Search for tag "Shaykhism"
||Birth of Shaykh Ahmad Ahsá’í in the village of Mutayrafí in the Ahsá region, the hinterland of Bahrayn.
||Shaykh Ahmad-i-Ahsai; Shaykhism; Births and deaths
||Birth of Siyyid Kázim-i-Rashtí, in Rasht.
||Shaykhism; Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti; Births and deaths
|1817 (In the year)
||Shaykh Ahmad traveled to Persia and visits Shíráz and Tihrán. He was in Tihrán when Bahá'u'lláh is born. [DB13]
||Shiraz; Tihran; Iran
||Shaykh Ahmad-i-Ahsai; Shaykhism; Bahaullah, Birth of; Bahaullah, Life of
|1819 (In the year)
||Death of Shaykh `Alí, son of Shaykh Ahmad. Shaykh Ahmad considered this loss as a sacrifice for `the Alí whose advent we all await'. [MH24]
||Shaykh Ali; Shaykh Ahmad-i-Ahsai; Births and deaths; Sacrifice; Shaykhism
|1826 27 Jun
||Passing of Shaykh Ahmad-i-Ahsá'í, the leader of the Shaykhís, in Haddíyyih near Medina near the tomb of Muhammad, at approximately 75 years. He was buried in the cemetery of Baqí` in Medina. [B2,; M16; H20]
At his passing Siyyid Kázim-i-Rashtí became his designated successor. [BBD12; DB9-11]
BBD12 says it was 1828 and he was 81 years old
See MH20 for three chief articles of faith of the Shaykhís.
See BBRSM8 for a brief account of his life. Says he lived from 1753 to 1826.
See DB1-18 for a brief history of his life.
DB18 says he died in 1268 A.H. (4 August, 1826 to 25 July, 1827)
See MH22 for a picture.
KA239n171 says Shaykh Aḥmad-i-Ahsá’í lived from 1753 to 1831. He was the founder of the Shaykhí School and the first of the “twin luminaries that heralded the advent of the Faith of the Báb”.
See Sheikh Ahmad al-Ahsai by Moojan Momen for a brief history of Shaykh Aḥmad-i-Ahsá’í and the Shaykhí School and his continuing influence today.
See Ahsá'í, Shaykh Ahmad by Denis MacEoin.
See BBRSM8-13 for a history of Shaykhism.
See GPB92 for his predictions regarding the Twin Manifestations. iiiii
||Haddiyyih; Medina; Saudi Arabia
||Shaykh Ahmad-i-Ahsai; Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti; Shaykhism; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1841 (In the year)
||Siyyid `Alí Muhammad (the Báb) went Karbalá where He attended the lectures of Siyyid Kázim-i-Rashtí, Shaykh Ahmad's successor. From Karbalá He went to Najaf before returning to Shíráz. [DB26-30; Bab42–4; MH25; RB3:254; SBBH15]
The followers of Shaykh Ahmad number about 100,000 in Iraq alone. [MH25, HotD25]
BBRSM13 says the Báb went to Najaf and Karbalá in 1839/40.
||Najaf; Karbala; Iraq
||Bab, Life of; Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti; Shaykh Ahmad-i-Ahsai; Shaykhism; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1843 31 Dec
||Passing of Siyyid Kázim-i-Rashtí, the disciple and self-proclaimed successor of Shaykh Ahmad, in Karbalá. Because Siyyid Kázim designated no successor, within a short period of time the Shaykhí school was split into several factions. The two largest were grouped around Siyyid `Alí Muhammad and Hájí Mullá Muhammad Karím Khán Kirmání. The first faction moved away from the outward practice of Islám towards a development of inner realities and ultimately a new revelation. The second emphasized the continuing role of the Prophets and the Imáms and sought acceptance from the Shí'í majority which had formerly excommunicated Shaykh Ahmad and Siyyid Kázim. [BBD126–7; MH26; SBBH1; TB6, Sayyid Kazim Rashti by Moojan Momen]
The latter, Hájí Mullá Muhammad Karím Khán Kirmání, became an enemy of the Báb. [SDH165; RoB1p331-335]
BBRSM9 for a brief account of his life and the Shaykhí school under his leadership. See MH28 for a picture. See DB43–5, MH46–7 for an account of a warning of his passing in a shepard's dream.
Bahá'u'lláh condemned him in both the Kitáb-i-Íqán (p.184-186) and the Lawh-i-Qiná.
See DB24-25, 40-42 for Siyyid Kázim's exhortations to his followers predicting the manifestation of both the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh.
||Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti; Shaykh Ahmad-i-Ahsai; Shaykhism; Siyyid Ali Muhammad; Haji Mulla Muhammad Karim Khan Kirmani; Shiism; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1844. 11 Aug
||The Báb sent Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí to Najaf and Karbalá to proclaim His Cause among the Shaykhís. In Najaf Mullá `Alí delivered a letter from the Báb to Shaykh Muhammad-Hasan Najafí, the leading Shí`í divine and the keeper of the shrines in Iraq. [BBRSM15; DB87-91; SBBH20–1, HotD46]
The Shaykh's rejection of the claim led to a violent debate. Mullá `Alí was taken to Baghdád and imprisoned there. After a public trial, a joint tribunal of Sunní and Shí`í `ulamá, he was sent to Istanbul. He was the first martyr of the Bábí Dispensation. It is significant that Mullá Hasan Gawhar, a leading figure of the Shaykhí school, participated in the condemnation as it marks the first major challenge to Bábism from a Shaykhí leader. [Bab27, 37–8, 58; BBR83–90; BBRSM17; BKG31; DB90–2; MMBA, BBR2p17, GPB10]
||Istanbul (Constantinople); Turkey; Iraq; Baghdad; Najaf; Karbala
||Bab, Life of; Mulla Ali Bastami; Ulama; Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Shaykhism; Firsts, Other; Trials; Court cases; Persecution, Court cases; Letters of the Living
|1844 c. 20 Dec
||The Báb made a declaration of His mission by standing at the Ka`bih, holding the ring of the door and repeating three times that He is the Qá'im.
On the last day of His pilgrimage, the 24th of December, He made an open challenge to Mírzá Muhammad-Husayn-i-Kirmání, known as Muhít, of the Shaykhí school promising him that He would answer any questions he might pose on the condition that he either refute His Cause or bear allegiance to it. He fled for Medina before honouring his promise to submit questions. The Báb, while in transit to Medina, wrote a reply to the questions which had perplexed Mírzá Muhít (The Epistle between the Two Shrines) and had it delivered to him in Karbilá. He remained unmoved by the precepts inculcated, his attitude to the Faith was one of concealed and persistent opposition. [DB137-138; SBBR5p103-104; Bab73–4; The Genesis of the Bábi-Bahá'í Faiths in Shíráz and Fárs p35 by A. Rabbani]
See DB137-138 for Mírzá Muhít's dealings with Bahá'u'lláh.
The Báb sent Quddus with an invitation to the Sharíf of Mecca acquainting him with the new Revelation. The Sharíf was too busy to respond. Years later he recognized his error in ignoring the epistle. [B71-74; BW12:89; DB138-140; GPB9, 89]
||Mecca; Saudi Arabia
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Pilgrimage of; Kabih; Qaim; Mirza Muhammad-Husayn-i-Kirmani (Muhit); Mirza Muhit; Shaykhism; Sharif of Mecca; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bab, Writings of
|1845. 10 Jan
||The beginning of the Islamic new year. Messianic fervour grew, particularly among Shaykhís. [BBRSM15]
||Middle East; Iran; Iraq
||Prophecies; Shaykhism; Islam; Interfaith dialogue
|1845. c. July
||In Kirmán, Karím Khán, the self-appointed leading Shaykhí cleric, had a number of Bábís expelled from the city. [BBRSM17–18]
||Haji Mulla Muhammad Karim Khan Kirmani; Shaykhism
|1845 c. July
||Karím Khán wrote a number of refutations of the Báb. The first, Isháqu'l-Bátil (The Crushing of Falsehood) was published in July. This caused some Bábís to dissociate themselves from Shaykhism. [BBRSM17–18]
||Haji Mulla Muhammad Karim Khan Kirmani; Shaykhism
|1845 July and months following
||In Karbalá Táhirih revived the remnant of the Bábí community. She was considered a part of the radical element of Shaykhí Bábís because she believed that the Shaykhí tradition had been abrogated by the new Revelation. The new Bábí movement caused the Shaykhí leaders to unite in their opposition to the Báb and to redefine the nature of the school, toning down its more controversial teachings and moving back towards mainstream Shí`ísm. [BBRSM16–18]
from the main catalogue
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- Ahsá'í, Shaykh Ahmad, by Denis MacEoin, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 1 (1985). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
- Aspects of Isrá'íliyyát and the Emergence of the Bábí-Bahá'í Interpretation of the Bible, Some, by Stephen Lambden (2002). Islamic "Israelitica" literary traditions, the Bible, and their relationship to the Bábí and Bahá'í religions. Includes discussion of the Greatest Name, Ism Alláh al-A'zam. [about]
- Authority of the Feminine and Fatima's Place in an Early Work by the Bab, The, by Todd Lawson, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). While Tahirih inspired many in Europe and eventually America, she is very much a daughter of her own culture, history, mythology, and religion. She was a religious mystic who felt a new day arising in the world, and seen by some as the "return" of Fatima. [about]
- Babi Movement, The: A Resource Mobilization Perspective, by Peter Smith and Moojan Momen, in In Iran: Studies in Babi and Bahá'í History vol. 3, ed. Peter Smith (1986). Babism from a sociological standpoint, esp. the place of the Babis in their contemporary cultural and economic classes. [about]
- Babis, Bahá'ís, Shaykhis, by Cyril Glasse, in The Concise Encyclopedia of Islam (1991). [about]
- Bahá'ísm: History, Transfiguration, Doxa, by Hutan Hejazi Martinez (2010-05). An outsider's view of the role of ideologies in a postmodern era, focusing on Bahá'í history, conversion narratives, ideology, and other competing philosophies. (Link to thesis, offsite.) [about]
- Bahá'u'lláh as fulfilment of the theophanic promise in the Sermons of Imam 'Alí ibn Abí Ṭálib: Translation of al Tutunjiyya, Iftikhár and Ma'rifat bin-Nurániyyat, by Khazeh Fananapazir, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). Translations of Tutunjiyya "Sermon of the Gulf," Iftikhár "Sermon of Iftikhár," and Ma'rifat bin-Nurániyyat "Sermon of Ma'rifat bin-Nurániyyat." [about]
- Beginning That Hath No Beginning, The: Bahá'í Cosmogony, by Vahid Brown, in Lights of Irfan, Book 3 (2002). The dimensions of myth in the Bahá'í Faith focussing on the religion's narratives of creation, religious history, and Administrative Order. [about]
- "By the Fig and the Olive": `Abdu'l-Bahá's Commentary in Ottoman Turkish on the Qur'ánic Sura 95, by Necati Alkan, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 10 (2001). A translation and discussion of an Ottoman-Turkish Tablet by `Abdu'l-Bahá: his commentary on the Quaranic Sura of the Fig (#95).
- City and Village in Iran: Settlement and Economy in the Kirman Basin, by Paul Ward English (1966). Brief description of villages in Iran, including Langar, the "center of the Shaykhi sect." [about]
- Dawn over Mount Hira and Other Essays, by Marzieh Gail (1976). A collection of essays on various topics of interest to Bahá'í studies and history. Most of these were first published in Star of the West and World Order between 1929 and 1971. [about]
- Development of Metaphysics in Persia, The: A Contribution to the History of Muslim Philosophy, by Muhammad Iqbal (1908). Short philosophical observations on the theology of the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh. [about]
- Development of Shaykhi Thought in Shi'i Islam, The, by Vahid Rafati (1979). [about]
- Encyclopedia of Islam and The Muslim World, by William F. McCants and John Walbridge (2004). Articles on Abdu'l-Bahá, the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh, the Bábí and Bahá'í Faiths, Hujjatiya, Persian language and literature, Shaykhism, and Twelver Shi'ism. [about]
- From Shaykhism to Babism: A Study in Charismatic Renewal in Shi'i Islam, by Denis MacEoin (1979). Examination of the Bábí movement within the wider context of Imami Shi'ism, the shadow of Shaykh Ahmad al-Ahsa'i and Sayyid Kazem Rashti, and the Bábí rejection of Shaykhism. [about]
- Individualism and the Spiritual Path in Shaykh Ahmad al-Ahsa'i, by Juan Cole, in Occasional Papers in Shaykhi, Babi and Bahá'í Studies, 4 (1997-09). On Shaykh Ahmad al-Ahsa'i's criticisms of aspects of Sufism, and whether he could be considered a "mystic" despite his anathemas against Sufism. [about]
- Interpretation as Revelation: The Qur'an Commentary of the Báb, by Todd Lawson, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 2:4 (1990). Overview and context of two of the Bab's earliest writings and their relevance to Shaykh Ahmad al-Ahsá’í and Siyyid Kázim Rashtí: a commentary on the Qur'an's Chapter of the Cow, and his famous Qayyúm al-Asmá, Commentary on the Chapter of Joseph. [about]
- Iran between Two Revolutions, by Ervand Abrahamian (1982). Multiple references to the Bahá'í Faith, in an academic book of history. [about]
- Juan Cole manuscript and book collection: Shaykhi, Babi, and Baha'i texts (1997). Manuscripts and books in Cole's library and selected Iranian National Bahá'í Archive contents. [about]
- Kaleidoscope: Some Aspects of Angelology, Light, the Divine Throne and Color Mysticism in Bábí and Bahá'í Scripture, by Stephen Lambden, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 5 (2004). Miscellaneous notes relating to religious cosmology, angelology, color and “throne” symbolism in select Abrahamic, Bábí, Bahá’í, and religious and mystical texts. It will be seen that colours are related to the theology of the celestial Throne. [about]
- Kázem Rashtí, by Armin Eschraghi, in Encyclopaedia Iranica (2013). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
- Last Prophet and Last Day: Shaykhí, Bábí and Bahá'í Exegesis of the 'Seal of the Prophets' (Q. 33:40), by Christopher Buck and Youli A. Ioannesyan, in Religions, 14:3 (2023). Survey and analysis of viewpoints on the meaning of "Seal of the Prophets"; the prophetic cycle and cycle of fulfillment; metaphorical and spiritual understandings of the "divine presence." Link to article (offsite). [about]
- Liminal Moment, A: Shaykhi Millennialism and the Irruption of Modernity, by Ismael Velasco (2013). On the end-times theology of the last great philosophical school to have developed integrally within Islam, its context vis-a-vis Western modernity, and its place in Bahá'í thought. [about]
- List of Baha'i Studies and Translations, by Stephen Lambden. A list of content available at Lambden's personal website, Hurqalya Publications, with select links to manuscripts, texts, introductions. Includes Shaykhi and Bábí studies, bibliographies, genealogies, provisional translations. [about]
- Mi'ráj in Select Shaykhí, Bábí, and Bahá'í Texts, The, by Sholeh A. Quinn, in Religions, 14:3 (2023). The ascension of the Prophet Muhammad to heaven, and commentary on its meanings by religious leaders associated with the the Shaykhí, Bábí, and Bahá'í movements. Link to article (offsite). [about]
- Miscellaneous philosophy topics, by John Walbridge, in Essays and Notes on Babi and Bahá'í History (2002). Islamic vs. Bahá'í philosophy; Greek philosophers and the Jews; other topics of philosophy. [about]
- Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab and Shaykh Ahmad, by Vahid Houston Ranjbar (2016-12-23). Brief comparison of two opposing ideologies: fundamentalist Wahhabism vs. the less literalistic teachings of Shaykhism and the Bábí Faith. [about]
- Multivalent Mahdihood: Karim Khan Kirmani's Early Critique of the Multiple Claims of the Bab, by William F. McCants (2003). Shaykhi critiques of the Qayyum al-asma; the nature of the Báb's gradually unfolding claims, first as a báb to imam and qá'ím and finally prophethood; the Báb's concept of religious authority. [about]
- Mysteries of Alast: The Realm of Subtle Entities and the Primordial Covenant in the Babi-Bahá'í Writings, by Farshid Kazemi, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 15 (2009). One of the more esoteric concepts in Shi'i and Shaykhi thought is the "realm of subtle entities," 'ālam-i dharr, a sort of pre-existence for the archetype of humanity, which is relevant to free will and the seven stages of creation. [about]
- Prolegomenon to the Study of Babi and Baha'i Scriptures, A: The Importance of Henry Corbin to Babi and Baha'i Studies, by Ismael Velasco, in Bahá'í Studies Review, Vol. 12 (2004). On the foremost Western authority on the Islamic philosophy of Persia, one of the most influential Islamicists of the 20th century, whose work is uniquely relevant in understanding the philosophical context for the emergence of the Bábí Faith. [about]
- Reconciliation of Races and Religions, The, by Thomas Kelly Cheyne (1914). Early history of the Bábí and Bahá'í movements, life stories of their participants, and their contemporary religious context, written by a distinguished British Biblical scholar. [about]
- Reflections on Some Messianic Prophecies in Shaykhi Works, by Youli A. Ioannesyan, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 11 (2010). A Bahá’í interpretation of passages of messianic prophecy in the writings of Shaykh Ahmad and Siyyid Kázim. [about]
- Sayyid Kazim Rashti, by Moojan Momen, in World Religions: Belief, Culture, and Controversy (2011). [about]
- Selections from the Bahá'í Writings and from Shaykh Ahmad on the Seven Stages of Creation (2008). Collection of quotations from the Bab, Bahá'u'lláh, and Shaykh Ahmad, with footnotes, on the seven stages of Divine action: Will, Determination, Destiny, Decree, Permission, Term, and Book. [about]
- Sermon of Recognition with Luminousness (Khutbih-i-Ma'rifat bin-Núráníyyat), by Imam Ali ibn 'Abu-Talib (2001). A sermon by Imam Ali, of interest to Bahá'ís because (1) it was often quoted by Shaykh Ahmad Ahsa'i and Siyyid Kázim Rashtí; (2) it concerns the true station of the Imáms; and (3) Bahá'u'lláh quotes it in the Kitáb-i-Iqán. [about]
- Shaykh Ahmad al-Ahsa'i and the World of Images, by Todd Lawson, in Shi‘i Trends and Dynamics in Modern Times, ed. Denis Hermann and Sabrina Mervin (2010). Characteristics and function of this world as found in the writings of Mullá Muhammad Muhsin Fayd Káshání and Shaykh Ahmad al-Ahsá'í. Does not mention the Bahá'í Faith. [about]
- Shaykh Ahmad al-Ahsa'i on the Sources of Religious Authority, by Juan Cole (1993-10). How did Shaykh Ahmad al-Ahsa'i understand the structure of authority in Shi`ism, specifically the role of the ulama? Was he to be seen as an exemplar to be emulated, the first among equals, or a Sufiesque 'pole' channeling the grace of God? [about]
- Shaykhisme à la période qajare, by Denis Hermann: Review, by Fares Gillon, in Bulletin critique des Annales islamologiques (2019). [about]
- Shaykhisme à la période qajare, by Denis Hermann: Review, by Yann Richard, in Iranian Studies, 54:1-2 (2020). [about]
- Sheikh Ahmad al-Ahsai, by Moojan Momen, in World Religions: Belief, Culture, and Controversy (2011). [about]
- Shi'i Clerics in Iraq and Iran, 1722-1780: The Akhbari-Usuli Conflict Reconsidered, by Juan Cole, in Iranian Studies, 18:1 (1985 Winter). A debate which came to shape Shi'i jurisprudence, between those who believed that only the Imams should be the source of law, vs. those who held that rational study of scripture could yield worthy principles. (No mention of the Bábí or Bahá'í faiths.) [about]
- Spiritual Body and Celestial Earth: From Mazdean Iran to Shi'ite Iran, by Henry Corbin (1977). An analysis of interrelated themes in Iranian religion, including the angelology of Mazdaism and Islamic Shi'ite concepts of spirit-body identity. Includes descriptions of cosmologies in Zoroastrian, Shi'i Islamic and Shaykhi philosophies. [about]
- Translation List: Provisional Translations of Baháʼí Literature (2009-2023). Index to talks, letters, and other items translated from Persian and Arabic to English by Adib Masumian; listed here for the sake of search engines and tagging. [about]
- Typological Figuration and the Meaning of "Spiritual": The Qurʾanic Story of Joseph, by Todd Lawson, in Journal of the American Oriental Society, 132:2 (2012). Meanings of the famous shirt (qamís) as a symbol of Joseph's spiritual journey and travails in the Qur'an and tafsír. Brief mentions of Shaykh Ahmad, Siyyid Kazim, and the Báb on pp. 229, 231 and 237-238. [about]
- Usuli, Akhbari, Shaykhi, Babi: The Tribulations of a Qazvin Family, by Moojan Momen, in Iranian Studies, 36:3 (2003-09). The emergence of the Usuli school in the evolution of Shi'is jurisprudence and theology in 18th and 19th-century Iran, viewed through the lens of the Baraghani family as it faced schisms of the Akhbari, Shaykhi, and Bábí movements. [about]
- Works of Shaykh Ahmad al-Ahsá'í, The: A Bibliography, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, Monograph #1 (1991). An annotated encyclopedia of core Shaykhi writings. Based on Shaykh Abu'l-Qasim Kirmani's Fihirist Kutub Masháyikh 'Izám. [about]
- World as Text, The: Cosmologies of Shaykh Ahmad al-Ahsa'i, by Juan Cole, in Studia Islamica, 80 (1994). Shaykh Ahmad's creative use of mythic symbols can be seen as an escape from the limitations of the conceptual and literary structures erected by his forebears; his millenarianism and rebellion against staid literalism as a means of reinvigorating Shi'ism. [about]
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