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from the Chronology

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1848. 1 Sep Birth of Auguste Forel, renowned entomologist and Bahá'í, in Switzerland. Morges; Switzerland Auguste Forel; Births and deaths
1911 20 Aug 'Abdu'l-Bahá and His party left Marseilles and traveled by train to Geneva, arriving late in the day and checking into the Hôtel de la Paix. Marseilles; France; Geneva; Switzerland Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
1911. 21 Aug 'Abdu'l-Bahá and His party took a ferry from Geneva to Thonon-les-Bains and were met by Laura Dreyfus-Barney. They stayed at the Hôtel du Parc. He wrote to His sister, Bahíyyih Khánum. It was she that He had placed in charge of the affairs of the Faith in His absence. [ABF12-13, LTDT172-173]
  • About this time He also wrote to His wife, Munírih Khánum. [ABF14]
  • This was His first visit to Switzerland. It lasted just one day.
  • Geneva; Switzerland; Thonon-les-Bains; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Munirih Khanum
    1911 22 Aug - 3 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá took up residence at Thonon-les-Bains on Lake Leman (Lake Geneva). [AB140; GPB280; SBR219]
  • While there He encountered Zillu's-Sultán, the eldest son of the Sháh of the time, Násirid-Dín Sháh. It was he who had ratified the execution of the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs and at least 100 others. The whole family was in exile in Geneva at this time. 'Abdu'l-Bahá was very courteous to this man who had been such an inveterate enemy of the Cause. [DJT172, AY19, GPB201] .
  • The Master sent for Juliet Thompson who had been waiting in London for His permission to join Him.
  • During His stay he had a visit from Annie Boylan, a member of the New York community that was experiencing disharmony. Unaware of Bahá'í election procedures, a group that was unhappy with the disunity and ineffectiveness of the Council had organized a vote to be rid of several of its Council members. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had written to the community a short time before recommending that the Council be expanded from 9 to 27 members so that all factions could be represented. He also recommended that women be included on the Council and that the name be changed to "the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of New York". This apparently addressed the problem of disunity because the New York community went on to contribute significantly to the progress of the Faith on a national level. [DJT181, BFA2p338]
  • Horace Holley, who lived at Quattro Torri, Siena, Italy at the time, along with his wife Bertha Herbert and baby daughter Hertha, visited 'Abdu'l-Bahá on the 29th and 30th of August. Please see his Religion for Mankind p 232-237 for a pen portrait of 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • He met with Elizabeth Stewart and Lillian Kappes who were on their way to Tehran. [find reference]
  • It would appear that He returned to Marseilles and travelled to London by sea. [SCU22-23]
  • Thonon-les-Bains; Lake Leman; Marseilles; France; Switzerland; Italy; London; United Kingdom; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies; Unity; Zillus-Sultan; Persecution; Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Juliet Thompson; Horace Holley; Elizabeth Stewart; Lillian Kappes; Ships
    1911 27 Aug 'Abdu'l-Bahá and His party took a ferry to Vevey. a resort town on the other side of Lake Geneva (Lake Leman). Vevey was the location of the Dreyfus summer home and it was near here that Lady Blomfield and her daughters finalized the translation of Paris Talks [ABF33-44, DJT186, SoW vol 2 no 14]
  • He took a room at the Park Hôtel Mooser where He took some rest and also met Edith Sanderson and her mother. With the assembled friends He discussed immortality and divorce.
  • The party returned by ferry to Thonon-les-Bains, stopping at Évian-les-Bains. [DJT196-197]
  • In the afternoon He met with Lillian Frances Kappes and Elizabeth Harnill Stewart who had just arrived from America on their way to teach at the Tarbiyát School for girls in Iran. The school for boys had been in operation since 1897 and the school for girls was just being established in. [ABF43, SoW vol 2 no 18, SoW vol 2 no 14] Perhaps it was at this time He delivered the talk that has been entitled, "The oneness of humanity and of religions". ['Abdu'l-Bahá Speaks]
  • Thonon-les-Bains; Vevey; Switzerland; Evian-les-Bains; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Lady Blomfield; Edith Sanderson; Lillian Kappes; Elizabeth Stewart; Tarbiyat School; Bahai schools; Paris Talks (book)
    1911 30 Aug 'Abdu'l-Bahá spent the morning in Thonon-les-Bain and took the ferry to Geneva after dinner. He stayed at the Hôtel de la Paix located at 11, Quai du Mont-Blanc. [ABF5154, DJT208]
  • This marks the end of 'Abdu'-Bahá's second stay in France. It lasted 9 days.
  • Thonon-les-Bains; France; Geneva; Switzerland Horace Holley; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 31 Aug- 4 Sep During His stay in Geneva 'Abdu'l-Bahá most likely returned the visits of Zillu's-Sultán Sultán-Mas'úd Mírzá and his four sons, Sultán-Husayn Mírzá, Bahrám Mírzá, Fírúz Mírzá, and Ismá'íl Mírzá. [DJT214-215, ABF54-60]
  • This marks the end of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's time in Switzerland. He stayed a total of 6 days, 20-21 August, 27 August, and the 30th of August until the 3rd of September.
  • Geneva; Switzerland Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Zillus-Sultan; Sultan-Masud Mirza; Sultan-Husayn Mirza
    1911. 30 Nov - 7 Dec It was about this time that 'Abdu'l-Bahá sent four Bahá'ís to Germany to assist with the teaching and the consolidation of the Faith. They were: Lady Blomfield, a Mrs Earl, Mírzá Asadu'lláh-i-Isfáhaání and Mirza Ahmad Sohrab. They remained in Stuttgart until the 7th of December.
  • Lady Blomfield then travelled to Vevey, Switzerland to be with her daughters and to continue working on the collected talks of 'Abdu'l-Bahá for publication. They stayed at the Hôtel Belvedere. [ABF255-256, 275]
  • Paris; Stuttgart; Germany; Vevey; Switzerland Lady Blomfield; Mrs Earl, Mirza Asadu'llah-i-Isfahaani; Mirza Ahmad Sohrab; Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
    1922 (Autumn) The Greatest Holy Leaf sent Shoghi Effendi's mother and other family members to Switzerland to ask him to return to the Holy Land. [PP63] Switzerland; Haifa Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of
    1922 15 Dec Shoghi Effendi returned to the Holy Land to take up his duties as Guardian. [PP63-4]
  • He sent cablegrams to a number of national communities announcing his return and his eagerness to resume the work. [PP64-5]
  • Switzerland; Haifa Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Guardianship
    1923 Jun Shoghi Effendi left Haifa for Switzerland. [PP72; BBRSM116]
  • He returned to Haifa in November 1923. [BRRSM116]
  • Switzerland; Haifa Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of
    1923 Nov (Sometime before 14 Nov) Shoghi Effendi returned from Switzerland. [PP73] Switzerland; Haifa Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of
    1925 (Spring) The International Bahá'í Bureau was created by the English Bahá'í Jean Stannard (1865–1944) at the encouragement of Shoghi Effendi who wanted the center to serve as an intermediary between the Bahá'í centre of Haifa and the various Bahá'í centres, but without having any international authority in the movement. [BW4:257, 261; BBD118]
  • Mrs. Stannard started a publication she called Messager Bahá'í that was printed in three languages (English, French and German). The first issue appeared in July of 1926. Four issues were brought out between July of that year and September 1927.
  • Miss Julia Culver joined Mrs Stannard in the Spring of 1927 and Mrs Emogene Hoagg arrived in June of 1928.
  • In 1930 the Bureau was legally registered as an International working unit, governed by a local committee which is under the direct supervision of Shoghi Effendi. [BW4p257]
  • For the history and work of the Bureau see BW4:257–61, BW6:130–5, BW7:108–13, BW11:507–8.
  • Geneva; Switzerland; Europe International Bahai Bureau; Jean Stannard; Julia Culver; Emogene Hoagg; Firsts, Other
    1926 May (Near end) Shoghi Effendi departed Palestine for Switzerland. [PP97, SETPE1p131, GBF36] Switzerland Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of
    1926 15 Oct Shoghi Effendi returned from Switzerland where he had been joined by his mother and sister in August. [SETPE1p133, Ambassador at the Court chapter 8] Switzerland Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of
    1927 Jun Shoghi Effendi left Palestine destined for Switzerland in the company of his sister. [Ambassador at the Court Chapter 8] Switzerland Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of
    1927 (Mid-Oct to 1 Nov) Shoghi Effendi retired to the mountains of Switzerland to rest and re-gain his strength. (SETPE1p150, DND20] Switzerland Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of
    1929 Apr Shoghi Effendi announced that the Council of the League of Nations had pronounced in favour of the Bahá'í petition regarding the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdad. Unfortunately, King Faisal, a Sunni, relented under the pressure of the Shi'iah element and the property was never returned. [Bahá'í News Letter, no. 31 (April 1929), p.6, SETPE1p169] Baghdad; Iraq; Geneva; Switzerland House of Bahaullah (Baghdad); League of Nations; King Faisal
    1930 Nov Louise Gregory sailed on the SS Sinaia from Providence, Rhode Island with a destination of Constanta in Romania. The ship carried her via the Azores, Algiers and Istanbul. In all possibility she visited Bucharest and Poland before arriving at her destination of Sofia some time in January. [SYH169]
  • Marion Jack had been on pilgrimage and Shoghi Effendi suggested she might go to Sofia to help Louise. She left Haifa near the end of March, stopped over briefly in Cyprus then on to Trieste and then to Sofia. Meanwhile Louise had been informed by the American Legation that the police had become suspicious of her "non-Christian" work and she had to vacate the country before the expiration of her visa. [SYH172, NBAD122, 143-144]
  • Louise left Sofia on the 8th of April. She stopped in Geneva, Switzerland to visit her friends at the international Bahá'í Bureau. After making her way to England she departed from Liverpool on the SS Britannic on the 24th of April arriving in Boston on the 2nd of May. During this trip she had visited Sofia, Bulgaria and Geneva, Switzerland. [SYH241]
  • Marion had arrived in Sofia on the 9th of April 1931. [SYH172]
  • Sofia,Bulgaria; Geneva,Switzerland Louise Gregory; Marion Jack; Pilgrimage; International Baha'i Bureau
    1931 27 Jul Swiss Bahá’í Auguste Forel, (b. 1 September, 1848 Morges, Switzerland, d. 27 July, 1931 Yvorne Switzerland) world-renowned psychiatrist, entomologist, anatomist, social reformer and peace worker, passed away. [FGM2]
  • For the Good of Mankind: August Forel and the Bahá’í Faith by John Paul Vader, (published by George Ronald, Oxford, 1984) was originally written as a doctoral dissertation in the field of the history of medicine at the University of Lausanne on the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary of Dr Forel's passing. The book documents Dr Forel's activities as a Bahá'í.
  • "The famous scientist and entomologist, Dr. Auguste Forel, was converted to the Faith through the influence of a Tablet sent him by 'Abdu'l-Bahá, one of the most weighty the Master ever wrote." [GPB307-308, 316, 375; AB448-449]
  • The Tablet from 'Abdu'l-Bahá to Dr Forel can also be found in The Bahá’í World Vol. XV, pp. 37–43.
  • See The Life and Times of August Forel by Sheila Banani published in Lights of Irfan, Volume 6, pages 1-20 Wilmette, IL: Irfan Colloquia, 2005
  • See as well Auguste Forel; His Life and Enlightenment by A. M. Ghadirian, M.D.
  • August Forel Defends the Persecuted Persian Bahá'ís: 1925-1927 by John Paul Vader published in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983), pages 970-974 1986 (the pdf)
  • See Shoghi Effendi's mention of Dr Forel in Lights of Divine Guidance Vol 2 page 5, and his letter to his daughter, Mrs. Marta Brauns-Forel, regarding his status as a believer on pages 18-19.
  • See Auguste Forel and the Bahá'í Faith published by George Ronald in 1978. It was translated from Brief An Forel originally published by Bahá'í Verlag GmbH. It contains Forel's letter to 'Abdu'l-Bahá, His reply, and a commentary by Peter Mühlschlegel.
  • His autobiography, Rückblick auf mein Leben (1935) has been translated as Out of My Life and Work by Bernard Miall and published by Allen & Unwin Ltd in 1937.
  • See the article The World Vision of a Savant by Dr Auguste H Forel. [BW3p284—287]
  • See Wikipedia article.
  • Find a grave.
  • Switzerland Auguste Forel; In Memoriam
    1936 (Fall) Lorol Schopflocher departed for Europe to do teaching work in Sweden, Norway, Denmark, England, France and Geneva, Switzerland. [BN No107 April 1937 p2] Sweden; Norway; Denmark; United Kingdom; France; Geneva; Switzerland Travel teaching; Lorol Schopflocher
    1946 (In the year) In the second Seven Year Plan from 1946 to 1952, the American Bahá'í community was given the responsibility of working for the establishment of bahá'í communities in several european countries. A European Teaching Committee, which was responsible to the North American National Spiritual Assembly, was set up in Geneva in 1946. Its task was to coordinate the pioneer activities in ten European goal countries; Denmark, Norway, Sweden, The Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Italy, Spain and Portugal. [SBBR14p239]
  • The Committee was chaired by Edna True. [SBBR14p241]
  • Of the pioneers that arrived during this period, Dagmar Dole (stayed 1947 to 1951)) and Eleanor Hollibaugh (stayed May 1947 to October 1948 and March 1950 to October 1950) had the most influence on the growth of the community. [SBBR14p239-243]
  • As of 1946 Geresina Campani of Florence was the only known Bahá’í in Italy. In her letter, published in part in Bahá'í News she wrote of the hardship due to the devastation caused by the Allied bombing. [SYH232]
  • Denmark; Norway; Sweden; Netherlands; Belgium; Luxembourg; Geneva; Switzerland; Italy; Spain; Portugal European Teaching Committee; Edna True; Geresina Campani
    1946 (In the year) The first issue of the News Exchange was published by the International Bahá'í Bureau in Geneva. The last issue was published in December of 1956. It was published in English, French and German. [CBN No 89 June 1957 p5] Geneva; Switzerland Baha'i International Community; News Exchange; Anne Lynch; International Baha'i Bureau
    1948 Ridván The first local assembly was established in Bern, Switzerland. [BQYM201 Bern; Switzerland LSA
    1948 Ridván The first local assembly was established in Geneva, Switzerland. [BQYM201] Geneva; Switzerland LSA
    1948 22 – 26 May The first Bahá’í European Conference was held in Geneva. [BW11:51]
  • Among those who attended were Edna True, the chairperson of the European Teaching Committee, Mildred Mottahedeh, and Laura Clifford Dreyfus Barney. [BQYM201-204]
  • For details of the conference see BW11:51–2.
  • Geneva; Switzerland; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International
    1950 Nov From Switzerland, Shoghi Effendi invited five Bahá’ís—Lotfullah Hakim, Jessie and Ethel Revell, Amelia Collins and Mason Remey—to Haifa. [PP251]
  • They, together with Ben and Gladys Weeden who were already there, were told that they would constitute the International Bahá’í Council. [PP251–2]
  • Switzerland; BWC; Haifa International Bahai Council; Lutfullah Hakim; Jessie Revell; Ethel Revell; Amelia Collins; Charles Mason Remey; Ben Weeden; Gladys Weeden
    1952 12 Nov Dagmar Dole, pioneer to Alaska and Denmark, passed away in Glion, Switzerland.
  • Shoghi Effendi said she was the ‘first to give her life for the Cause in the European project’. [BW12:702; ZK66–7]
  • For her obituary see BW12:701–2.
  • See also Bahá'í Chronicles and Find a Grave.
  • Glion; Switzerland; Alaska; United States; Denmark Dagmar Dole; In memoriam; Births and deaths
    1953 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Italy and Switzerland was established. Elected were: Prof. Mario Fiorentini, Mrs. Anna Kunz, Dr. Ugo R. Giachery, Miss Elsa Steinmetz, Mrs. Stella Lonzar, Mrs. Anne Lynch, Friedrich Schar, Mrs. Marion Little, and Prof. Alessandro Bausani.
  • For a photo see Bahá'í Historical Facts.
  • Italy; Switzerland National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1962 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Switzerland was formed. [BW13:283]
  • For picture see BW13:282.
  • Switzerland National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1971 (In the year) In Germany, Hermann Zimmer resurrected the claims of Ruth White in a small book published in 1971 (English translation in 1973), A Fraudulent Testament devalues the Bahá'í Religion into Political Shogism.
  • In Switzerland, Francesco Ficicchia wrote a comprehensive attack aimed mainly at the Bahá'í administration,
  • Der Bah'ismus Weltreligion der Zunkunft? (Evangelische Zentralstelle für Weltanschauungsfragen, Quell Verlag, Stuttgart, 1981).
  • Both of these works were financed and distributed by Evangelical Protestant organizations in Germany. [The Covenant and Covenant-breaker by Moojan Momen]
  • Germany; Switzerland Covenant-Breakers; Hermann Zimmer; Ruth White; Francesco Ficicchia; Criticism and apologetics
    1971 31 Jul - 11 Aug The European Youth Conference took place in Fiesch, Switzerland, attended by 1,200 youth from 50 countries. [BW15:336–8]
  • About 200 people enrolled in the Bahá’í Faith during the conference. [BW15:336]
  • For pictures see BW15:337.
  • Fiesch; Switzerland; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth
    1976 24 Apr The passing of Mark George Tobey (b. December 11, 1890 Centerville, Wisconsin – d. April 24, 1976 Basel, Switzerland) [Bahá'í News page 341, Wiki, VV119]
  • He had been introduced to the Faith by Bernard Leach. [OPOP223]
  • Another version is that In 1918 Mark Tobey came in contact with Juliet Thompson and posed for her. During the session Tobey read some Bahá'í literature and accepted an invitation to Green Acre where he converted. [Seitz, William Chapin (1980). Mark Tobey. Ayer Publishing. p. 44]
  • Tobey was one of the twentieth century’s most cosmopolitan of artists. An inveterate traveler—he eventually settled in Basel, Switzerland—he was always better known in Europe than in his homeland.
  • His mature ‘white writing’ works are made up of pulsing webs of lines inspired by oriental calligraphy, explicitly acknowledged the direct influence of the Bahá'í Faith on his painting. It has been said that Tobey “made line the symbol of spiritual illumination, human communication and migration, natural form and process, and movement between levels of consciousness.” He often stated, “that there can be no break between nature, art, science, religion, and personal life".
  • See Bahá'í World 1994-95 pg248 for an article by Anne Boyles entitled "The Language of the Heart: Arts in the Bahá'í World Community" for mention of Mark Tobey.
  • For his obituary see BW17:401–4.
  • Towards the end of his life, Tobey was the recipient of some of the highest distinctions that the European art scene of his time could bestow. He won the gold medal at the Venice Biennale in 1958—the first American painter to do so since 1895. In 1961, a major retrospective of his work was held at the Louvre in Paris, an unprecedented achievement for a living and American artist.
  • See The Journal of Bahá'í Studies, Volume 26, number 4 – Winter 2016 p94 for an article by Anne Gordon Perry entitled Anne Gould Hauberg and Mark Tobey: Lives Lived for Art, Cultivated by Spirit.
  • An exhibition, Mark Tobey: Threading Light showed at the Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Venice, 6 May to 10 September 2017 and at the Addison Gallery of American Art, Phillips Academy, Andover, Massachusetts, 4 November 2017–11 March 2018.
  • An example of some of his works.
  • See World Order Vol 11 No 3 Spring 1977 for the following articles:
    • The Days with Mark Tobey by Marzieh Gail
    • Mark, Dear Mark by Bernard Leach
    • Memories of Mark Tobey by Firuz Kazemzahed
    • The Dot and the Circle by Mark Tobey
  • Centerville; Wisconsin; United States; Basel; Switzerland In Memoriam; Mark Tobey; Bernard Leach; Anne Gould Hauberg; Arts; Painting
    1981 1 Jan The European branch office of the Bahá’í International Community was established in Geneva. [BW19:33, VV54, BIC-History] Geneva; Switzerland BIC; Baha'i International Community
    1983 (In the year) The Association for Bahá’í Studies of Francophone Europe was established in Switzerland. Switzerland Bahai Studies, Associations for; French language
    1986 18 – 24 Jul The European Bahá’í Youth Movement is launched at the Bahá’í Youth School, Landegg Conference Centre, Switzerland. [BINS157:9–10; BINS158:10] Landegg; Switzerland; Europe Youth; Landegg Academy
    1987. 15 Feb The passing of Eleanor Hollibaugh (b. 17 February 1897 in Hastings, Nebraska) in Montraux, Switzerland. She was a pioneer to La Paz, Bolivia but when she had to return for reasons of health, she settled in Reno, Nevada. At the end of World War II the European Teaching Committee asked her to join fellow American Dagmar Dole in Copenhagen, Denmark. In 1949 they asked her to move to the Netherlands and in 1958, again at their request, she moved to France where she remained until 1960 when the Committee requested that she go to Switzerland. [BW20p868-871] Find a Grave. Hastings; Nebraska; Montreux; Switzerland; La Paz; Bolivia; Reno; Nevada; Amsterdam; Netherlands; Copenhagen; Denmark; Nancy; Dijon; France In Memoriam; Eleanor Hollibaugh
    1988 17 Feb The publication of the statement by the Bahá'í International Community, “Eliminating Religious Intolerance”, for the forty-fourth session of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights. Geneva; Switzerland Religious intolerance; United Nations; Baha'i International Community; BIC statements; Publications
    1989. 8 Feb The publication of the statement by the Bahá'í International Community, “Eliminating Racism”, to the forty-fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights. Geneva; Switzerland Racism; United Nations; Baha'i International Community; BIC statements
    1989. 9 Feb The publication of the statement by the Bahá'í International Community, “Right to Development”, to the forty-fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights. Geneva; Switzerland Human rights; Baha'i International Community; BIC statements; Statements; United Nations
    1990 Sep Eighty leaders of thought from around the world gathered at Landegg Academy for the first International Dialogue on the Transition to a Global Society. The event was co-sponsored by the University of Maryland, the Vienna Academy for the Study of the Future and the Landegg Academy. [VV109]
  • For documentation on the proceedings see UNESCO Documents and Publications.
  • A second international dialogue took place in 1991 and a third in 1992. [VV109]
  • Landegg; Switzerland University of Maryland; Bahai Chair for World Peace; Vienna Academy; Landegg academy; Universities; Firsts, Other; Conferences, Other
    1991 Aug Hand of the Cause Dr 'Alí-Muhammad Varqá convened a conference for the Deputies of the Huqúqu'lláh at Landegg Academy. [VV125]
  • Photo.
  • Landegg; Switzerland Huququllah; Ali Muhammad Varqa; Conference
    1992. 20 Sep The Landegg International University was formally registered by the cantonal and federal authorities of Switzerland as a private university. The evolution into a full-fledged university had been a gradual process. The 31-acre property overlooking Lake Constance had been acquired in 1982 by the Landegg International Foundation and operated under the aegis of the Bahá’í community of Switzerland which undertook the renovation of its main buildings and established it as a conference center. In the mid-1990s, it was decided that Landegg's role as a centre of learning should become formalized, and Landegg's functions were transferred to an independent board, whose charter stated that the university would be operated as an independent university directed by an international governing board. [One Country Jul-Oct 2001; One Country Oct-Dec 1997; BWNS138]

    A decision was taken to close the institution at the end of 2003 due to financial difficulties. By the time of its closing 1,116 students had earned degrees or graduate certificates from Landegg International University. [Bahaipedia]

    Dr. Hossain Danesh was the Rector of Landegg Academy from 1994. [H.B.Danesh/biography]

    Wienacht; Switzerland Landegg International University; Hossain Danesh
    1993 22 Feb At the 49th session of the UN Commission on Human Rights, the United Nations in Geneva released a report providing evidence that the Iránian Government had established a secret plan approved by Irán's highest ranking officials including both President Hashemi Rafsanjani and Ayatollah Khomeini's successor, Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei, to oppress and persecute the Bahá'í community both in Irán and abroad. Galindo Pohl, special representative in charge of monitoring the human rights situation in Iran, highlights the contents of the secret document written by Iran's Supreme Revolutionary Cultural Council. [BW92–3:139; BW94–5:134] [from Bahá'í Community of Canada Department of Public Affairs press release dated 25 February, 1993] Iran; Geneva; Switzerland Persecution; Hashemi Rafsanjani; Ali Khamenei; Galindo Pohl; Human rights; United Nations; Iran Memorandum; United Nations; Baha'i International Community
    1995. 1 Dec The 51st Session of the UN Human Rights Commission was held. In January the Bahá'í International Community submitted Promoting Religious Tolerance addressed an individual's basic human right to follow his/her conscience in matters of religion and belief. Geneva; Switzerland United Nations; Bahai International Community; BIC statements
    1997. 15 Mar The Bahá'í International Community presented a statement The United Nations Decade for Human Rights Education during the 53rd Session of the UN Commission on Human Rights held in Geneva. This statement focused on educating children and youth to instill in them those virtues required for a progressive society. [BIC website 1 January 1997] Geneva; Switzerland United Nations; Bahai International Community; BIC statements
    2001 13 Dec The passing of Giovanni (Gianni) Ballerio (b. 15 February 1943 in Asmara, Eritrea) in Geneva after a battle with cancer. He was 58. [BW01-02p302]
  • He had been a representative of the Bahá'í International Community at the United Nations in Geneva and in New York since 1981. [One Country Vol.13 Issue 3]
  • Geneva; Switzerland Giovanni (Gianni) Ballerio; Baha'i International Community; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    2003. 10 - 12 Dec The World Summit on the Information Society gave the Bahá'í International Community an opportunity to assemble a delegation of Internet and Communications Specialists out of which one chaired the Ethics and Values caucus. The event was devoted to address the challenges and opportunities presented by the Information and Communication Technologies. Some 54 heads of state, prime ministers, presidents, and vice presidents, along with 83 ministers, came to the WSIS, which drew official delegations from some 176 countries. Also attending were several thousand representatives of nongovernmental organizations, business groups, the media, and other organizations of civil society.
  • The Bahá'í International Community's delegation to the WSIS was Michael Quinn of the United States; Bahiyyih Chaffers, permanent representative of the Bahá'í International Community to the UN; Laina Raveendran Greene of Singapore; and Karanja Gakio of Botswana, one of the founders of Africa Online. [BWNS268]
  • Geneva; Switzerland United Nations; Baha'i International Community; Michael Quinn; Bahiyyih Chaffers; Laina Raveendran Greene; Karanja Gakio
    2009 2 – 3 Jul More than 20 members of the European Bahá'í Business Forum participated in the Global Ethics Forum, held at United Nations headquarters in Geneva. [BWNS722] Geneva; Switzerland; Europe European Bahai Business Forum (EBBF); Business; BWNS; Ethical Business Building the Future (EBBF)
    2011 27 – 28 Aug The Bahá'ís of Geneva commemorated the 100th anniversary of the start of ‘Abdu'l-Baha's journeys to the West. [BWNS854] Geneva; Switzerland Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Centenaries; BWNS
    2011 1 Dec The passing of former Universal House of Justice member Mr. Ian C. Semple (b. 2 December 1928 in New Barnet, Hertfordshire) in Switzerland. He served as a member of the Universal House of Justice from its inception in 1963 until his retirement in 2005. [BWNS871]
  • See UK Bahá'í Histories.
  • See Bahá'í Blog.
  • Bahaipedia.
  • Some publications by Ian Semple.
  • Switzerland Ian Semple; Universal House of Justice, Members of; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; BWNS
    2017 Sep Arrests of Bahá'ís in Yemen drew international censure which led to a United Nations resolution, titled “Human Rights, Technical Assistance and Capacity-building in Yemen”. It was introduced by Egypt on behalf of the Arab Group and supported by the entire UN Human Rights Council—calling for the immediate release of all Bahá'í detainees. The Council was the principal human rights body at the UN and was composed of 47 members who are elected by the General Assembly based on equitable geographic distribution.
  • At the time of the resolution there were seven Bahá'ís in prison in Yemen, most of whom are held in undisclosed locations and one of which has been detained for nearly four years due to repeatedly postponement court-hearings. Arrest warrants had been issued for over a dozen others, while a number of families had been forced to leave their homes. Developments in Yemen indicated that the authorities’ prosecution of individuals had broadened in scope to be against the Bahá'í community in general and that efforts were being made to turn public opinion against all of the Bahá'ís under the premise that they are secretly plotting to stir unrest in Yemen.
  • The resolution established a Group of Eminent International and Regional Experts tasked with monitoring and reporting on the situation on human rights in Yemen. It was also mandated to carry out a comprehensive examination of all alleged violations and abuses of international human rights in the country. [BIC News 3 October 2017, UN Human Rights Council – 36th Session, Agenda Item 10]
  • Geneva; Switzerland; Yemen Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; United Nations; Human Rights
    2020. 2 - 6 Nov The Geneva Office of the Bahá’í International Community joined with civil society actors, academics, and representatives of UN agencies and international organizations to contribute to discussions on peace-building initiatives around the world at Geneva Peace Week, an annual event that has been held since 2014.

    In a seminar held by the Office, three members of the Bahá’í community with expertise in the fields of governance, economics, and the environment explored some of the implications of the BIC statement, A Governance Befitting, and its call for a “global civic ethic.” The BIC presenters were: Maja Groff, an international lawyer based in The Hague, Netherlands, Augusto Lopez-Claros, executive director of the Global Governance Forum, and Arthur Lyon Dahl, president of the International Environment Forum. [BWNS1465]

  • Photos.
  • Geneva; Switzerland Bahai International Community
    2022. 25 Mar In a statement was delivered by the Bahá'í International Community’s representative, Simin Fahandej, by video to the 49th session of the United Nations Human Rights Council in Geneva it was announced that more than 1,000 Bahá'ís are in a “limbo” between their initial arrests, their legal hearings and their final summons to prison. A “rising trend” in the confiscation of Bahá'í-owned properties was also of “particular concern”, Fahandej told the Human Rights Council. And while the appropriation of assets was not new, she added, it did seem that the Iranian authorities were “increasingly using the legal system” for such seizures. The concern is that confiscations of Bahá'í properties enrich the Execution of Imam Khomeini’s Order, also known as Setad, which is controlled by Iran’s Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei. [Iran Press Watch 25 March 2022] Geneva,Switzerland Baha'i International Community; Persecution, Iran

    from the Chronology Canada

    from the Main Catalogue

    1. Anne Gould Hauberg and Mark Tobey: Lives Lived for Art, Cultivated by Spirit, by Anne Gordon Perry, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 26:4 (2016). On the friendship and working relationship between Seattle art patron Hauberg and Seattle-based painter Tobey. [about]
    2. Aspects of the History of the Bahá'í Faith in Switzerland, Some, by John Paul Vader (2009). Switzerland was among the first countries opened to the Bahá’i religion. This paper describes the connections between the Bahá’i Faith and Switzerland and a selection of episodes in the early history of the development of the community there. [about]
    3. Emogene Hoagg: Exemplary Pioneer, by Amine De Mille, in Bahá'í News, 511 (1973). Biography of travel-teacher and translator of the Writings into Italian. [about]
    4. European Bahá'í Youth Conference in Innsbruck, by Universal House of Justice (1983). Challenges facing European Bahá'í Youth, followed by consolation to Bahá'í youth in light of the 1983 martyrdoms of young Bahá'ís in Iran. [about]
    5. Germany, France, Italy, and Switzerland, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 4:1 (1994). Compilation of new perspectives on the future of European civilization. Includes introduction by Julio Savi. [about]
    6. Henrietta Emogene Martin Hoagg: Short Biographical Monograph, by Peter Terry (1997). Biography of a travel-teacher, translator of the Writings into Italian, and the first pioneer to Italy. She had a great impact on her fellow believers during her lifetime, but is little-recognized today. [about]
    7. Journal Diary of European Baha'i Travels: April - November 1948, by Charles Mason Remey (1948). A record of Remey's visits across Europe, from England to Germany. Includes coverage of Bahá'í participation in the first U.N. convention on Human Rights, held in Geneva. [about]
     
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