [about]
    30. Hinduism and the Bahá'í Faith, by Moojan Momen (1990). An attempt to explore the relationship between Hinduism and the Bahá'í Faith and to explain the Bahá'í Faith to those who are from a Hindu background. [about]
    31. Huqúqu'lláh: The Right of God, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (2007). [about]
    32. Immanence and Transcendence in Theophanic Symbolism, by Michael W. Sours, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 5:2 (1992). Bahá'u'lláh uses symbols to depict theophanies — the appearance of God and the divine in the realm of creation — such as "angel," "fire," and the prophets' claims to be incarnating the "face" or "voice" of God; these convey the transcendence of God. [about]
    33. In A Blue Haze: Smoking and Baha'i Ethics, by Udo Schaefer (1997). Smoking as a focus of this first attempt to define certain aspects of Bahá'í ethics. [about]
    34. Inheritance, by Seena Fazel, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 4:1 (1994). The apparent contradiction between sexual equality and the unequal inheritance laws contained in the Aqdas. [about]
    35. Inheritance: Extracts from Four Tablets by Abdu'l-Bahá Concerning the Question of, by Abdu'l-Bahá (n.d.). [about]
    36. Inheritance Laws of the Baha'i Community and Gender Equality, by Sarthak Sharma, in International Journal of Legal Science and Innovation, 3:6 (2021). Examination of whether the Bahá'í Faith's teachings on gender-justice and equality are reflected in its inheritance laws and the Kitab-i-Aqdas; scholarly articles on this subject; comparison with Islamic provisions and law. [about]
    37. Institute on Islam, by Peter J. Khan (1971). Transcription of tape #7 which deals with prophecies in the Qur'an, and recordings of a one-weekend group class on Islam in Davenport, Iowa. [about]
    38. Internationalism and Divine Law: A Baha'i Perspective, by Roshan Danesh, in Journal of Law and Religion, 19:2 (2004). On the internationalism motif in Bahá'í political and legal thought; the place of divine legal claims in contemporary debates about models of world order; religion as a unifying force; concept of divine law in both Persian and Islamic history. [about]
    39. Introduction to a Study of the Qur'án: With Additional References from Several Bahá'í Texts, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States (1941). A study guide to the Qur'an, consisting of lists of topics and verses by the "Study Outline Committee." [about]
    40. Introduction to Bahá'í Law, An: Doctrinal Foundations, Principles and Structures, by Udo Schaefer, in Journal of Law and Religion, 18:2 (2003). A pioneering look at Bahá'í law both in general and in detail, the foundations and principles of which can only be understood within their theological context. [about]
    41. Introduction to the Lawh-i Haqqu'n-Nas, An, by Jean-Marc Lepain, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). Summary of the tablet Lawh-i Haqqu’n-Nas, Tablet of the "Right of the People," on the metaphorical character of this world. [about]
    42. Kitab-i Aqdas, the Most Holy Book, by John Walbridge (1999). [about]
    43. Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book): Questions and Concordances, by Habib Riazati (2000). Study questions, categorized cross-references to the Aqdas and its notes and "Questions and Answers," topical concordances, and other research materials. [about]
    44. Kitáb-i-Aqdas as a Lens with which to Examine some of the Dilemmas of Modernity, The, by Betsy Omidvaran, in Solas, 2 (2002). Contrast between the Aqdas - the source of laws of future society - and issues of the modern world as it had evolved up to the 19th century. Discussion of Houses of Worship, universal language, financial principles, justice, the Covenant, and unity. [about]
    45. Kitab-i-Aqdas Questions and Concordances, by Habib Riazati (2002). The Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh and their relationship to selected passages in The Aqdas; New Laws That Abrogate the Laws of Former Dispensations; Correlation of Paragraphs, Notes, and Questions and Answers of the Aqdas; sample questions. [about]
    46. Kitab-i-Aqdas, The: Bahá'í Law, Legitimacy, and World Order, by Martha L. Schweitz, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 6:1 (1994). On the Kitáb-i-Aqdas from the perspective of contemporary secular national and international law; its institution-building provisions as a Charter for future world civilization; relationship between law and principle; transformation of international law. [about]
    47. Kitáb-i-Íqán: The Book of Certitude, by Bahá'u'lláh (1931). Major theological work by Baháʼu'lláh, written prior to his declaration of mission. [about]
    48. Law and Order: Warwick Leaflets, by Warwick Bahá'í Bookshop (1995). [about]
    49. Law, Application of, by Universal House of Justice (1991). Questions concerning the violation of Bahá'í and civil law, and the removal of administrative rights. [about]
    50. Laws Abrogated by Bahá'u'lláh (2018). Laws abolished from previous religions and from the Bayán. [about]
    51. Laws from the Kitab-i-Aqdas Not Yet Binding, by Universal House of Justice (1974). Which laws of the Kitab-i-Aqdas are and are not currently (as of 1974) binding upon Western believers. [about]
    52. Laws of the Bayán reflected in The Kitáb-i-Aqdas (2008). List of 32 laws from the Báb's Persian Bayán or the Arabic Bayán which also appear in Bahá'u'lláh's book of laws. [about]
    53. Laws of the Kitab-i-Aqdas, Further Application of, by Universal House of Justice (1999). Announcement to the Bahá'í world that all elements of the laws dealing with obligatory prayer and fasting are now applicable. [about]
    54. Legislating on Morality, by Universal House of Justice (1988). Areas in which the Universal House of Justice is refraining from legislating on, e.g. abortion and homosexuality. [about]
    55. Legislative Responsibilities of the Universal House of Justice Regarding Obligatory Prayers, Guardian's Statement on, by Universal House of Justice (1995). Brief note about which aspects of obligatory prayer the House may one day legislate on. [about]
    56. Light of the World: Selected Tablets of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2021). Tablets of ‘Abdul-Bahá describing aspects of the life of Bahá’u’lláh including the tribulations He suffered, events in His homeland, the purpose and greatness of His Cause, and the nature and significance of His Covenant. [about]
    57. List of Articles on BahaiTeachings.org, by John S. Hatcher (2015). List of online essays and articles by Dr. John Hatcher. [about]
    58. Lists of Articles, by Brent Poirier (2009). Lists of 126 articles at the author's six blog websites. [about]
    59. Local Spiritual Assembly, The, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). The institution of the LSA, its significance, and its by-laws. [about]
    60. Maid of Heaven, the Image of Sophia, and the Logos, The: Personification of the Spirit of God in Scripture and Sacred Literature, by Michael W. Sours, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 4:1 (1991). The Logos in Christianity and the Maiden for Bahá'u'lláh can be equated as one and the same eternal reality; the divine image of wisdom in Proverbs; Sophia and Logos are combined in the feminine personification of the Most Great Spirit. [about]
    61. Making the Crooked Straight: A Contribution to Baha'i Apologetics [excerpt], by Udo Schaefer and Nicola Towfigh (2000). Front- and back-matter of the book only: Contents, Preface, Introduction, Conclusion, Bibliography, Index. [about]
    62. Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-1986: Third Epoch of the Formative Age, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
    63. Mission of the Báb, The: Retrospective 1844-1994, by Douglas Martin, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 23 (1994-1995) (1996). The revelation of the Báb in the context of its impact on the Western writers of the period and its subsequent influence. [about]
    64. Monogamy, Sexual Equality, Marital Equality, and the Supreme Tribunal, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Questions about monogamy, the Supreme Tribunal, and the Bahá'í concept of equality of the sexes in light of some Bahá'í laws and history which appear to undermine it [about]
    65. Mystical Dimensions of Islam, by Annemarie Schimmel (1975). Detailed history of Sufism and its thought, Islamic theosophy, and Persian and Turkish mystical poetry. Book includes no mention of the Bahá'í Faith, but is quite relevant. [about]
    66. Mystical Dimensions of the Bahá'í Administrative Order, The, by Kavian Sadeghzade Milani, in Lights of Irfan, Book 3 (2002). The Bahá'i Administrative Order can be seen as a mystical entity, and there are some parallels between it and Sufism. For Bahá'is the encounter with the Administrative Order is critical to the mystical path. [about]
    67. National Spiritual Assembly, The, by Universal House of Justice and Horace Holley, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). Includes Holley's brief overview of the nature of an NSA and the history of Bahá`í Temple Unity, NSA by-laws and a list of new NSAs as of 1980-1983. [about]
    68. Notes on Bahá'í Proofs Based on the Qur'an, Some (2000). Compilation by the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Central and East Africa [about]
    69. Notes on Words of the Guardian, by Virginia Orbison (1956). Ten pages of notes, preserved as an appendix to Orbison's lengthy manuscript "Diary of a Pilgrimage to the Holy Land, Made by Virginia Orbison, January 15 to February 11". [about]
    70. Obedience, by Darius Shahrokh, in Windows to the Past (1995). The meanings of infallibility, obedience to Bahá'u'lláh, the covenant of God with humanity, and the paradox of law being the instrument of liberation, not limitation. [about]
    71. Obligatory Prayer and Fasting, The Importance of, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá, in The American Baha'i, 31:7 (2000). [about]
    72. Obligatory Prayer, Ablutions, and Repetition of the Greatest Name, by Universal House of Justice (2004). On recitation of the specific verses associated with the performance of ablutions for the medium Obligatory Prayer. Includes compilation of references regarding repetition of the Greatest Name 95 times per a Day. [about]
    73. Obligatory Prayers and Ablutions, by Universal House of Justice and Bahá'u'lláh, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 4:3-4 (1991). Letter from the House on missing prayers due to ailment, an insecure environment, or an inability to speak. Followed by a brief compilation. [about]
    74. "On Human Origins: A Bahá'í Perspective," by Craig Loehle: Response to Commentary, by Keven Brown, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 5:4 (1994). [about]
    75. One Common Faith, by Universal House of Justice (2005). Review of relevant passages from both the writings of Bahá'u'lláh and the scriptures of other faiths against the background of contemporary crises. [about]
    76. Oracion Obligatoria y el Ayuno, La Importancia de la, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (2000). [about]
    77. Paradox of Protest in a Culture of Contest, The, by Michael Karlberg, in Peace and Change, 28:3 (2003). In our culture, political and legal institutions are structured as contests and reform is characterized as protest. This leads to injustice and unsustainability. Bahá'í models of elections and decision-making offer a practical alternative. [about]
    78. Parallels Between Islamic and Baha'i laws and Constitutional Principles, by Afshin A. Khavari (1998). The roles of Sunnah, Hadith, and Ijtihad in Islamic constitutional law, and the development of the Bahá'í legal order and its unique approach to law-making. [about]
    79. Perceiving Differences: A Look at Gender and Equality, by Mark Brush, in dialogue magazine, 2:2-3 (1988). Observations on what Richard DeNovellis' "Personality Type Preference Indicator" tests show about ages and genders; laws of nature vs. laws of God. [about]
    80. Perspectives on the Inseparable Twin Duties Prescribed in the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, by Eamonn Moane, in Solas, 3 (2003). Religions differ in the balance of faith versus good works, the grace of God versus human strivings, and the scheme of salvation. To Bahá'ís, recognizing the Prophet and obedience to his laws are equal duties. For salvation, faith surpasses deeds. [about]
    81. Post-Quranic Religion Between Apostasy and Public Order, A: Egyptian Muftis and Courts on the Legal Status of the Baha'i Faith, by Johanna Pink, in Islamic Law and Society, 10:3 (2003). On how Egypt has adapted and responded to the Bahá'í Faith; legal issues for Muslim jurists and the courts; personal and employment status of Bahá'ís in Egypt; issues raised by a post-Quranic religious minority. [about]
    82. Power and the Bahá'í community, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 19 (2018). While Bahá'í social teachings may have sounded new and exciting a century ago, that is no longer the case today. The problem the world faces is not in the principles that would lead to a better society, but in their application. [about]
    83. Principles of Bahá'í Administration, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (1973). A guide to procedure in the life and organic activity of the Bahá'í community, prepared from three main sources from the US National Spiritual Assembly: Bahá'í Administration, Bahá'í Procedure, and Bahá'í Community. [about]
    84. Protecting the Human Family: Humanitarian Intervention, International Law, and Bahá'í Principles, by Brian D. Lepard, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 13:1-4 (2003). The moral and legal problems raised by the use of military force to aid human rights victims. Relevant Bahá’í ethical principles and how these might assist us to reform existing international law to better protect all members of the human family. [about]
    85. Question of Gender, A: A Forum on the Status of Men in Bahá'í Law, by Susan Maneck and Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in dialogue magazine, 2:1 (1987). Six authors address issues of theology, sociology, law, inheritance, equality, the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, marriage, and feminism raised by John and Linda Walbridge's article "Bahá'í Laws on the Status of Men" (World Order 1984). [about]
    86. Quranic Roots of Some Legal and Theological Terms of the Kitáb-i Aqdas Regarding Women and Homosexual Relations, The, by Kamran Ekbal (1995). Interpretations and etymologies of Arabic terms for prostitution, virginity, dowry, menstruation, sodomy, pederasty, uncleanliness, and adultery. [about]
    87. Reflections on the Concept of Law in the Bahá'í Faith, Some, by Roshan Danesh, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 24:1-2 (2014). The concept of law in the Bahá’í Faith; its early Islamic context; the nature of legal language and discourse in Bahá’u’lláh’s writings. Religious law, rooted in conscious knowledge and the dynamics of love, rejects rigid and legalistic rules. [about]
    88. Reflections on the Structure of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, Some, by Roshan Danesh, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 25:3 (2015). While the Kitab-i-Aqdas might seem unstructured, lacking apparent logical or discernible order, there is meaning to be found in its organization — particularly the first 19 paragraphs: the pivotal constructs of Bahá’í spiritual and social teachings. [about]
    89. Regarding the Implementation of the Badi` Calendar, by Universal House of Justice (2014). Message to the Bahá’ís of the world on the updated calendar of Bahá'í holy days. Includes a table of Bahá’í Dates 172 to 221 B.E., and a letter to an individual explaining the date of the astronomical new moon in Islamic and Bahá'í calendars. [about]
    90. Reis naar het Hart van de Qur'án: Het Heilige Boek van de islam voor hen die nadenken (door een niet-moslim), by David Russell Garcia (2022). Een overzicht van de Koran en zijn thema's: islam versus het christendom; wetten, geestelijke en sociale principes; heilige oorlog en vechten; redenen achter de reputatie van de islam als een oorlogsreligie; apocalypse. [about]
    91. Relationship between two statements of Bahá'u'lláh regarding the calculation of Ḥuqúqu'lláh, by Universal House of Justice (2019). About the relationship between paragraph 97 of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas (fraction) and “Questions and Answers”, number 8 (minimum threshold). [about]
    92. Role of the Universal House of Justice: Interpretation and Elucidation, by Universal House of Justice (1998). On the regarding the role of the Universal House of Justice and its "interpretative function." [about]
    93. Secret of Divine Civilization Translation, Capital Punishment, and Other Questions, by Universal House of Justice (1991). On the capitalization of pronouns, reference to "we Muslims," works of Abdu'l-Bahá revealed during the time of Bahá'u'lláh, the first person to recognize Bahá'u'lláh, and designer of the temple in Ishqabad. Includes a compilation on capital punishment. [about]
    94. Shi`i Islam, by Moojan Momen (1995). Overview of Shi'a Islam, including a section on its relations to the Bahá'í Faith. [about]
    95. Shoghi Effendi's Translation of Terms Related to Law in Bahá'í Scripture, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 16 (2015). Patterns in the Guardian's translation of terms related to the word law; different Arabic/Persian words translated as "law"; quotations in which Shoghi Effendi translated each word in some other way. [about]
    96. Six Lessons on Bahá'í Law: A Deepening Course for Bahá'ís (1974). Principles of the Faith; justice and mercy; laws for the individual vs society; jurisdiction; civil law. [about]
    97. Special Report on Baha'i Burial vs. Maori Custom, by National Spiritual Assembly of New Zealand (1989). Special report about reconciling Bahá'í burial laws with local maori customs where they conflict; includes guidance from the Universal House of Justice. [about]
    98. Synopsis and Codification of the Laws and Ordinances of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, by Bahá'u'lláh and Shoghi Effendi (1973). [about]
    99. Tablet on Interpretation of Sacred Scripture (Ta'wíl), by Bahá'u'lláh (2001). An undated tablet from the Akka period on the interpretation of sacred scripture, with references to previous Tablets revealed after the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, Asl-i-Kullu’l-Khayr (Words of Wisdom) and Lawh-i-Maqsúd (Tablet of Maqsúd). [about]
    100. Tablet on Interpretation of Sacred Scripture (Ta'wíl), by Bahá'u'lláh, in Iqtidarat (n.d.). Tablet on "the legitimacy of figurative scripture interpretation." [about]
    101. Tablet on the Right of the People, by Bahá'u'lláh (2016). On some situations relating to a person’s private rights, in this case theft and debt, with a larger meditation on the spiritual rights a person earns through righteous deeds, and God’s promise to reward good deeds and punish the wrong. [about]
    102. Tablet to Mirza Abu'l-Fadl Concerning the Questions of Manakji Limji Hataria: Baha'u'llah on Hinduism and Zoroastrianism, by Bahá'u'lláh (1995). Introduction to, article about, and translation of the Tablet to Maneckji. [about]
    103. Ten Commandments, The: A Baha'i Perspective, by Marco Oliveira (2019). Overview of the history and theology of the Ten Commandments. Like Christianity and Islam, the Bahá’í Faith inherited and expanded the moral values exposed in the Ten Commandments. [about]
    104. Themes in the Study of Bahá'u'lláh's Kitáb-i-Aqdas: Emerging Approaches to Scholarship on Bahá'í Law, by Roshan Danesh, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 27:4 (2017). Review of what emergent scholarship has thus far accomplished relating to the study of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas and Bahá'í law; suggested core themes and approaches; directions which future study of this topic might encompass. [about]
    105. Twofold Mission, A: Some Distinctive Characteristics of the Person and Teachings of the Báb, by Elham Afnan, in Bahá'í World (2019). Some features of the Bab's life and Writings highlighting the rare combination of qualities that have come to be associated with him. [about]
    106. Unity of Humanity, The: An Interview with Professor Todd Lawson, by David Hornsby and Jane Clark, in Beshara Magazine, issue (2016). Biography of Lawson and his personal interests in the Qur'an and the Bahá'í Faith, discussion of contemporary Western approaches to Islam, and commentary on current world affairs and hope for the future. (Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite.) [about]
    107. Universal House of Justice and the Principles of Jurisprudence, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2001). Authorized translation of an excerpt of a tablet on "the wisdom of referring certain important laws to the House of Justice." [about]
    108. Universality of the Laws of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, The, by Bijan Samali, in The Kitáb-i-Aqdas: Studies from the First National Conference on the Holy Book, vol. 1 (1996). The laws of the Aqdas focus on the individual; are applicable to everyone; facilitate the realisation of the oneness of human race; ensure the equality of the sexes; are adaptable to cultural diversities; and call for the elimination of all prejudices. [about]
    109. Views on Homosexuality, by Universal House of Justice (2013). On the need to overcome material nature including homosexuality; Bahá’ís not to judge or impose values and to treat those with a homosexual orientation sympathetically; no possibility for House to change Bahá’í marriage as between man and woman [about]
    110. Violation of Baha'i and Civil Law, by Universal House of Justice (1991). Role of Spiritual Assemblies in regulating behavior of Bahá'ís, removal of administrative rights, and treatment of Bahá'ís convicted of a criminal offense. [about]
    111. Voyage to the Heart of the Koran: The Holy Book of Islám for Thinking Minds (By a Non-Muslim), by David Russell Garcia (2003). A lengthy overview of the Qur'án and its themes for a Bahá'í audience; holy war and fighting; reasons behind Islám's reputation as a war-like religion; theology of Islám vs. Christianity; laws and admonitions; spiritual and social principles; apocalypse. [about]
    112. What is Baha'u'llah's Message to the Sufis?, by Roberta Law (1998). Nature of Sufism and Bahá'u'lláh's teachings for the Sufi community, especially as contained in the Seven Valleys. [about]
    113. Wills and Inheritance, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Five questions about the writing of Bahá'í wills. Includes a list of which laws are not at present binding upon the friends in the western world, and a compilation of "Extracts from Four Tablets by Abdu'l-Bahá Concerning the Question of Inheritance." [about]
    114. Women on the Universal House of Justice, by Universal House of Justice (1988). Response to a paper presented at a Bahá'í Studies conference which raised the possibility that women could one day be eligible for membership on the Universal House of Justice. [about]
     
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