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Search for tag "Opposition"

from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1872. 22 Jan Three Azalís were murdered by seven Bahá'ís in 'Akká. [BBD163; BKG3256 DH41; GPB189; RB3:235]
  • Siyyid Muhammad Isfahání, Nasr’ulláh Tafríshí, Áqá Ján Ka’j Kuláh and Ridá Qulí, these four kept vigil from the second story window of a building overlooking the land gate to ensure no followers of Bahá'u'lláh would have access to the prison city. For some time they had been successful at preventing the entrance of pilgrims, some of whom who had spend some six months even traveling on foot. This also precluded the possibility of communications from 'Akká reaching the believers in other lands. After two years and a few months, Bahá’u’lláh was released from the His cell and was free to walk among the prison population. Some of the friends, including Salmání, decided to get rid of these enemies and, during the night, went to their place and killed Siyyid Muhammad, Áqá Ján and another person. [Sweet and Enchanting Stories, Aziz Rohani, p. 31.]
  • Bahá'u'lláh was taken to the Governorate where He was interrogated and held for 70 hours. [BKG317-330; GBP190; RB3:234-239, AB34-36]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá was thrown into prison and kept in chains the first night. Twenty–five of the companions were also imprisoned and shackled. [BKG328; GBP190; RB3:237]
  • See BKG331, GPB191 and RB3:238 for the effect of the murders on the local population.
  • Ilyás `Abbúd put a barricade between his house and the house of `Údí Khammár, which he had rented for use by Bahá'u'lláh's family. [BKG331; GPB191]
  • See BKG330; DH44 and RB3:239 for the fate of the murderers, who were imprisoned for seven years.
  • Siyyid Muḥammad-i-Isfahání has been described by Shoghi Effendi as the “Antichrist of the Bahá’í Revelation.” He was a man of corrupt character and great personal ambition who had induced Mírzá Yaḥyá to oppose Bahá’u’lláh and to claim prophethood for himself. Although he was an adherent of Mírzá Yaḥyá, Siyyid Muḥammad was one of the four Azalis exiled with Bahá’u’lláh to ‘Akká. He continued to agitate and plot against Bahá’u’lláh. In describing the circumstances of his death, Shoghi Effendi has written in God Passes By:

    A fresh danger now clearly threatened the life of Bahá’u’lláh. Though He Himself had stringently forbidden His followers, on several occasions, both verbally and in writing, any retaliatory acts against their tormentors, and had even sent back to Beirut an irresponsible Arab convert, who had meditated avenging the wrongs suffered by his beloved Leader, seven of the companions clandestinely sought out and slew three of their persecutors, among whom were Siyyid Muḥammad and Áqá Ján.

    The consternation that seized an already oppressed community was indescribable. Bahá’u’lláh’s indignation knew no bounds. “Were We,” He thus voices His emotions, in a Tablet revealed shortly after this act had been committed, “to make mention of what befell Us, the heavens would be rent asunder and the mountains would crumble.” “My captivity,” He wrote on another occasion, “cannot harm Me. That which can harm Me is the conduct of those who love Me, who claim to be related to Me, and yet perpetrate what causeth My heart and My pen to groan.” [GPB189-190]

  • Akka Siyyid Muhammad-i-Isfahani; Ilyas Abbud; House of Abbud; House of Udi Khammar; Bahaullah, Houses of; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Antichrist; Murders; Opposition; Azali Babis; Ustad Muhammad-Ali Salmani; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Basic timeline, Expanded
    1899 Oct - Nov Stoyan Vatralsky, a Harvard educated, Bulgarian Christian, attacked the Bahá'ís, `Truth-knowers', in a series of talks in a church in Kenosha, Wisconsin. [BFA1:XXIX, 114–15; SBBH2:111 SBBH1p232; SBBH1p232-238]
  • By this time two per cent of the population of Kenosha were Bahá'ís. [BFA1:114]
  • See also WOB83 for others who wrote polemics against the Bahá'í Faith.
  • Kenosha; Wisconsin; United States Opposition; Opposition, Christian; Statistics
    1912 9 May `Abdu'l-Bahá spoke to a capacity gathering at the Parsons' home. He noted that religious ministers in Washington were denouncing Him and the Cause. [APD61-63] Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Agnes Parsons; Opposition
    1915. In 1915 and 1916 The publication of Bahaism and Its Claims: A Study of the Religion Promulgated by Baha Ullah and Abdul Baha by Samuel Graham Wilson. It has been described as a "hostile and uninformed Christian missionary's overview of the Bahá'í Faith".
  • See a reference to Wilson SBBH5p234-235.
  • Other publications by Wilson include Bahaism: An Anti-Christian System also published in 1915 and Mahdist Movements. It was published in 1916 and is "{an} unsympathetic Christian missionary's early history of the Faith".
  • See also WOB83 for other missionaries who wrote polemics against the Bahá'í Faith.
  • Bahaism and Its Claims; Samuel Graham Wilson; opposition
    1915 Sep The publication of The Persian Rival to Jesus, And His American Disciples by Robert P. Richardson. This 24-page "history" concludes by saying, "And Bahaism is simply a sectarian religion ; it is a reversion to modes of thought that the ideals of civilization have long ago outgrown."
  • See also WOB83 for other missionaries who wrote polemics against the Bahá'í Faith.
  • Criticism and apologetics; Opposition; Robert P. Richardson
    1941 'Abdu'l-Jalíl Bey Sa'ad translated The Dawn-Breakers into Arabic. His translation was published but because of the war it had to be referred to the Publicity Section of the Egyptian government for approval. From that department it was passed to the high Muslim authorities who determined that it was against the Muslim faith and so should be condemned. The entire publication run was gathered for destruction and upon hearing this 'Abdu'l-Jalíl interviewed all the officers concerned and not only secured the release of the books but obtained official permissions to distribute them in Egypt and abroad. [BW-598-599] Egypt Dawn-Breakers (book); Nabil-i-Azam; Abdul-Jalil Bey Saad; Translation; Publications; Arabic language; Opposition
    1964 4 Jul The House of Worship in Langenhain, Germany, the Mother Temple of Europe, was dedicated. [BW14:483–4]
    The interior of the auditorium is bounded by 27 pillars, supporting the dome. Twenty-seven ribs lead from the floor to the apex of the dome, culminating in a ring which carries a lantern. The dome segments are arranged in a special way in order to permit full access of daylight. These produce an interesting play of lights and shadows, attractively brightened by the sun's reflexes on the 570 glass panels. The supporting parts of the structure consist of prefabricated concrete material reinforced by steel fillings, which were produced in the Netherlands.
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW14:485–6.
  • For pictures see BW14:482, 483, 485, 491.
  • For a description of the teaching conference accompanying the dedication see BW14:586–8.
  • See also MC14–15; PP432–4.
  • See this brief film on Vimeo on the life of Anneliese Bopp and her part in the building of this Temple.

    Specifics

      Location: Frankfurt, Germany (near the village of Langenhain in the Taunus Hills)
      Foundation Stone: 20 November 1960 by Hand of the Cause Amelia Collins representing the World Centre. She placed Sacred Dust from the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh in the foundations.
      Construction Period: 1960-1964
      Site Dedication:4 July 1964 Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum represented the Universal House of Justice.
      Architect: Teuto Rocholl (plans approved by Shoghi Effendi)
      Seating:450 – 600
      Dimensions: Diameter at the base: 48m (158ft), Height from the base to the top of the dome: 28m (92ft), Outer diameter: 25m (82ft); Inner diameter: 23m (69ft), Inner height of the dome: 24m (72ft). Height 20.5m (67ft)
      Cost:
      Dependencies: A home for the aged.
      Note: The construction of this temple was delayed by legal roadblocks instigated by church opposition, both Protestant and Catholic.
      References: BW14p483, BW14p483-484, BW18p104, CEBF241
  • Langenhain; Frankfurt; Germany; Europe Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Mother Temples; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Langenhain; Amelia Collins; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Teuto Rocholl; Architects; Opposition; Boxes containing dust, earth or plaster; Gifts; Bahaullah, Shrine of; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1981 1 Jan The publication of Der Bahā'ismus, Weltreligion der Zukunft?: Geschichte, Lehre und Organisation in Kritischer Anfrage (Bahá'ism-Religion of the Future? History, Doctrine and Organization: A Critical Inquiry) by Francesco Ficicchia under the auspices of the Central Office of the Protestant Church for Questions of Ideology in Germany. This book was distributed by the Protestant Church and became the most widespread book on the Bahá'í Faith in German, and as such was widely accepted as a critical academic publication. At the time of its distribution a decision was taken to not dignify the publication with a rebuttal. This proved to be an error. Making the Crooked Straight was published in 1995 in German and translated/published by George Ronald Publishers in 2000. The purpose of the book, as the name suggests, was to address the distorted views presented in Ficicchia's publication. [MCSintroduction]
  • See The Refutation of Francesco Ficicchia and the Dangers of Silence by Jack McLean.
  • Germany Opposition; Criticism and apologetics; Making the Crooked Straight (book); Bahai Scholarship
    1994 Mar 13 The murder of four Bahá'is, three adults and one youth, at the Bahá'í Centre in Mdantsane, Ciskel. Killed were Dr. Shamam Bakhshandegi, Houshmand Anvari and Vincent and Rias Razavi. The perpetrators were granted amnesty for the killings in May 2002. [BW93-4p147-150, 16 May 2000, SCBC, press release] Mdantsane; Ciskei; South Africa Opposition; Murders; Amnesty (general)
    2007 7 Apr A memorial removed by the Nazis when the Bahá'í Faith was outlawed in 1937 was restored by municipal authorities in the resort town of Bad Mergentheim in Germany. The stone commemorates the visit of 'Abdu'l-Bahá on April 7-8, 1913. The new memorial was unveiled on 7 April, by Mayor Lothar Barth accompanied by Bahman Solouki, a representative of the Bahá'í community of Germany. Please see the news story for pictures of both the original and the replacement monuments. [BWNS524] Bad Mergentheim; Germany Abdul-Baha, Pictures and portraits; Portraits; Monuments; Opposition; BWNS
    2014. 28 May In the presidential election in Egypt, former Egyptian defence minister Abdel Fattah el-Sisi was elected with 97% of the vote according to government sources. The subsequent 2014 Constitution of the Sisi government, while guaranteeing the ‘inviolable’ right of freedom of religion, extended this only to Islam, Christianity and Judaism – meaning that Bahá’i were still prohibited from many basic freedoms, such as practicing their religious laws and constructing places of worship. Though Bahá’í representatives lobbied during the constitutional drafting processes to expand religious freedoms to their community, this did not occur.
  • In December 2014, a public workshop was held by the Ministry of Religious Endowments to warn of the dangers of the spread of the Bahá’i faith in Egypt.
  • Egypt Opposition; Persecution, Egypt; Persecution; Human rights; History (general); Constitutions
    2015 24 Jul The Qom Seminary* announced the planning of classes called “Understanding Baha’ism” and “Understanding Ahl-e Haqq”. These classes, which presented a one-sided view of religious minorities, had the sole purpose of destroying the Bahá'í Faith and the Ahl-e Haqq**.
  • Subsequently, the Qom Seminary started extensive propaganda on these subjects in most government centres and government sponsored news websites. In an advertisement on its site, Tasnim news agency announced that the Qom Seminary intended to hold online introductory courses on the Bahá'í Faith and the Ahl-e Haqq for all seminary students in the country. Similar to other classes held in previous years, these courses provided an entirely one-sided view and no Bahá'í or Ahl-e Haqq citizen had the right to defend his religion. [Iran Press Watch 12642]

    *The Qom Seminary is the largest seminary, or traditional Islamic school of higher learning, established in 1922 by Grand Ayatollah Abdul-Karim Ha’eri Yazdi in Qom. [Wikipedia]
    **Ahl-e Haq (Dervishes)– “The People of the Absolute Truth” ‒ People treading the Ahl-e Haqq Muslim ascetic path, known for their extreme poverty and austerity. Their focus is on the universal values of love and service deserting the illusions of ego to reach God. [Wikipedia]

  • Qom; Iran Opposition; Persecution, Iran; Persecution

    from the chronology of Canada

    date event locations tags see also
    1960 Mar Twenty-seven communities in seven provinces participated in the Promulgation Campaign. 12,000 ministers, priests and laypersons received the letter and the newspaper ads reached a total of one million readers. The results could be analyzed in three ways: the spirit of the believers; the response from the churches; and the immediate effect in the teaching work.
  • It was noted that in small communities where economic conditions were more difficult, the level of sacrifice appeared greater.
  • While the responses from the Christian communities was encouraging there was opposition from the pulpit in such places as Saskatoon, Regina, Saint John and Winnipeg. The Premier of Alberta, Ernest Manning, on two occasions, attacked the universal nature of the Cause on national network broadcasts. Other indications are that the awareness of the claims of the Faith is high among some groups and that it is a topic of their discussions.
  • There were some 300 promulgation meetings across Canada and over 50 persons wrote for literature in response to the advertisements.
  • It was realized that with a mass-education program that repetition was essential and so sustained local follow-up was necessary to maintain the momentum. [CBN No 122 March 1960 p4-5]
  • Saskatoon, SK; Regina, SK; Saint John, NB; Winnipeg, MB Proclamation I; Opposition; Promulgation Campaign
    1960 Mar As part of their Promulgation Campaign, the Bahá'ís of Saskatoon sent out some 950 letters. Bill Lacey of Minot, ND spoke to an audience of 68 at a public meeting at the University. There was a barrage of opposition from the floor but there were many who responded in defence of the Bahá'ís. At a subsequent meeting with one of those who rose to defend the Bahá'ís came the idea of having an inter-religious meeting. That brought out 32 people of different nationalities, 11 of which gave short talks on their faith. Members of the International Students Club who attended decided to hold a meeting at the University that was attended by some 150 people. Bill Gossen made a presentation on behalf of the Bahá'í Faith. [CBN No 122 March 1960 p6-7] Saskatoon, SK Proclamation I; Opposition; Bill Lacey; Bill Gossen; Promulgation Campaign

    from the main catalogue

    1. Abdu'l-Baha's First Thousand-Verse Tablet: History and Provisional Translation, by Ahang Rabbani and Khazeh Fananapazir, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 16:1 (2010). Tablet revealed in 1897 in response to events in Akka and the rebellion against Abdu'l-Bahá by his family members after the passing of Bahá'u'lláh. [about]
    2. Ahmad Kasravi and the "Purification" of Persian: A Study in Nationalist Motivation, by Amin Banani, in Nation & Ideology: Essays in Honor of Wayne S. Vucinich (1981). Political theory of a modernist Iranian reformer, also known for his criticisms of the Bahá'í Faith. Contains no mention of the Faith. (Offsite.) [about]
    3. Attacks on the Faith, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States (1997). Response to two recent "attacks": dissidence and graffiti. [about]
    4. Bahá'í Question, The: Cultural Cleansing in Iran, by Bahá'í International Community (2008). [about]
    5. Bahá'ísm - Its Origins and Role: A Rebuttal, by Bahá'í International Community (1983). The complete Iranian document "Bahaism — its origins and its role" together with BIC commentary on that document. [about]
    6. Bahá'í Faith and Its Relationship to Islam, Christianity, and Judaism, The: A Brief History, by Adam Berry, in International Social Science Review, 79:3-4 (2004). Bahá'í history in Iran and America; relationship with Christian missionaries in Iran and Christian converts in America; Jewish responses to the Faith. [about]
    7. Bahá'í Tradition, The: The Return of Joseph and the Peaceable Imagination, by Todd Lawson, in Fighting Words: Religion, Violence, and the Interpretation of Sacred Texts, ed. John Renard (2012). Overview of the status of violence in the Bahá'í tradition, and the historical/social conditions in which these doctrines were articulated. [about]
    8. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 18 (1979-1983), in Bahá'í World (1986). Periodic volumes that survey the global activities and major achievements of the Faith. [about]
    9. Bahá'ís in Iran, The: Twenty Years of Repression, by Firuz Kazemzadeh, in Social Research, 67:2 (2000). Overview of the modern persecution of Bahá'ís in Iran. [about]
    10. Baha'u'llah's Prophetology: Archetypal patterns in the lives of the founders of the world religions, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 5.1 (1995). Explores the theory that the lives of the prophet-founders of the world religions have in some ways re-capitulated each other. [about]
    11. Bible Stories and Themes in the Bahá'í Writings and Guidance (2021). Bahá'í interpretation of Biblical stories and topics. [about]
    12. Commentary on a Passage in the Epistle to the Son of the Wolf, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 14 (2013). Short biography of the Son of the Wolf, Aqa Najafi; summary of persecutions from 1874-1903; and the Epistle's references to Qayyumu’l-Asma and the Muslim dawn prayer for Ramadan. [about]
    13. Commentary on the Azhar's Statement regarding Bahá'ís and Bahá'ísm, by Mohsen Enayat, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 2:1 (1992). Response to an official 1986 pronouncement on the Faith by this prominent Egyptian university. [about]
    14. Comparative Lives of the Founders of the World Religions, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 5.1 (1995). Table comparing the lives of the Founders of the world's religions. [about]
    15. Conspiracies and Forgeries: The Attack upon the Bahá'í Community in Iran, by Moojan Momen, in Persian Heritage, 9:35 (2004). Early attacks on the Bahá'í community in Iran were made mostly on the basis of religious accusations, but in the 20th century, non-religious accusations based on widely held and often fantastical conspiracy theories have become more prevalent. [about]
    16. Constructive Resilience, by Firaydoun Javaheri, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 28:4 (2018). How the perseverance of the Bahá'ís in Iran has resulted in the generality of the Iranian people beginning to admire and, in some cases, arising to assist the Bahá'ís. [about]
    17. Debunking the Myths: Conspiracy Theories on the Genesis and Mission of the Bahá'í Faith, by Adib Masumian (2009). Response to Iranian conspiracy theories portraying the Bahá'í Faith as a subversive political group, Zionist spies, affiliates of the secret police, British agents, etc. Available in English and Persian. Includes interview with author. [about]
    18. Deriding Revealed Religions?: Bahá'ís in Egypt, by Johanna Pink, in ISIM Newsletter (2002). Shift in Egyptian public perception of the Bahá'í Faith from an Islamic reform movement to an independent religion. [about]
    19. Epistle to the Son of the Wolf (Lawh-i-Ibn-i-Dhib): Excerpts from Revelation of Baha'u'llah, by Adib Taherzadeh, in The Revelation of Bahá'u'lláh 1877-92, Vol. IV, Mazra'ih & Bahjí (1987). Excerpts from chapters 24-25, compiled for the Wilmette Institute. [about]
    20. Freemasonry, Bahá'ísm, and British Tudehis, in The Rise and Fall of the Pahlavi Dynasty: Memoirs of Former General Hussein Fardust (1999). Overview of Bahá'í activities during the period of Mohammad Reza Shah, from the hostile perspective of Hossein Fardoust, deputy head of SAVAK. [about]
    21. God Passes By, by Shoghi Effendi (1971). The classic — and canonical — historical summary and interpretation of the significance of the development of the Bábí and Baháʼí religions from 1844 to 1944. [about]
    22. He Whom God Shall Make Manifest: Notes on Gematria, Tetractys, The Báb's identification of Him, and Opposition to Bahá'u'lláh, by Grover Gonzales (2020). On the Bab's use of numerology and cabalistic interpretation of scripture, and his use of amulets and talismans, as tools to help his disciples find and recognize the coming Manifestation, the "Qa'im," Man Yuzhiruhu'lláh. [about]
    23. Historical Analysis of Critical Transformations in the Evolution of the Bahá'í World Faith, An, by Vernon Elvin Johnson (1974). Detailed study of major changes in the Faith's history, opposition to such changes, and their resulting tensions and resolutions. [about]
    24. Internet, Defending the Cause against Opponents on, by Universal House of Justice (2001). The nature of opposition to the Bahá'í Faith, and how to respond to it in internet media. [about]
    25. Key Passages from the Kitáb-i-Íqán (Book of Certitude) in Gleanings from the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh, by Bahá'u'lláh (2022). Cross-reference compilation of 40 passages from the Kitáb-i-Íqán selected by Shoghi Effendi for inclusion in Gleanings from the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh, adapted from Hooper Dunbar's Companion to the Study of the Kitáb-i-Íqán. [about]
    26. Kirk, Durbin Introduce Resolution Condemning Iran's Continued Persecution of Bahá'í Minority, by Mark Kirk and Dick Durbin (2013). In recognition of the five-year anniversary of imprisonment of Bahá'í leaders in Iran, senators meet with their family members and friends and introduce a joint resolution calling attention to this persecution. [about]
    27. Les Bahaïs du Caucase: b.a.-ba d'une communauté méconnue, by Azer Jafarov and Bayram Balci, in Religion et politique dans le Caucase post-soviétique (2007). Chapter on "the Bahá'ís of the Caucasus, the basics [lit. the ABCs] of an unknown community." [about]
    28. Light of the World: Selected Tablets of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2021). Tablets of ‘Abdul-Bahá describing aspects of the life of Bahá’u’lláh including the tribulations He suffered, events in His homeland, the purpose and greatness of His Cause, and the nature and significance of His Covenant. [about]
    29. Making the Crooked Straight: A Contribution to Baha'i Apologetics [excerpt], by Udo Schaefer and Nicola Towfigh (2000). Front- and back-matter of the book only: Contents, Preface, Introduction, Conclusion, Bibliography, Index. [about]
    30. Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-1986: Third Epoch of the Formative Age, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
    31. Nature of the Persecution against the Bahá'ís in Iran, by Bahá'í International Community (2010). The situation of the Bahá'ís in Iran in 2010; historical and legal context; denial of individual and communal rights; incitement to hatred based on religion or belief. [about]
    32. Nonpartisan Engagement in Public Affairs: A Critical Analysis of the Bahá'í Approach to Dialogue, Democracy, and Diplomatic Relations, by Bui Tyril (2009). How to address the dilemma of protesting human rights abuses in Iran while remaining non-partisan. Link to thesis (offsite). [about]
    33. Old Charges for a New Religion, Some, by Susan Maneck (2009). The background and significance of the fantastic charges made against Bahá’ís in Iran and elsewhere where Bahá’ís face severe persecution (a foreign conspiracy to destroy the unity of Islam; sexual promiscuity, etc.) in the context of other ‘heresies'. [about]
    34. One Common Faith, by Universal House of Justice (2005). Review of relevant passages from both the writings of Bahá'u'lláh and the scriptures of other faiths against the background of contemporary crises. [about]
    35. Opposition, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá, in Compilation of Compilations, Volume 2 (1991). [about]
    36. Paranoid Style in Iranian Politics, The, by Ervand Abrahamian, in Khomeinism: Essays on the Islamic Republic (1993). A seminal essay which mentions contemporary Iranian attitudes toward the Bahá'ís. Includes three other mentions of the Bahá'í Faith elsewhere in the book in which this essay was first published. [about]
    37. Passages uit de Kitáb-i-Íqán (Boek van Zekerheid) in Bloemlezing uit de Geschriften van Bahá'u'lláh, by Bahá'u'lláh (2022). Compilatie van 40 passages uit de Kitáb-i-Íqán door Shoghi Effendi geselecteerd voor opname in Bloemlezing uit de Geschriften van Bahá'u'lláh. [about]
    38. Persecution of the Baha'is in Iran: 1979-1986: A 7-year campaign to eliminate a religious minority, by Bahá'í International Community (1986). Overview of activities and propaganda against Bahá'ís in Iran, and the responses of the United Nations. [about]
    39. Persian Rival to Jesus, and His American Disciples, The, by Robert P. Richardson, in The Open Court, 29:8 (1915). History and teachings of the Bábi and Bahá'í religions and contemporary American disagreements, from an unsympathetic outsider's perspective. Followed by three letters-to-the-editor from three subsequent issues. Needs a second proofreading. [about]
    40. Post-Quranic Religion Between Apostasy and Public Order, A: Egyptian Muftis and Courts on the Legal Status of the Baha'i Faith, by Johanna Pink, in Islamic Law and Society, 10:3 (2003). On how Egypt has adapted and responded to the Bahá'í Faith; legal issues for Muslim jurists and the courts; personal and employment status of Bahá'ís in Egypt; issues raised by a post-Quranic religious minority. [about]
    41. Responding to Criticism and Opposition on the Internet, by Bahá'í Internet Agency (2009). Bahá’ís welcome constructive examination of their Faith. While they should not engage in exchanges that are divisive or contentious, Bahá’ís will not hesitate to respond, in a spirit of courtesy and fairness, to serious misrepresentations of their Faith. [about]
    42. Secret of Divine Civilization Translation, Capital Punishment, and Other Questions, by Universal House of Justice (1991). On the capitalization of pronouns, reference to "we Muslims," works of Abdu'l-Bahá revealed during the time of Bahá'u'lláh, the first person to recognize Bahá'u'lláh, and designer of the temple in Ishqabad. Includes a compilation on capital punishment. [about]
    43. Selections from the Writings of His Holiness 'Abdu'l-Bahá', by Abdu'l-Bahá, 2 (2002). Provisional translations of four selections from the Writings of 'Abdu'l-Bahá'. [about]
    44. Situation of the Bahá'ís in Egypt, by Bahá'í International Community (2007). Oral Statement of the Bahá’í International Community to the Human Rights Council (6th Session of the Human Rights Council), Geneva, Switzerland. [about]
    45. Special Report on Baha'i Burial vs. Maori Custom, by National Spiritual Assembly of New Zealand (1989). Special report about reconciling Bahá'í burial laws with local maori customs where they conflict; includes guidance from the Universal House of Justice. [about]
    46. Statement in Rebuttal of Accusations Made against the Bahá'í Faith by the Permanent Mission of the Islamic Republic of Iran to the United Nations, by Bahá'í International Community (1982). In a document distributed to the UN, "Human Rights in the Islamic Republic of Iran," Iran made a number of false and damaging statements concerning the Bahá'í Faith. The BIC wishes to refute these false statements and to present the true facts. [about]
    47. Tablet on Understanding the Cause of Opposition to the Manifestations of God, by Bahá'u'lláh (2016). Summary of some themes from the Kitab-i-Iqan, concluding with a long prayer inviting the reader to see with his/her "own eyes." [about]
    48. Tablet to Shaykh Kazim-i-Samandar II (Lawh-i-Shaykh Kazim-i-Samandar II), by Bahá'u'lláh, in Eminent Bahá'ís in the Time of Bahá'u'lláh (1985). [about]
    49. Tablet to The Times of London, by Bahá'u'lláh, in Revelation of Bahá'u'lláh, by Adib Taherzadeh, Vol. 4 (1987). Short tablet calling newspapers to investigate the Truth. [about]
    50. Television Address of Iranian President Khatami, by Universal House of Justice and Bahá'í International Community (1998). Questions and answers about a historically unique television interview of Iranian President Khatami, given on CNN Wednesday, Jan 7, 1998. [about]
    51. Twelve Table Talks Given by 'Abdu'l-Bahá in 'Akká, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2019). Talks from 1904-1907. [about]
    52. Violence with Impunity: Acts of aggression against Iran's Bahá'í community, by Bahá'í International Community (2013). Book-length report on the rising tide of violence directed against the Iranian Bahá'í community 2005-20012, and the degree to which attackers enjoy impunity from prosecution or punishment. [about]
    53. What is there to grieve about?, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2011). [about]
    54. Wittgensteinian Language-Games in an Indo-Persian Dialogue on the World Religions, by Juan Cole, in Iran Nameh, 30:3 (2015). Reflections on Bahá'u'lláh's theology of previous religions and Ludwig Wittgenstein’s concept of "language games"; Hinduism, India, and 19th-century Iranian culture; Manakji’s questions about Hinduism and Zoroastrianism. [about]
     
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