Search for tag "Covenant"
|1887 – 1888
||E. G. Browne, the noted Orientalist, spent 12 months in Persia. An important purpose of his journey was to contact the Bábís. [BBR29]
For a list of his books and other works and his relationship with the Bahá'í Faith see BBR29–36.
Also see BBD47; Balyuzi, Edward Granville Browne and the Bahá'í Faith and Momen, Selections From the Writings of E. G. Browne.
While sailing from Naples to New York 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave an account of Mírzá Yahyá and his followers and of the complaints they made to Edward G. Browne: "They tampered with the contents of the history of Hájí Mírzá Jání by removing some of its passages and inserting others. They sent it to the libraries of London and Paris and through such falsehood induced him [Browne] to translate and publish the document. In order to achieve his own selfish desires, he had it printed." [Mahmúd's Diary p21]
||Iran; United Kingdom
||Edward Granville Browne; Mirza Yahya; Covenant-breakers; Haji Mirza Jani
|1891 (In the year)
||Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Kitáb-i-`Ahd. [BBD32; CB142; GPB236–40, BKG420–5; RB4:419–20]
It was probably written at least one year before His Ascension. CB142]
In it Bahá'u'lláh alluded to Epistle to the Son of the Wolf as the `Crimson Book'. [DG16; ESW32; GPB238]
In Kitáb-i-`Ahd Bahá'u'lláh explicitly appointed `Abdu'l-Bahá His successor, the Centre of the Covenant and the Expounder of the revealed word. [BKG420; GPB239]
||Kitab-i-Ahd (Book of the Covenant); Bahaullah, Will and Testament of; Crimson Book; Covenant (general); Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Bahji; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1892 (About 2 mos before 29 May)
||Close to the end of His life Bahá'u'lláh became displeased with Mírzá Àqá Ján and dismissed him from His service. He had served as His servant, with the title of Khádim (Servant) and later Khádimu'lláh (Servant of God) as well as His amanuensis and companion for almost forty years [CoB182; MBBA71]
||Mirza Aqa Jan; Covenant-breakers
|1892 29 May
||The Ascension of Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh passed away at Bahjí in His seventy–fifth year. [AB47; BBRXXIX, 233; BKG420; CB148; GPB221; RB4:411]
He cited these last words, two verses from the Kitáb-i-Aqdas:
“Say: Let not your hearts be perturbed, O people, when the glory of My Presence is withdrawn, and the ocean of My utterance is stilled. In My presence amongst you there is a wisdom, and in My absence there is yet another, inscrutable to all but God, the Incomparable, the All-Knowing. Verily, We behold you from Our realm of glory, and shall aid whosoever will arise for the triumph of Our Cause with the hosts of the Concourse on high and a company of Our favoured angels.”
“Be not dismayed, O peoples of the world, when the day-star of My beauty is set, and the heaven of My tabernacle is concealed from your eyes. Arise to further My Cause, and to exalt My Word amongst men. We are with you at all times, and shall strengthen you through the power of truth. We are truly almighty. Whoso hath recognized Me will arise and serve Me with such determination that the powers of earth and heaven shall be unable to defeat his purpose.” [GWB137]
For an account by Túbá Khánum see CH105–9.
Bahá'u'lláh had spent 23 years, 8 months and 29 (or 30) days in the Holy Land. [DH12]
He passed away eight hours after sunset. [GPB221; UD170]
The news of His passing was immediately communicated to Sultán `Abdu'l-Hamíd by `Abdu'l-Bahá: `the Sun of Bahá has set'. [AB47; BKG420 GPB222]
Shortly after sunset, on the very day of His passing, Bahá'u'lláh was buried beneath the floor of a room in the house adjacent to the mansion of Bahjí, the Qiblih of the Bahá'í Faith. [AB47; BBD211; BKG427; GPB222]
See CB149 and RB4:149 for the effect of Bahá'u'lláh's ascension on`Abdu'l-Bahá.
See ARG71-72 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's account of His attempt to convince Mírzá Muhammad-'Alí to be faithful to the Covenant.
See CoC132-134; AB52–3, CB148–9, 152-153 and RB4:148–9 for the theft of Bahá'u'lláh's cases containing His seals, papers and other items. See as well An Epistle to the Bahá'í World
by Mirza Badi'u'llah, page 13, written during his short-life period of confession/redemption.
See AB52–61, CB148–51 and RB4:148–54 for the Covenant-breaking activities of Bahá'u'lláh's family immediately following His death.
For 'Abdu'l-Bahá's description of His Father see BWF220-224.
See GPB222–3 for the mourning following the ascension of Bahá'u'lláh.
See BBR234–6 for a list of Europeans who had met Bahá'u'lláh.
- One of the documents in these cases was the original Long Obligatory Prayer that had been mentioned in the Kitab-i-Aqdas. Bahá'u'lláh had revealed the text but did not release it in order to avoid provoking conflict with Muslims. [Prayer and Worship by John Walbridge]
- The box also contained a valuable ring and a rosary. "The ring was sold by Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí in
the course of his journey in India and spent as travel money.
And Mírzá Badi`u’llah wasted the rosary." [MBBA214
||Bahaullah, Ascension of; Bahaullah, Life of; Holy days; Sultan Abdul-Hamid; Covenant-breakers; Covenant (general); Qiblih; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; Abdul-Baha, Life of; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Box with Writings; Boxes; Seals; Obligatory prayer
|1892. 7 Jun
||On the ninth day after Bahá'u'lláh's passing the Will and Testament of Bahá'u'lláh, the Kitáb-i-`Ahd was read at Bahjí before a large assembly in His Most Holy Tomb. [AB51–2; BBD132; CB150; DH113; GPB238; RB4:419–20, BKG420-425]
In it Bahá'u'lláh explicitly appointed `Abdu'l-Bahá His successor, the Centre of the Covenant and the Expounder of the revealed word. [BKG420; GPB239]
See CB150, 164 for the effect this had on the believers.
||Kitab-i-Ahd (Book of the Covenant); Bahaullah, Will and Testament of; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Bahaullah, Ascension of; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Covenant (general)
|1892 (In the year)
||Soon after the ascension of Bahá'u'lláh the Covenant-breakers led by Mírzá Muhammad-'Alí, on the pretext that he had been unfaithful to Bahá'u'áh, plotted to murder Mírzá 'Aqá Ján. Their real motive however, was to gain control of his property. Mírzá 'Aqá Ján, upon hearing of the plot, went to 'Abdu'l-Bahá, begged for forgiveness for his misdeeds and took refuge in His house. [CoB184]
||Mirza Aqa Jan; Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers;
|1893 28 May
||Mírzá Áqá Ján, Bahá'u'lláh's amanuensis for almost 40 years, threw in his lot with Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí and became a Covenant-breaker. [CB181, RoB1p315-319]
For the story of his downfall see CB181-182.
||Mirza Aqa Jan; Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers
||Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí sent letters with misleading statements and calumnies against `Abdu'l-Bahá, thus making widely known his Covenant-breaking activities. `Abdu'l-Bahá could no longer conceal his unfaithfulness. [CB151, 178 SDH128-129; MBBA77]
||Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers
|1896 (In the year)
||`Abdu'l-Bahá was forced to withdraw from `Akká to Tiberias owing to the accusations levelled against Him by Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí. [SBBH1:77]
||Tiberias; Hisar; Khurasan; Tabriz; Khuzistan
||Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers
||Finding the situation in `Akka intolerable, `Abdu’l-Bahá had moved to Haifa’s Retreat of Elijah on Mount Carmel for two months. [MBBA69]
||`Abdu’l-Baha, life of; Covenant-breakers; Cave of Elijah
|1897. 30 May
||The Covenant-breakers living at Bahji, realized that Mírzá Àqá Ján would be useful to them in their plot to undermine the authority of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. They sent a letter to him purportedly from the Bahá'ís in Iran requesting that he assume leadership. Mírzá Àqá Ján arranged for a feast to be held at the Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh on the fifth anniversary of His passing when he planned to announce his intention to the assembled followers. The Covenant-breakers, anticipating that his announcement would cause a disturbance, bribed a local official to have men on hand to take charge of the scene and to discredit 'Abdu'l-Bahá in the process. They had hope that He would be banished and they would be left in complete control of the Shrine. The disturbance did not happen as planned; the the result was that Mírzá Àqá Ján had openly thrown in his lot with the Covenant-breakers. They arranged for him to live in the Shrine until his death in 1901. During this time 'Abdu'l-Bahá and the faithful followers did not enter the Shrine but rather observed their devotions outside. [CoB184-189; MBBA84-90]
||Mirza Aqa Jan; Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers
|1899. c. 1 May (and period following)
||Kheiralla returned to the United States from `Akká. [BFA1:xxix, 158] (After his departure from Palestine he was abandoned by his American wife.) [SBBH1p239]
His ambitions to lead the Bahá'í Faith caused a crisis in the American Bahá'í community. [BFA1:158–84; CB247–9, GPB259–260; 319; SBBH194, 239; AY119; WOB82-83]
In the following months `Abdu'l-Bahá dispatched successive teachers to heal the rift:
"...four chosen messengers of 'Abdu'l-Bahá who, in rapid succession, were dispatched by Him to pacify and reinvigorate that troubled community. ...were commissioned to undertake, the beginnings of that vast Administration, the corner-stone of which these messengers were instructed to lay... [WOB83-84; AY119]
See BFA1:177–8 for lists of believers who sided with Kheiralla, left the Faith or remained loyal to `Abdu'l-Bahá.
See SBBH1:98–101 for Kheiralla's teachings.
- Hájí `Abdu'l-Karím-i-Tihrání, who had taught Kheiralla the Faith, from c. 26 Apr to 5 Aug 1900. [BFA1:173–6; BFA2:17–29]
- Hájí Hasan-i-Khurásání, from 29 Nov 1900 to Aug 1901. [BFA2:35, 389]
- Mírzá Asadu'lláh-i-Isfahání, from 29 Nov 1900 to 12 May 1902. [BFA2:VI, 35–43ff]
- Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl, accompanied by the young poet and diplomat, Ali-Kuli Khan, from Aug 1901 to Dec 1904. [BFA2:XV-XVI, 80–7; BW9:855–60]
- Note: GPB259 says that Kheiralla had returned from the Holy Land in December of 1899 but in fact it was in the month of May. [BFA1pxxix] iiiii
|United States; Akka
||Ibrahim George Kheiralla; Covenant-breakers; Haji Abdul-Karim-i-Tihrani; Haji Hasan-i-Khurasani; Mirza Asadullah-i-Isfahani; Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Ali Kuli Khan
|1900. c. 1900
||For the state of affairs in Haifa just after the turn of the century see CB231-234.
||Covenant-breakers; Abdul-Baha, Life of
|1900 8 Mar
||At a meeting in Kenosha, Kheiralla publicly announced his doubts about `Abdu'l-Bahá's leadership of the Bahá'í community. He also said that 'Abdu'l-Bahá was not the return of Christ has be had been teaching. [BFA1:XXIX; SBBH1:96; SBBH2:117; SBBH1p96]
He he had allied himself with Muhammad-`Alí. [SSBH1:96]
The Bahá'ís effectively divided into two camps. There had been two to three thousand believers in North America in 1900, by 1902, 1,700 had left the Faith leaving six or seven hundred of whom three hundred were "Behaists" and the rest "Abbasites" or "Behais" (followers of 'Abdu'l-Bahá). By 1906 the US Census of Religions reported that the number of Bahá'ís had risen to 1,280 and the "Behaists" numbered on forty. The Kenosha Behaists continued to exist until the early 1950s. [SSBH1:96-97; WOB82; SBBH14p7]
To counter the effects of this, Abdu'l-Baha, in 1900 and 1901,
sent teachers to America who were completely loyal to the Center
of the Covenant and well-informed on the teachings of Baha'u'llah.
They were Mirza Abu'l-Fad1 and Mirza Asad'u'llah. Mr. Chase wrote, with these teachers came the first opportunity for a correct and
intimate knowledge of the true Bahá'í teachings...rather than
psychic and occult experiments...Many persons who had conceived
views imbued with imaginations and superstitions fell away from
the Cause, but those who remained discovered such spiritual
light,...and power in the teachings, that they were deeply confirmed
in their belief, and clung to it.. ." [from a short paper
entitled 'A Brief History of the American Development of the Bahá'í
Movement,' printed in Star of the West, Volume V, number 17.]
For the changes to the Bahá'í community as a result of this schism see SSBH1:96–9 and SSBH2:117–20.
||Kenosha; Wisconsin; United States
||Ibrahim George Kheiralla; Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers
|1900 26 Apr
||On the instructions of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, Egyptian businessman Hájí `Abdu'l-Karím-i-Tihrání arrived in New York, the first Persian Bahá'í to visit North America. He had taught the Faith to Kheiralla in Egypt. His purpose was to try to bring Kheiralla back into the Faith and to explain the basic teachings of the Faith to the American believers. He was accompanied by Mirza Sinore Raffie, his translator. [BFA173–6; BFA2:17–29]
Muhammad-'Ali, having obtained Kheiralla's support, sent his son Shu'a'u'lláh to Kenosha to try to spread opposition to 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [SBBH1p240]
`Abdu'l-Karím and Shu'a'u'lláh apparently met in Kenosha. The point that they disagreed on was Kheiralla's insistence that his teachings be regarded as authoritative. [SBBH!p240]
||New York; United States
||Haji Abdul-Karim-i-Tihrani; Ibrahim George Kheiralla; Mirza Sinore Raffie; Covenant-breakers; Shuaullah
|1900 4 Nov
||The Persian teachers Mírzá Asadu'lláh-i-Isfahání (1826-1930) and Hájí Hasan-i-Khurásání, a merchant from Cairo, arrived in America. Their task was to consolidate the American community and to address the effects of Kheiralla's disaffection. [BFA2p35–43]
'Abdu'l-Bahá provided them with two translators, Mírzá Husayn Rúhí, a young Persian Bahá'í who had learned English in Egypt, and Mírzá Burzurg.
They spent three weeks in New York then spent two days in Johnstown, NY then relocated to Chicago where he stayed for eighteen months.
Mírzá Asadu'lláh did not accompany 'Abdu'l-Bahá to America, however, shortly after His return, Mírzá Asadu'lláh and his son insisted on going to the West and did so against 'Abdu'l-Bahá's wishes. Both he and his son were expelled from the Faith. [APD143; AY119; SoW Vol 5 # 17 19 Jan 1915 pg 263; 265]
The four stayed in New York and then left for Chicago arriving on the 29th of November. Asadu'lláh stay in Chicago until 12 May 1902, Khurásání, and Rúhí returned to Egypt in mid-July, 1901. [BFA2p38]
||Johnstown; NY; New York; Chicago; United States
||Haji Hasan-i-Khurasani; Mirza Asadullah-i-Isfahani; Mirza Husayn Ruhi; Mirza Burzurg; Covenant-breakers
|1901 (approx 4 yrs after ascension of Bahá'u'lláh)
||'Aqá Jamál Burújirdí had been a member of the Islamic clergy in Burujerd and was widely known and revered across Iran as a gifted teacher of the Faith.
He was a proud and egotistical man but during the lifetime of Bahá'u'lláh he received much praise and various honorary titles such as Ismu'lláh'u'l-Jamál (The Name of God Jamál) due to his many services. During his visit to 'Akká following the passing of Bahá'u'lláh he made contact with Mírzá Muhammad-Alí with the goal of securing a prominent place in the administration of the faith under his leadership, all the while feigning loyalty to 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
In God Passes By p247-248 Shoghi Effendi says of Mírzá Muhammad-Alí and those who tried to assist him in his nefarious efforts, "Closely-knit by one common wish and purpose; indefatigable in their efforts; assured of the backing of the powerful and perfidious Jamál-i-Burújirdí and his henchmen, Ḥájí Ḥusayn-i-Káshí, Khalíl-i-Khú’í and Jalíl-i-Tabrízí who had espoused their cause; linked by a vast system of correspondence with every center and individual they could reach; seconded in their labours by emissaries whom they dispatched to Persia, ‘Iráq, India and Egypt; emboldened in their designs by the attitude of officials whom they bribed or seduced, these repudiators of a divinely-established Covenant arose, as one man, to launch a campaign of abuse and vilification which compared in virulence with the infamous accusations which Mírzá Yaḥyá and Siyyid Muḥammad had jointly levelled at Bahá’u’lláh."
He was publically unmasked after the Covenant-breakers printed letters with falsehoods and misleading statements. believed to be about four years after the ascension of Bahá'u'lláh. He became known in the Bahá'í community as "Hyena" or "Old Hyena" (pír-i-kaftár). He died in poverty and disgrace in Iran. The date of his death is not known. [M9YA6-7, 432, RoB2p118-9, 264-267, MMoB104-105, CB165-166, 209-15, Biographies of Jamal-i-Burujirdi]
He was the recipient of many tablets from both Bahá'u'lláh and 'Abdu'l-Bahá, one of which can be found in Gleanings from the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh p5-9 and a more complete provisional translation of the original tablet can be found here.
See also Tablet to Jamal-i-Burujirdi by Bahá'u'lláh translated by Khazeh Fananapazir.
||Jamal-i-Burujirdi; Covenant-breakers; Haji Husayn-i-Kashi; Khalil-i-Khui; Jalil-i-Tabrizi; Names and titles
||Mírzá Abu'l-Faḍl-i-Gulpáygání arrived in North America. [BFA2:XV]
Laura Barney financed the visit of Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl to the United States in 1901-04 in order to propagate the Faith and to help publish the translation of his Ḥojaj al-bahīya (Cairo, 1342/1925; tr. Ali-Kuli Khan as The Bahá'í Proofs, New York, 1902; 2nd ed., ed. J. R. I. Cole, Wilmette, Ill., 1983) [Wikipedia, Laura Clifford Barney.]
See BFA2:80–7 and BW9:855–860 for accounts of his visit.
See Wikipedia, Green Acre and Wikipedia, Mary Hanford Ford for accounts of Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl at Green Acre.
Mirza Ahmad Sohrab was sent to assist him. Sohrab remained and worked at the Iranian Consulate until 1912 and during this time he translated much of the correspondence between 'Abdu'l-Bahá and the Western believers. At the conclusion of the American tour he returned to the Holy Land. After the passing of 'Abdu'l-Bahá he rejected the authority of Shoghi Effendi and was expelled. [APD155]
[LDNW17] says he was accompanied by Ali-Kuli Kahn.
||New York; United States
||Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Proofs; Bahai literature; Publications; Laura Clifford Barney; Ahmad Sohrab; Covenant-breakers; Green Acre
||`Abdu'l-Bahá wrote His Will and Testament over this seven-year period. [AB124–5, 484; BBD236]
It was written in three parts. [AB124–5, 484; BBD236]
It `may be regarded as the offspring resulting from that mystic intercourse between Him Who had generated the forces of a God-given Faith and the One Who had been made its sole Interpreter and was recognized as its perfect Exemplar'. [GPB325]
For an analysis of its content and its import see AB484–93 and GPB325–8.
||Abdul-Baha, Will and Testament of; Charters; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Covenant (general)
|1901 20 Aug
||Sultán `Abdu'l-Hamíd re-imposed the restrictions confining `Abdu'l-Bahá and His brothers within the walls of `Akká. [AB94; CB226–7; DH67–8; GBP264]
This was the result of mischief stirred up by Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí. [AB92–5; CB227; GBP264]
See as well An Epistle to the Bahá'í World
by Mirza Badi'u'llah, page 18.
`Abdu'l-Bahá was subjected to long interviews and detailed questioning. [AB95; GPB2645]
For the continued mischief and false allegations of the Covenant-breakers see CB227–30 and GBP265–7.
`Abdu'l-Bahá suspended the visits of the pilgrims for a time. [GBP267]
He directed that all the Bahá'í writings in the possession of His family and secretaries be transferred to Egypt and has His mail redirected through an agent in Egypt. [GBP267]
For the work of `Abdu'l-Bahá whilst in confinement 1901–8 see CB231–44 and GBP267–9.
||Sultan Abdul-Hamid; Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; Pilgrims; Pilgrimage; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Badiullah
|1901 26 Nov
||The Day of the Covenant
The Day of the Covenant is a Bahá'í holy day honouring the Covenant of Bahá’u’lláh, in particular, ‘Abdu’l-Bahá as the “Centre of the Covenant" and as such, the successor, the interpreter and the exemplar of the Bahá'í Faith. Bahá'u'lláh's Covenant also provided for the extension of this covenant to the Guardian and to the Universal House of Justice. Prior to this time some of the believers celebrated the birth of 'Abdu'l-Bahá on the 22nd of May. Others marked the 29th of May, the anniversary of the passing of Bahá'u'lláh and thusly, the day on which He acceded to the leadership of the Bahá'í community.
'Abdu'l-Bahá chose the day November 26th, as reckoned by the Gregorian calendar, as approximately half a year away from the day of Bahá'u'lláh's ascension, to commemorate His appointment of the Centre of the Covenant. This Holy Day is now celebrated on the 25th or 26th of November depending on the date of Naw-Rúz.
The day was know as Jashn-i-A'zam (The Greatest Festival) in the East because He was Ghusn-i-A'zam, the Greatest Branch or the "Most Might Branch" [GPB238, BFA2:XV, 56; SA247, Day of the Covenant by Christopher Buck, AB523]
The first celebration of the Day of the Covenant in North America was marked on this day in Chicago. It was sponsored by "The Chicago House of Justice" and the "Women's Assembly of Teaching". It was attended by both Mírzá Assad'ullah and Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl. It can be presumed that they had educated the community in the commemoration of this Holy Day. [BFA2p56-57]
|Chicago; United States
||Day of the Covenant; Firsts, Other; Covenant (general); Holy Days; Abdul-Baha, Birth of; Bahaullah, Ascension of
|1902 (In the year)
An extract from a Tablet to Mr. Howard MacNutt from ‘Abdu’l-Bahá refers to New York as the “City of the Covenant”. [Highlights of the First 40 Years of the Bahá’í Faith in New York, City of the Covenant, 1892-1932 by Hussein Ahdieh p8]
||Howard MacNutt; City of the Covenant;
|1902 - 1903 C.
||One of the chief promoters of Mírzá Muhammad-'Ali in India was Mírzá Husayn-'Alíy-i-Jahrumí.
See LGHC57-58 for his encounter with Lua Getsinger.
Reference is made to this man in Memories of the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh and 'Abdu'l-Bahá: Memoirs of Mírzá Habíbu'lláh Afnán edited and translated by Ahang Rabbani p96.
Also see CoB185 for more on the role played by Mírzá Husayn-'Alíy-i-Jahrumí in the plot by the Covenant-breakers to have Mírzá Áqá Ján incite an incident at the Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh with a view to having those involved arrested and therefore discredited.
||Bombay; India; Akka
||Mirza Husayn-Ali-i-Jahrumi; Mirza Muhammed-Ali; Covenant-breakers
||Mírzá Badí'u'lláh, the fourth surviving son of Bahá'u'lláh, wrote to the Bahá'ís announcing his break with Muhammad-`Alí and giving his loyalty to `Abdu'l-Bahá. [AB102; GPB264]
His letter gave details of the plots of Muhammad-`Alí against `Abdu'l-Bahá. [GPB264]
With him came Covenant-breaker Siyyid 'Alí Afnan.
His letter entitled An Epistle to the Bahá'í World was translated by Ameen Fareed and published in Chicago by the Bahá'í Publishing Society in 1907. [BEL7.106]
The document is important because reference was made to it in 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Will and Testament.
"What deviation can be greater than breaking the Covenant of God! What deviation can be greater than interpolating and falsifying the words and verses of the Sacred Text, even as testified and declared by Badi'u'llah!"
"...Ye know well what the hands of the Center of Sedition, Mirza Muhammad `Ali, and his associates have wrought. Among his doings, one of them is the corruption of the Sacred Text whereof ye are all aware, the Lord be praised, and know that it is evident, proven and confirmed by the testimony of his brother, Mirza Badi'u'llah, whose confession is written in his own handwriting, beareth his seal, is printed and spread abroad..."
This reconciliation was short-lived. Badi'u'llah continued to plot unrepentantly against Abdu'l-Bahá and later, against Shoghi Effendi until his death in Israel 1950. [AB102] Again from the Will and Testament of 'Abdu'l-Bahá...
"Gracious God! After Mirza Badi'u'llah had declared in his own handwriting that this man (Muhammad `Ali) had broken the Covenant and had proclaimed his falsification of the Holy Text, he realized that to return to the True Faith and pay allegiance to the Covenant and Testament would in no wise promote his selfish desires. He thus repented and regretted the thing he had done and attempted privily to gather in his printed confessions, plotted darkly with the Center of Sedition against me and informed him daily of all the happenings within my household. He has even taken a leading part in the mischievous deeds that have of late been committed. Praise be to God affairs recovered their former stability and the loved ones obtained peace. but ever since the day he entered again into our midst, he began afresh to sow the seeds of sore sedition. Some of his machinations and intrigues will be recorded in a separate leaflet."
||Mirza Badiullah; Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers
|1904 (In the year)
||Mahd-i-`Ulyá (Fátimih Khánum), the second wife of Bahá'u'lláh, died. She and all her four surviving children had been declared Covenant-breakers. [CB117]
||Mahd-i-Ulya (Fatimih Khanum); Covenant-breakers
|1904 (In the year)
||Through the year the Covenant-breakers plotted until the friendly governor of `Akká was replaced by one hostile to `Abdu'l-Bahá. Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí stirred up opposition in certain elements of the population. [AB111; CB232]
Newspapers in Egypt and in Syria wrote false reports about `Abdu'l-Bahá. [AB111; CB232]
Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí drew up an official indictment against `Abdu'l-Bahá full of false accusations. [AB112; CB232; MBBA82-83]
These actions resulted in the arrival of the first Commission of Inquiry, sent by Sultán `Abdu'l-Hamíd. [AB112; CB233]
The Commission summoned `Abdu'l-Bahá to answer the accusations levelled against Him and upon receiving His replies, the inquiry collapsed. [AB113–14; CB233]
||Haifa; Akka; Istanbul; Turkey
||Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers; Commission of Inquiry; Sultan Abdul-Hamid; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1905 (In the year)
||Muhammad-'Alí sent his eldest son Shu'á'u'lláh to North America as his representative. It would appear that he did not work with Kheiralla but rather aligned himself with the group of Behaists in Kenosha. [BFA1p180]
He was the editor of the Behai Quarterly, a periodical published seven times from the Spring of 1934 to 1936 published from 7534 Twenty-sixth Ave in Kenosha. [BFA1p180; AB527n60]
When the Master visited Los Angeles in October of 1912 he was living in Pasadena and became a cause of grief for 'Abdu'l-Bahá through his machinations. [MD340-341]
It is believed that he stayed in North America until the 1930s or 1940s. [BFA1p180]
||Covenant-breakers; Muhammad-Ali; Shuaullah
|1905 (In the year or later)
||Following the dispatch of his eldest son Shu'áu'lláh to North America, Muhammad-'Ali sent Mírzá Ghulámu'lláh, son of Áqá Muhammad-Javád-i-Qazvíní, one of the most inveterate adversaries of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. Enroute he Ghlámu'lláh visited Professor E G Browne at Cambridge. [AB86]
Áqá Muhammad-Javád-i-Qazvíní was with Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdad and went to Adrianople some years later to be of service to Him. He was exiled to Akká and served by transcribing Writings. After the passing of Bahá'u'lláh he became an adversary of 'Abdu'l-Bahá and attacked him in his venomous writings. [CoB165]
||Cambridge; United Kingdom
||Covenant-breakers; Shuaullah; Muhammad Ali; Ghulamullah; Aqa Muhammad Javiad Qazyini
|1912 29 Apr
||Mírzá Yahyá died in Famagusta. [BBD243; BBR312]
He had been deserted by most of his followers and was given a Muslim funeral. [BKG426; GPB233]
Years later the sons of Mírzá Yahya and their relatives reconciled themselves to the authority of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [CH237-238]
In the late 1950s a meeting that was held in Famagusta at which representatives of all three main generations of Bahá'ís were present including: Jalal Azal representing the followers of Mirza Yahya (Bayanic), `Ismat and others represented the followers of Mirza Muhammad `Ali (Unitarian Baha'is), and Ahmad Sohrab represented those opposed to any form of administration. One of the aims of this conference was to build a mausoleum over the grave of Mirza Yahya. The project came to naught. [Bahá'í Awareness]
||Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Covenant-breakers; Cyprus exiles; Births and deaths; Ahmad Sohrab
|1912 23 May
||The Bahá'ís of Cambridge, Massachusetts, celebrated `Abdu'l-Bahá's birthday at the Breed home with a cake bearing 68 candles. (Significantly, He did not stay for the festivities. He forgave this time, but had forbidden the celebration of His birthday. Six years before He had told Khan and other pilgrims that besides Naw-Rúz, the Holy Days were only for the Báb and Bahá’u’lláh, that His birth on the twenty-second/twenty-third of May was ‘only a coincidence’.) `Abdu'l-Bahá addressed the group on the importance of the Báb at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Francis W. Breed, 367 Harvard Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts. [239D:72; AB199, PUP138]
Before arriving in the early evening, He had proceeded to Worcester and addressed Clark University there. [AY95; Luminous Journey 1:00]
||Worcester; Cambridge MA; Massachusetts; United States
||Abdul-Baha, Birth of; Day of the Covenant; Holy Days; Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Abdul-Baha, Talks at universities; Bab, Life of; Clark University; Universities
|1912 19 Jun
||`Abdu'l-Bahá clarified His station as the Centre of the Covenant. It is widely believed that He named New York the `City of the Covenant' on this occasion but no substantiation can be found ,however, Shoghi Effendi noted that He did call New York City the "City of the Covenant" (CoF158; GPB288 refer). [239D:93; AB220; BBD55, ABNY51; DJT315-316]
This proclamation was made to about 125 people gathered in HIs house at West 78th Street.
The text of HIs talk can be found at SoW Vol 5 No 15 December 12, 1914 p227-228. The translation of this talk was done by Dr Ameen Fareed. Notes were taken by "E. C. M." and revised by 'Abdu'l-Bahá and Fareed at Montclair on the 25th of June, 1912. [LGHC410n82] Also see [LGHC165-166].
This same day 'Abdu'l-Bahá named Lua Getsinger "Herald of the Covenant" while in Juliet Thompson's studio for the sixth sitting for His portrait. [LGHC157]
- See 239D:92–93 for a description of this event.
|New York; United States
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Covenant, City of; Covenant (general); Lua Getsinger; Juliet Thompson; portrait; Herald of the Covenant
|1912 5 Jul
||Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York, the home of Howard MacNutt. [PUP218]
Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP220]
On this occasion 'Abdu'l-Bahá assigned Howard the task of deepening a group of Chicago Bahá’ís on the importance of the Covenant and instructing them not to associate with Covenant-breakers. Howard failed to complete this task and continued correspondence with associates of Kheiralla. For more information see this date.
||New York; United States
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Howard MacNutt; Covenant-breakers
|1912 16 Sep
||In the morning 'Abdu'l-Bahá departed for Chicago
He gave a talk at Home of Mrs. Corinne True, 5338 Kenmore Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. The subject of this talk was The Covenant. [PUP320]
In the evening He told His party to pack and move to the hotel. [MD268]
||Kenosha; Chicago; United States
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Corinne True; Covenant (general)
|1912. 20 Oct
||Shu'áu'lláh, who had been living in Pasadena at the time, had persuaded a newspaper editor to write two misleading articles in which he tried to show that because of his biological relationship he was bound to inherit the station of the Prophets. At a public meeting a reporter pressed 'Abdu'l-Bahá about him and His reply was to quote Christ when asked about His relationship with His brothers. [MD339-340, 490n325]
In the evening He gave an address on unity to a large crowd assembled in an auditorium. [MD341]
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Covenant-breakers; Shuaullah
|1912 31 Oct
||`Abdu'l-Bahá arrived in Chicago and gave a talk at the Plaza Hotel. The subject of this talk was The Covenant. [239D:176; PUP381].
It is likely that 'Abdu'l-Bahá encountered Rabindranath Tagore who was to become a well-known Bengali poet and musician who would reshape Bengali literature and music and be the first non-European to win the Nobel Prize in Literature.
[Rabindranath Tagore: Some Encounters with Bahá'ís by Peter Terry; Wikipedia]
||Chicago; United States; India
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places; Rabindranath Tagore; Covenant (general)
|1912 1 Nov
||Talk at Home of Mrs. Corinne True, 5338 Kenmore Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. The subject of this talk was The Covenant. [PUP383]
||Chicago; United States
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Corinne True; Covenant (general)
|1912 18 Nov
||`Abdu'l-Bahá had instructed MacNutt to meet with a group of potential Covenant-breakers in Chicago and warn them of the danger. He also ordered MacNutt to break all communication with Ibrahim Kheiralla and other Covenant-breakers. He had failed to do as directed. They met in the Kenny's home for the first time since his trip, where `Abdu'l-Bahá advised him that he had violated the Covenant himself and commanded him to repent before a group of New York Bahá'ís gathered there, which he did, reluctantly. [DJT371; AY121]
||New York; United States
||Covenant-breakers; Howard MacNutt; Ibrahim George Kheiralla
|1912 2 Dec
||Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Edward B. Kinney, 780 West End Avenue, New York. [PUP452]
Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Edward B. Kinney, 780 West End Avenue, New York. The subject of this talk was The Covenant. [PUP453]
Star of the West reported that 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke of India on this date although there is no mention of such a talk in Mahmúd's Diary. [SoW Vol 5 No 2 April 9, 1914 p20-21]
||New York; United States
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Edward Kinney; Covenant (general)
|1913 1 Aug
||With his final year of high school over, Shoghi Effendi hastened from Beirut to Ramleh to join the Master. He, the Greatest Holy Leaf and the eldest daughter of `Abdu'l-Bahá arrived in Egypt. [PG9 AB401]
During this period Tammaddun'ul-Mulk (who had been in London during `Abdu'l-Bahá first visit) attempted to divide the Bahá'ís of Tehran and Dr Amínu'llah Farid's increasingly erratic behaviour brought Him much suffering and sorrow. [AB402]
||Ramleh; Egypt; Tihran; Iran
||Abdul-Baha in Egypt; Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Syrian Protestant College; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Covenant-breakers; Tammaddunul-Mulk; Ameen Fareed (Amin Farid)
|1913 (prior to `Abdu'l-Bahá's departure fm Egypt)
||"Tamaddunu'l-Mulk caused mischief amongst the friends and perpetrated such disunity that the foundation of the divine Faith was nearly destroyed. On numerous occasions, he repented. And yet, after each contrition, he would cause further mischief. Eventually, I telegraphed that Tamaddun is expelled and association with him is not permissible."
[Tablet Concerning Covenant-Breakers: Excerpt by Abdu'l-Bahá translated by Ahang Rabbani]
In this Tablet 'Abdu'l-Bahá warned against association with Covenant-breakers because its harm will injure the Cause of God and will enable them to penetrate the community and to completely uproot the Faith from within. Association with Covenant-breakers is the same as a person nurturing a snake in his shirt or giving a home to a scorpion in his sleeve.
||Egypt; Tihran; Iran
||Covenant-breakers; Tamaddunu'l-Mulk; Abdul-Baha, Life of
|1914 (In the year)
||'Abdu'l-Bahá was forced to expel Tammaddun'ul-Mulk for corrupt behaviour. He was from Shiraz and had been living in Paris for several years. He had been part of His entourage in 1911. [ABF19]
||Shiraz; Tihran; Iran; Paris; France
|1914 21 Jan
||Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl-i-Gulpáygání, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, passed away in Cairo. [AB404; BBD67]
He became a believer in 1876.
For a brief biography see EM263–5, SDH113.
His resting place is now next to that of Lua Getsinger in the Bahá'í cemetery in Cairo. [BW9p87]
His numerous works include Fará'id (The Peerless Gems) 1898; The Brilliant Proof; 1912; Bahá'í Proofs, 1902; and Al-Duraru'l-Bahíyih (The Shining Pearls, published in English as Miracles and Metaphors), 1900. [BBD7]
Find a grave.
See AY103, Star of the West, vol. IV, no. 19, pp. 316–7 and Bahá'í Proofs p17-18 for the story of how Ameen Fareed entered and secretly remained in Mírzá’s house, between the time of Mírzá’s death and his burial, and removed precious manuscripts which, slightly changed, he would spread among the believers in an attempt to undermine their unity at a later time.
'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke of Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl in His home in Haifa on 21 and 22 January, 1914 as reported in SoW Vol 9 No 3 April 28, 1918.
Among his works are:
- Borhān-e lāmeʿ, translated and published as The Brilliant Proof (1912),
- al-Ḥojaj al-bahīya, translated and published as Miracles and Metaphors (1981).
- A selection of his shorter works, entitled Letters and Essays (1985), is also available in English.
- His other works such as al-Farāʾed, Šarḥ-e Āyāt-e Mowarraḵa, Kašf al-ḡeṭāʾ, and a few collections of his shorter works exist in Arabic and Persian.
||Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Apostles of Bahaullah; Lua Getsinger; Cemeteries and graves; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Ameen Fareed (Amin Farid); Covenant-breakers
|1914 (Early to middle of the year)
||The defection of Dr Amín Faríd, (b. 1882, d. 1953)`Abdu'l-Bahá's translator while in America, became known publicly. His mother was a sister of Munirih Khanum, wife of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [AB407]
For his activities against `Abdu'l-Bahá see AB230, 402, 407–9.
Dr. Aminu'lláh Faríd travelled to Europe in defiance of the wishes of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. In the absence of Lady Blomfield in London, a meeting at the Kingsway Hall had been arranged for him. Dr Lutfu'lláh prevented Dr Farid from speaking. Mason Remey and George Latimer were in London at the time. 'Abdu'l-Bahá also sent Dr Habibu'lláh Khudákhsh (later called Dr Mu'ayyad) and 'Azíz'lláh Bahádur to go to Europe to counter his activities. They were in Stuttgart when the war broke out. He recalled all four to the Holy Land (Sep-Oct). [AB407-409; Concerning Covenant-breakers: Excerpt by 'Abdu'l-Bahá translated by Ahang Rabbani] iiiii
Laura and Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney were dispatched to the United States where Mrs Chevalier had been acting as Dr Farid's emissary. [AB408]
For a description of his activities as a young man in 'Akká see M9YA108.
||United States; London; United Kingdom; Stuttgart; Germany
||Ameen Fareed (Amin Farid); Covenant-breakers; Lutfullah Hakim; Charles Mason Remey; George Latimer; Habibullah Khudakhsh; Dr Muayyad; Azizllah Bahadur; Laura Dreyfus-Barney; Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; Chevalier, Mrs
|1919 (In the year)
||Ibrahim Kheiralla died, having been abandoned by all of his followers. [CB252]
See MD16 for 'Abdu'l-Bahá's comment about him.
||Ibrahim George Kheiralla; Covenant-breakers
|1921 28 Nov
||Ascension of `Abdu'l-Bahá
`Abdu'l-Bahá passed away at about 1:00 a.m., in Haifa. [AB452; BBD4; BBR347; GPB311; UD170]
For details of His passing see DOMH210-216, AB452, BW1:19-23; BW15:113-15 and GPB310-11.
This marked the end of the Apostolic, Heroic or Primitive Age of the Bahá'í Faith and the beginning of the Transitional Formative or Iron Age. [BBD35-6]
For a photograph of the cable sent announcing His passing see SW12, 15:245.
See The Passing of 'Abdu'l-Bahá by Shoghi Effendi and Lady Blomfield.
For a pen portrait of 'Abdu'l-Bahá see The Oriental Rose by Mary Hanford Ford pg 158-159
Also see AB452-83; HLS93-100.
See GPB309-320 for a summation of the events that took place in the lifetime of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, during the Heroic Age of the Faith.
||Abdul-Baha, Passing of; Ages and Epochs; Heroic Age; Formative Age; Abdul-Baha, Life of; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Holy days; Covenant (general)
|1921 (Following `Abdu'l-Bahá's passing)
||Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí published far and wide that he was the successor to `Abdu'l-Bahá. [CB277]
The Egyptian Bahá'ís responded to this by publishing a refutation of his claims. [CB276; SW12, 19:294-5]
||Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers; Succession; Abdul-Baha, Will and testament of
|1922 3 Jan
||The Will and Testament of `Abdu'l-Bahá was read aloud for the first time, to a group of nine men, mainly senior members of `Abdu'l-Bahá's family. [BBRSM115; CB286; ER194; GBF14; PP45]
Shoghi Effendi was not present at the reading. [CB286; ER194]
Shoghi Effendi was appointed Guardian of the Bahá'í Faith. [WT11]
Shoghi Effendi had no fore-knowledge of the institution of the Guardianship nor that he would be appointed Guardian. [CB285; PP423]
||Abdul-Baha, Will and Testament of; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Guardianship; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Passing of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; Covenant (general)
||The Guardian sent `Abdu'l-Husayn, Ávárih, to Europe to deepen the believers. [CB335; SBR68; EJR223]
For his life and eventual Covenant-breaking see CB334-42 and PP120.
||Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Avarih (Abdul-Husayn); Covenant-breakers
||Shoghi Effendi announced the defection of 'Abdu'l-Husayn Ávarih. He had been a very successful teacher and the author of a book on the history of the Faith but opposed Shoghi Effendi's efforts to build the Administrative Order. He was insistent that the Universal House of Justice be formed at that time. He was denounced by the believers in Egypt and Iran. [SETPE1p149, BA137-139, Ruhi8.2-20, CoC294-296; MBW53; PP120; ; BKC118-120]
After his defection he became a Muslim and an opponent of the Bahá'í Faith. He returned to Tehran and spent the rest of his life as a secondary school teacher. During this period he wrote many works of poetry and prose, including Kashf al-Hial, a three volume work refuting the Bahá'í Faith. [Wikipedia]
||Covenant-breakers; Avarih (Abdul-Husayn); Abd al-Hosayn Ayati
||A Covenant-breaker, Jamil Irani, tried to still up trouble by implicating the Bahá'ís with Saláru'd-Dawlih, an ambitious brother of Muhammad-'Ali Sháh who had been deposed by the 1909 Revolution in Iran. The allegation was investigated by Lord Plummer, the British High Commissioner in Palestine who learned the truth of the matter. [SETPE1p151-152]
||Covenant-breakers; Jamil Irani; Plummer, Lord
|1928 31 Dec
||Ruth White, who had met 'Abdu'l-Bahá in New York in 1912 and who had been on pilgrimage in 1922, wrote to the High Commissioner of Palestine with a charge that the Will and Testament of 'Abdu'l-Bahá was a forgery. [SETPE1p157]
See AY103 for 'Abdu'l-Bahá's reaction to Ruth White in New York in 1912.
See FMH64-65 for the story of how her plans to convince Doris and Willard McKay of her theories were thwarted by the sudden arrival of their two dogs who had had a recent encounter with a skunk.
||Palestine; New York; United States
||Covenant-breakers; Ruth White; Abdul-Baha, Will and Testament of
|1929 27 Feb
||The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada forwarded a pamphlet published by Ruth White to Shoghi Effendi. His advice was to abstain from any provocation and to avoid hurting her feelings. [SETPET1p157, Bahá'í News p230, 298]
In 1929 she published The Bahai Religion and its Enemy, the Bahai Organization and in 1930, an appendix entitled Abdul Baha's Alleged Will is Fraudulent. An appendix to The Bahai Religion and its enemy the Bahai Organization.
||Covenant-breakers; Ruth White
||The New History Society was founded in New York by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s former secretary and interpreter Ahmad Sohrab along with Lewis Stuyvesant Chanler and his wife Julie as an indirect way of spreading the teachings of the Baha'i Faith. The New History Society gave rise in 1930 to the Caravan of East and West and the Chanler's New York house was henceforth called "Caravan House". This foundation was designed to prepare children and youth to join the New History Society. This group had a quarterly magazine called The Caravan. [BRRSM124, LDG2p134] iiiii
||New York; United States
||Covenant-breakers; New History Society; Ahmad Sohrab; Lewis Stuyvesant Chanler; Julie Chanler; Caravan of East and West; Caravan House; The Caravan
|1929 27 Nov
||The Mansion at Bahjí was evacuated by the Covenant-breakers after the occupation by Muhammad-Alí and his relatives for about 40 years. [DH116; GPB355–6; PP231-232, SETPE1p174]
During this time they showed no respect for the Holy Site; a blacksmith shop was set up near the entrance to the Shrine. [SE125]
For details of how the building was left see GBP356.
For pictures of its neglected state see DH116.
Covenant-breakers continued to occupy the adjacent house until June 1957. [PP233]
See SE126 for Shoghi Effendi's plan for a Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh.
||House of Bahaullah (Bahji); Covenant-breakers; Bahji; Bahaullah, Shrine of
|1930 30 May
||The New History Society came into conflict with the local Bahá’í Assembly. Sohrab refused to allow the New York Spiritual Assembly, to have oversight of the affairs of the New History Society. The Assembly saw the organization as a threat to the unity of the Bahá’í Faith. [BBRSM124]
Shoghi Effendi wrote to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada to make a definitive statement regarding that organization and the Cause.
||BWC; New York; United States
||New History Society; Ahmad Sohrab; Covenant-breaker
||The National Spiritual Assembly published a statement in the Bahá'í News entitled The Case of Ahmad Sohrab and the New History Society. Summarized, the article stated that the “New History Society was begun in New York early in 1929 by Sohrab and "one of its avowed purposes being to spread the Bahá'í teachings. Neither the local nor the National Assembly was consulted in the matter, and the meetings and activities of the New History Society have been maintained apart from the principles of consultation which today, under the Will and Testament of 'Abdu’l-Bahá, form the basis of Bahá'í unity and the protection of the Cause."
"Both the local and National Assembly on several occasions attempted, through oral and written communications, to bring about full and frank consultation with the leaders of the New History Society, but without success.
"Under these conditions it becomes the obvious responsibility of the National Spiritual Assembly to inform the friends that activities conducted by Ahmad Sohrab through the New History Society are to be considered as entirely independent of the Cause, as outside the jurisdiction of the local and National Assembly, and hence in no wise entitled to the cooperation of Bahá'ís."
This statement also quoted from a letter written on behalf of the Guardian by his Secretary to the National Spiritual Assembly on May 30, 1930: "To accept the Cause without the administration is like accepting the teachings without acknowledging the divine station of Bahá’u’lláh. To be a Bahá'í is to accept the Cause in its entirety...." "The administration is the social order of Bahá'u'lláh. Without it all the principles of the Cause will remain abortive. To take exception to this, therefore, is to take exception to the fabric that Bahá'u'lláh has prescribed, it is to disobey His law." [Ahmad Sohrab and the New History Society]
|New York; United States
||Covenant-breakers; Ahmad Sohrab; New History Society
|1930 7 Oct
||Ruth White wrote to the High Commissioner of Palestine stating that she had sent a photograph of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Will and Testament to Dr Ainsworth Mitchell in England who had declared it a forgery. The High Commissioner requested she send that same evidence to him and he forwarded it to the Governor of Haifa who requested to meet with Shoghi Effendi and allow an expert to examine the original. The expert declared the Will authentic. [SETPET1p157]
See Mitchell's Mistake for a discussion of Mitchell's analysis of the handwriting of 'Abdu'l-Bahá by Senn McGlinn.
||Haifa; Israel; United Kingdom
||Covenant-breakers; Ruth White; Abdul-Baha, Will and testament of; Authenticity; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; High Commissioners; Ainsworth Mitchell
||The National Assembly published a detailed supplementary statement in the Bahá’í News, quoting passages from the Aqdas, from the Master's Will and Testament, and from the Guardian's letters published in Bahá’í Administration followed by a reprint of the exchange of correspondence and cables with Mrs. Chanler, and with the Guardian, including the Guardian's cable to New York believers: "True unity can only be preserved by maintenance paramount position National Spiritual Assembly," and his cable approving the statement published in August, 1930, Bahá'í News. Further, in a letter from Haifa to the Yonkers Assembly, “The Guardian pointed out the difference between the freedom defined by Bahá'u'lláh ("To have liberty is to observe My commandments") and that advocated by Sohrab ("The other kind of freedom which is in defiance of law He (Bahá'u'lláh) considers to be animal, and far from being of any good to man"). [Ahmad Sohrab and the New History Society]
||New York; United States
||Covenant-breakers; Ahmad Sohrab; New History Society
|1931 10 Jul
||The administration in Palestine wrote to Ruth White advising her that they would take no further action with respect to her claim that the will of 'Abdu'l-Bahá was a forgery.
"All Mrs White ever achieved was to stir up a temporary and insignificant cloud of dust". [PP119]
Mrs White wrote letters to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada as well as to some believers objecting to the directives of Shoghi Effendi and to the administration of the Cause through local and national assemblies. One of her converts was Dr Wilhelm Herrigel, one of the founding members of the German community. Later, Dr Herrigel became conscious of the mistake he had made. [SETPE1p158]
Likewise, Ruth White's husband was repentant, was offered a path back into the Faith but failed to take it. [SETPE1p158] iiiii
||Ruth White; Covenant-breakers
||The writing of Episodes in the History of the Covenant by Shoghi Effendi originally written as "Waqáy-i-Tárikhiyyih dar 'Ahd wa Mitháq-i-Iláhi" for the friends in Iran. In 1997 it was translated by Khazeh Fananapazir and edited by Mehdi Wolf. [Episodes in the History of the Covenant]
||Covenant (general); Covenant-breakers; Shoghi Effendi, Writings of
|1937 20 Dec
||Muhammad-‘Alí, half-brother of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá and Arch-breaker of the Covenant of Bahá’u’lláh, died. [CB355; GPB320; MA11]
During Bahá’u’lláh's ministry, Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí was known by the title
Ghusn-i-Akbar (the Greater Branch). After he broke the Covenant, believers referred
to him as the Naqid-i-Akbar (the Arch-Covenant-breaker).
"The Hand of Omnipotence has removed the archbreaker of Bahá'u'lláh's
Covenant, his hopes shattered, his plottings frustrated, the society of his
fellow-conspirators extinguished. God's triumphant Faith forges on, its unity
unimpaired, its purpose unsullied, its stability unshaken. Such a death calls
for neither exultation nor recrimination, but evokes overwhelming pity at so
tragic a downfall unparalleled in religious history." [Cablegram December 20, 1937 MA11)
This perfidious man, consumed by a “soul festering jealousy” toward Abdu’l-Baha, behaved in a way that “…agitated the minds and hearts of a vast proportion of the faithful throughout the East, eclipsed, for a time, the Orb of the Covenant, created an irreparable breach within the ranks of Bahá’u’lláh’s own kindred, sealed ultimately the fate of the great majority of the members of His family, and gravely damaged the prestige, though it never succeeded in causing a permanent cleavage in the structure, of the Faith itself.” [GPB246]
He had changed the text of at least one tablet of Bahá'u'lláh to make it appear that Bahá'u'lláh was condemning the wicked deeds of Abdu’l-Baha. He plotted to murder Abdu’l-Baha. He made repeated false allegations about Abdu’l-Baha to the Ottoman authorities so that the Master came perilously closed to being exiled to a remote part of the Libyan desert. In addition, from 1892 to 1929, Muhammad Ali and his relatives occupied the mansion of Bahji, where Bahá'u'lláh’s tomb was located, and it was not until 1952 that the property surrounding the Shrine was finally owned, without hindrance, by the Bahá'í community. [CoB153; PP231-233]
He “was stricken with paralysis which crippled half his body; lay bedridden in pain for months before he died; and was buried according to Muslim rites, in the immediate vicinity of a local Muslim shrine, his grave remaining until the present day (1944) devoid of even a tombstone—a pitiful reminder of the hollowness of the claims he had advanced, of the depths of infamy to which he had sunk, and of the severity of the retribution his acts had so richly merited.” [GPB319-320]
For details of his death and funeral see DH117 and GPB320.
||Muhammad-Ali; Covenant-breakers; Births and deaths
||Gerrard Sluter, a German with Canadian citizenship and previously a pioneer in Guatemala, arrived in Colombia, the first Bahá’í to settle in the country.
He later became a Covenant-breaker and caused much difficulty to the Bahá’ís in many South American countries.
||Gerrard Sluter; Covenant-breakers
|1941 2 Nov
||Shoghi Effendi sent two cables the the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada. The first was to announce that Thrayyá Afnán, the daughter of 'Abdul-Bahá's fifth daughter, Tubá Khnum, had married Faydí Afnan, a known Covenant-breaker and son of Siyyid 'Alí who had supported Mírzá Muhammad-'Alí.
The second concerned the family of Ruhi Afnán, Shoghi Effendi's younger cousin. He had also married into a family of Covenant-breakers and had failed to get the Guardian's approval for his second trip to North America and for a trip to England. Shoghi Effendi had concealed Ruhi's activities for some time prior. [BN No 149 December, 1941 p3]
In a message to Canada dated 21 May 1953 Shoghi Effendi warned of the nefarious activities of Ruhi Afnan, someone who had been corresponding with Ahmad, had had contact with the Covenant-breakers, along with his family had sold some property that had been purchased by Bahá'u'lláh was now claiming to be an exponent of the Faith and was misrepresenting the Teachings. [CBN No 43 August, 1953 p1] iiiii
||Covenant-breakers; Thrayya Afnan; Ruhi Afnan
|1941 31 Nov
||Some members of the National Spiritual Assembly filed suit against Sohrab to try to stop him from using the name Bahá'í. He had opened a Bahá'í bookshop in New York in 1939. This suit was filed in the Supreme Court of New York County. The judge granted a motion to dismiss, stating that "the plaintiffs have no right to a monopoly of the name of a religion. The defendants, who purport to be members of the same religion, have an equal right to use the name of the religion..." The judge mentioned that the complaint could be further amended and the NSA appealed but the Appellate Court affirmed the decision of the lower court.
The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada distributed a mimeographed statement concerning the New History Society entitled The Basis of the Bahá’í Community, which explained the purpose and outcome of the lawsuit entered against the founders of the New History Society to prevent their misuse of the name "Bahá’í” on which the National Spiritual Assembly had obtained a trademark patent.
[The Basis of the Bahá'í Community: A Statement Concerning the New History Society]
Also see United States National Spiritual Assembly vs. Mirza Ahmad Sohrab.
During the second World War the New History Society put forth an alleged passage from 'Abdu'1-Bahá which would justify citizens in refusing to obey their governments when drafted into the military forces. The National Spiritual Assembly was obliged to explain the true Bahá'í position to the federal authorities as set forth by the Guardian.
|New York; United States
||Covenant-breakers; New History Society; Ahmad Sohrab; The Basis of the Baha'i Community
||The excommunication of Shoghi Effendi's sister, Mehrangíz Rabbáni with this message.
"Sister Mehrangis [Mehrangiz] followed example Ruhi's sister. Justice demands announce believers her expulsion."(UD149)
The reason for her being declared a Covenant-breaker was that she followed the example of Ruhi's sister by marrying to one of his cousins without the Guardian's consent. Mehrangiz married to Hassan Afnan, the son of Furughiyyih Khanum, a daughter of Bahá'u'lláh by his third wife Gawhar.
||Covenant-breakers; Mehrangiz Rabbani
|1942. 1 Jan
||Shoghi Effendi announced the expulsion of his sister Mehrangiz. [Baha'i News #150 January 1942 p1]
|1943. 16 Aug
||The passing of Sydney Sprague (b. Oshkosh WI in 1875) in Los Angeles. He was buried in Inglewood Cemetery. His grave is beside that of Tom Collins, husband of Amelia Collins, and lies just across the road from the grave of Thornton Chase, "First Bahá'í of America." [BW9p633-635]
During a pilgrimage in late 1904 'Abdu'l-Bahá suggested he visit the Bahá'ís of the East. He toured India and Burma from December 1904 until the summer of 1905 becoming the first Western Bahá'í of go to the far Orient fulfilling Bahá'u'lláh's prophecy the "The East and West shall embrace as lovers". [YBIB6] iiiii
See YBIB55-60 For the story of Kai Khosroe, the Zoroastrian Bahá'í from Bombay who gave his life while nursing Sprague in Lahore when he was deathly ill with typhoid fever.
In 1908 he became a resident of Tehran, first teaching in the Bahá'í school and, when he returned the following year, he became principal.
He married a niece of 'Abdul'-Bahá and became a brother-in-law of Ameen Fareed. When Fareed was expelled from the Faith in 1914 Sprague and his wife as well as his father-in-law followed. Fareed's father was Mírzá Asadu'lláh-i-Isfahání, the emissary who had taken the remains of the Báb from Iran to the Holy Land. Sprague applied to be reinstated in 1931 (or 1937) and was finally accepted in 1941, two years before his passing. [BW9p633-635]
He made a teaching trip to South America and died soon after his return to the United States. [AB409]
He was the author of The Story of the Bahai Movement published in London in 1907 and A Year with the Bahá'ís of India and Burma in May of 1908. [YBIBxi] iiiii
||Los Angeles; United States; India; Myanmar (Burma); Lahore; Pakistan
||Sydney Sprague; Covenant-breakers; Ameen Fareed (Amin Farid); Mirza Asadullah-i-Isfahani; Kai Khosroe; Teaching, South America; In Memoriam
||Shoghi Effendi sent the cable below to the Bahá'í world: "Monib Shahid, grandson of both `Abdu'l-Bahá and the King of Martyrs, married according to the Moslem rites the daughter of a political exile who is nephew of the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem. This treacherous act of alliance with enemies of the Faith merits condemnation of entire Bahá'í world." [Bahá'í News, December, 1944 No. 172]
||Covenant-breakers; Munib Shahid
||Shoghi Effendi sent the following cable to the Bahá'í world: "My faithless brother Husayn, after long period of dishonourable conduct, has abandoned the Master's home to consort with his sister and other Covenant-breakers". [Bahá'í News, No. 174, p.2]
||Covenant-breakers; Husayn Ali Rabbani
|1949 24 Apr
||The passing of Montfort Mills.
He had been a believer since 1906 and by 1909 he had made two pilgrimages to 'Akká as well as a third in early 1921.
In 1922 he and Roy Wilhelm were invited to Haifa to discuss the possibility of calling for the formation of the Universal House of Justice.
He was the first chairman of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada when it first formed in 1922 and was elected to that body seven times between 1922 and 1937 and was responsible for the final draft of the Declaration of Trust and By-Laws adopted in 1927.
One of his most outstanding achievements was his role in the case of the appeal for possession of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád. He made two trips to Baghdad and had audiences with King Feisal. During one of these trips he was brutally assaulted and suffered the effects for many years.
He met with Professor E. G. Browne and, after hearing Mr. Mills explanation of the evolution of the Faith and of the Covenant, Mr. Browne realized he had been veiled by conflicting claims and disturbances following the martyrdom of the Báb and expressed a desire to translate later Bahá'í works but died before this contribution could be made. [BW11p509-511]
||United States; Baghdad; Iraq
||House of Bahaullah (Baghdad); In Memoriam; Edward Granville Browne; Births and deaths; Covenant-breakers
||Shoghi Effendi sent a further cable regarding his brother: "Faithless brother Hussein, already abased through dishonorable conduct over period (of) years followed by association with Covenant-breakers (in) Holy Land and efforts (to) undermine Guardian's position, recently further demeaned himself through marriage under obscure circumstances with lowborn Christian girl (in) Europe". [Bahá'í News, No. 229, p.1; Bahá'í News, No. 236, p.4]
||Husayn Ali Rabbani; Covenant-breakers
|1950 1 Nov
||Mírzá Badí‘u’lláh, the youngest son of Bahá’u’lláh, (b.1867 in Adrianople) described by Shoghi Effendi as the ‘chief lieutenant’ of the ‘archbreaker’ of the ‘divine Covenant’ died. [CB340, 355–6; CF89, BIC162, MSBR63, BBR460, RoB3pg230, CH209, SoB92, CoB340, 355-6, CoF89]
A close companion of Mírzá Muhammad-'Alí. [CoB165]
All his family became Covenant-breakers. [CoB362]
He had a short-lived repentance. [CoB152-3, GPB263, Historical Dictionary of the Bahá'í Faith p321, Interview with Badi'u'llah
by Howard MacNutt]
He opposed both 'Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi. [CoB165] As an example, in 1939 when Shoghi Effendi proposed to relocate the remains of Mirza Mihdí and Ásíyih Khánum from 'Akka to Haifa, it was Mírzá Badí‘u’lláh who led the dissenting faction claiming that as he was more closely related to Mirza Mihdí, it was he, under Moslem law, who had the right to decide as to the disposal of the remains. [BBR460-461]
||Mirza Badiullah; Covenant-breakers
||Shoghi Effendi's brother Riáz Rabbáni was the last of his siblings to become a Covenant-Breaker.
"With feeling profound concern, grief, indignation, am compelled disclose Bahá'í world recent developments Holy Land furnishing further incontestable proof relationship established old and new Covenant-breakers demonstrating increasing boldness, marked, tragic decline in character and spiritual condition grandchildren `Abdu'l-Bahá. Their shameful attitude and conduct receiving approbation their elders. Evidences multiplying attesting Ruhi's increasing rebelliousness, efforts exerted my eldest sister pave way fourth alliance members family Siyyid Ali involving marriage his granddaughter with Ruha's son and personal contact recently established my own treacherous, despicable brother Riaz with Majdi'd-Din, redoubtable enemy Faith, former henchman Muhammad-'Ali, Archbreaker Bahá'u'lláh's Covenant. Convey information all National Assemblies." [MBW16, CoB358, 362, 364]
||Covenant-breakers; Riaz Rabbani
|1952 18 May
||The case brought against Shoghi Effendi by the Covenant-breakers in connection with the demolition of a house adjoining the Shrine and Mansion of Bahá’u’lláh at Bahjí was removed from the civil courts by the government of Israel. [CB330; GBF138–9; PP233–4, 290]
For the history of this case and the outcome see BW12:384–7.
||Bahaullah, Shrine of; House of Bahaullah (Bahji); Court cases; Covenant-breakers
|1952 1 Jun
||In a letter written on behalf of the Guardian by the Assistant Secretary, the National Spiritual Assembly was informed that Ahmad Sohrab had cabled the Israeli Minister of Religion to influence the court case brought by the Covenant-breakers, against the Guardian, and which resulted in complete vindication of the Guardian's control of the Bahá'í Shrines and properties. Sohrab's cable identified the Caravan with the Covenant-breakers and stated that the organization was not under the authority of Shoghi Effendi. In a letter dated May 25, 1941, the Guardian wrote through his Secretary that Sohrab "is no doubt the most subtle, resourceful and indefatigable enemy the Faith has had in America."
||Covenant-breakers; New History Society; Ahmad Sohrab
|1953 29 Oct
||Opal Jensen arrived on Réunion Island from the United States and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455]
She was later declared a Covenant-breaker.
||Knights of Bahaullah; Covenant-breakers
|1954 25 Mar
||Leland Jensen arrived on Réunion Island from the United States and ws named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455]
He was later declared a Covenant-breaker.
||Leland Jensen; Knights of Bahaullah; Covenant-breakers
||A plot of land of slightly less than half an acre (1,300 metres) owned by Farah Sprague, a Covenant-breaker, was purchased (after expropriation by the state of Israel), overcoming the final obstacle to beginning the construction of the International Bahá’í Archives. This concluded a thirty-year struggle in the acquisition of land on the Arc for the Guardian. [LI210-211; DH169; MBW73–4; CBN No 60 January, 1955 p1]
||Farah Sprague; Covenant-breakers; International Bahai Archives
||Was she the Iranian-born wife of Sydney Sprague? See BFA2p155
Sister of Fareed? MBW73|
|1954. 16 Dec
||Shoghi Effendi announced the death of Avarih in Iran, "CONDEMNED POSTERITY MOST SHAMELESS, VICIOUS, RELENTLESS APOSTATE ANNALS FAITH, WHO THROUGH CEASELESS VITRIOLIC ATTACKS RECORDED VOLUMINOUS WRITINGS CLOSE ALLIANCE ITS TRADITIONAL ENEMIES, ASSIDUOUSLY SCHEMED BLACKEN ITS NAME SUBVERT FOUNDATIONS ITS INSTITUTIONS.
In the same message he announced the death of Ameen Fareed in North America; "HISTORY WILL RECOGNIZE ONE MOST PERFIDIOUS AMONG KINSMEN INTERPRETERS CENTER COVENANT, WHO, DRIVEN BY UNGOVERNABLE CUPIDITY COMMITTED ACTS CAUSING AGONIES GRIEF DESTRESS BELOVED MASTER CULMINATING OPEN ASSOCIATION BREAKERS BAHA'U'LLAH'S COVENANT HOLY LAND."
Likewise he announce the death of Falah in Turkey; "CHIEFLY REMEMBERED PRIDE, OBSTINACY INSATIABLE AMBITION IMPELLING HIM VIOLATE SPIRITUAL ADMINISTRATIVE PRECEPTS FAITH."
||Covenant-breakers; Avarih; Falah; Ameen Fareed (Amin Farid)
|1955. 3 Jun
||Shoghi Effendi announced to all National Assemblies that Majdi'd-Din, "the most redoubtable enemy of 'Abdu'l-Baha" and "the incarnation of Satan", someone who played a leading role in the kindling of the hostility of 'Abdu'l-Hamíd and Jamál Páahá and who was the instigator of Covenant-breaking and archbreaker of Bahá'u'lláh's Covenant, died at the age of one hundred after being struck with paralysis affecting his limbs and his tongue. [MBW87-88, 94]
He was the grandson of Bahá'u'lláh's only full brother Mírzá Músá, also know as Áqáy-i-Kalím. He was married to Samadiyyih, Bahá’u’lláh's daughter from his second wife Fatimih Khanum. Both Majdi'd-Dín and Samadiyyih were eventually declared Covenant-breakers for supporting Mírzá Muhammad `Alí. Majdi'd-Din was a scribe for Bahá'u'lláh. It was he who on June 6th or 7th, 1892, read the Kitáb-i-'Ahd to a large crowd in front of the Tomb of Bahá'u'lláh in which Bahá'u'lláh appointed 'Abdu'l-Bahá as his successor.
||Shoghi Effendi announced that the remaining 22 pillars of the International Bahá'í Archives had been erected and that the last half of the 900 tons of marble from Italy had been delivered. Forty-four tons of glazed green tiles from Utrecht had been placed in position. [MBW108]
He also announced that:
the dilapidated house located near the Mansion had been restored,
Negotiations were underway with the Development Authority of the State of Israel for the acquisition of two plots to the north and south of the Shrine.
the destruction of a row of sheds near the Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh,
that an expropriation order had been published in the Israel Official Gazette related to the buildings enclosed within the Haram-i-Aqdas regarding the occupancy of these buildings of the Covenant-breakers. [MBW108-109]
||International Bahai Archives; Haram-i-Aqdas; Covenant-breakers; Abdul-Baha, Tea House of
|1956 20 Dec
||The publication in the Official Gazette of the government of Israel of the issue of an expropriation order against the Covenant-Breakers in possession of the holy Shrines at Bahji. This order was immediately appealed by the Covenant-Breakers to the Supreme Court.
||Shoghi Effendi announced that the Treasury Department of Israel had issued an expropriation order for the remaining property held by Covenant-breakers at Bahjí, mainly the dilapidated building north of the mansion. [MBW109]
|1957 31 May
||The judgement of the Supreme Court of Israel against the Covenant-Breakers appeal, resulted in their removal from the properties in Bahjí.
||Bahji; BWC; Haifa
||The Covenant-breakers completely abandoned Bahjí. [CB367–9; DH215; MBW120–2; PP233–4]
|1957 6 Sep
||Shoghi Effendi announced ‘the complete evacuation of the remnant of Covenant-breakers and the transfer of all their belongings from the precincts of the Most Holy Shrine’. [MBW124]
See VSE166 for Audrey Robarts' observation of the Covenant-breakers at Bahjí during her pilgrimage in 1955.
||Akka; BWC; Haifa
||Bahji; Covenant-breakers; Bahaullah, Shrine of
|1957 4 Nov
||Passing of Shoghi Effendi
Shoghi Effendi passed away in London of coronary thrombosis after a bout of Asian influenza. [CB377; PP446 BW13:207-225]
He was in London to purchase some furniture to complete the interior of the International Archives Building. [PP445]
For a tribute to Shoghi Effendi written by Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum see BW13:58–226.]
See also Rabbání, The Guardian Of The Bahá’í Faith and The Priceless Pearl.
|London; United Kingdom
||Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; International Bahai Archives; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Appointed arm; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Covenant (general)
|1957 25 Nov
||A proclamation was issued stating that Shoghi Effendi left no heir and made no appointment of another Guardian. [BW13:341–5; MC25–30]
See LOG310 for an explanation of the various meanings of the word ‘Guardianship’.
See CB388–9 for a discussion of the continuation of the institution of the Guardianship.
||Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Covenant (general); Hands of the Cause, Activities; Guardianship; Custodians; Appointed arm; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1957 Nov-1963 Apr
The six year ministry of the Hands of the Cause residing in the Holy Land, or ‘Custodians’. [BW16:90; WG45–6]
This period is known as the ‘interregnum’. [BBD 120]
See BW14:467 for a summary of the work of the Hands of the Cause during this period.
The International Bahá’í Council continued to perform its duties at the World Centre under the direction of the Custodians. The appointed Council was replaced by an elected Council at Ridván of 1961. All National Assemblies and Regional National Assemblies participated in the election by postal ballot. [BBD118]
See also The Ministry of The Custodians 1957–1963.
||Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Custodians; Interregnum; Ministry of The Custodians (book); International Bahai Council; Universal House of Justice; Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Appointed arm; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Covenant (general)
|1957 2 Dec
||The titles to the Shrine of the Báb, the Mansion of Bahjí, and all other buildings and lands which the Covenant-Breakers had owned were transferred to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States.
||BWC; Mount Carmel; Haifa; Bahji
|1957 25 Dec
||The Hands of the Cause announced the destruction of the long, two-storey house previously occupied by Covenant-breakers which was located near the garden wall of the Mansion of Bahá’u’lláh and of which Shoghi Effendi had acquired legal possession shortly before his passing. [MC11, 51]
The rubble was used to complete the terraces begun by Shoghi Effendi north of the mansion and forcompleting the northern gardens planned by him.
||Bahji; BWC; Haifa
|1958 20 Apr
||Mírzá Ahmad (Esphahani) Sohrab, the Covenant-breaker who rebelled against Shoghi Effendi, died. [MC90; CBN No 102 July 1958 p1]
For the story of his defection from the Faith see CB343–7.
He was buried in the Saint Paul Episcopal Church Cemetery, Glen Cove, Nassau County, New York.iiiii
||Glen Cove; Nassau County; New York; United States
||Ahmad Sohrab; Covenant-breakers; New History Society
|1959 23 Oct - 1 Nov
||The third Conclave of the Hands of the Cause of God was convened at Bahjí. [BW13:351; MC161–2]
For the agenda of the meeting see MC163–4.
Charles Mason Remey unsuccessfully attempted to convince his fellow Hands that the Guardianship should continue. [BBRSM130; MC217]
||Bahji; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Charles Mason Remey; Guardianship; Covenant-breakers
|1959 4 Nov
||The Hands of the Cause issued a message from their third Conclave. [MC166–70]
The date for the election of the Universal House of Justice was fixed at Ridván 1963. [MC166]
They called for the election at Ridván 1961 of 21 national spiritual assemblies in Latin America. [MC167–8]
They called for the election at Ridván 1962 of 11 national spiritual assemblies in Europe. [MC168]
They called for the election at Ridván 1961 of the International Bahá’í Council by postal ballot of the members of the national and regional spiritual assemblies constituted at Ridván 1960. [MC168]
The name of Hand of the Cause Charles Mason Remey was missing from the list of signatories to this letter. [MC170]
||Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Universal House of Justice, Election of; International Bahai Council; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers
|1960 Ridván c.
||Hand of the Cause Charles Mason Remey claimed he was the second, ‘hereditary’ Guardian of the Bahá’í Faith. [BW13:397; BW16:90; SS49]
See MC205–6, 231–6 for details of Remey’s claims.
See also BBRSM130-1, 138–9; CB386–91; MC196–217, 223–8; SBBH1:220, NOTE 207.
At some point in 1960 Mason sent notification of his "appointment" as guardian to the Israeli government. [British Library]
||Charles Mason Remey; Guardianship; Covenant-breakers
|1960 27 Apr
||The International Bahá’í Council by unanimous vote rejected the claim of Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [MC206–7]
||International Bahai Council; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship
|1960 28 Apr
||The Custodians called upon all believers to join the Hands in repudiation of the claims of Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [MC196–7]
||Custodians; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship
|1960 30 Apr – 10 May
||Twenty–four national spiritual assemblies and five national conventions sent messages of support to the Custodians, repudiating the claim made by Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [MC199–202]
The National Spiritual Assembly of France voted to recognize the claim. [MC203]
||BWC; Haifa; France
||NSA; Custodians; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship
|1960 5 May
||Hand of the Cause Abu’l-Qásim Faizí was sent by the Custodians to France to meet with the National Spiritual Assembly and Bahá’ís of France. [MC197]
After consultation, five members of the assembly continued to support Charles Mason Remey in his claim to be the second Guardian and resigned from the assembly. The national assembly was dissolved. [MC203]
||BWC; Haifa; France
||Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Abul-Qasim Faizi; NSA; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship
|1960 12 – 31 May
||Six national spiritual assemblies sent messages of support to the Custodians, repudiating the claim made by Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [MC207–8]
||NSA; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship
|1960 13 May
||The International Bahá’í Council wrote to the Custodians recording its decision taken on 27 April to reject the claims of Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [Mc206–7]
||International Bahai Council; Charles Mason Remey; Custodians; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship
|1960 31 May
||In a letter addressed to all National Assemblies in the Western Hemisphere and to the Auxiliary Boards, the Hands of the Faith Corrine True, Hermann Grossmann, and William Sears provided an update on the activities of Charles Mason Remey. Some salient points were:
Of all the National Spiritual Assemblies only France failed to reject Remey's claims. Hand of the Cause Faizi made a visit to investigate and, with the co-operation of the European Hands, arranged for a new election.
Remey had sent two letters calling for support and in the second he deemed the remaining twenty-six Hands of the Cause "violators".
It was made known that for the previous two years Remey had been trying to convince his fellow Hands to appoint a Guardian. Until the previous Ridván he hadn't disclosed that it was he, himself, that he had in mind. Remey was aware and had been shown a letter from the Guardian clearly stating that the Hands did not have the authority to appoint a Guardian, only to ratify the choice. He had made his claim notwithstanding the vow that he had taken along with the other Hands in November, 1957 at Bahjí, and re-affirmed in 1958 with their signatures, to complete the Plan and elect the Universal House of Justice at Ridván, 1963. The question of the Guardianship would be referred to the Universal House of Justice.
The Hands had spent two years trying to convince Remey of the impossibility of appointing a Guardian. Up to this point they had taken no action other than to warn the friends of his intentions and to ask them to refrain from associating with him.
They urged the friends to concentrate their full energies on completing the Plan. [Statement on Mason Remey from the Western Hands of the Faith] iiiii
||Covenant-breakers; Charles Mason Remey; Corrine True; Hermann Grossmann; William Sears; Custodians; Guardianship
|1960 26 Jul
||The Hands of the Cause of God declared Charles Mason Remey a Covenant-breaker. [BBRSM221; MC224–5]
||Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers
|1960. 3 Aug
||Cable from the Hands of the Cause of God announcing the expulsion as Covenant Breakers of John Carre, Barnard Fillon, Moneer Darakhshan, Joel Marangela, Jaques Soghomonian, Donald Harvey, John Byers and Mary Wilkin. [MoC223]
||Covenant-breakers; Joel Bray Marangella; John Carre; Barnard Fillon; Moneer Darakhshan; Joel Marangela; Jaques Soghomonian; Donald Harvey; John
Byers; Mary Wilkin; Custodians
|1963 21 Apr
||Establishment of the Universal House of Justice
The Universal House of Justice was elected for the first time. [BW14:427; MoC424]
The election was held at 9:30 in the morning at the home of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, 7 Haparsim Street, Haifa. [BW14:427; MoC425]
Ballots were received from all 56 national spiritual assemblies. [BW14:427]
288 members of 51 national spiritual assemblies were present at the election. [BW14:427]
For a list of the electors see MoC406–13.
For details of the election see BW14:425–9 and MoC20–1.
||Universal House of Justice, Election of; Conventions, International; Elections; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Firsts, Other; Appointed arm; Universal House of Justice, Basic timeline; Covenant (general); Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline
|1964 5 Nov
||Followers of Charles Mason Remey filed suit in the United States District Court for Northern Illinois against the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States, claiming they were the rightful owners of all Bahá’í properties and funds in the United States. [BW14:95]
The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States filed a counter-claim asking the court to restrain the Covenant-breakers from using Bahá’í names and symbols protected by trademark. [BW14:95]
||Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; NSA; Court cases; Copyright and trademarks; Criticism and apologetics
|1965 23 Mar
||The case filed by the followers of Charles Mason Remey against the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States was dismissed on technical grounds. [BW14:95]
The Covenant-breakers filed a further suit. [BW14:95]
||Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; National Spiritual Assemblies; Court cases; Copyright and trademarks
|1965 11 Nov
||The Universal House of Justice announced that the ‘final step’ in the ‘process’ of the ‘purification’ of the Bahá’í properties in Bahjí had been taken with the removal of the remains of the Covenant-breaker Mírzá Díyá’u’lláh from the immediate precincts of the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW14:82–3; Mess63-86p66]
Díyá'u'lláh (15 August 1864 - 30 October 1898) was the second son of Bahá'u'lláh's second wife Fatimih (also known as Mahd-i-'Ulya). He was born in Edirne and died on 30 October 1898 in Haifa. See The Child of the Covenant p150-151 for a description of the vacillating behaviour of Díyá’u’lláh.
||Bahji; Covenant-breakers; Mirza Diyaullah; Bahaullah, Shrine of
|1966 8 Mar
||The second suit brought against the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States by the followers of Charles Mason Remey, who claimed to he the lawful owners of all Bahá’í properties and funds in the United States, was dismissed. [BW14:95]
||Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; National Spiritual Assemblies; Court cases; Copyright and trademarks
|1966 1 Jun
||The counter-claim of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States against the followers of Charles Mason Remey restraining them from using Bahá’í names and symbols, was upheld when the Covenant-breakers failed to appear at the trial. [BW14:95]
||Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; National Spiritual Assemblies; Copyright and trademarks; Court cases; Criticism and apologetics
|1971 (In the year)
||In Germany, Hermann Zimmer resurrected the claims of Ruth White in a small book published in 1971 (English translation in 1973), A Fraudulent Testament devalues the Bahá'í Religion into Political Shogism.
In Switzerland, Francesco Ficicchia wrote a comprehensive attack aimed mainly at the Bahá'í administration, Der Bah'ismus Weltreligion der Zunkunft? (Evangelische Zentralstelle für Weltanschauungsfragen, Quell Verlag, Stuttgart, 1981).
Both of these works were financed and distributed by Evangelical Protestant organizations in Germany. [The Covenant and Covenant-breaker by Moojan Momen]
Information on the "Free Baha'is" available at their website Free Baha'i Faith.
||Covenant-Breakers; Hermann Zimmer; Ruth White; Francesco Ficicchia; Charles Seeburger; Free Baha'is; Jack McLean
|1974 4 Feb
||The death of Charles Mason Remey, Hand of the Cause of God (1951-60) and subsequently a Covenant-breaker. in Florence, Italy. (b.15 May 1874) [Wikipedia]
Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
He was declared a Covenant-breaker by the Hands of the Cause on the 26th of July, 1960.
||Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Births and deaths
|1975 24 Jun
||Iran became one of the first countries in the world to ratify the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR). The covenant spelled out clearly the concept of freedom of religion or belief.
Article 18 states that “[e]veryone shall have the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion. This right shall include freedom to have or to adopt a religion or belief of his choice, and freedom, either individually or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his/her religion or belief in worship, observance, practice and teaching.” The ICCPR also spells out specific rights to due process “without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.” These include freedom from arbitrary arrest or detention, the right to be “promptly informed” of charges, and the right to legal counsel. Article 9 of the ICCPR states that “[n]o one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest or detention.” It also states that “[a]nyone who is arrested shall be informed, at the time of arrest, of the reasons for his arrest and shall be promptly informed of any charges against him.” Article 14 spells out the right to legal counsel, stating everyone has the right “to defend himself in person or through legal assistance of his own choosing. …”
The Covenant was opened for signature at New York on 19 December 1966 and came into force on 23 March 1976. [International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; Fact Sheet]
|New York; United States; Iran
||International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR); United Nations; Human rights
from the main catalogue
See all tags, sorted numerically or alphabetically.
- A Lost History of the Baha'i Faith, by Eric Stetson: Review, by Grover Gonzales (2016). Critical review of a book about the history of some covenant-breaker groups. [about]
- Additional Tablets, Extracts and Talks, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2018). 57 selections, updated 2019. [about]
- Addresses Delivered before the New York and Chicago Assemblies, by Abdel Karim Effendi Teherani (1900). Talks to the New York and Chicago assemblies, delivered at Abdu'l-Baha's request, to deepen the believers following the covenant-breaking of Ibrahim Kheiralla, published as a 100-page booklet. [about]
- Ahmad Sohrab and the New History Society, by Paul E. Haney and Horace Holley (1958). Overview of the defection of Ahmad Sohrab and the formation of the "New History Society" and the "Caravan of East and West." [about]
- Apostasía en al Marco Jurídico Bahá'í, La, by Badi Villar Cardenas, in La Pluma del Conocimiento, 1 (2001). Este ensayo constituye uno de los primeros esfuerzos por construir una marco jurídico para los procesos de apostasía y expulsión en la comunidad bahá'í. [about]
- Apostle Paul, a "False Teacher"?, by Universal House of Justice (1998). Whether Baha'i Writings state that Paul was a "false teacher," the relationship between apostles Paul and Peter, and some Baha'i teachings on Christianity. [about]
- Aspects of the Bahá'í Teachings, Conditions for Membership, and Voting Rights: Seven various questions, by Universal House of Justice (1991). On Baha'i status and community membership, spiritual primacy, Most Great Spirit, studying the Covenant, revelation of the Bab, civil elections, and definition of a pioneer. Includes short compilation "Conditions for Membership in the Baha'i Community." [about]
- Authority of the Hands of the Cause to direct the Faith and expel Covenant-breakers, by Universal House of Justice (1997). Authority of the Hands of the Cause assume control of the Faith and eject Covenant-breakers following Shoghi Effendi's passing. [about]
- Authority of the Institutions According to the Will and Testament of Abdu'l-Bahá, The: A Text Analysis, by Gerald Keil (2017). Abdu'l-Bahá's Will and Testament is the indispensable starting point for understanding the Baha'i Administrative Order, and the competencies and areas of
responsibility of the various institutions. The text must be examined as a cohesive whole. [about]
- Authority of the International Teaching Centre in Expelling Covenant-Breakers, by Universal House of Justice (1998). On the role of the Counsellors and the ITC in protecting the Faith, and the process of expelling a person whose behavior is in conflict with the Covenant. [about]
- Azálí-Bahá'í Crisis of September, 1867, The, by Juan Cole, in Studies in Modern Religions, Religious Movements, and the Babi-Bahá'í Faiths, Moshe Sharon, ed. (2004). On the history of a fateful weekend during which the Bábí movement in the nineteenth-century Middle East was definitively split into the Bahá'í and Azalí religions. [about]
- Bahá'í Covenant, The, by Ali Nakhjavani, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). [about]
- Basis of the Bahá'í Community, The: A Statement Concerning the New History Society, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States (1941). A statement on Ahmad Sohrab's activities and its trademark infringement case. [about]
- Biographies of Jamal-i-Burujirdi, by Adib Taherzadeh and Dariush Lamie (1998). Three short biographies of about the man who asked to be exempt from the laws of the Aqdas. [about]
- Blasphemy against the Holy Spirit: Chapter 31 of Some Answered Questions, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 10 (2009). [about]
- Center of the Covenant: Tablet to Mason Remey, interview with Badi'u'llah, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Badi'u'llah, in Star of the West, 3:7 (1912). Brief interview conducted by Howard MacNutt. Includes a tablet from Abdu'l-Baha to Mason Remey. [about]
- Child of the Covenant, by Adib Taherzadeh: Review, by Tricia Fallon-Barry, in Solas, 1 (2001). Brief review of this sequel to Covenant of Baha'u'llah. [about]
- Chosen Highway, The, by Lady Sarah Louisa Blomfield (Sitarih Khanum) (1940). [about]
- Commentary on a Passage in the Epistle to the Son of the Wolf, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 14 (2013). Short biography of the Son of the Wolf, Aqa Najafi; summary of persecutions from 1874-1903; and the Epistle's references to Qayyumu’l-Asma and the Muslim dawn prayer for Ramadan. [about]
- Concept of 'Faithfulness' in the Bahá'í Texts in English Translation, The, by Wendi Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 17 (2016). On faithfulness (being faithful as an individual; God being faithful to His people; believers being faithful to the Covenant; Bahá’u’lláh calling for fidelity to the new Manifestation) and behavior expected of the followers. [about]
- Concerns raised about the absence of a Guardian to succeed Shoghi Effendi, by Universal House of Justice (1998). On the lack of a Guardian to succeed Shoghi Effendi, the possibility of a member of his family expressing contrition and being admitted into the community, and the functions of Guardianship in his absence. [about]
- Covenant, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá, in Compilation of Compilations, Volume 1 (1991). [about]
- Covenant and Administration, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (1971). [about]
- Covenant of Baha'u'llah, The: A Compilation (1963). Lengthy compilation published as a book, first put together in 1950, of quotations from Scripture Jewish, Christian, Muslim, Bábí, and Bahá’í about the Covenant of God, the Eternal Covenant, and the Greater and Lesser Covenants. [about]
- Covenant, Day of the (November 26), by Christopher Buck, in Religious Celebrations: An Encyclopedia of Holidays, Festivals, Solemn Observances, and Spiritual Commemorations (2011). [about]
- Covenant, The, by Darius Shahrokh, in Windows to the Past (1995). Overview of two covenants: one with all Prophets regarding the next Manifestation, specifically the Covenant of the Bab; and Baha'u'llah's Covenant protecting the divine word from human interference and safeguarding the unity of Baha'is and all humankind. [about]
- Covenant, The: Brit Olam, by Peter Terry (1997). The concept of covenant is found in the Bible, the Qur'an, and Baha'i writings. Using the form of an inter-religious dialogue, this paper correlates references to covenant in four religions, demonstrating the distinctive characteristics of each. [about]
- Covenant, The, by Ali Nakhjavani (2005). From a conference at Centro Studi Baha'i, Acuto, Italy, February 19-26 2005. [about]
- Covenant, The, and Covenant-breaker, by Moojan Momen (1995). [about]
- Covenant-breakers and other Enemies of the Faith, Writings of; Photographs of Baha'u'llah, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi (2000). Baha'i scholars may, when needed, use books by Covenant Breakers, including William Miller's The Baha'i Faith. [about]
- Covenant-Breakers in Bahá'í Historiography, by Universal House of Justice, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 5:3-6:1 (1991). Baha'i scholars may, when needed, use books by Covenant Breakers. [about]
- Covenant-breakers, Electronic Communication with, by Universal House of Justice (1998). [about]
- Covenant-Breakers, Encountering Online, by Universal House of Justice (1997). Actions Baha'is need or need not take upon meeting Covenant Breakers in online "chat rooms" or by email. [about]
- Covenant-breakers, Non-association with, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (1999). Includes extracts regarding electronic communication with Covenant-Breakers. [about]
- Dawn over Mount Hira and Other Essays, by Marzieh Gail (1976). A collection of essays on various topics of interest to Baha'i studies and history. Most of these were first published in Star of the West and World Order between 1929 and 1971. [about]
- Day of the Covenant 26 November 2003: To the Followers of Baha'u'llah in the Cradle of the Faith, by Universal House of Justice (2003). A message to the Baha'is of Iran; in both English and Persian. [about]
- Days of Remembrance: Selections from the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh for Bahá'í Holy Days, by Bahá'u'lláh (2017). Forty-five selections revealed for, or relating to, nine Bahá’í Holy Days. [about]
- Demystifying Bahá'u'lláh's Tablet of the Holy Mariner: History, Translations, Interpretations and Analysis, by Hui Bau (2016). Lengthy compilation, with background information on the Tablet, and commentary from Bau, Adib Taherzadeh, Michael Sours, Jamsheed Samandari, and Aziz Mboya. [about]
- Divisions and Authority Claims in Babism (1850-1866), by Denis MacEoin, in Studia Iranica, 18:1 (1989). Factors leading to the division of Babism into the Azalís and the Bahá'ís, and the question of succession and the claims of Mírzá Yahyá, Dayyán, and Bahá'u'lláh. [about]
- Episodes in the History of the Covenant, by Shoghi Effendi (1997). Message revealed by the Guardian to the Bahá'ís of ‘Irán concerning the incorruptibility of the Covenant. [about]
- Epistle to the Bahá'í World, An, by Mirza Badi'u'llah (1907). Letter from the half-brother of `Abdu'l-Baha about Badi'u'llah's exit from, return to, and then exit again from the Baha'i Faith. [about]
- Fifteen Years of Failed Prophecy: Coping with cognitive dissonance in a Bahá'í sect, by Robert W. Balch and John Domitrovich, in Millennium, Messiahs, and Mayhem: Contemporary Apocalyptic Movements, ed. Thomas Robbins and Susan J. Palmer (1997). An academic article about the prophetic expectations of a covenant-breaker group, Baha’is Under the Provisions of the Covenant. Followed by "The End is Nearish," Chase's predictions satirized by Harper's. [about]
- Firmness in the Covenant and Protection of the Cause of God, by Charles Mason Remey (1914). Two versions of an essay written in response to "certain conditions of violation" of the Covenant in London and other European assemblies: a 5-page essay from 1914, and a 28-page (unpublished?) article from 1918. [about]
- Flow of Divine Authority, by Brent Poirier, in Deepen, 3.4:9 (1996). Scriptural authority for the Universal House of Justice to function infallibly without the presence of a living Guardian. [about]
- God's Promise to Humanity: Warwick Leaflets, by Warwick Bahá'í Bookshop (1993). [about]
- Guardianship and the House of Justice, by Sen McGlinn (1997). [about]
- Guardianship and the Universal House of Justice, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 11 (2010). [about]
- Guardianship and the Universal House of Justice, The, by Universal House of Justice (1966). Passages from a letter on the relationship between the Guardianship and the Universal House of Justice, the timing of the election of the House, the lack of a will by or a successor to the Guardian, and the House's ability to function on its own. [about]
- Guardianship and the Universal House of Justice, The, by Ian C. Semple, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 9 (2008). [about]
- Guardianship, Anticipation of, in the Kitab-i-Aqdas, by Universal House of Justice (1992). Did Baha'u'llah anticipate the Institution of the Guardianship in the Kitab-i-Aqdas? [about]
- Guardianship, The Universal House of Justice, and Infallibility, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 10 (2009). The House is infallible even without the Guardian, because that the Guardian's chief function was interpretation and not legislation. [about]
- Hands of the Cause of God Cannot Appoint a Guardian, by Universal House of Justice (2015). Short letter quoting the Guardian's statement that the Hands of the Cause of God have to ratify the current guardian's appointment of another guardian, and they may also suggest another guardian, but cannot themselves appoint one. [about]
- "He hath known God who hath known himself": A Deepening Course on the Bahá'í Revelation (2012). A lengthy compilation by the granddaughter of Howard Colby Ives designed to be a study guide to the Writings, covering knowledge of God, the station of the Manifestations, the nature of the Covenant, and the dynamics of creation, constancy, and servitude. [about]
- Hinduism and the Bahá'í Faith, by Moojan Momen (1990). An attempt to explore the relationship between Hinduism and the Bahá'í Faith and to explain the Bahá'í Faith to those who are from a Hindu background. [about]
- Historical Analysis of Critical Transformations in the Evolution of the Bahá'í World Faith, An, by Vernon Elvin Johnson (1974). Detailed study of major changes in the Faith's history, opposition to such changes, and their resulting tensions and resolutions. [about]
- In the Days of the Guardian, by Leroy Ioas (1958). Includes the well-known comments by Shoghi Effendi about his reactions to being appointed Guardian. [about]
- Infalibilidad: Un Ensayo, by Susan Maneck (1998). Spanish translation of Maneck's essay "Infallibility: An Essay." [about]
- Infallibility of the Guardianship and of the Universal House of Justice, by Universal House of Justice (1977). Distinction between the interpretive spheres of the Guardian versus the Universal House of Justice. [about]
- Infallibility: An Essay, by Susan Maneck (1998). Short overview of the meaning of infallibility, as applied to Baha'u'llah and Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
- Inseparability and Complementarity of the Book and the Universal House of Justice, The, by Sana Rezai (2018). Direct references the House of Justice makes to the words of 'Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi, as illustrated through the 26 November 2018 message. [about]
- Interpretation and the Guardianship, by Ian C. Semple, in Lights of Irfan, 6 (2005). Two versions of a talk presented at a seminar in Haifa, 1984, on differences between personal interpretation, authoritative interpretation, divinely guided legislation, and the role of the Guardian as interpreter [about]
- Introduction to Bahá'í Law, An: Doctrinal Foundations, Principles and Structures, by Udo Schaefer, in Journal of Law and Religion, 18:2 (2003). [about]
- Introduction to Shi'i Islam, An: The History and Doctrines of Twelver Shi'ism, by Moojan Momen (1985). The most lengthy and authoritative contemporary overview of Shi'ism; a commonly-assigned college textbook. Includes biographies of prominent historical figures. Not yet formatted.
- Islam, the Baha'i Faith and the Eternal Covenant of Alast, by Susan Maneck (2009). [about]
- Joycean Modernism in a Nineteenth-Century Qur'an Commentary?: A Comparison of The Báb's Qayyūm Al-Asmā' with Joyce's Ulysses, by Todd Lawson, in Erin and Iran: Cultural Encounters between the Irish and the Iranians, ed. H. E. Chehabi and Grace Neville (2015). Comparison of the formal structure of the two works and themes such as time; oppositions and their resolution; relation between form and content; prominence of epiphany; manifestation, advent and apocalypse; and the theme of heroism, reading and identity. [about]
- Keys to the Proper Understanding of Islam in The Dispensation of Baha'u'llah, by Brian Wittman, in Lights of Irfan, 2 (2001). [about]
- Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book): Questions and Concordances, by Habib Riazati (2000). Study questions, categorized cross-references to the Aqdas and its notes and "Questions and Answers," topical concordances, and other research materials. [about]
- Kitab-i-Aqdas and the Expulsion of Covenant Breakers, by Universal House of Justice (1997). Discussion of a reference in the Kitab-i-Aqdas to the possible end of the Guardianship, and the authority of the Hands of the Cause to expel Covenant-breakers. [about]
- Kitáb-i-Aqdas as a Lens with which to Examine some of the Dilemmas of Modernity, The, by Betsy Omidvaran, in Solas, 2 (2002). Contrast between the Aqdas - the source of laws of future society - and issues of the modern world as it had evolved up to the 19th century. Discussion of Houses of Worship, universal language, financial principles, justice, the Covenant, and unity. [about]
- Kitab-i-Aqdas questions and concordances, by Habib Riazati. The Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh and their relationship to selected passages in The Aqdas; New Laws That Abrogate the Laws of Former Dispensations; Correlation of Paragraphs, Notes, and Questions and Answers of the Aqdas; sample questions. [about]
- Knowledge and the Covenant of Bahá'u'lláh: Invited Commentary, by Ian C. Semple, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 9 (1999). [about]
- Laymen vs. Scholars in Bahá'í Studies, by Universal House of Justice (1996). No distinction should be drawn between "laypeople" and "scholars" in Baha'i studies, and the pursuit of knowledge. [about]
- Letter to Jináb-i-Áqá Mírzá Bádí'u'lláh Khán of Abadih, by Shoghi Effendi (1997). Answers four questions: (1) re "Crimson Scroll"; (2) re the "Sacred Night"; (3) re the "Tablet of the Bell"; and (4) using the Kitab-i-Aqdas for bibliomancy. [about]
- List of Baha'i Studies and Translations, by Stephen Lambden. A list of content available at Lambden's personal website, Hurqalya Publications, with select links to manuscripts, texts, introductions. Includes Shaykhi and Babi studies, bibliographies, genealogies, provisional translations. [about]
- Loyalty to the Covenant and Critical Thought, by Udo Schaefer (2001). A commentary for Bahá’ís examining the balance of critical thought with loyalty to Bahá’í institutions. [about]
- Major Themes of the Creative Word: Series of Books for Deepening and Studying, by Melanie Smith and Paul Lample (1987). Five activity books "designed to draw the student into a study of the profound concepts found in the Bahá’í Revelation." Youth Can Move the World, The Significance of Bahá’u’lláh’s Revelation, Spiritual Conquest of the Planet, The Covenant, etc. [about]
- Making the Crooked Straight, by Udo Schaefer and Nicola Towfigh, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). Two pages on a prophecy concerning the advent of Man Yuzhiruhu'llah. [about]
- Mason Remey and Those Who Followed Him, by Universal House of Justice (1997). Letter from the US NSA on the importance of commitment to the covenant, a letter from the UHJ on covenant-breaking, and the history "Mason Remey and Those Who Followed Him." [about]
- Memories of Nine Years in Akka, by Youness Khan Afroukhteh (1952). Translation of Khatirát-i-Nuh-Saliy-i-‘Akká, the memoirs of Dr. Yúnis Afrukhtih, who served ‘Abdu’l-Bahá as secretary and interpreter from 1900-1909. Includes discussion of the history of Covenant-breaking. [about]
- Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-1986: Third Epoch of the Formative Age, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
- Ministry of the Custodians: An Account of the Stewardship of the Hands of the Cause 1957-1963, by Universal House of Justice (1992). Account of the stewardship of the Hands of the Cause of God from 1957-63, from the passing of Shoghi Effendi to the election of the House, riding the waves of crisis to the moment of victory — the fulfillment of prophecy. [about]
- Mírzá Yahyá Azal, Designation of in the Writings of the Báb, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). [about]
- Mysteries of Alast: The Realm of Subtle Entities and the Primordial Covenant in the Babi-Bahá'í Writings, by Farshid Kazemi, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 15 (2009). One of the more esoteric concepts in Shi'i and Shaykhi thought is the "realm of subtle entities," 'ālam-i dharr, a sort of pre-existence for the archetype of humanity, which is relevant to free will and the seven stages of creation. [about]
- National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States vs. New Mexico Covenant-Breakers, in United States Patent Quarterly, 150 (1966). Documents from the lawsuit by the NSA vs. the New Mexico covenant-breaker group "The National Spiritual Assembly of the Baha'is of the United States of America Under the Hereditary Guardianship, Inc." for their use of Baha'i names and titles. [about]
- New Creation, A: The Power of the Covenant in the Life of Louis Gregory, by Gayle Morrison, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 9:4 (1999). [about]
- Obedience, by Darius Shahrokh, in Windows to the Past (1995). The meanings of infallibility, obedience to Baha'u'llah, the covenant of God with humanity, and the paradox of law being the instrument of liberation, not limitation. [about]
- Obedience: Liberation through Love of God in Practice, by Roxanne L. Lalonde, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:4 (1998). The virtue of obedience in light of the Covenant, contemporary secular notions of obedience, attitudes and behavior of Baha'is in the West, and some incidents of expulsion or resignation from the Faith. [about]
- Origins of Shi'ism: A Consensus of Western Scholarship, by Jonah Winters (1996). Shi'ism, representing about 10% of the umma, is often regarded as illegitimate by the majority Sunnis. Using Western historiographical methods, I examine three key events occuring during the life of Muhammad that are used to legitimize Shi'i origins. [about]
- Paradise and Paradigm: Key Symbols in Persian Christianity and the Bahá'í Faith, by Christopher Buck (1999). Study of Baha'i and Christian symbology, the "first academic monograph comparing Christianity and the Baha'i Faith." [about]
- Passing of Shoghi Effendi, Ministry of the Hands of the Cause, and Defection of Mason Remey, The, by Shahin Vafai, in The Essence of the Covenant: Features, History, and Implications (2005). [about]
- Power and the Bahá'í community, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 19 (2018). While Baha'i social teachings may have sounded new and exciting a century ago, that is no longer the case today. The problem the world faces is not in the principles that would lead to a better society, but in their application. [about]
- Present Structure of Bahá'í Administration, by Duane Troxel (2005). One-page illustration showing the full structure of the Baha'i Institutions and their inter-connections. [about]
- Principle of Succession in the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, The: Wilmette Institute faculty notes, by Brent Poirier (1999). [about]
- Promoting the Equality of Women and Men: The Role of the Covenant, by Janet A. Khan, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 10:1-2 (2000). [about]
- Proselytizing, Development, and the Covenant, by Universal House of Justice, in Messages from the Universal House of Justice: 1963-1986, The Third Epoch of the Formative Age (1996). Teaching vs. proselytization; applying Baha'i social teachings without becoming ensnared in prevailing cultural mores; and the uniqueness of the Baha'i covenant. [about]
- Reflections on the Principle of Unity/Oneness, Some, by Hooshmand Badee, in Lights of Irfan, 19 (2018). Reflections on the message of Baha'u'llah creating the oneness of humanity and a global society that is based on unity and love rather than factors such as economic and political gains. [about]
- Religious Authority and Apocalypse:
Tafsír as Experience in an Early Work by The Báb, by Todd Lawson, in Unity in Diverity: Mysticism, Messianism and the Construction of Religious Authority in Islam, ed. Orkhan Mir-Kasimov (2013). Analysis of the Báb's commentary on the Qur'an's longest chapter, Surat al-baqara, regarded as his first significant work, which includes themes such as divine self-manifestation, the hierarchy of existence, eschatology, and religious authority. [about]
- Remembering Shoghi Effendi as Interpreter, by Glenford Mitchell (1997). Scholarly talk on the nature of interpretation and the Covenant, given at Foundation Hall of the House of Worship in Wilmette. [about]
- Remey, Charles Mason, by Robert Stockman (1995). [about]
- Role of the Scholar: Scholarship and the Covenant, by John S. Hatcher and Abdu'l-Missagh Ghadirian (1996). Essays "The New Role of the Scholar in Baha'i Society" and "Scholarship and the Covenant." [about]
- Russian Publication of Baha'u'llah's Last Will and Testament, The: An Academic Attestation of 'Abdu'l-Baha's Successorship, by Christopher Buck and Youli A. Ioannesyan, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 19 (2013). On the content of the Kitab-i-Ahdi, its manuscript history, and textual variants; Andalib's eyewitness account of its unveiling; Tumanski's scholarly work; contemporary attestation of 'Abdu'l-Baha's successorship by Tumanski and other Russian notables. [about]
- Seeing Double: The Covenant and the Tablet of Ahmad, by Todd Lawson, in Bahá'í Faith and the World's Religions (2005). The Tablet of Ahmad is believed to have special potency. "Seeing double" means both looking at the words of Scripture, and looking in the direction beyond the words, as indicated by the context. This paper also discusses the meaning of Covenant in Islam. [about]
- Self-Defense, the Ungodly, Infallibility, and Sexual Violence and Abuse, by Universal House of Justice (2004). Answers to a number of questions, with extracts from four letters of the House, on self-defense, the ungodly, infallibility, sexual violence, and abuse. [about]
- Shoghi Effendi's The Dispensation of Bahá'u'lláh: A Theology of the Word, by Jack McLean, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 9 (2008). [about]
- Spiritual Footprints in the Sands of Time, by Kevin Brogan, in Solas, 3 (2003). The covenantal relationship between God and humankind; the lives of the founders of Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Zoroastrianism, Hinduism, and Buddhism; the societies in which these religions developed; and some of their common features. [about]
- Spiritual Nature of Reality, The: Has the Future Already Been Written?, by John S. Hatcher, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 10:3-4 (2000). Meditations on "Who is Writing the Future": why is spiritual development a social as well as personal matter; what is epistemological methodology for this development; how is it distinct from materialism; and how does it relate to the Covenants? [about]
- Statement on Mason Remey from the Western Hands of the Faith, by Corinne True and Hermann Grossmann (1960). Background information on the claims of Remey, compiled by the Hands of the Cause of God in the Western hemisphere. [about]
- Styles of piety: Notes on the relationship between Bahá'í scholars and the Bahá'í institutions with reference to academic methodology, by Todd Lawson, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 11 (2003). On the role of the scholar in the community, the phenomenon of the internet, and the institution of the Covenant, as seen in the light of the intellectual heritage of the Islamic world. [about]
- Symbolic Profile of the Bahá'í Faith, A, by Christopher Buck, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:4 (1998). [about]
- Tablet Concerning Covenant-Breakers: Excerpt, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1998). Translation, posted to email list, of a portion of a Tablet revealed on the occasion of the expulsion of Tamaddunu'l-Mulk, who had caused dissension in Tehran around 1913. [about]
- Tablet of 'Abdu'l-Baha Concerning Arius, by Universal House of Justice (1998). Arius was an early Christian theologian whose rejection of the Trinity, Abdu'l-Baha said, destroyed the unity of the Church. [about]
- Tablet of the Báb Lawh-i-Vasaya, "Will and Testament"; Titles of Mírzá Yahyá, by Universal House of Justice (2004). Two questions: on the Tablet of the Bab "Lawh-i-Vasaya: The Will and Testament"; the nature of the appointment and titles of Mírzá Yahyá. Includes two attachments: Tablet of the Bab Lawh-i-Vasaya and excerpt from Making the Crooked Straight. [about]
- Tablet to Jamál-i-Burujirdí, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2003). Tablet to a one-time Covenant-breaker on the importance of obedience to the Covenant. [about]
- Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh Revealed after the Kitab-i-Aqdas, by Bahá'u'lláh (1988). [about]
- Unassailable Foundation of the Cause of God: Questions about the Universal House of Justice, by Universal House of Justice (1965). Why were steps taken to elect a Universal House of Justice with the foreknowledge that there would be no Guardian? Was the time ripe for such an action? Could not the International Baha'i Council have carried on the work? [about]
- United States National Spiritual Assembly vs. Mirza Ahmad Sohrab (1941). In 1941 the National Spiritual Assembly unsuccessfully sued Covenant Breaker Mirza Ahmad Sohrab for his use of the word "Baha'i." This is the court's conclusions. [about]
- Unity Principle, The: Ideas of Social Concord and Discord in the Bahá'í Faith, by Robert Stockman, in Research in Human Social Conflict, Volume 2, ed. Joseph Gittler, (2001). [about]
- What is there to grieve about?, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2011). [about]
- When the Bombs Drop: Reactions to Disconfirmed Prophecy in a Millennial Sect, by Robert W. Balch and Gwen Farnsworth, in Sociological Perspectives, 26:2 (1983). An academic article about the prophetic expectations of a covenant-breaker group, Baha’is Under the Provisions of the Covenant, who claimed the world would end on April 29, 1980. [about]
- Will and Testament: Translation and Commentary, by Báb, The (2004). Examination of four available manuscripts, dates of issue, variations, exclusions, verse numbering followed by a running commentary on its tone, message and implications for the future of the Babi movement. [about]
- Will and Testament of 'Abdu'l-Baha: A Commentary, by David Hofman, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 9 (1940-1944) (1945). [about]
- Will and Testament of Abdu'l-Bahá, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1992). 'Abdu'l-Baha's Will and Testament consists of three parts - all three written in His own hand. The first one was revealed around 1905 and the second and third sometime around 1907. [about]
- Will and Testament of The Báb, by Báb, The, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). One-page scan of a document commonly, though inaccurately, referred to as the "Will and Testament." [about]
- Windows to the Past, by Darius Shahrokh (1992). Deepening talks on 25 topics about Baha'i history and teachings, downloadable in MP3 audio format and PDF transcripts. [about]
- WIPO Domain Name Dispute: Case D2005-0214, "uhj.net" (2005). A legal ruling finding, against the Baha'is, that covenant breakers are allowed to use the domain uhj.net. [about]
- World Order of Baha'u'llah: Six Talks on the Various Aspects of, by Ali Nakhjavani (2004). Transcripts of six talks given at a week-long course on the World Order of Baha'u'llah, sponsored by the NSA of Italy. Document includes compilation and outline. (This online version compiled from three different editions of this book.) [about]
- World Order, Evolution Towards: Notes on recent secondary literature, compilation, and two memoranda from the Bahá'í World Centre, by Universal House of Justice, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). Two letters, "Request for Materials about the World Order of Baha'u'llah" and "World Government and the Universal House of Justice," and compilation "Extracts from Letters Written by and on Behalf of the House of Justice on Evolution Towards World Order." [about]
- Yahyá, Mírzá, by Moojan Momen, in The Bahá'í Encyclopedia (2009). On the younger half-brother of Bahá’u’lláh, later his opponent, known as Subh-i-Azal, described by Shoghi Effendi as "the arch-breaker of the Covenant of the Báb." [about]