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from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1868 – 1870 During this period Bahá'u'lláh revealed a number of Tablets to rulers including the Lawh-i-Ra'ís to `Alí Páshá, His second Tablet to Napoleon III and Tablets to Czar Alexander II, Queen Victoria and Pope Pius IX. [BBD13]

The writings of Bahá’u’lláh during this period, as we survey the vast field which they embrace, seem to fall into three distinct categories. The first comprises those writings which constitute the sequel to the proclamation of His Mission in Adrianople. The second includes the laws and ordinances of His Dispensation, which, for the most part, have been recorded in the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, His Most Holy Book. To the third must be assigned those Tablets which partly enunciate and partly reaffirm the fundamental tenets and principles underlying that Dispensation. [GPB205-206]

  • See Wikipedia for a synopsis of Law-i-Ra'ís..
  • The Súriy-i-Haykal (Súrih of the Temple) was also revealed in Adrianople, and later recast after His arrival in `Akká. In this version He incorporated His messages addressed to individual potentates -- Pope Pius IX, Napoleon III, Czar Alexander II, Queen Victoria, and Násiri'd-Dín Sháh. Bahá'u'lláh instructed it to be written in the form of a pentacle, symbolizing the human temple. See the Introduction Summons of the Lord of Hosts pgi.
  • An Introduction to the Súratu'l-Haykal (Discourse of The Temple) by Mohamad Ghasem Bayat.

  • President Grant of the United States was in office when Bahá'u'lláh addressed a Tablet to the `Rulers of America and the Presidents of the Republics therein'. Copied below is a list of other heads of state of the Americas who were contemporary with Bahá'u'lláh in 1872-1873 as compiled by Bahá'í scholar Peter Terry. [BFA1:80N]
      Domingo Faustino Sarmiento, president of Argentina; John A. Macdonald, prime minister of Canada; Federico Errázuriz Zanartu, president of Chile; Eustorgio Salgar and Manuel Murillo Toro, presidents of Colombia; Tomás Guardia Gutiérrez, president of Costa Rica; Buenaventura Báez, president of the Dominican Republic; Gabriel García Moreno, president of Ecuador; Justo Rufino Barrios, president of Guatemala; Nissage Saget, president of Haiti; Benito Juárez and Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada, presidents of Mexico; José Vicente Cuadra, president of Nicaragua; Francisco Solano López, president of Paraguay; Manuel Pardo, president of Peru; Ulysses S. Grant, president of the United States of America; Lorenzo Batlle y Grau and Tomás Gomensoro, presidents of Uruguay; and Antonio Guzmán Blanco, president of Venezuela.
      ...some of the most celebrated passages of that Book (Kitáb-i-Aqdas) to the Chief Magistrates of the entire American continent, bidding them “bind with the hands of justice the broken,” and “crush the oppressor” with the “rod of the commandments” of their Lord. Unlike the kings of the earth whom He had so boldly condemned in that same Book, unlike the European Sovereigns whom He had either rebuked, warned or denounced, such as the French Emperor, the most powerful monarch of his time, the Conqueror of that monarch, the Heir of the Holy Roman Empire, and the Caliph of Islám, the Rulers of America were not only spared the ominous and emphatic warnings which He uttered against the crowned heads of the world, but were called upon to bring their corrective and healing influence to bear upon the injustices perpetrated by the tyrannical and the ungodly. [MA91]
  • Akka Ali Pasha; Napoleon III; Pope Pius IX; Popes; Christianity; Queen Victoria; Alexander II; Suriy-i-Haykal (Surih of the Temple); Lawh-i-Napulyun (Tablet to Napoleon III); Lawh-i-Pap (Tablet to Pope Pius IX); Lawh-i-Malikih (Tablet to Queen Victoria); Lawh-i-Malik-i-Rus (Tablet to Alexander II); President Grant; Lawh-i-Rais (Tablet to Sultan Ali Pasha); Suriy-i-Haykal (Surih of the Temple); Tablets to Kings and rulers; Summons of the Lord of Hosts (book); Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Haykal and daira
    1870. Jul The Roman Catholic Vatican Council under Pope Pius IX formulated the doctrine of papal infallibility. Shortly afterwards Italian forces under Victor Emmanuel II attacked the Papal States and seize and occupy Rome, virtually extinguishing the temporal sovereignty of the pope. [GPB227; PDC54]
  • See Bahá'í Historical Facts.
  • Rome; Italy Pope Pius IX; Popes; Christianity; History (general)
    1990 (In the year) Pope John Paul II made mention of the Bahá'ís at a reception held in his honour in Burundi. [AWH88] Burundi Pope John Paul II; Popes

    from the main catalogue

    1. Atypical international status of the Holy See, The, by Matthew N. Bathon, in Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law (2001-05-01). Political nature of the Vatican; includes discussion of the Bahá'ís and Bahá'í international organization [about]
    2. Biography of Pope Pius IX: Tablet to Pope Pius IX (Lawh-i-Páp), in Encyclopedia Britannica (1999). Biography of Pope Pius IX, to whom Bahá'u'lláh wrote a Tablet. [about]
    3. Inter-religious gathering in New Delhi, and Address to Pope John Paul II, by Zena Sorabjee and National Spiritual Assembly of India (1999-12-12). Brief address by Counsellor Sorabjee to an inter-religious gathering organised by the Roman Catholic Church in New Delhi with with Pope John Paul II, and a short description of the event by the NSA of India, as shared by the House of Justice. [about]
    4. Selected Talks and Statements on Interfaith Issues by Religious Leaders and Scholars, by George Townshend and Swami Vivekananda, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 4 (1999). Compilation of addresses to commemorate the 50th Anniversary of the Inter-Religious Organisation of Singapore; also includes talks by Jonathan Sacks, Abdullah Yusof Ali, Robert Runcie, and Pope John Paul II. [about]
    5. Three Momentous Years of the Heroic Age, by Adib Taherzadeh, in Bahá'í World, Volume 15 (1968-1973) (1973-04-21). A look at the extraordinary period of Revelation immediately after Bahá’u’lláh’s imprisonment in Akká. [about]
     
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