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from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1850. 13 May 1850 - 2 Jan 1851 c. The start of the Zanján upheaval. Hujjat had converted a sizeable proportion of the town and tension mounted between the Bábís and the ‘ulamá. [DB540–1, 527–81; Bab185–8, 209–13; BBD111, 245; BBR114–26; BBRSM28, 216; GPB44–5; TN245]
  • See BW19p381 for this chronicle of events by Moojan Momen.
    • 19 May: Mir Salah dispersed a mob sent against Hujjat by the Governor; the Governor sent to Ṭihrán for reinforcements; the town divided into two.
    • 1, 13 and 16 June: Arrival of troop reinforce ments.
    • 1 July: Capture of an important Bábi position.
    • 25 July: Capture of an important Bábi’ position.
    • 4 August: Fierce fighting ending in Bábi victory and recapture of lost positions.
    • 17 August: General assault on Bábi positions repelled, but Bábi’s lost ground.
    • 25 August: Arrival of ‘Aziz Khan-i-Mukri, commander-in-chief of 1ran’s army.
    • 3 September: General assault ordered by ‘Aziz Khan repelled.
    • 11 September: Arrival of troop reinforcements.
    • early October: Bombardment and assault took several Bábi’ positions, leaving the Bábis confined to a small number of houses.
    • mid-November: Arrival of further reinforcements.
    • 29 December: Martyrdom of Hujjat.
    • about 2 January 1851: General assault resulted in capture of remaining Bábi’ positions and killing of several hundred Bábi men and women. End of Zanjan upheaval.
  • Zanjan; Iran Hujjat; Zanjan upheaval; Upheavals; Ulama; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution Newspaper coverage of the Zanjan Upheaval
    1850. 27 May-
    21 Jun
    First Nayríz upheaval.

    Vahíd traveled from Yazd towards Shíráz, eventually coming to Nayríz. He went to the Mosque of Jum‘ih where he ascended the pulpit and proclaimed the Cause of God. The governor moved against him and Vahíd ordered his companions to occupy the fort of Khájih. The siege that followed lasted a month. [B178, 204–5; BBR109–13; BW18:381; For23]

  • See RB1:325–31 for the story of Vahíd. See also GPB50, KI223.
  • See also B178–82; BBD171; BBR109–13; BBRSM28, 216; DB485–99; GPB42–4; RB1:264; TN245.
  • See BW19p381 for a chronicle of events.
      The main events were:
    • 27 May: Entry of Vahid into Nayriz; his address at the Jum‘ih mosque; the Governor made moves against him; Vahid ordered his companions to occupy the fort of Khájih..
    • about 6 June: Arrival of Mihr-‘Ali Khan-i-Nuri with troops from Shiraz.
    • about 8 June: Night sortie by Bábis routed troops.
    • about 9 June: Prolonged fighting on this day led to many deaths on both sides.
    • 17 June: Vahid, having received a promise of safety written on the Qur’án, left the fort for Mihr-‘Ali Khan’s camp.
    • 21 June: The Bábis were, through treachery, induced to leave the fort, then set upon and killed.
    • 24 June: The arrival in Shiraz of thirteen severed heads of Bábfs which were paraded through the town.
    • 29 June: Martyrdom of Vahfd.
    • 11 July: Mihr-‘Ali Khan arrived in Shiraz with Bábi’ prisoners and decapitated heads.
  • Nayriz; Yazd; Shiraz; Iran Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi); Mosques; Jumih; Governors; Fort Khajih; Nayriz upheaval; Upheavals; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1850. 17 Jun At Nayríz, Vahíd received a message from the Governor offering a truce and a promise of safety written on the Qur'án. He, together with five attendants, leave the fortress and were received into the camp of his enemies where he was entertained with great ceremony for three days. [B180–1; BW18:381] Nayriz; Iran Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi); Truces; Nayriz upheaval; Upheavals; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1850. 21 Jun End of the first Nayríz upheaval. [BBRXXIX, 112]
  • Vahíd was forced to write to his companions in the fortress to assure them that a settlement had been reached. The Bábís left the fort, were set upon and killed. [Bab181; BW18;381]
  • Nayriz; Iran Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi); Nayriz upheaval; Upheavals
    1850. 24 Jun The severed heads of 13 Bábís arrived in Shíráz from Nayríz. They were raised on lances and paraded through the town. [B182; BW18:381] Shiraz; Nayriz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Nayriz upheaval; Upheavals
    1850. 25 Aug The arrival of ‘Azíz Khán-i-Mukrí, commander-in-chief of Iran's army, in Zanján where the fighting began in May continues. He took charge of the operation. [BBR119; BW18:382; DB556]
  • For the story of Ashraf and his mother see DB562–3.
  • Zanjan; Iran Aziz Khan-i-Mukri; Commander-in-chief; Zanjan upheaval; Upheavals; Ashraf; Mothers; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1850. Nov-Dec Muhammad Khán, the commander of the government forces at Zanján, tried to deceive Hujjat into surrendering by drawing up a peace proposal. Hujjat, recalling Tabarsí and Nayríz, responded by sending children and old men to Muhammad Khán, who had them thrown into a dungeon. This signalled the beginning of the final month-long siege at Zanján. [B186–7; DB564–8] Zanjan; Iran Muhammad Khan; Hujjat; Zanjan upheaval; Upheavals
    1850. early Dec Hujjat was wounded in the arm. His companions laid down their arms and rushed to his assistance. The royal forces took advantage of the lull to breach the fortifications. [B187; BBR121; DB569]
  • About 100 women and children were taken captive. They were left exposed in the open for 15 days without food, shelter or appropriate clothing. [BBR121; DB569–70]
  • The remaining Bábís, about 140, sheltered in Hujjat's residence under fierce attack. [BBR121]
  • The bombardment of the fortress was stepped-up and Hujjat's house was particularly targeted. Hujjat's wife and baby were killed. [B187; DB572–3]
  • Zanjan; Iran Hujjat; Zanjan upheaval; Upheavals
    1850. 29 Dec Hujjat died of his wounds. [B187; BRR122; BW18:382]
  • DB573 says this was on 8 January 1851.
  • Zanjan; Iran Hujjat; Zanjan upheaval; Upheavals
    1851 2 Jan c. End of the Zanján upheaval. [BW18:382]
  • Hujjat, wounded in the right arm by a bullet 19 days previously, succumbed to his wounds. With the death of Hujjat the Bábí resistance weakens. A general assault by the royal forces ended the siege. [B187; BBR122; BW18:382; DB573–4]
  • See Bab187 and DB574–7 for the fate of the survivors.
  • See Bab187 and DB577–9 for the fate of Hujjat's body.
  • About 1,800 Bábís were killed during the upheaval. [DB580, 598]
  • Zanjan; Iran Hujjat; Zanjan upheaval; Upheavals
    1853. 26 Mar Five Bábís, acting on their own initiative, murdered the governor of Nayríz, providing the spark for the second Nayríz upheaval. [BBR147] Nayriz; Iran Nayriz upheaval; Upheavals; Governors; Persecution, Iran; Persecution; Assassinations
    1853. Oct Second Nayríz upheaval. [BBR147–51; BBRSM:217; BW18:382; DB642–5;]
  • The new governor of Nayríz, Mírzá Na‘ím-i-Núrí, arrested a large number of Bábís and pillaged their properties. The Bábís retreated to the hills to take up defensive positions against hundreds and then thousands of troops that had been called in from the region by the governor in Shiraz. [BW18:382; GPB17]
  • See BW18:382 for a chronicle of events by Moojan Momen.
    • October: Mirza Na‘im-i-Nuri, the new Governor, began to treat the Bábl’s harshly, arresting a large number of them and pillaging their property. In response the Bábis fled to the hills and took up defensive positions there.
    • mid—October: Mirzá Na‘i’m’s troops launched major attack on the Bábl’ positions in the hills during the night but were thrown back in much confusion and with great loss of life.
    • 31 October: Bábis asked to negotiate terms.
    • early November: Bábis tricked into leaving their positions then attacked and over a hundred killed. Some 600 women prisoners, 80-180 male prisoners and the heads of some 180 martyrs were taken to Shiraz.
  • See BBR147–51 for Western accounts.
  • Nayriz; Iran Nayriz upheaval; Upheavals; Mirza Naim-i-Nuri; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1864 Apr Upheaval at Najafábád
  • Several hundred Bahá'ís were arrested by Shaykh Muhammad-Báqir (later stigmatized as ‘the Wolf' by Bahá'u'lláh) and taken to Isfahán to be put to death. He was dissuaded from this plan by other ‘ulamá of Isfahán. Two of the prisoners were executed, 18 were sent to Tihrán and the remainder were sent back to Najafábád where they were severely beaten. Those sent to Tihrán were put in a dungeon but released after three months by the Sháh. Two of these were beaten then executed upon their return from Tihrán on the order of Shaykh Muhammad-Báqir. [BBD213; BBR268–9; BW18:382]
  • Najafabad; Isfahan; Tihran; Iran Shaykh Muhammad-Baqir; Wolf; Najafabad upheaval; Upheavals
    1882 – 1883 The Tihrán Upheaval.
  • A number of leading members of the Tihrán Bahá'í community were arrested and subsequently condemned to death. Some were confined for a period of 19 months in severe circumstances but the death sentences were not carried out. [BBR292–5; BW18:383]
  • This was occasioned by the release of Bahá'u'lláh from strict confinement and the subsequent increase in the number of pilgrims from Iran causing an upsurge of Bahá'í activities, particularly in Tihrán. [BBR292–5]
  • Tihran; Iran Tihran upheaval; Upheavals; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1889. 17 Jul Upheaval in Najafábád: Áqá Najafí, the `Son of the Wolf', drove over a hundred Bahá'ís out of Sidih and Najafábád. They took sanctuary in the Telegraph Office and in the stables of the governor of Isfahán.
  • See BBR280–4 for Western reporting of the episode.
  • What follows is the account from BW18p383 by Moojan Momen:
    • 17 July; Isfahan, Sidih and Najafabad: Aqá Najafi, the ‘Son of the Wolf, having initiated a campaign against the Bahá’ís in June, on this day, drove over one hundred Bahá’ís out of Sidih and Najafábád: they took sanctuary in the Telegraph Office and in the stables Of the Governor in Iṣfahán.
    • 18 July: They were persuaded to leave the Telegraph Office after being assured that they would receive protection in their villages.
    • August: Bahá’ís of Sidih and Najafábád, having received no help, went to Ṭihrán to petition the Sháh.
    • 25 February 1890: On their return from Ṭihrán with the Shah‘s decree permitting their return home, seven were killed as they tried to return to Sidih.
  • Najafabad; Sidih; Isfahan; Iran Aqa Najafi (Son of the Wolf); Najafabad upheaval; Upheavals
    1899. 9 Apr Upheaval at Najafábád. [BBRXXX, 426; BW18:384–5]
  • Mírzá Báqir-i-Há'í was arrested, several Bahá'ís were beaten and Bahá'í homes were looted in Najafábád. [BBR426; BW18:384–5]
  • Some 300 Bahá'ís occupied the British telegraph office hoping that the Sháh would intervene on behalf of the Bahá'ís. [BBR427–8]
  • For Western accounts of the episode see BBR426–30.
  • Najafabad; Iran Najafabad upheaval; Upheavals
    1903. 03 May Upheaval at Rasht. [BBRXXX, 373]
  • See BW18p385 for a chronicle of events.
    • 3 May: Agitation against Bahá’í’s following publication of photograph of the Bahá’í community; several Bahá’ís beaten.
    • May: Mob disrupted a Bahá’í funeral, exhumed body and burned it.
    • May: Renewed uproar in the town following the placing of a forged placard at the door of the local mujtahid, Haji Khumami.
    • 17 May: Two leading Bahá’ís, Ibtihaju'l-Mulk and Mudabbiru’l-Mamalik, expelled from the town.
  • The Bahá'ís take sanctuary at the Russian Consulate. [BBR376]
  • For Western accounts of the episode see BBR377–385]
  • Rasht; Isfahan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution; Rasht upheaval; Isfahan upheaval; Upheavals; Russian consulate
    1903 Jun-Jul The Yazd Upheaval and in surrounding villages. [BBRXXX]

    See BW18p385 for a chronicle of events by Moojan Momen:

    • 14 June: Yazd: Sayyid Muhammad-Ibrahim, the new Imam-Jum‘ih, preached against the Bahá’ís; rabble took to the streets; shop of Aqé Muhammad-Husayni-Attar and several other Bahá’ís looted.
    • 15 June: Yazd: Hajl’ Mirzay-i-Halabf—Saz attacked with an axe and died later the same day.
    • 22 June: Taft: Rabble attacked Bahá’ís’ houses killing six Bahá’ís.
    • 24 June: Ardikan: Rabble attacked Bahá’í houses killing four Bahá’í’s.
    • 26 June: Yazd: Nine Bahá’ís killed and many houses pillaged.
    • Farashah: Haji’ Sayyid Javad-i-Muhammadabédi’ beaten to death.
    • 27 June; Yazd: Rabble killed six Bahá’ís; Citadel besieged in the belief that Mulla ‘Abdu’l-Ghiani was there.
    • Manshad: Rabble killed six Bahá’ís.
    • Ardikan: Rabble set out for home of Sadru’s-Sultan but were turned back.
    • 28 June; Yazd: On orders of the Governor, Jalalu’d—Dawlih, two Bahá’ís brought before him; one was blown from a cannon and another had his throat cut.
    • Taft: Mulla Muhammad-Husayn killed.
    • Manshad: Three Bahá’ís killed.
    • Ardikén: Sadru’s-Sultan, his brothers, Nizamu’sh-Shiari‘ih and Mu‘tamadu’sh-Shari‘ih, his nephew, Diya’u’sh~Shari‘ih, and four others killed.
    • Hanza: Fatimih Bigum killed.
    • 29 June; Taft: Aqá Muhammad shot to death on decree of Shaykh Husayn-Daréz.gum; Aqa Muhammad-Háshim-Dalall killed as he fled Yazd.
    • ‘Izzábéd: Hájí Ahmad-i-Muqani-Bashi’ killed.
    • Hanzá: Mirzá Ahmad-i-Arzim beaten to death.
    • 30 June; Taft: Hájí Muhammad-Isma'il killed.
    • Manshád: Sayyid Husayn beaten to death.
    • 1 July; Manshád: Three Bahá’ís killed.
    • 2 July; Manshad: Mirzái Husayn stabbed to death.
    • 3 July; Manshad: Aqá ‘Ali Muhammad shot to death.
    • Banádak: Aqá Mirzá Muhammad-Huda and Aqá Muhammad-Husayn Of Yazd killed.
    • 4 July; Manshád: Aqá Muhammad shot to death.
    • ‘Abbásábád: Háji Muhammad-Husayn killed.
    • 5 July; Manshád: Aqá ‘Alf-Akbar beaten then shot to death.
    • ‘Abbásábéd: Hájí Ahmad-i-Kaffash beaten to death.
    • 6 July; Manshad: Khadijih Sultzán Khanum thrown from top of a building and killed.
    • Abbásábéd: Aqá ‘Ali-Akbar-i-Qassab beaten to death.
    • 8 July; Manshad: Aqá Muhammad beaten and burned to death.
    • 9 July: Manshad: Aqá Muhammad-‘Ali strangled to death.
    • 10 July; Manshad: Shatir Husayn, Khabbz’i-i-Yazdi and Mirzá Muhammad-Ibráhim, Tabib-i-Khuramshéhi beaten to death.
    • 11 July; Manshád Aqa Ghulám-Ridá shot and beaten to death.
    • 12 July; Manshad: Three Bahá’ís killed,
    • 13 July:Ibrihimabad;: Aqá Asadu'lláih killed and his head taken back 10 Manshad.
    • Gavafshad: Ustéd Ridá shot to death.
    • Banzadak: Aqa Ghulám-Ridá shot to death.
    • Hanzá: Sayyid Muhammad-‘Ali and Mirzá Javád-i-Sabbagh shot to death.
    • 14 July; Hadafl: AqéTAbdu‘r-Rasfil shot and his body burned.
    • 15 July: Manshéd: Aqé Mullá Bahá’í’ burned alive then shot.
    • 19 July; Qavámzábéd: Aqá ‘Ali-Ridáy-i-Sha‘r-báf killed.
  • This is said to be one of the bloodiest events to take place during the ministry of `Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • For Western responses see BBR385–98 and SBBH1:67.
  • For details of the martyrdom of Hájí Mírzáy-i-Halabí-Sáz during the upheaval see RB2:358–66.
  • For the effect on Bahá'ís of Zoroastrian background see SBBH2:80.
  • Yazd; Iran Yazd upheaval; Upheavals; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Zoroastrianism

    from the chronology of Canada

    from the main catalogue

    1. Bábí Uprising in Zanjan, The, by John Walbridge, in Iranian Studies, 29:3-4 (1996). A study of the Bábí uprising in Zanjan in 1850, examining the social, economic, and political background as well as the motivations of both the Bábís and their opponents.  [about]
    2. Babi-State Conflicts of 1848-1853, The, by Siyamak Zabihi-Moghaddam (2003). Overview of four conflicts between the Babis and the Qajar state: one at Shaykh Tabarsi in Mazandaran (1848), one in Zanjan (1850), and two in Nayriz (1850, 1853). [about]
    3. Bahá'í Martyrdoms in Persia in the Year 1903 AD, by Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali (1917). A memoir by Abdu'l-Bahá, erroneously credited to Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali, published in English as a 28-page book in 1904 and 1917, covering events from March-September 1903. [about]
    4. Chronicle of `Abdu'l-Ahad Zanjani: Personal Reminiscences of the Insurrection at Zanjan, by Aqa Abdu'l-Ahad Zanjani, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 29 (1897). Translation of an account of the Babi struggle at Zanjan in 1850, as recollected by an aged eyewitness who had been a child at the time; an important source for early Babi history. [about]
    5. Document and Narrative Sources for the History of the Battle of Zanjan, by John Walbridge, in Occasional Papers in Shaykhi, Babi and Baha'i Studies, 2:4 (1998). Analysis of Muslim and Bahá'í historical texts, including Dawnbreakers. [about]
    6. Events and Tragedies of Manshád, The, by Muhammad-Tahir Malmiri (2007). Events and martyrs from the uprisings in Manshad and Yazd, in 1903. A translation of Haji Málmírí's Tarikh Shuhaday Yazd, pp. 432-503. [about]
    7. Martyrs of Manshad, by Siyyid Muhammad Tabíb Manshádi, in World Order, 28:1 (1996). Detailed eyewitness account of martyrdoms in Iran in 1903. [about]
    8. Personal Reminiscences of the Bábí Insurrection at Zanjan in 1850, by E. G. Browne, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 29 (1897). The testimony of Áqá 'Abdu'l-Ahad Zanjani. [about]
    9. Social Basis of the Bábí Upheavals in Iran (1848-1953): A Preliminary Analysis, by Moojan Momen, in International Journal of Middle East Studies, 15 (1983). In the mid-19th century, Iran was shaken by unrest caused by the Bábí movement, which set off a chain of events that led on the one hand, to the constitutional movement in Iran, and on the other, to the establishment of the now world-wide Bahá'í Faith. [about]
    10. Tablet of Patience (Surih Sabr): Declaration of Bahá'u'lláh and Selected Topics, by Foad Seddigh, in Lights of Irfan, 15 (2014). This significant Tablet from Ridvan 1863 covers the Seal of the Prophets, appearance and presence of God, resurrection, and the Qayyum al-Asma. Includes context of Bahá'u'lláh's life and troubles during this period. [about]
    11. Treatise on Persecution of Bahá'ís in 1903, by Abdu'l-Bahá, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 14 (2007). Events in Isfahán and Yazd from March-September 1903. [about]
     
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