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from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1934. 14 Mar Louise Gregory arrived in Belgrade to join Martha Root in the teaching work. Their overlap lasted until the 25th of March when Martha left for Athens. [SYH186-187]
  • Martha had arranged for a new believer, Mrs Draga Ilić, to translateBahá'u'lláh and the New Era as well as the Hidden Words into Serbian. [SYH187]
  • During her time here Louisa received American visitors Charles and Helen Bishop from Portland, OR, who were on their way to Geneva to take up service at the International Bahá'í Bureau. They had been on pilgrimage in Haifa. [SYH188; BW6p133]
  • Louise established herself as a language teacher giving private lessons. On the 19th of June she moved to a larger house near the Austrian border then after a few weeks went to Salzburg to meet with Miss Fürth until the end of July. When Marion Jack arrived they travelled together to Munich and Göppingen and then to Esslingen to attend the German Bahá'í summer school at the request of Shoghi Effendi. It ran from the 5th to the 12th of August. [SYH190-191, 195]
      For photos taken at the summer school see SYH198-199.
  • After the summer school Marion and Louise went to Stuttgart and arrived back in Salzburg on the 3rd of September. She had trouble having her visa renewed and ultimately had to go to Vienna for this purpose. She returned to Belgrade by boat down the Danube. [SYH196-197]
  • A report on her teaching work in Belgrade was printed in the Bahá'í News No 90 March 1935 pg11.
  • Because her visa expired she was obliged to return to America. She left Belgrade near the end of April and went to England with plans to visit her relatives before boarding the Laconia in Liverpool destined for Boston on the 11th of May 1935. She had been away from home some 18 months on this teaching trip and had visited Varna in Bulgaria, Salzburg in Austria, Belgrade in Yugoslavia, Esslingen, Munich, Göppingen and Stuttgart in Germany, Salzburg and Vienna in Austria. [SYH 203-205, 242] ,
  • Belgrade; Yugoslavia; Salzburg; Munich; Germany Louise Gregory; Martha Root; Draga Ilić; Bahaullah and the New Era; Language; Translation; Charles Bishop; Helen Bishop; International Bahai Bureau; Bahai International Community
    1934. 20 Oct The publication of the dictionary used by the Guardian.

    In a message from the Universal House of Justice to a department at the World Centre, Amatu’l-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum is quoted as saying:

    …that the English dictionary to which the beloved Guardian habitually referred was “Webster’s New International Dictionary of the English Language”, second edition, unabridged, 1934, London G. Bell and Sons Ltd., Springfield, Massachusetts, R. and C. Merriam Co. We presume that if there were two versions published, one American and one British, it will have been the British one that the Guardian used. Reference to this specific edition of this dictionary is, obviously, very important when gauging the exact meaning intended by Shoghi Effendi in the use of certain words. [Dictionary Used by the Guardian by/on behalf of Universal House of Justice 1997-12-08]

  • See Wikipedia.
  • BWC; London Shoghi Effendi, Dictionary of; Webster dictionary; Dictionaries; Translation; English language; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Writings of; Shoghi Effendi, Translations by; Shoghi Effendi, Works of
    1941 'Abdu'l-Jalíl Bey Sa'ad translated The Dawn-Breakers into Arabic. His translation was published but because of the war it had to be referred to the Publicity Section of the Egyptian government for approval. From that department it was passed to the high Muslim authorities who determined that it was against the Muslim faith and so should be condemned. The entire publication run was gathered for destruction and upon hearing this 'Abdu'l-Jalíl interviewed all the officers concerned and not only secured the release of the books but obtained official permissions to distribute them in Egypt and abroad. [BW-598-599] Egypt Dawn-Breakers (book); Nabil-i-Azam; Abdul-Jalil Bey Saad; Translation; Publications; Arabic language; Opposition
    1942 25 Jun The passing of 'Abdu'l-Jalíl Bey Sa'ad who was, for many years, the president of the National Spiritual Assembly and a judge in the Civil Courts in Egypt. Through his sustained effort the Declaration of Trust was recognized as valid and legalized in 1934.
  • He made an important contribution in translating into Arabic. Among his accomplishments were The Dawn-Breakers, Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era, Laws of Personal Status and Rules of Procedure.
  • In 1941 he employed the Declaration of Trust as an instrument to induce the Ministry of Civil Defence to grant permission to build the Hazíratu'l-Quds in Cairo. While supervising this project in the intense heat he fell ill and died suddenly after an operation.
  • Shoghi Effendi appointed him to the rank of Hand of the Cause of God on the day of his passing. [MoC597-599]
  • Egypt Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Abdul Jalil Bey Saad; Declaration of Trust and By-Laws; Haziratul-Quds; Dawn-Breakers (book); Esslemont; Arabic language; Translation
    1983 (In the year) The Association for Bahá’í Studies, German-Speaking Europe, was established in Austria. [BW19:357–8] Austria Bahai Studies, Associations for; German language
    1983 (In the year) The Association for Bahá’í Studies of Francophone Europe was established in Switzerland. Switzerland Bahai Studies, Associations for; French language
    2018 Oct The announcement of the translation and publication of the Kitab-i-Aqdas into the Philippines’ second most widely spoken language, Cebuano. (Translation into Tagalog was completed in 2003.) This translation was done by Dr Gil Tabucanon and was completed after ten years of effort. Publication was done by the Philippines Baha’i Publishing Trust.
  • Among the languages into which the Kitab-i-Aqdas had been translated, in addition to English, were Albanian, Bengali, Bulgarian, Chinese, Danish, Dutch, Finnish, French, German, Hebrew, Hindi, Hungarian, Indonesian, Italian, Marathi, Norwegian, Oriya, Portuguese, Russian, Slovak, Spanish, Tagalog, Tamil, Telugu, Thai, Turkish, Urdu, and Vietnamese. [BWNS1294; BWNS646]
  • Manila; Solano; Philippines Translation; Cebuano language; Tagalog language; Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); BWNS

    from the main catalogue

    1. 'Abdu'l-Baha's commentary on the Islamic tradition 'God doth give victory to this religion by means of a wicked man': Provisional translation and notes, by Necati Alkan, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 11 (2003). Background and translation of a Turkish tablet by Abdu'l-Bahá commenting on a hadith. [about]
    2. Arabic Grammar of the Báb, The, by William F. McCants (2002). Muslim detractors of the Bab have often criticized his grammar. Did the Bab make grammatical errors due to a poor knowledge of the language, or did he intentionally coin a new grammar? [about]
    3. Arabic, Proper pronunciation of, by Universal House of Justice (1995). Discusses whether there are specific dialects and "manners" to use in speaking Arabic. [about]
    4. Bab und Babis, by Arminius (Armin) Vambery, in Meine Wanderungen und Erlebnisse in Persien (1867). Lengthy discussion of the Babis, by a Hungarian Jew who later met Abdu'l-Bahá. [about]
    5. Bahá'í Cosmological Symbolism and the Ecofeminist Critique, by Michael W. Sours, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 7:1 (1995). Constituents of Bahá'í cosmological symbolism; introduction to the main feminist/environmentalist arguments; eschatological character of Bahá'í cosmological symbolism; Bahá'í eschatology provides answers to many feminist and ecological objections. [about]
    6. Bahá'í Faith in the Arabic Speaking Middle East, The: Part 1 (1753-1863), by Ramsey Zeine, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 7 (2006). Bábí and early Bahá'í links to the Arab world and the Arabic language; the identity of the Faith is a fusion of Persian and Arab origins. [about]
    7. Bahá'í Faith in Turkey, The, by John Walbridge, in Essays and Notes on Babi and Bahá'í History (2002). Includes bios of individuals from Turkey who figure prominently in Bahá'í history. [about]
    8. Bahá'í Glossary: Persian and Arabic words appearing in the Bahá'í Writings, by Marzieh Gail (1957). The first published glossary of Bahá'í terms and names. [about]
    9. Bahá'í Settlements in the Jordan Valley, 1882-1954, The, by Shay Rozen (2011). [about]
    10. Bahá'í Teachings, Aspects of, by Universal House of Justice (1997). Authenticity of Statements; Mathnavi; Quranic quotations; Marriage Prayer; 'Sun' and 'Moon'; Hands of the Cause; Night of Power; Khatt-i-Badi; Sarcophagus for Bahá'u'lláh; International Bahá'í Library Building; Lunar Calendar and Holy Days; Leiden; Kings. [about]
    11. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 18 (1979-1983), in Bahá'í World (1986). Periodic volumes that survey the global activities and major achievements of the Faith. [about]
    12. bahailib.com Website Archive (2021). Archive of all PDF files from the expired website bahailib.com, including Excel table-of-contents. There are 1740 files named sequentially, 1.pdf ... 1742.pdf, totaling 13GB. [about]
    13. By the Fig and the Olive": `Abdu'l-Bahá's Commentary in Ottoman Turkish on the Qur'ánic Sura 95, by Necati Alkan, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 10 (2001). A translation and discussion of an Ottoman-Turkish Tablet by `Abdu'l-Bahá: his commentary on the Quaranic Sura of the Fig (#95).  [about]
    14. Celestial Burning, A: A Selective Study of the Writings of Shoghi Effendi, by Jack McLean (2012). Style, content, and context of the major writings of the Guardian; providential history; critique of Hegel; the military metaphor; the language of interpretation; history of the apostolic age. [about]
    15. Characterization in the Writings of Shoghi Effendi: With Special Attention to Yahya, by Jack McLean (2000). The Guardian employed a creative literary device of adding moralistic comment about historical figures, such as kings and clerics, casting them as "heroes" or "villains." Mirza Yahya is depicted with aspects of the demonic. [about]
    16. Coherent Chaos and Chaotic Cosmos: The Qur'ān and the Symmetry of Truth, by Todd Lawson, in Weltkonstruktionen: Religiöse Weltdeutung zwischen Chaos und Kosmos vom Alten Orient bis zum Islam (2010). While at first glance the Qur'an appears to be chaotic in form and structure, on closer examination it reveals an interconnected logic of content, performance, imagery, grammar, and poetics. Article does not mention the Bahá'í Faith. [about]
    17. Conservation and Restoration of Calligraphy by Mishkín Qalam, The, by Shingo Ishikawa and Patrick Ravines (2004). Three versions of a paper explaining the procedure for preserving manuscripts at the Bahá'í World Centre, using the example of calligraphy by Mishkín Qalam. Includes high-resolution sample of Qalam's artwork. [about]
    18. Consultation, Portraits, Rakahs, Murtus, and Unknown Language, by Universal House of Justice (2009). Three replies from the Research Department to an individual, dated 2009, 2010 and 2018, on a variety of topics. [about]
    19. Dawn over Mount Hira and Other Essays, by Marzieh Gail (1976). A collection of essays on various topics of interest to Bahá'í studies and history. Most of these were first published in Star of the West and World Order between 1929 and 1971. [about]
    20. Diacritics and transliteration, by Jonah Winters (2002). [about]
    21. Diacritics; meaning of "Self-subsisting", by Universal House of Justice (1993). Two disparate topics: the translation style adopted by the Guardian and other considerations related to literary style and the sacred writings, and the meaning of the term "self-subsisting." [about]
    22. Dictionaries: English-Arabic (1810). Links to Google Books and Archive.org for online versions of many English-Arabic dictionaries. [about]
    23. Dictionaries: English-Persian (1841). Links to Google Books and Archive.org for online versions of English-Persian dictionaries. [about]
    24. Dictionary Used by the Guardian, by Universal House of Justice (1997). Clarification/confirmation that the English dictionary used by Shoghi Effendi was Webster's (1934). [about]
    25. Dimensions of Spirituality: Reflections on the Meaning of Spiritual Life and Transformation in Light of the Bahá'í Faith, by Jack McLean (1994). The search for truth; models and profiles of spiritual transformation; the mystical sense — prayer and meditation; a paradigm of spirituality and life tests; spiritual anthropology — the self and the soul; imagination; faith, love, and knowledge. [about]
    26. Discourse Theory and Peace, by Michael Karlberg, in Encyclopedia of Peace Psychology, ed. Daniel Christie (2012). Discourse theory, which rests on the idea that language helps constitute our reality, can shed light on the role that language plays in both direct and structural violence. No mention of the Bahá'í Faith. [about]
    27. Effect of Philosophical and Linguistic Gender Biases on the Degradation of Women's Status in Religion, The, by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:1 (1997). Women’s rights have been undermined for centuries; philosophical and linguistic gender-related biases and their effect on the degradation of women’s status in religion; suggestions for eradicating the causes of inequality in order to hasten world unity. [about]
    28. Encyclopedia of Islam and The Muslim World, by William F. McCants and John Walbridge (2004). Articles on Abdu'l-Bahá, the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh, the Bábí and Bahá'í Faiths, Hujjatiya, Persian language and literature, Shaykhism, and Twelver Shi'ism. [about]
    29. Entering into Obligatory Prayer: Introduction and Commentary, by Ismael Velasco (2006). Overview of Bahá'í prayer, its historical background, and a detailed commentary on the preamble to the Long Obligatory Prayer. [about]
    30. Esperanto, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi (2015). Compilation on Esperanto. [about]
    31. Essays and Notes on Babi and Baha'i History, by John Walbridge, in Occasional Papers in Shaykhi, Babi and Bahá'í Studies, 6:1 (2002). Includes: culture of Iran; Bahá'í Faith in Iran; in Turkey; uprising in Zanjan; Bábí martyrs; Islamic/Bahá'í philosophy; dreams; Islamic personal names; Arabic language [about]
    32. Exploring Universes of Discourse: The Meeting of the Bahá'í Faith and Traditional Society, by Moojan Momen, in dialogue magazine, 1:4 (1987). To communicate, people need to share not just a common language; there must also be a common framework for understanding, a "universe of discourse." Bahá'í pioneers must bridge cultural and linguistic divides when imparting the teachings of the Faith. [about]
    33. Exposition of the Tablet of the World (Lawh-i-Dunyá), An, by James B. Thomas, in Lights of Irfan, 4 (2003). To fully appreciate the historical significance of the Tablet of the World, this essay first portrays the developing conditions in Persia and in the world that preceded this Tablet, then discusses its salient points. [about]
    34. Glossary of Arabic and Persian Transcription (2016). Comprehensive list of names and terms encountered in Bahá'í history, with accents and underlines, and definitions. [about]
    35. Grammar of the Divine, A: Translation, Notes, and Semi-Critical Edition of the Bāb's Risāla fī al-naḥw wa al-ṣarf, by William F. McCants, in A Most Noble Pattern: Collected Essays on the Writings of the Báb (2012). A critical edition of the Bāb’s "Treatise on Grammar" including the Arabic original, English translation, and notes; Shaykh Ahmad’s metaphysical grammar; the operation of God's will in the created world. [about]
    36. Grammatical Clarifications, by Universal House of Justice (2001). Letter and memorandum in response to questions about possible misprints in published extracts from letters of Shoghi Effendi and the Universal House of justice [about]
    37. Guide to Pronunciation, A, by Darius Shahrokh, in Windows to the Past (1992). Pronunciation of Persian and Arabic words, clearly explained and enunciated for a non–Persian-speaking audience. [about]
    38. Guide to Transliteration and Pronunciation of the Persian Alphabet: together with the Numerical Value of the letters (Abjad Reckoning), by Marzieh Gail, in Bahá'í Glossary (1957). Persian letter, key, transliteration, pronunciation, and Abjad value. [about]
    39. Index to Ad'iyyih-i-Hadrat-i-Mahbúb (1994). Index of the contents of an Arabic and Persian Bahá'í collection of prayers and scripture. [about]
    40. Inebriation of His Enrapturing Call (mast-and bulbulán), The, by Julio Savi, in Lights of Irfan, 15 (2014). Translation of the early mystical Tablet "Nightingales Are Inebriated" and an analysis of its themes of ecstasy, Mount Sinai, eschatology, dhikr, sama, and fana`. [about]
    41. Interlinear Editions of the Bahá'í Writings, by Universal House of Justice (2015). Reasons why interlinear or "parallel editions" of the Writings, in which the original Arabic or Persian are presented side-by-side with an English translation, are not necessary. [about]
    42. Introduction to the Baháʼí Religiolect, An, by Adib Masumian, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 21 (2015). Religious dialects are cultural crossover phenomena, like "Judeo-Arabic" and "Christianese". A religiolect can be considered a dialect of a language that’s specific to a particular religious group. The Bahá'í Faith, too, has a nascent religiolect. [about]
    43. Joycean Modernism in a Nineteenth-Century Qur'an Commentary?: A Comparison of The Báb's Qayyūm Al-Asmā' with Joyce's Ulysses, by Todd Lawson, in Erin and Iran: Cultural Encounters between the Irish and the Iranians, ed. H. E. Chehabi and Grace Neville (2015). Comparison of the formal structure of the two works and themes such as time; oppositions and their resolution; relation between form and content; prominence of epiphany; manifestation, advent and apocalypse; and the theme of heroism, reading and identity. [about]
    44. Khatt-i-Badí' (The New Script): Transliteration and Notes (2018). Latin transliteration of Mírzá Muhammad-'Alí's "conlang" alphabet by Grover Gonzales. Includes notes by the Universal House of Justice, an overview by Gonzales, and samples of the script. [about]
    45. Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book): Notes on the Style of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, by Suheil Badi Bushrui (1995). The near-similarity between the style of the Qur'an and that of the Aqdas. [about]
    46. Kitáb-i-Aqdas as a Lens with which to Examine some of the Dilemmas of Modernity, The, by Betsy Omidvaran, in Solas, 2 (2002). Contrast between the Aqdas - the source of laws of future society - and issues of the modern world as it had evolved up to the 19th century. Discussion of Houses of Worship, universal language, financial principles, justice, the Covenant, and unity. [about]
    47. Kitáb-i-Aqdas Research Tools, by Various (2018). Links to six sites providing research materials for the Aqdas: translations, audio recitation, cross-references, and study guides. [about]
    48. L'importance de la translitération bahá'íe avec quelques exemples, by Pierre Daoust (2020). Considérations grammaticales expliquant la translitération et la prononciation des mots arabes, et le système abjad. [about]
    49. La Cultura Hispano Árabe en Latino América, by Boris Handal, in Polis, 3:9 (2004). The influence of the Hispano-Arab culture in Latin American history, from a linguistic point of view, and through the development of the humanities and sciences such as mathematics, astronomy, and medicine. [about]
    50. Lango: Language Organization, by Antony Alexander and Robert Craig (1996). Lango (Language Organization) is an attempt to simplify English to serve as an international language. [about]
    51. Language and Universalization: A 'Linguistic Ecology' Reading of Bahá'í Writings, by Gregory Paul P. Meyjes, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 9:1 (1999). How the promotion of linguistic minority rights may coincide with promotion of an International Auxiliary Language, opposing trends toward increased globalization and growing nationalism, and the unregulated global spread of English. [about]
    52. Language and Worldview, by Alvino E. Fantini, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 2:2 (1989). Languages are paradigms of a view of the world. Knowledge of more than one language holds promise for an expanded worldview, for understanding other people on their own terms. [about]
    53. Language of Revelation and Status of Guardian's Translations, by Universal House of Justice (1992). English translations as a "basis" for translations into other European languages;. Though Shoghi Effendi's writings are "authoritative," they do not make English a language of revelation. [about]
    54. Languages of Revelation of the Bahá'í Writings, The, by Adib Masumian and Violetta Zein (2020). Statistical analysis of the languages of revelation (Arabic and Persian) of all major works of the Bab, Bahá'u'lláh, and Abdu'l-Bahá. [about]
    55. Le Style du Kitáb-i-Aqdas - Aspects du Sublime, livre du Professeur Suheil Bushrui, by Suheil Badi Bushrui (2018). Une analyse du Kitab-i-Aqdas, un ouvrage rédigé en prose rimée typique des écrits arabes les plus exaltants. [about]
    56. Legacy of Verse 42 of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, The, by Gerald C. Keil (2021). Explores the circumstances under which a reading of Verse 42 which indicates that the line of Aghsan might end prior to the establishment of the Universal House of Justice came to predominate. Includes a memorandum from the Research Department. [about]
    57. Lidia Zamenhof, by John T. Dale (1996). Brief biography of the daughter of Ludwig Lazarus Zamenhof, the creator of Esperanto. [about]
    58. List of Baha'i Studies and Translations, by Stephen Lambden. A list of content available at Lambden's personal website, Hurqalya Publications, with select links to manuscripts, texts, introductions. Includes Shaykhi and Bábí studies, bibliographies, genealogies, provisional translations. [about]
    59. Long Healing Prayer, The: Original Arabic, Transliteration, and Authorized English Translation, by Bahá'u'lláh (2021). A table showing the Long Healing Prayer in Arabic, in Roman transliteration, and in translation. Includes link to audio/video version. [about]
    60. Long Obligatory Prayer: Printable, Foldable Version (2021). Layout of the Long Obligatory Prayer designed to be printed, trimmed to pocket size, and foldable. Available in more than 50 languages. [about]
    61. Lost in Translation, by Brian Whitaker, in Guardian (UK) (2002). Transcribing Arabic into the Roman alphabet is fraught with difficulty. And in an age of electronic text, search engines and databases, the problem is only going to get worse. [about]
    62. Materials Provided by the Bahá'í World Centre on Universal Auxiliary Language, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi (2002). A collection of resources on the International Auxiliary Language: compilation from the Bahá'í Writings, letter and memorandum from the Research Department, and two bibliographies listing citations from the Writings and from scholarship. [about]
    63. Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-1986: Third Epoch of the Formative Age, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
    64. Mirza Mihdi, "Holy Family", capitalization of pronouns, Guardian's use of English, by Universal House of Justice (1998). Five unrelated questions about Mirza Mihdi; use of the title "Holy Family"; capitalization of personal pronouns; and the Guardian's use of English in his translations. [about]
    65. New Religions and Religious Movements: The Common Heritage, by Moshe Sharon, in Studies in Modern Religions and Religious Movements and the Bábí Bahá'í Faiths (2004). The 19th Century; Croce’s religion of liberty; modern religious activity; the Qur'an and classical heritage; nature of revelation; magic and the names of God; mysticism of names and letters for the Bab; the letter bá'; Tafsir Basmalah. [about]
    66. New World Transliterator: Macintosh Font for Transliteration of Persian and Arabic, by Christopher Buck (1993). Transliteration software (TrueType font for Mac). [about]
    67. On "Simplified English" Translations of the Bahá'í Writings, by Universal House of Justice (1998). Explanation that it is not necessary or acceptable to produce simplified "dilutions" of Shoghi Effendi's translations of the Bahá’í Writings. [about]
    68. Oriental Words in Bahá'í Literature, Transliteration, and Pronunciation, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). Guide to spelling and pronunciation of Arabic and Persian words encountered in Bahá'í history and writings. [about]
    69. Persian and Arabic names, by Hasan M. Balyuzi and Marzieh Gail, in The Báb (1973). Explanations of the elaborate system of Persian names and titles used in the nineteenth century. [about]
    70. Persian Language in the Literature of Baha'i Worship, by Shapour Rassekh, in Religious Texts in Iranian Languages, ed. Fereydoun Vahman and Claus V. Pedersen (2007). Brief article on the literary sources of Bahá'í prayer, their diversity and varied style, and Persian as a language of prayer. [about]
    71. Persian Translation of Arabic verses, in Lights of Irfan, 19 (2018). There are no authorized Persian translations of any of the Arabic Writings; personal translations are acceptable but should not be recited in Bahá’í gatherings; explanations in Persian may be shared for the sake of better understanding the Arabic. [about]
    72. Persian, Arabic, and Provisional Translations, by Iraj Ayman and Robert Stockman (1999). Words relating to the titles of Bahá'í Writings, "Pure" Persian and "Pure" Arabic, and information on provisional translations. [about]
    73. Persian-speaking Believers in Anglophone Communities, by Universal House of Justice, in Bahá'í Canada, 8:6 (1996). Some Persian expatriates feel deprived of participation in Bahá'í gatherings because of an inability to understand English. [about]
    74. Pioneering, Language, Arts, Example of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, by Universal House of Justice (1998). Pioneering; Serving parents; Serving where need is; Gardens; International Auxiliary Language; Arabic pronunciation; study of Persian; Some references in Writings of Bahá'u'lláh; Folk art; External affairs; Daily living; Abdu'l-Bahá as divine exemplar. [about]
    75. Poetry in 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Writings and Utterances, by Julio Savi and Faezeh Mardani, in Lights of Irfan, 18 (2017). 'Abdu'l-Bahá mentions at least seven aspects of poetry: inspiration, beauty, eloquence, versified language, novelty, expressivity, depth, and loftiness. He also sets forth clear concepts on the purposes of poetry, which benefit any aspiring poet. [about]
    76. Prayers of Bahá'u'lláh, The, by Ruhiyyih (Mary Maxwell) Khanum, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 9 (1940–1944) (1945). Essay about various prayers and meditations of Bahá'u'lláh. [about]
    77. Preliminary Bibliography of works in French making mention of the Babí or Bahá'í religions (1945–2000), by Thomas Linard, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). [about]
    78. Principle of an International Auxiliary Language, The, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi (1979). [about]
    79. Report of the Transliteration Committee, by G. T. Plunkett, in The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland (1895). The 10th Orientalist Congress in Geneva, 1894, produced the system of transliteration later approved by Shoghi Effendi. [about]
    80. Semantics of World Government, The, by John T. Dale, in dialogue magazine, 1:3 (1986). The concept of "world federation" is tied in to a variety of semantic presumptions. The term "self-government" is less authoritarian and individualistic than the term "world government." Includes response by Leonard Godwin. [about]
    81. Short Obligatory Prayer in Conlangs (2014). Provisional translation of the Bahá'í prayer in Esperanto, Klingon, Interlingua, and 10 other "constructed languages." [about]
    82. Short Obligatory Prayer in Many Languages, in Bahá'í World (1981). Three files: Short Obligatory Prayer in 501 languages (as published in Bahá'í World), and in a collection of African languages. [about]
    83. Some Themes and Images in the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh, by Bahiyyih Nakhjavani, in Bahá'í World, Volume 16 (1973-1976) (1976). Exploring the relationship between the Creative Word, particularly its expression in language, and the journey of the human soul to its Creator. [about]
    84. Style of the Kitab-i-Aqdas, The: Aspects of the Sublime, by Suheil Bushrui: Review, by Sen McGlinn, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 6 (1996). [about]
    85. Style of the Kitab-i-Aqdas, The: Aspects of the Sublime, by Suheil Bushrui: Review, by Miles L. Bradbury (1998). [about]
    86. Stylistic Analysis of the Báb's Writings, A: Abridged Translation of Vahid Behmardi's Muqaddamih-yi dar bárih-yi sabk va siyáq-i áthár-i mubárakih-yi ḥaḍrat-i rabb a`lá, by Vahid Behmardi and William F. McCants, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). English translation by McCants of Behmardi's Persian article "Stylistic Analysis of the Báb’s Writings". [about]
    87. Tablet of the Centennial, by Shoghi Effendi (1998). An epistle to the Persian-speaking Bahá'ís. Includes English translation of Muhammad Varqa's "Le Style persan du Gardien." [about]
    88. Tablet of the Fig and the Olive, by Abdu'l-Bahá, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 10 (2001). [about]
    89. Taking Care with Translation of Sacred Scripture, by Edward Price (2016). Examination of the importance of using reliable translations of the Qur’án. Includes technical discussion of the meanings of Islam, Muslim, and Allah, aspects of the Arabic language, and errors of translation. [about]
    90. Towards the Summit of Reality: Table of Contents and Bibliography, by Julio Savi (2003). Front- and back-matter only of Savi's book Towards the Summit of Reality: An Introduction to the Study of Bahá'u'lláh's Seven Valleys and Four Valleys, which provides a snapshot of scholarship into these Writings of Bahá'u'lláh. [about]
    91. Translation list (2009). Index to talks, letters, and other items translated from Persian and Arabic to English by Adib Masumian; listed here for the sake of search engines and tagging. [about]
    92. Translation of Authoritative Bahá'í Texts into the Spanish Language, by Universal House of Justice (1993). Regarding issues related to the translation of authoritative Bahá’í Texts into the Spanish language and the establishment of an international body responsible for the direction and approval of such translation work. [about]
    93. Transliteration, by Moojan Momen (1991). [about]
    94. Transliteration of the Long Obligatory Prayer, by Hajir Moghaddam (2021). Trilateral presentation of the Prayer in Arabic, English translation, and roman transliteration in the International Journal of Middle Eastern Studies system. [about]
    95. Understanding Exclusivist Texts, by Seena Fazel, in Scripture and Revelation: Papers presented at the First Irfan Colloquium (1997). Contemporary religions, esp. Christianity, must examine their exclusivist claims to account for other paths to salvation. [about]
    96. Universal Language, Adoption of, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (2008). [about]
    97. Unveiling the Hidden Words, by Diana Malouf: An Extended Review, by Frank Lewis, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 8 (1998). Book review, and a commentary on the need for Bahá'í academia aimed at a secular audience, and the possibility of updating the Guardian's translations when English evolves in the future. [about]
    98. Unveiling the Hidden Words, by Diana Malouf: Commentary on "Translating the Hidden Words,' review by Franklin Lewis, by Dominic Parvis Brookshaw, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 9 (1999). [about]
    99. Various questions: Wordings in Promised Day is Come, Transliteration of vav, Pluralization and Case of Certain Words, by Universal House of Justice (2021). Answers on four topics: differences in wording in editions of The Promised Day Is Come; transliteration of the letter váv / wáw; the use of hybrid plurals, e.g. mullas; upper/lower case of certain words, e.g. "shah/Shah." [about]
    100. "What I Want to Say is Wordless": Mystical Language, Revelation and Scholarship, by Ismael Velasco, in Lights of Irfan, Book 2 (2001). If the Word of God transcends words and letters, what point is there to Scripture, let alone to scholarship; the paradox of a history of writers penning volumes on a subject which they assert cannot be grasped by language; the relevance of mysticism. [about]
    101. Whither the International Auxiliary Language?, by Phyllis Ghim-Lian Chew, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 2:2 (1989). The Bahá'í Faith has promised that a day will come when there will be a universal auxiliary language taught in schools around the world. This promise is vital for peace and harmony. English and Esperanto have both strengths and flaws. [about]
    102. "Whither the International Auxiliary Language?" by Phyllis Ghim Lian Chew: Commentary, by Susan Gilman, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 3:1 (1990). [about]
    103. Wittgensteinian Language-Games in an Indo-Persian Dialogue on the World Religions, by Juan Cole, in Iran Nameh, 30:3 (2015). Reflections on Bahá'u'lláh's theology of previous religions and Ludwig Wittgenstein’s concept of "language games"; Hinduism, India, and 19th-century Iranian culture; Manakji’s questions about Hinduism and Zoroastrianism. [about]
    104. مجموعه الواح و مناجاتهای ترکی حضرت عبدالبهاء طهران ١٢٧ بدیع: Collected Azeri Turkish Tablets and Prayers of `Abdu'l-Bahá, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1970). مجموعه الواح و مناجاتهای ترکی حضرت عبدالبهاء - مؤسّسه ملّی مطبوعات امری ، طبع طهران – چاپ دوم – ١٢٧ بدیع ، ١٩٧١ – ١٩٧٠ Prayers originally written in Azeri Turkish with the Ottoman Turkish alphabet. [about]
     
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