Search for tag "Guardianship"
|1922 3 Jan
||The Will and Testament of `Abdu'l-Bahá was read aloud for the first time, to a group of nine men, mainly senior members of `Abdu'l-Bahá's family. [BBRSM115; CB286; ER194; GBF14; PP45]
Shoghi Effendi was not present at the reading. [CB286; ER194]
Shoghi Effendi was appointed Guardian of the Bahá'í Faith. [WT11]
Shoghi Effendi had no fore-knowledge of the institution of the Guardianship nor that he would be appointed Guardian. [CB285; PP423]
The fact that Shoghi Effendi was to become 'Abdu'l-Bahá's successor was a well-guarded secret. The person who was privy to this appointment was the Greatest Holy Leaf. Another was a non-Bahá'í woman, Dr J. Fallscheer, a German physician who lived in Haifa and attended the ladies of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's household. When Shoghi Effendi was a child, 'Abdu'l-Bahá clearly stated to her that Shoghi Effendi would be His successor. But this information was not communicated to anybody else. [CoC30; PP1-2]
For a list of topics covered by the Will and Testament of 'Abdu'l-Bahá see GPB328.
||Abdul-Baha, Ascension of; Abdul-Baha, Will and Testament of; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Guardianship; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; Covenant (general)
|1922 7 Jan
||The Will and Testament of `Abdu'l-Bahá was read publicly at his house to an assembled gathering of Bahá'ís from many countries. [ER199-200]
Shoghi Effendi was again absent. [ER200]
The Greatest Holy Leaf sent two cables to Persia, informing the Bahá'ís that Shoghi Effendi had been appointed Guardian and instructing them to hold memorial services for `Abdu'l-Bahá. [PP47]
||Abdul-Baha, Ascension of; Abdul-Baha, Will and Testament of; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Guardianship; Abdul-Baha, House of; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1922 16 Jan
||The Greatest Holy Leaf cabled the United States with the news that Shoghi Effendi had been appointed Guardian. [PP48]
||BWC; United States
||Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Guardianship; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, expanded
|1922 15 Dec
||Shoghi Effendi returned to the Holy Land to take up his duties as Guardian. [PP63-4]
He sent cablegrams to a number of national communities announcing his return and his eagerness to resume the work. [PP64-5]
||Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Guardianship
|1953 12–18 Feb
||The first Intercontinental Teaching Conference was convened by the British National Spiritual Assembly in Kampala, Uganda. [BW12:121, MBW135-140; BN No 267 May 1953 p5-7]
For Shoghi Effendi’s message to the conference see BW12:121–4.
For a report of the conference see BW12:124–30.
It was attended by ten Hands of the Cause, Bahá’ís from 19 countries and representatives of over 30 tribes. [PP413]
Over a hundred new African believers attended as personal guests of the Guardian. [PP413]
With this conference the Ten Year World Crusade was launched. [BBRSM158–9; BW12:253; MBW41]
See some candid video footage taken by Ted Cardell.
||Kampala; Uganda; Africa
||Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Guardianship; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade; Teaching; First conferences
|1954 27 Nov
||Shoghi Effendi described the significance of the world administrative centre of the Faith and the ‘structures, which will serve as the administrative seats of such divinely appointed institutions as the Guardianship, the Hands of the Cause, and the Universal House of Justice’ to be ranged along a ‘far-flung arc’. [MBW74]
||BWC; Mount Carmel; Haifa
||Guardianship; Hands of the Cause; Universal House of Justice, Seat of; Arc (World Centre); - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
|1957 25 Nov
||A proclamation was issued stating that Shoghi Effendi left no heir and made no appointment of another Guardian. [BW13:341–5; MC25–30]
See LOG310 for an explanation of the various meanings of the word ‘Guardianship’.
See CB388–9 for a discussion of the continuation of the institution of the Guardianship.
||Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Covenant (general); Hands of the Cause, Activities; Guardianship; Custodians; Appointed arm; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1958 12 Jun
||The Custodians released the ‘Statement regarding the Guardianship’, explaining that Shoghi Effendi had left no heir, that only he could appoint a second Guardian and that the Bahá’ís must dismiss all hopeful expectation that a Will appointing a second Guardian will be found. [MC100-2]
|1959 23 Oct - 1 Nov
||The third Conclave of the Hands of the Cause of God was convened at Bahjí. [BW13:351; MC127-173]
For the agenda of the meeting see MC163–4.
Charles Mason Remey unsuccessfully attempted to convince his fellow Hands that the Guardianship should continue. [BBRSM130; MC217]
||Bahji; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Charles Mason Remey; Guardianship; Covenant-breakers
|1960 Ridván c.
||Hand of the Cause Charles Mason Remey claimed he was the second, ‘hereditary’ Guardian of the Bahá’í Faith. [BW13:397; BW16:90; SS49]
See MC205–6, 231–6 for details of Remey’s claims.
Joel Marangella was Mason Remey's "Siyyid Muhammad", that he encouraged Remey to make a claim for the Guardianship with the hope that he might succeed him. [Bahaipedia]
See also BBRSM130-1, 138–9; CB386–91; MC196–217, 223–8; SBBH1:220, NOTE 207.
At some point in 1960 Mason sent notification of his "appointment" as guardian to the Israeli government. [British Library]
||Guardianship; Covenant-breakers; Charles Mason Remey; Joel Marangella
|1960 27 Apr
||The International Bahá’í Council by unanimous vote rejected the claim of Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [MC206–7]
||International Bahai Council; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship
|1960 28 Apr
||The Custodians called upon all believers to join the Hands in repudiation of the claims of Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [MC196–7]
||Custodians; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship
|1960 30 Apr – 10 May
||Twenty–four national spiritual assemblies and five national conventions sent messages of support to the Custodians, repudiating the claim made by Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [MC199–202]
The National Spiritual Assembly of France voted to recognize Remey's claim. [MC203]
||BWC; Haifa; France
||National Spiritual Assembly; Custodians; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship
|1960 5 May
||Hand of the Cause Abu’l-Qásim Faizí was sent by the Custodians to France to meet with the National Spiritual Assembly and Bahá’ís of France. [MC197]
Initially eight of the nine members of the National Spiritual Assembly accepted the claim of Mason Remey.
After consultation, five members of the assembly continued to support Charles Mason Remey in his claim to be the second Guardian and resigned from the assembly. The five members who sided with Remey were: Joel Marangella, Bernard Fillon, Donald Harvey, Monir Derakhchan and Jaques Soghomonian. The four that remained true to the Covenant were A-M Barafroukhteh, Alain Tamenne, Sara Kenny, and Henriette Samimy. Even though some or maybe all of this group had voted to accept Remey they changed their vote after the meeting with Mr. Faizi. The national assembly was dissolved. [MC203]
||BWC; Haifa; France
||Guardianship; Covenant-breakers; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Abul-Qasim Faizi; National Spiritual Assembly; Charles Mason Remey; Joel Marangella
|1960 12 – 31 May
||Six national spiritual assemblies sent messages of support to the Custodians, repudiating the claim made by Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [MC207–8]
||National Spiritual Assembly; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship
|1960 13 May
||The International Bahá’í Council wrote to the Custodians recording its decision taken on 27 April to reject the claims of Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [Mc206–7]
||International Bahai Council; Charles Mason Remey; Custodians; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship
|1960 31 May
||In a letter addressed to all National Assemblies in the Western Hemisphere and to the Auxiliary Boards, the Hands of the Faith Corrine True, Hermann Grossmann, and William Sears provided an update on the activities of Charles Mason Remey. Some salient points were:
Of all the National Spiritual Assemblies only France failed to reject Remey's claims. Hand of the Cause Faizi made a visit to investigate and, with the co-operation of the European Hands, arranged for a new election.
Remey had sent two letters calling for support and in the second he deemed the remaining twenty-six Hands of the Cause "violators".
It was made known that for the previous two years Remey had been trying to convince his fellow Hands to appoint a Guardian. Until the previous Ridván he hadn't disclosed that it was he, himself, that he had in mind. Remey was aware and had been shown a letter from the Guardian clearly stating that the Hands did not have the authority to appoint a Guardian, only to ratify the choice. He had made his claim notwithstanding the vow that he had taken along with the other Hands in November, 1957 at Bahjí, and re-affirmed in 1958 with their signatures, to complete the Plan and elect the Universal House of Justice at Ridván, 1963. The question of the Guardianship would be referred to the Universal House of Justice.
The Hands had spent two years trying to convince Remey of the impossibility of appointing a Guardian. Up to this point they had taken no action other than to warn the friends of his intentions and to ask them to refrain from associating with him.
They urged the friends to concentrate their full energies on completing the Plan. [Statement on Mason Remey from the Western Hands of the Faith] iiiii
||Covenant-breakers; Charles Mason Remey; Corinne True; Hermann Grossmann; William Sears; Custodians; Guardianship
|1963 6 Oct
||The Universal House of Justice cabled that it found that ‘there is no way to appoint or to legislate to make it possible to appoint a second Guardian to succeed Shoghi Effendi’. [WG11; 6 October 1963]
See an interview with Mr Ian Semple in which he provides background to the decision and the process by which it was made.
Subsequent messages on this subject were dated:
9 March 1965,
27 May 1966,
7 December 1969,
25 October 1984, and
6 January 1998. iiiii
Also see: Wellspring of Guidance, p44–56, 81–91, Messages of the Universal House of Justice: 1968–1973, p37–44, Will and Testament of ‘Abdu’l‑Bahá p20
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- Aghsan, The, by Grover Gonzales (2021). The article gives a new, different view of the development of the Bahai Covenant, the end of the Guardianship, overview of the meanings of aghsán ("branches"), the sons of Bahá'u'lláh, the expulsion of Abdu'l-Bahá's seven grandsons, and succession. [about]
- Authority of the Hands of the Cause to direct the Faith and expel Covenant-breakers, by Universal House of Justice (1997-06-04). Authority of the Hands of the Cause assume control of the Faith and eject Covenant-breakers following Shoghi Effendi's passing. [about]
- Concerns raised about the absence of a Guardian to succeed Shoghi Effendi, by Universal House of Justice (1998-01-06). On the lack of a Guardian to succeed Shoghi Effendi, the possibility of a member of his family expressing contrition and being admitted into the community, and the functions of Guardianship in his absence. [about]
- Critical Examination of 20th-Century Baha'i Literature, A, by Vance Salisbury (1997). Explores the claim, first made by E. G. Browne, that some Bahá'ís suppress or distort historical texts. Includes tables of changes made in different editions of four popular Bahá'í books. [about]
- Dawn over Mount Hira and Other Essays, by Marzieh Gail (1976). A collection of essays on various topics of interest to Bahá'í studies and history. Most of these were first published in Star of the West and World Order between 1929 and 1971. [about]
- Dialogue on Infallibility: A response to Udo Schaefer's 'Infallible Institutions?', by Peter Terry (2006). An extended review of the themes first published in Schaefer's Making the Crooked Straight, presented in the form of a dialogue. Part of this paper was delivered at the Association for Bahá’í Studies conference in 2006. [about]
- Election and Infallibility of the Universal House of Justice, by Universal House of Justice, in Messages from the Universal House of Justice: 1963-1986: The Third Epoch of the Formative Age (1996). Answers to three questions: Why were steps taken to elect a Universal House of Justice with the foreknowledge that there would be no Guardian? Was the time ripe for such an action? Could not the International Bahá'í Council have carried on the work? [about]
- Epistemological Implications of the Gradated Claims to Divine Authority in the Bahá'í Writings: Reflections on Infallibility, by William S. Hatcher, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 17:1-4 (2007). There are different levels of infallibility, from the greater (the Manifestations who are "omniscient at will") to the lesser (like the Guardian, who has conferred freedom-from-error). [about]
- Flow of Divine Authority, by Brent Poirier, in Deepen, 3.4:9 (1996 Winter). Scriptural authority for the Universal House of Justice to function infallibly without the presence of a living Guardian. [about]
- Guardianship and the House of Justice, by Sen McGlinn (1997). The Context of The Dispensation of Bahá'u'lláh; the distinction and separation of the Guardianship and the Houses of Justice; distinctions between the Guardian and the Exemplar; the inseparability of the Guardianship and the Universal House of Justice. [about]
- Guardianship and the Universal House of Justice, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 11 (2010). [about]
- Guardianship and the Universal House of Justice, The, by Universal House of Justice (1966-05-27). Passages from a letter on the relationship between the Guardianship and the Universal House of Justice, the timing of the election of the House, the lack of a will by or a successor to the Guardian, and the House's ability to function on its own. [about]
- Guardianship and the Universal House of Justice, The, by Ian C. Semple, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 9 (2008). Reflections on the Guardianship and Universal House of Justice by a former House member. Includes an interesting Q&A on topics including women on the House, Shoghi Effendi's personality, infallibility, Bahá'í scholarship, fundamentalism, etc. [about]
- Guardianship, Anticipation of, in the Kitab-i-Aqdas, by Universal House of Justice (1992-12-08). Did Bahá'u'lláh anticipate the Institution of the Guardianship in the Kitab-i-Aqdas? [about]
- Guardianship, The Universal House of Justice, and Infallibility, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 10 (2009). The House is infallible even without the Guardian, because that the Guardian's chief function was interpretation and not legislation. [about]
- Hands of the Cause of God Cannot Appoint a Guardian, by Universal House of Justice (2015-06-11). Short letter quoting the Guardian's statement that the Hands of the Cause of God have to ratify the current guardian's appointment of another guardian, and they may also suggest another guardian, but cannot themselves appoint one. [about]
- Historical Analysis of Critical Transformations in the Evolution of the Bahá'í World Faith, An, by Vernon Elvin Johnson (1974). Detailed study of major changes in the Faith's history, opposition to such changes, and their resulting tensions and resolutions. [about]
- In the Days of the Guardian, by Leroy Ioas (1958-10-31). Includes the well-known comments by Shoghi Effendi about his reactions to being appointed Guardian. [about]
- Infallibility and Historical Knowledge of the Guardian, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 6 (2005). While the Guardian's infallibility applies to interpretation of revelation, it does not include historical and scientific knowledge. [about]
- Infallibility of the Guardianship and of the Universal House of Justice, by Universal House of Justice (1977-08-22). Distinction between the interpretive spheres of the Guardian versus the Universal House of Justice. [about]
- Infallible Institutions?, by Udo Schaefer, in Reason and Revelation: Studies in the Babi and Bahá'í Religions, 13 (2002). Historical and Bahá'í interpretations of infallibility. [about]
- Interpretation and Elucidation, by Ali Nakhjavani, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). The nature of elucidation vs. authorized interpretation, and the institution of the Guardianship. [about]
- Interpretation and the Guardianship, by Ian C. Semple, in Lights of Irfan, 6 (2005-05). Two versions of a talk presented at a seminar in Haifa, 1984, on differences between personal interpretation, authoritative interpretation, divinely guided legislation, and the role of the Guardian as interpreter [about]
- Legacy of Verse 42 of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, The, by Gerald C. Keil (2021). Explores the circumstances under which a reading of Verse 42 which indicates that the line of Aghsan might end prior to the establishment of the Universal House of Justice came to predominate. Includes a memorandum from the Research Department. [about]
- Letter to Lili Hermann re Abdu'l-Bahá envisioning a break in the line of Guardians, by Anna Grossmann (1958-06-05). From letter written by Frau Anna Grossmann (wife of Hermann Grossmann, Hand of the Cause and member German-Austrian NSA) to Mrs. Lili Olitaki Hermann, pioneer in Salzburg, June 5, 1958. [about]
- Lists of Articles, by Brent Poirier (2009-2019). Lists of 126 articles at the author's six blog websites. [about]
- Mason Remey and Those Who Followed Him, by Universal House of Justice (1997). Letter from the US NSA on the importance of commitment to the covenant, a letter from the UHJ on covenant-breaking, and the history "Mason Remey and Those Who Followed Him." [about]
- Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-1986: Third Epoch of the Formative Age, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
- Ministry of the Custodians: An Account of the Stewardship of the Hands of the Cause 1957-1963, by Universal House of Justice and Ruhiyyih (Mary Maxwell) Khanum (1992). Account of the stewardship of the Hands of the Cause of God from 1957-63, from the passing of Shoghi Effendi to the election of the House, riding the waves of crisis to the moment of victory — the fulfillment of prophecy. [about]
- Passing of Shoghi Effendi, Ministry of the Hands of the Cause, and Defection of Mason Remey, The, by Shahin Vafai, in The Essence of the Covenant: Features, History, and Implications (2005). [about]
- Primary Source Texts Related to the Covenant, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (2021-11). Collection of some essential writings central to understanding the Bahá'í Covenant. [about]
- Statement on Mason Remey from the Western Hands of the Faith, by Corinne True and Hermann Grossmann (1960-05-31). Background information on the claims of Remey, compiled by the Hands of the Cause of God in the Western hemisphere. [about]
- Twenty-Five Years of the Guardianship, by Ruhiyyih (Mary Maxwell) Khanum (1948). An early account of Shoghi Effendi's ministry, written by his wife while he was still alive. [about]
- Two brief pilgrims' notes, by Valera Allen and Charlotte Linfoot (1954). Brief notes on (1) the infallibility of the Guardian in his choice of successor an (2) atomic energy. [about]
- Universal House of Justice's Power of Elucidation, The, by Universal House of Justice, in Messages from the Universal House of Justice: 1963-1986, The Third Epoch of the Formative Age (1996). Clarification about the qualitative difference between the Guardian's prerogative of interpretation and the power of elucidation of the Universal House of Justice. [about]
- Universal House of Justice, The, by Research Department of the Universal House of Justice (2021-02). Compilation about the "Universal House of Justice" from the writings of Bahá’u’lláh, 'Abdu’l-Bahá, and Shoghi Effendi, and from the constitution and letters of the Universal House of Justice. [about]
- World Order of Baha'u'llah: Six Talks on the Various Aspects of, by Ali Nakhjavani (2004/2007). Transcripts of six talks given at a week-long course on the World Order of Bahá'u'lláh, sponsored by the NSA of Italy. Document includes compilation and outline. (This online version compiled from three different editions of this book.) [about]
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