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from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1895 23 Jun Birth of Leonora Stirling Holsapple (later Armstrong) in Hudson, New York. She was the first pioneer to Brazil and is regarded as the Mother of South America. [Wikipedia] Hudson; New York; United States Leonora Holsapple Armstrong; Names and titles; Births and deaths
1904 (In the year) At this point there were separate Spiritual Assemblies for the Jewish and Zoroastrian Bahá'ís in Hamadán and Tihrán. [BBRSM:151; CB371; CT33]
  • See BW2:275–9 for a letter from the `Israelitish' Bahá'í Assembly of Tihrán of November 1904.
  • Hamadan; Tihran; iran LSA
    1920 After Jul The first Argentineans to become Bahá'ís, Hermann Grossman and his sister Elsa Grossman, accepted the Faith in Leipzig in 1920.
  • They were born in Argentina and emigrated to Germany in 1909.
  • Dr Grossman heard of the Faith at a public meeting given by Harlan and Grace Ober at the Theosophical Society. [BW13:869]
  • Leipzig; Germany Herman Grossmann; Elsa Grossman; Harlan and Grace Ober; Theosophical Society; First Bahais by country or area
    1921 1 Feb Leonora Holsapple Armstrong, the first Bahá'í pioneer in Latin America, arrived in Rio de Janeiro. Rio de Janeiro; Brazil Leonora Holsapple Armstrong
    1922 10 Dec The first local assembly of Montreal was formed. [BW8:639, OBCC157, TG26] Montreal; Quebec; Canada LSA
    1925 Jan The Spiritual Assembly of Alexandria was established, the second assembly to be formed in Africa. Alexandria; Africa LSA
    1925 There were 43 local spiritual assemblies in North America by this date. [BBRSM121] North America; United States LSA; Statistics
    1927 9 Sep - 2 Dec Leonora Holsapple (later Armstrong) made a teaching trip through Latin America and the Caribbean, becoming the first Bahá’í to visit Venezuela, Colombia, Haiti, Curaçao, Trinidad (2–12 Oct), the Guianas (29 Oct), Barbados (Dec) and several islands in the Antilles group. Latin America; Caribbean Leonora Holsapple Armstrong
    1928 (In the year) The first local assembly of Shanghai was formed. [PH28] Shanghai LSA
    1928 (In the year) In this year there were 579 localities in the world in which Bahá’ís lived, 102 local spiritual assemblies, nine national spiritual assemblies, and about eight languages into which Bahá’í literature was translated. [BBRSM160–1] NSA; LSA; statistics
    1930 (In the year) Leonora Holsapple Armstrong visited Gibraltar, the first Bahá’í to do so. Gibraltar Leonora Holsapple Armstrong
    1932 17 Feb The Chicago Bahá’í Assembly incorporated, the first local spiritual assembly in the world to do so. This set the pattern for other Assemblies. [GPB336, Century of LIght p57] Chicago; United States LSA; Incorporation; Recognition; Firsts, Other
    1932 21 Mar The first Local Spiritual Assembly of Tokyo, consisting of journalists and other professional people, was formed.
  • Owing to the situation in Japan, it was disbanded two years later. [In memoriam Barbara Sims by Universal House of Justice, Sheridan Sims, and Sandra S. Fotos]
  • Tokyo LSA; Z**** find reference
    1933 25 Nov The first Spiritual Assembly of Addis Ababa was formed. [BW6:70]
  • The community was established by Sabri Elias, a pioneer from Egypt who thus earned the title Knight of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW6:70]
  • Ethiopia was the only independent Kingdom in Africa at this date. [BW6:70]
  • Wikipedia says that the Assembly was formed in "late 1934".
  • Addis Ababa; Ethiopia First Local Spiritual Assemblies; Sabri Elias; Knights of Bahaullah' LSA
    1934 (In the year) The first Local Spiritual Assembly of Sofia, Bulgaria, was elected. Sofia; Bulgaria LSA; Bulgaria
    1935 (In the year) The persecution against the Bahá’ís in Iran continued. [BW18:389]
  • Meetings in the Bahá’í Centre in Tihrán were banned.
  • A number of Bahá’ís in Bandar Sháh were arrested and imprisoned.
  • The secretary of the Local Spiritual Assembly of Arák was arrested.
  • Bahá’ís in Qazvín were arrested and harassed.
  • A Bahá’í in Záhidán was arrested.
  • Iran; Tihran; Bandar Shah; Arak; Qazvin; Zahidan Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution; LSA
    1937 (In the year) The persecution of the Bahá’ís in Iran continued throughout the country. [BW18:389]
  • Many Bahá’ís employed in the police force, army and government departments were dismissed.
  • Six members of the Local Spiritual Assembly of Ahváz were arrested.
  • Bahá’ís who closed their shops on Bahá’í holy days in Bandar Sháh were arrested.
  • All Bahá’í meetings in Kirmánsháh, Bírjand, Arák and other towns were prohibited by police order.
  • Five Bahá’í families were attacked in their homes in Cham-tang, near Hindíyán. They were severely beaten and forced to leave the village.
  • Iran; Ahvaz; Bandar Shah; Kirmanshah; Birjand; Arak; Cham-tang Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution; LSA; Holy days
    1937 Ridván The First Seven Year Plan was launched in North America. [BBD180; BBRSM158; BW7:17–18; MA9]
  • For the role of individuals, local spiritual assemblies and the National Spiritual Assembly see MA11–12.
  • The Plan called for:
    • the completion of the exterior of the Wilmette Temple. BW7:17–18; PP385]
    • the establishment of a local spiritual assembly in each state and province of the United States and Canada. [PP385]
    • the establishment of a centre in each of the republics of Latin America. [PP385]
  • United States; Canada Seven Year Plan, US and CA (1937-1946); Teaching Plans; Teaching Plans, National; LSA; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette
    1938 5 Feb Bahá'ís in the Soviet Union were persecuted by the authorities. [BBR473, BW8p87-90, 179-81, BW14p479-481, SETPE1p155]
  • Five hundred Bahá'í men were imprisoned in Turkistán. [Bw8p89]
  • Many Persian Bahá'ís living in various cities of the Soviet Union were arrested, some are sent to Siberia, others to Pavladar in northern Kazakhstan and yet others to Iran. [BW8p87, 179, 184]
  • Six hundred Bahá'í refugees-women, girls, children and a few old men, went to Iran, most to Mashhad. [BW8p89]
  • The Bahá'í Temple in Ishqábád (now Ashgabat, Turkmenistan) was confiscated and turned into an art gallery. [BDD122, BW8p89]
  • The Bahá'í schools were ordered closed. [BW8p89]
  • Spiritual Assemblies and all other administrative institutions in the Caucasus were ordered dissolved. [BW8p89]
  • Soviet Union; Russia; Caucasus; Turkistan; Ishqabad; Turkmenistan; Kazakhstan; Iran; Mashhad Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Persecution, Russia; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Bahai schools; LSA
    1938 Apr The first local spiritual assembly in the whole of Latin America was formed in Mexico City. Mexico City LSA find ref
    1940 (In the year) The first local spiritual assembly in Brazil was established in Bahia, with the assistance of Leonora Holsapple Armstrong. Bahia; Brazil Leonora Holsapple Armstrong
    1940 Apr The first local spiritual assembly of Argentina was established in Buenos Aires. Buenos Aires; Argentina LSA
    1942 Ridván The first local assembly in El Salvador was established in San Salvador. San Salvador LSA
    1942 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Cuba was established in Havana.
  • A loose organization had been formed in 1940.
  • Havana LSA
    1942 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Haiti was established in Port-au-Prince. Port-au-Prince LSA
    1942 Jun The Spiritual Assembly of San José, Costa Rica, was legally registered with the government, the first local assembly to be incorporated in Latin America. [BW11:46] San Jose; Costa Rica LSA
    1944 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Jamaica was established in Kingston. Kingston LSA
    1944 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Puerto Rico was established in San Juan. San Juan LSA
    1944 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Colombia was established in Bogotá. Bogota LSA
    1944 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Honduras was established in Tegucigalpa. Tegucigalpa LSA
    1944 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Peru was established in Lima. Lima LSA
    1944 May The British at their national convention, decided to ask the Guardian for their own Six Year Plan. [UDXVI]
  • He responded immediately by setting them the task of forming 19 assemblies spread over England, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland and Eire. [UD173]
  • Shoghi Effendi described this as ‘their first collective enterprise’. [UDXVI, 173–4]
  • See also BBRSM158, 185.
  • United Kingdom; Ireland Conventions, National; Teaching Plans, National; Firsts, Other; LSA
    1944 Nov The Local Spiritual Assembly of Bogotá, Colombia, was disbanded.
  • It was not reformed until April 1946.
  • Bogota; Colombia LSA
    1945 (Ridván) The first local spiritual assembly in Ecuador was established in Guayaquil. Guayaquil; Ecuador LSA
    1945 (Ridván) The first local spiritual assembly in the Dominican Republic was established in Santo Domingo.
  • There were nine indigenous believers in the city.
  • Santo Domingo LSA
    1945 (Ridván) The first local spiritual assembly of Bolivia was established in La Paz. La Paz LSA
    1945 (Ridván) The first local spiritual assembly of Venezuela was established in Caracas. Caracas LSA
    1945 Jun The 20 Bahá’ís in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, were a sufficient number for the local spiritual assembly to gain legal recognition for the Bahá’í Faith as a religion.
  • It was registered as a cultural, religious and social organization on 5 August 1946.
  • Port-au-Prince; Haiti LSA
    1946 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Panama was established Panama City. Panama LSA
    1946 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Brazil was established in Rio de Janeiro. Rio de Janeiro LSA
    1947 Apr The Tokyo Spiritual Assembly, suspended during the war, was re-established. Tokyo LSA
    1947 Ridván The formation of the Local Spiritual Assembly of Amsterdam, the first in the Netherlands. Amsterdam; Netherlands LSA find ref
    1948 19 Apr The Havana Bahá’ís incorporated as an ‘assembly’, meaning ‘group’.
  • It was incorporated as a local spiritual assembly in 1949.
  • Havana LSA
    1948 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly of the Netherlands was established in Amsterdam. [BW11p654] Amsterdam; Netherlands LSA
    1948 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Belgium was established in Brussels. [BW11p727] Brussels; Belgium LSA
    1948 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Afghanistan was established in Kabul. Kabul LSA
    1948 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Ireland was established in Dublin. Dublin LSA
    1948 Ridván The first All-Native Bahá’í Assembly was established in Macy, Nebraska. [BW13:837; CF72]
  • See BW11:536 for a picture.
  • For the role of Amelia Collins in establishing this Assembly see PSBW88.
  • Macy; Nebraska Amelia Collins; LSA
    1948 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Sweden was established in Stockholm. [BW11:689]
  • For picture see BW11:689.
  • Stockholm LSA
    1948 Ridván The Local Spiritual Assembly of Budapest reformed. The Assembly was forced to dissolve again near the end of 1950 under the new regime. Most Bahá'ís fled the country during or after the Revolution in 1956. [www.bahai.hu]. Budapest; Hungary LSA; Re-form
    1948 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Spain was established in Madrid. Madrid LSA
    1948 Ridván The first Bahá'í institution in Italy, the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'iís of Rome was elected.
  • See picture.
  • Rome; Italy LSA
    1948 Ridvan The formation of the first Spiritual Assembly in Cardiff. See CG9 for a picture. Cardiff,Wales LSA
    1949 20 Apr The first local spiritual assembly in Portugal was established in Lisbon. Lisbon LSA
    1949 21 Apr The first local spiritual assembly of Denmark was established in Copenhagen. Copenhagen LSA
    1951 (In the year) Bahá’í women in Egypt were extended the right of membership on local spiritual assemblies. [MBW12]
  • Shoghi Effendi called this ‘a notable step in the progress of Bahá’í women of the Middle East’. [MBW12]
  • Egypt LSA; women
    1952 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly of Uganda was established in Kampala.
  • Enoch Olinga was a member.
  • Kampala LSA
    1952 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Tanganyika was established in Dar-es-Salaam. Dar-es-Salaam LSA
    1952 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly of Singapore City was established. [BW12:573; PH58, 67] Singapore LSA
    1953 Apr The first local spiritual assembly in Finland was established in Helsinki. Helsinki LSA find reference
    1953 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Kenya was established in Nairobi. Nairobi; Kenya LSA
    1953 Sep Elsa Grossman arrived in the Frisian Islands and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:452] Frisian Islands Elsa Grossman; Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 Apr Bahá’í women in Iran were accorded full rights to participate in membership of both national and local Bahá’í assemblies. [MBW65]
  • This removed the ‘last remaining obstacle to the enjoyment of complete equality of rights in the conduct of the administrative affairs of the Persian Bahá’í Community’. [MBW65]
  • Iran NSA; LSA
    1954 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in the Malay Peninsula was established in Seremban. Seremban; Malay LSA
    1954 Ridván The first all African local spiritual assembly in Tanganyika was formed in Bukoba. Bukoba; Tanganyika (Tanzania) LSA
    1954 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly was formed in British Cameroons. British Cameroon LSA
    1954 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly was formed in Ruanda-Urundi. Ruanda-Urundi (Burundi) LSA
    1954 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Algeria was formed in Algiers. Algiers; Algeria LSA
    1955 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Zanzibar was formed. Zanzibar LSA
    1955 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Réunion was formed. Reunion; France LSA
    1955 Ridván The first five local assemblies in Bechuanaland (Botswana) were formed in Seqonoka, Maseru, Mafeteng, Maphohloane and Sephapos’ Gate. Seqonoka; Maseru; Mafeteng; Maphohloane and Sephapos Gate; Lesotho LSA
    1955 Ridván The first four local spiritual assemblies in The Gambia were formed in Bathurst (Banjul), Serrekunda, Lamin and Brikama. Bathurst (Banjul); Serrekunda; Lamin and Brikama; Gambia, The LSA
    1955 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) was formed in Salisbury (Harare). [CG21] Salisbury (Harare); Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) LSA
    1955 Ridván The first local spiritual in Mozambique was established in Lourenço Marques. [BW13:290] Lourenco Marques; Mozambique LSA
    1955 Ridván The first Local Spiritual Assembly in Italian Somalia was formed in Mogadishu. Mogadishu; Italian Somaliland LSA
    1955 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Madagascar was formed in Tananarive (Antananarivo). Tananarive (Antananarivo); Madagascar LSA
    1955 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in the Seychelles was formed in Victoria. Victoria; Seychelles LSA
    1955 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in the Bahamas was formed in Nassau. Nassau; Bahamas LSA
    1955 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Vietnam was formed at Saigon-Cholon (Cholon is the Chinese section of Saigon).
  • This body was also the first local assembly to be formed in Indochina.
  • Saigon-Cholon; Vietnam LSA
    1956 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly was formed in Morocco (International Zone). Morocco LSA
    1956 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Taiwan was formed in T’ainan. [The Taiwan Bahá'í Chronicle by Barbara R. Sims p15] Tainan; Taiwan LSA
    1956 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Bermuda was formed. Bermuda LSA
    1956 Ridván The first local spiritual assemblies in Korea were formed at Seoul and at Kwangju. Seoul; Kwangju; Korea LSA
    1956 Ridván With the enrolment of the first Micronesian Bahá’í, the first local spiritual assembly of Guam was formed. Guam LSA
    1956 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly of Hong Kong was formed. Hong Kong LSA
    1956 Ridván The local spiritual assembly of Addis Ababa incorporated, the first one in Africa to do so. [BW13:287] Addis Ababa LSA
    1956 Ridván Formation of the first Local Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Guam. Guam LSA find reference
    1957 (In the year) Nagoya, Japan, became the only spiritual assembly to be made up entirely of Japanese believers. Nagoya; Japan LSA
    1957. 21 Apr The first Local Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Apia, Western Samoa was formed. The members were: Lilian Ala'i, Ghodsieh Ala'i, Nemat Ala'i, To'alima Sa'ialala, Lotoa Rock, Emanuel Rock, William I Laing, Sa'ialala Tamasese, and Suhayl A Ala'i. [CBN No99 April, 1958 p5] Apia; Samoa LSA; Lilian Ala'i; Ghodsieh Ala'i; Nemat Ala'i ; To'alima Sa'ialala; Lotoa Rock; Emanuel Rock; William I Laing; Sa'ialala Tamasese; Suhayl A Ala'i
    1957 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Laos had already been formed in Vientiane. Vientiane; Laos LSA
    1957 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Brunei had already been formed. [BW 13:302] Brunei LSA
    1957 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Cape Verde was formed in Praia. Praia; Cape Verde LSA
    1957 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Nyasaland was formed at Lilongwe. Lilongwe; Nyasaland LSA
    1957 Ridván The formation of the first Local Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canberra, the last capital city in Australia to form. Canberra; Australia LSA find reference
    1958 (In the year) The first local spiritual assembly of Nepal was formed in Kathmandu.
  • Prof. Anil Sarwal says it was 1960-1961
  • The first Local Spiritual Assembly was established in the capital city Kathmandu in 1961. [Yellow Place]
  • Kathmandu; Nepal LSA
    1958 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly of Macau was formed. Macau LSA; First Local Spiritual Assemblies
    1958 Ridván The formation of the first local spiritual assembly of Taipei. [The Taiwan Bahá'í Chronicle by Barbara R. Sims p25] Teipei; Taiwan LSA; First Local Spiritual Assemblies
    1958 May The first local spiritual assembly in Papua New Guinea was formed in Madina Village, in New Ireland.
  • This was the first all-indigenous local spiritual assembly in the South Pacific.
  • Madina Village; New Ireland LSA
    1959 Mar A number of Bahá’ís, members of the local spiritual assembly, were arrested in Ankara, Turkey. [MC306]
  • The incident received wide coverage in the press and the Bahá’ís were eventually released from prison. [MC306]
  • A court case was subsequently brought against the Bahá’ís by the public prosecutor, who claimed that the Faith is a ‘Tarighat’, a sect forbidden by the law of the land, and lengthy litigation followed. [MC306–7]
  • Ankara; Turkey Persecution, Turkey; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; LSA; Court cases
    1959 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Grenada was formed in St George’s Parish. St Georges; Grenada LSA
    1959 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Cambodia was formed in Phnom Penh. Phnom Penh; Cambodia LSA
    1960 (In the year) The first local spiritual assembly in the Cocos Islands was formed on West Island.
  • For picture see BW13:1052.
  • West Island LSA
    1961 Jan - Feb Hand of the Cause of God Dr Rahmatu’lláh Muhájir traveled to India and demonstrated the principle of mass teaching. [DM172–84; SBBH2:165–7]
  • Mass teaching began in the rural area of Madhya Pradesh among the Hindu population. In 1961 there were 850 Bahá’ís; in 1963 87,000; by 1973 nearly 400,000; and by 1987 about two million. In 1983 45 per cent of all local spiritual assemblies were in India. [BBRSM195; BW13:299]
  • Madhya Pradesh; India Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Rahmatullah Muhajir; Mass conversion; Mass teaching; Teaching; LSA; Statistics; Growth
    1962 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly of the Loyalty Islands was formed in Nouméa. Noumea; Loyalty Islands LSA
    1962 27 Dec The Custodians asked national and local spiritual assemblies to write to the Moroccan ambassador in their respective countries pleading for justice and religious freedom. [MoC398–9] Morocco; Worldwide Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Custodians; NSA; LSA
    1962 31 Dec The first indigenous local spiritual assembly in Venezuela was formed among the Yaruro Indians of Apure state in the village of Agua Linda. Agua Linda; Venezuela LSA; Indigenous people
    1963 1 Jan The Custodians ask all national and local spiritual assemblies to cable the King of Morocco appealing for justice for the Bahá’ís under sentence of death and imprisoned for life in his country. [BW14:97; MoC19] Morocco; Worldwide Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Custodians; NSA; LSA
    1965 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Iceland was formed in Reykjavik. Its members were Asgeir Einarsson, Kirsten Bonnevie, Florence Grindlay, Jessie Echevarria, Carl John Spencer, Charles Grindlay, Liesel Becker, Barbel Thinat and Nicholas Echevarria. [Bahá'í News (417): 10, December 1965] Reykjavik LSA
    1966 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Senegal was formed in Dakar. Dakar; Senegal LSA
    1966 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Suriname was formed in Paramaribo. Paramaribo; Suriname LSA
    1966 7 Nov The first local spiritual assembly in Niger was formed in Niamey. Niamey LSA
    1968 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in French Guiana was formed at Cayenne. Cayenne; French Guiana LSA
    1968 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly of the Cayman Islands was formed in George Town. George Town LSA
    1968 Ridván The first local spiritual assemblies of Equatorial Guinea were formed in Bata and Santa Isabel. Bata; Equatorial Guinea; Santa Isabel; Equatorial Guinea LSA
    1969 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly of Upper Volta was formed in Ouagadougou. Ouagadougou; Upper Volta LSA
    1969 Aug The Bahá’í Faith was legally recognized in Lebanon when the Local Spiritual Assembly of Beirut was incorporated. [BW15:173]
  • This was the first time any Arab government has granted the Faith recognition. [BW15:173]
  • Beirut; Lebanon LSA; Recognition
    1970 Ridván The first Local Spiritual Assembly of Nouakchott, Mauritania was formed. Nouakchott; Mauritania LSA
    1971 (In the year) The first local spiritual assembly in Mali was formed in Bamako. Bamako; Mali LSA
    1971. c. 1971 The first local spiritual assembly in Ciskei was formed in Mdantsane. Mdantsane; Ciskei LSA
    1971 Ridván The first local spiritual assemblies in Guam were formed in Dededo, Inarajan, Mangilao and Tamuning. Guam LSA
    1972 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in the Republic of San Marino was formed. San Marino LSA
    1972 Ridván The Spiritual Assembly of Phuntsholing town was formed. It was the first assembly of Bhutan. [Bahá'í Collections] Phuntsholing; Bhutan LSA
    1972 7 Sep The first local spiritual assembly in Malta was formed. Malta LSA
    1972 Oct The first local spiritual assembly in the Falkland Islands was formed. [BW15:650] Falkland Islands LSA
    1973 (In the year) The first local spiritual assembly in St Helena was formed. St Helena LSA
    1973 (In the year) The first local spiritual assembly in the Faroes was formed in Tórshavn. Torshavn; Faroes LSA
    1974 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly of Kotzebue, an Iñupiat Eskimo community situated north of the Arctic Circle, was formed. Kotzebue; Alaska; United States; Arctic LSA
    1974 Aug The first local spiritual assembly in Andorra was formed at Andorra la Vella. Andorra LSA
    1975 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly to be elected among the Meo tribes, Laotian refugees in northern Thailand, was formed. [BW16:262] Thailand LSA
    1976 10 Jan The most northerly-located local spiritual assembly in the world was formed in the Iñupiat community of Barrow, Alaska. Barrow; Alaska; United States LSA; Superlatives
    1976 27 Dec The first local spiritual assembly in Dominica was formed in St George. St George; Dominica LSA
    1977 16 Sep In Uganda, 27 religious organizations were banned, including the Bahá’í Faith, and the Bahá’í House of Worship was closed. [BW17:81]
  • The national spiritual assembly and all 1,550 local assemblies were dissolved. [BW17:141]
  • Uganda Persecution, Uganda; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; NSA; LSA; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Kampala
    1978 (In the year) The first local spiritual assembly in Bonaire was formed.
  • It never functioned and was dissolved in 1989.
  • See also West, Letters From Bonaire.
  • Bonaire LSA
    1978 Ridván The first local assembly in the British Virgin Islands was formed on Tortola. Tortola; British Virgin Islands LSA
    1979 17 Apr The first local spiritual assembly in Greenland was formed in Nuuk. Nuuk; Greenland LSA
    1979 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Lapland was formed in Kemi, Finland. Kemi; Finland LSA
    1980 (In the year) The first local spiritual assemblies in Guinea were formed. Guinea LSA
    1980 17 Oct Leonora Stirling Holsapple Armstrong, (b.June 23, 1895, Hudson, New York), the ‘spiritual mother of South America’ and the first Latin American pioneer, passed away in Bahia, Brazil. She had served on the Continental Board of Counsellors from her appointment in 1973. [Mess63-86p248; BW18:738; VV32]
  • For her obituary see BW18:733–738.
  • See Armstrong, Counsellor Leonora: A Loving Portrait by Kristine Leonard Asuncion. Brief biographical sketch of Counsellor Armstrong, the "Spiritual Mother of South America" .
  • Bahá'í Blog.
  • Wikipedia.
  • See FMH40-41 for the story of how she was inspired to go pioneering as told to Doris and Willard McKay. (She had been a classmate of Willard's sister Marguerite at Cornell University.)
  • Bahia; Brazil Leonora Holsapple Armstrong; Names and titles; In Memoriam
    1982 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Nepal was re-formed. [BW18:107, 181, 553(photo)]
  • Due to the conditions in Nepal during the reign of King Birendra and at the suggestion of the Universal House of Justice, the National Assembly and the 40 other Local Assemblies were dissolved in 1975. For a few years, until 1982, there was an Administrative Committee which looked after the affairs of the Cause in Nepal.

    "In the Himalayan Kingdom of Nepal, the believers have, through the integrity of their character and the excellence of their conduct, overcome in recent years restrictions on the expansion of the Cause. They are now held in high regard and are successfully engaged in presenting the Faith to the people as a unifying force which can contribute to the progress of the nation. As they grow in strength, they can begin to look beyond their own borders and assist in the propagation of the Faith in those areas to which they have such easy access." [Ridván 153]

  • Nepal NSA dissolved; NSA re-formed; LSA dissolved; LSA re-formed
    1986 (In the year) The first local spiritual assembly of San Salvador Island, mentioned in the Tablets of the Divine Plan as Watling Island, was formed. San Salvador Island LSA
    1986 Dec The National Spiritual Assembly of Mauritania and all ten local spiritual assemblies in the country were dissolved. Mauritania NSA; LSA
    1987 (In the year) The first Pygmy local spiritual assembly in the Central African Republic was formed. [BINS173:1] Central African Republic LSA
    1987 Ridván A reorganization of the areas of jurisdiction of local spiritual assemblies in India resulted in the loss of 5,000 assemblies, substantially reducing the overall number of local assemblies in the world. India LSA
    1987 Oct The first local spiritual assembly on the island of São Tomé was formed at São Tomé. Sao Tome LSA
    1988 Jan A teaching campaign was launched in Chad, resulting in 1,340 new Bahá’ís and 33 new local spiritual assemblies. [BINS187:1] Chad LSA
    1988 Oct In the State of Orissa, India, 2,600 people became Bahá’ís and 16 new local spiritual assemblies were formed in 15 days. Orissa; India LSA; Mass teaching; Mass conversion
    1988 Nov More than 2,500 people enrolled in Bangladesh. [BINS190:5]
  • A later report indicated that over 5,000 people had become Bahá’ís and 108 new local spiritual assemblies formed. [BINS192:1]
  • Bangladesh LSA; mass conversion
    1989 7 Jan A week-long teaching project was launched in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands resulting in 43 enrolments and the re-formation of two local spiritual assemblies. [BINS191:7] Andaman and Nicobar Islands LSA; teaching
    1990 (In the year) The highest legal authority in Germany, the Federal Constitutional Court, overturned the decisions of a number of lower courts that had refused to register the by-laws of a Local Spiritual Assembly on the grounds that the authority granted to the National Spiritual Assembly in the document violated the legal principle requiring the autonomy of all legally incorporated associations.
  • The ruling affirmed Bahá'í community, by it’s right as a recognized religion, recognized by public knowledge and by the testimony of scholars of comparative religion, had the right to a legal identity. [AWH87]
  • Germany LSA; NSA; By-laws
    1990 Jan The first local spiritual assembly comprised entirely of newly enrolled Bahá'ís of Ahmadiyyah background is formed in Chak No. 8P Katta, Pakistan. [BINS219:5] Katta; Pakistan LSA; Ahmadiyyah
    1990 21 Mar The first local spiritual assembly formed in Eastern Europe since the Second World War was elected in Cluj, Romania. [AWH73; BINS221:4] Cluj; Romania; Eastern Europe LSA; Firsts, Other
    1990 Ridván The first indigenous local spiritual assembly of Amazonas State, Brazil, was formed among the Mura tribe in Beruri. [BINS223:71] Beruri; Amazonas State; Brazil Indigenous people; LSA; Firsts, Other
    1990 9 Jun The first local spiritual assembly in Czechoslovakia was formed at Prague. [BINS226:1] Prague; Czechoslovakia LSA
    1991 12 Apr The Local Spiritual Assembly of Tashkent, Uzbekistan, was re-formed. Tashkent; Uzbekistan LSA; Re-form Find ref
    1991 Ridván 342 Local Spiritual Assemblies in Canada. [CBNJun91p6] Canada LSA
    1991 May The first local spiritual assembly in Moldova was formed in Kishinev. Kishinev; Moldova LSA Find ref
    1991 14 May The first local spiritual assembly in Armenia was formed at Yerevan. Yerevan; Armenia LSA Find ref
    1991 16 Jun The first local spiritual assembly in Albania was formed at Tirana. Tirana; Albania LSA Find ref
    1991 21 Jun The first local spiritual assembly in Kirgizia was formed in Bishkek. Bishkek; Kirgizia LSA
    1991 2 Oct The first local spiritual assembly in Belarus was formed at Minsk. Minsk; Belarus LSA Find ref
    1992 1 Feb The Local Spiritual Assembly of Zanzibar Island was formed. [BINS267:6]
  • This is the first administrative body on the island since the revolution of 12 January 1964. [BINS267:6]
  • Zanzibar LSA
    1992 7 Mar The first local spiritual assembly in Eastern Germany was formed in Erfurt. [BINS267:3] Erfurt; Germany LSA
    1992 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Mongolia was formed in Ulaan Baatar. [BINS269:4]
  • The local assembly was understood to have been formed in the spring of 1991 but this was found to have been a mistake.
  • Ulaan Baatar; Mongolia LSA
    1993 Ridván The Local Spiritual Assembly of Tbilisi (Tiflis), Georgian Republic, was re-formed. [BINS298:8; BW93–4:82]
  • An assembly existed in the city in the 1930s. [BW93–4:82]
  • Tbilisi; Georgia LSA; Re-form
    1993 Ridván The Local Spiritual Assembly of Leipzig, Germany, was re-formed 56 years after its dissolution during the time the Faith was banned. [BW93–4:82] Leipzig; Germany LSA; Re-form
    1995 20 Oct The first local spiritual assembly in the Komi Republic was formed at Syktyvkar. [BINS357:8] Syktyvkar; Komi LSA
    1997 Ridván The Universal House of Justice restricted the formation of Local Spiritual Assemblies to the first day of Riḍván. This measure had the effect anticipated; there was a decrease in the number of these institutions but the fall was not drastic. [Message from the Universal House of Justice Ridván 2000] Worldwide Ridvan; Elections; Administration; Local Spiritual Assemblies; LSA, formation of; Growth; Statistics; Bahai Faith, Evolutionary nature of; Maturity

    from the main catalogue

    1. Armstrong, Counsellor Leonora: A Loving Portrait, by Kristine Leonard Asuncion, in Bahá'í News, 617 (1982). Brief biographical sketch of Counsellor Armstrong, the "Spiritual Mother of South America" (1895-1980). [about]
    2. Dawn over Mount Hira and Other Essays, by Marzieh Gail (1976). A collection of essays on various topics of interest to Baha'i studies and history. Most of these were first published in Star of the West and World Order between 1929 and 1971. [about]
    3. Kitáb-i-Iqán, The: Revolutionizing the Concepts of Religion, Eschatology and Theology, by Sohrab Kourosh, in Lights of Irfan, 19 (2018). The Kitáb-i-Íqán resolves and removes eschatological barriers and establishes the fundamentals of a universal religion and a universal theology, that integrates and harmonizes other contending ideologies. [about]
    4. Regarding Jaʻfar-i-Kadhdháb ('Jaʻfar the Liar'), by Bahá'u'lláh (2016). One-paragraph passage about the mystical cities Jabulqa and Jabulsa and the truthfulness of a figure, Jaʻfar (connected with the history of the Twelfth Imam). [about]
    5. Whatever happened to the Double Crusade?, by Glenford Mitchell (1996). Lengthy commentary on the progress of teaching and the Four Year Plan, delivered at Foundation Hall in Wilmette. Includes discussion of the travels and teaching work of Leonora Armstrong. [about]
     
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