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1843 31 Dec Passing of Siyyid Kázim-i-Rashtí, the disciple and self-proclaimed successor of Shaykh Ahmad, in Karbalá. Because Siyyid Kázim designated no successor, within a short period of time the Shaykhí school was split into several factions. The two largest were grouped around Siyyid `Alí Muhammad and Hájí Mullá Muhammad Karím Khán Kirmání. The first faction moved away from the outward practice of Islám towards a development of inner realities and ultimately a new revelation. The second emphasized the continuing role of the Prophets and the Imáms and sought acceptance from the Shí'í majority which had formerly excommunicated Shaykh Ahmad and Siyyid Kázim. [BBD126–7; MH26; SBBH1; TB6, Sayyid Kazim Rashti by Moojan Momen]
  • The latter, Hájí Mullá Muhammad Karím Khán Kirmání, became an enemy of the Báb. [SDH165]
  • BBRSM9 for a brief account of his life and the Shaykhí school under his leadership.
  • See MH28 for a picture.
  • See DB43–5, MH46–7 for an account of a warning of his passing in a shepard's dream.
  • Bahá'u'lláh condemned him in both the Kitáb-i-Íqán (p.184-186) and the Lawh-i-Qiná.
  • See DB24-25, 40-42 for Siyyid Kázim's exhortations to his followers predicting the manifestation of both the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh.
  • Karbala; Iraq Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti; Shaykh Ahmad-i-Ahsai; Shaykhism; Siyyid Ali Muhammad; Haji Mulla Muhammad Karim Khan Kirmani; Shiism; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; - Basic timeline, Expanded

    from the chronology of Canada

    from the main catalogue

    1. Analysis of the Salient Features of Risáliy-i-Ja'faríyyih, An, by Foad Seddigh, in Lights of Irfan, 20 (2019). This treatise, one of the major writings of the Báb, was written before He had disclosed His complete station of prophethood to the public. It comments on an Islamic prayer for the advent of the promised Qa'im. Includes translation. [about]
    2. Authority of the Feminine and Fatima's Place in an Early Work by the Bab, The, by Todd Lawson, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). While Tahirih inspired many in Europe and eventually America, she is very much a daughter of her own culture, history, mythology, and religion. She was a religious mystic who felt a new day arising in the world, and seen by some as the "return" of Fatima. [about]
    3. Babi Movement in Iran, The: From Religious Dissent to Political Revolt, 1844, by Ahmad Nur Fuad (1998). Development of the Bábí movement and the political implications of its religious teachings, as seen in its shift from purely religious dissent to political dissent. [about]
    4. Bahá'ísm: History, Transfiguration, Doxa, by Hutan Hejazi Martinez (2010). An outsider's view of the role of ideologies in a postmodern era, focusing on Bahá'í history, conversion narratives, ideology, and other competing philosophies. (Link to thesis, offsite.) [about]
    5. Bahá'u'lláh as fulfilment of the theophanic promise in the Sermons of Imam 'Alí ibn Abí Ṭálib: Translation of al Tutunjiyya, Iftikhár and Ma'rifat bin-Nurániyyat, by Khazeh Fananapazir, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). Translations of Tutunjiyya "Sermon of the Gulf," Iftikhár "Sermon of Iftikhár," and Ma'rifat bin-Nurániyyat "Sermon of Ma'rifat bin-Nurániyyat." [about]
    6. Comparison between the Commentary and Interpretation of an Islamic Tradition by 'Abdu'l-Bahá and Ayatu'llah Khomeini, A, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 18 (2017). On different interpretations of the hadith regarding taqlíd, "to follow (legal interpretations)," as given by Shi`i clerics like Ayatu’llah Khomeini vs. the interpretation of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá. [about]
    7. Consolation of Theology, The: Absence of the Imam and Transition from Chiliasm to Law in Shi'ism, by Said Amir Arjomand, in Journal of Religion, 76:4 (1996). Overview of the Shi'i doctrine of occultation, or the "Hidden Imam," and how this idea evolved into a principle of salvation: historical background; hidden God / sealed prophecy; theodicy and law; rationalization. Contains no mention of the Bahá'í Faith. [about]
    8. Conversion of the Great-Uncle of the Báb, The, by Ahang Rabbani, in World Order, 30:3 (1999). The history of Hájí Mírzá Sayyid Muhammad (1798-1876), maternal uncle of the Bab. [about]
    9. Crisis of the Imamate and the Institution of Occultation in Twelver Shiism, The: A Sociohistorical Perspective, by Said Amir Arjomand, in International Journal of Middle East Studies, 28:4 (1996). Background of the history and theology of concepts like Qa'im, Mahdi, ghayba, and the hidden twelfth Imam. No mention of the Bahá'í Faith. [about]
    10. Development of Shaykhi Thought in Shi'i Islam, The, by Vahid Rafati (1979). [about]
    11. Dying for God: Martyrdom in the Shii and Babi Religions, by Jonah Winters (1997). Religious and cultural meanings of martyrdom/witnessing, and their role in Shí'í and Bábí history. [about]
    12. Encyclopedia of Islam and The Muslim World, by William F. McCants and John Walbridge (2004). Articles on Abdu'l-Bahá, the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh, the Bábí and Bahá'í Faiths, Hujjatiya, Persian language and literature, Shaykhism, and Twelver Shi'ism. [about]
    13. Ideology, Ethics, and Philosophical Discourse in Eighteenth-Century Iran, by Juan Cole, in Iranian Studies, 22:1 (1989). Intellectual biography as a discipline assumes that the life and thought of an individual can shed light on an epoch. This paper examines 1700s Iran via the Shi'i scholar Mohammad Mehdi Niraq (d. 1794). No mention of the Bábí or Bahá'í Faiths. [about]
    14. Imam Absconditus and the Beginnings of a Theology of Occultation: Imami Shiʿism Circa 280-290 A. H./900 A. D., by Said Amir Arjomand, in Journal of the American Oriental Society, 117:1 (1997). Examination of the end of the 9th century and events following the death of the eleventh Imam, and the formal beginnings of the doctrine of the "hidden" twelfth Imam. Contains no mention of the Bahá'í Faith. [about]
    15. Joycean Modernism in a Nineteenth-Century Qur'an Commentary?: A Comparison of The Báb's Qayyūm Al-Asmā' with Joyce's Ulysses, by Todd Lawson, in Erin and Iran: Cultural Encounters between the Irish and the Iranians, ed. H. E. Chehabi and Grace Neville (2015). Comparison of the formal structure of the two works and themes such as time; oppositions and their resolution; relation between form and content; prominence of epiphany; manifestation, advent and apocalypse; and the theme of heroism, reading and identity. [about]
    16. List of Baha'i Studies and Translations, by Stephen Lambden. A list of content available at Lambden's personal website, Hurqalya Publications, with select links to manuscripts, texts, introductions. Includes Shaykhi and Bábí studies, bibliographies, genealogies, provisional translations. [about]
    17. Logos, Mythos and Kerygma: The Logic of Reconciliation and the Occultation of the Promised Qá'im in Bábí-Bahá'í Scripture, by Ismael Velasco (2004). Theological background of the Twelfth Imam in Shi'i Islam, comprehensive interpretation of Bahá'u'lláh's and 'Abdu'l-Bahá's position on the occultation and the Qá'ím, and the historicity of the 12th Imám in the Bahá'í writings. [about]
    18. Mafia, Mob and Shiism in Iraq: The Rebellion of Ottoman Karbala 1824-1843, by Juan Cole and Moojan Momen, in Past and Present, 112 (1986). On the role of gangs in urban social history of the 19-century Ottoman empire; with a decline in government control, gangs ran protection rackets and acted as a parallel government, making alliances and becoming popular leaders against an alien threat. [about]
    19. Maid of Heaven, the Image of Sophia, and the Logos, The: Personification of the Spirit of God in Scripture and Sacred Literature, by Michael W. Sours, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 4:1 (1991). The Logos in Christianity and the Maiden for Bahá'u'lláh can be equated as one and the same eternal reality; the divine image of wisdom in Proverbs; Sophia and Logos are combined in the feminine personification of the Most Great Spirit. [about]
    20. Messianic Roots of Babi-Bahá'í Globalism, The, by Stephen Lambden, in Bahá'í and Globalisation (2005). Contrast of the continuity between the globalism of the Bab’s Qayyum al-asma’ and Baha’u’llah’s globalism, verses breaks between the two, e.g. the abandoning of jihad as a means of promoting a globalisation process. [about]
    21. Mysteries of Alast: The Realm of Subtle Entities and the Primordial Covenant in the Babi-Bahá'í Writings, by Farshid Kazemi, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 15 (2009). One of the more esoteric concepts in Shi'i and Shaykhi thought is the "realm of subtle entities," 'ālam-i dharr, a sort of pre-existence for the archetype of humanity, which is relevant to free will and the seven stages of creation. [about]
    22. One Who Related the Existence of the Qáʼim, The, by Bahá'u'lláh (2015). One-paragraph passage related to the coming of the Mahdi. [about]
    23. Origins of Shi'ism: A Consensus of Western Scholarship, by Jonah Winters (1996). Shi'ism, representing about 10% of the umma, is often regarded as illegitimate by the majority Sunnis. Using Western historiographical methods, I examine three key events occuring during the life of Muhammad that are used to legitimize Shi'i origins. [about]
    24. Prolegomenon to the Study of Babi and Baha'i Scriptures, A: The Importance of Henry Corbin to Babi and Baha'i Studies, by Ismael Velasco, in Bahá'í Studies Review, Vol. 12 (2004). On the foremost Western authority on the Islamic philosophy of Persia, one of the most influential Islamicists of the 20th century, whose work is uniquely relevant in understanding the philosophical context for the emergence of the Bábí Faith. [about]
    25. Questions of Haji Mirza Siyyid Ali Muhammad occasioning the Revelation of the Kitab-i-Iqan, by Haji Mirza Siyyid Ali Muhammad (1997). Translation of the questions submitted to Bahá'u'lláh by Haji Mirza Siyyid Muhammad, the maternal uncle of the Bab, which led to the revelation of the Kitab-i Iqan. [about]
    26. Reflections on Baha'u'llah's Claims to Being the Return of Imam Husayn, by Ismael Velasco (2020). On Imam Husayn in Shi'a Islam, expectations of his return, his place in Bábí theology, and various relationships to the Bábí Faith: ancestral, devotional, initiatory, theophanic, typological, eschatological, and messianic. [about]
    27. Reflections on the Concept of Law in the Bahá'í Faith, Some, by Roshan Danesh, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 24:1-2 (2014). The concept of law in the Bahá’í Faith; its early Islamic context; the nature of legal language and discourse in Bahá’u’lláh’s writings. Religious law, rooted in conscious knowledge and the dynamics of love, rejects rigid and legalistic rules. [about]
    28. Reforming the Marja` at-Taqlid: The Baha'i Example, by Linda Walbridge (1997). Shi'i leadership paradigms and the marja` at-taqlid, "clerical exemplar" or "religious guide." [about]
    29. Regarding Jaʻfar-i-Kadhdháb ('Jaʻfar the Liar'), by Bahá'u'lláh (2016). One-paragraph passage about the mystical cities Jabulqa and Jabulsa and the truthfulness of a figure, Jaʻfar (connected with the history of the Twelfth Imam). [about]
    30. Relation of the Báb to the Traditions of Islám, The, by Wanden Mathews LaFarge, in Bahá'í World, vol. 3 (1928-1930) (1930). Discussion of prophecies made by Muhammad concerning his son-in-law Alí and the division which divided Islám into the two factions Sunni and Shi‘i, to understand the significance of the titles "Gate" and "Point" and the concept of the Twelfth Imám. [about]
    31. Religious Background of the 1979 Revolution in Iran, by Moojan Momen (1995). [about]
    32. Seeing Double: The Covenant and the Tablet of Ahmad, by Todd Lawson, in Bahá'í Faith and the World's Religions (2005). The Tablet of Ahmad is believed to have special potency. "Seeing double" means both looking at the words of Scripture, and looking in the direction beyond the words, as indicated by the context. This paper also discusses the meaning of Covenant in Islam. [about]
    33. Sermon of Recognition with Luminousness, by Imam Ali ibn 'Abu-Talib (2001). A sermon by Imam Ali, of interest to Bahá'ís because (1) it was often quoted by Shaykh Ahmad Ahsa'i­ and Siyyid Kázim Rashtí; (2) it concerns the true station of the Imáms; and (3) Bahá'u'lláh quotes it in the Kitáb-i-I­qán. [about]
    34. Shaykh Ahmad al-Ahsa'i on the Sources of Religious Authority, by Juan Cole (1993). How did Shaykh Ahmad al-Ahsa'i understand the structure of authority in Shi`ism, specifically the role of the ulama? Was he to be seen as an exemplar to be emulated, the first among equals, or a Sufiesque 'pole' channeling the grace of God?  [about]
    35. Shi'i Clerics in Iraq and Iran, 1722-1780: The Akhbari-Usuli Conflict Reconsidered, by Juan Cole, in Iranian Studies, 18:1 (1985). A debate which came to shape Shi'i jurisprudence, between those who believed that only the Imams should be the source of law, vs. those who held that rational study of scripture could yield worthy principles. (No mention of the Bábí or Bahá'í faiths.) [about]
    36. Shi'i Qur'an: An Examination of Western Scholarship, by Jonah Winters (1997). In the Kitab-i-Iqan (pp. 84-89) Bahá'u'lláh rejects the charge that the text of the Bible has been tampered with. Many Shi'is have charged the same, accusing Sunnis of removing the proofs of Ali's appointment as leader of the community from the Qur'an. [about]
    37. Shi`i Islam, by Moojan Momen (1995). Overview of Shi'a Islam, including a section on its relations to the Bahá'í Faith. [about]
    38. Six Lessons on Islam, by Marzieh Gail (1953). A brief overview of Islam, particularly Shi'a Islam, and its relevance to the Bahá'í Faith. [about]
    39. Spiritual Body and Celestial Earth: From Mazdean Iran to Shi'ite Iran, by Henry Corbin (1977). An analysis of interrelated themes in Iranian religion, including the angelology of Mazdaism and Islamic Shi'ite concepts of spirit-body identity. Includes descriptions of cosmologies in Zoroastrian, Shi'i Islamic and Shaykhi philosophies. [about]
    40. Treatise on Leadership: Introduction, by Juan Cole (1998). Informal notes about and introduction to `Abdu'l-Bahá's Risalih-i-Siyasiyyih (1893). [about]
    41. Unique Eschatological Interface, A: Baha'u'llah and Cross-Cultural Messianism, by Christopher Buck, in In Iran: Studies in Babi and Baha'i History vol. 3, ed. Peter Smith (1986). Tracing themes of messianism through the Occidental religions. [about]
    42. Usuli, Akhbari, Shaykhi, Babi: The Tribulations of a Qazvin Family, by Moojan Momen, in Iranian Studies, 36:3 (2003). The emergence of the Usuli school in the evolution of Shi'is jurisprudence and theology in 18th and 19th-century Iran, viewed through the lens of the Baraghani family as it faced schisms of the Akhbari, Shaykhi, and Bábí movements. [about]
    43. Wronged One, The: Shí'í Narrative Structure in Bahá'u'lláh's Tablet of Visitation for Mullá Husayn, by William F. McCants, in Lights of Irfan, Book 3 (2002). On the martyrdom of Mulla Husayn, the structure of sacrificial and devotional narratives, and Shi'i antecedents. [about]
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