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from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1870 1 - 2 Sep Battle of Sedan. Napoleon III suffered defeat at the hands of Kaiser Wilhelm I. It resulted in the capture of Emperor Napoleon III and large numbers of his troops and for all intents and purposes decided the war in favour of Prussia and its allies, though fighting continued under a new French government. Napoleon went into exile in England, where he died in 1873.
  • Bahá'u'lláh referred to this in KA86.
  • Sedan; France; Germany; United Kingdom Franco-Prussian War; War (general); History (general); Napoleon III; Kaiser Wilhelm I; Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book)
    1873. Early part Bahá'u'lláh completed the revelation of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas in the southeast corner room of the house of `Údí Khammár. [BBD132; BKG351; DH46; GPB213; RB3:275; SA248; BBS145]
  • See A Description of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas by Shoghi Effendi.
  • There is evidence to suggest that at least some of the work was written earlier as confirmed by the book's reference to the fall of Napoleon III in 1870 and there is further evidence to suggest that parts of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas were revealed as early as 1868. [SA16–17, 248]
  • For the significance of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas see BKG351–3, BW15:87–91, GPB213–15 and RB3:275–399.
  • For analyses of its significance, content and application, see RB3:275–399 and SA248–52.
  • Akka Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Laws; House of Udi Khammar; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Dating of Writings; Tablets to kings and rulers; Napoleon III; Gradual implementation of laws; Charters of the Bahai Faith
    1873 (In the year) The revelation of the obligatory prayers.

    "Many of the laws of the Báb...are carefully designed in a way that testifies that the advent of Him Whom God shall make manifest was impending....The Báb never revealed the words of the (obligatory) prayer itself, thus making the implementation of this law dependent on the arrival of the Promised One." [GH366]

    The original Bahá'í obligatory prayer, mentioned in the Kitab-i-Aqdas, involved nine cycles of movement starting with a bow (rak`ah) and was to be said morning, noon, and afternoon. It probably called for three rak`ahs at each time. Bahá'u'lláh revealed the text but did not release it in order to avoid provoking conflict with Muslims. (This prayer was one of the documents in the cases taken by `Abdu'l-Bahá's brothers shortly after the passing of Bahá'u'lláh.) Some time later, after the writing of the Kitab-i-Aqdas but before that of its supplement Questions and Answers, Bahá'u'lláh wrote a second set of obligatory prayers which are in use today. Three alternative forms were provided: a very short prayer to be said between noon and sunset; a somewhat longer prayer to be said in the morning, the afternoon, and the evening; and a long prayer to be said once during twenty-four hours. [Prayer and Worship by John Walbridge]

  • See Entering into Obligatory Prayer: Introduction and Commentary by Ismael Velasco.
  • See as well the message from the Universal House of Justice message of 28 November 2000 with commentary from Ismael Vlasco, Peter Terry and Michael Sours.
  • Obligatory Prayer; Prayer; Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Questions and Answers (Kitab-i-Aqdas); Laws
    1873 (In the year) The Law of the Huqúqu'lláh that had first been ordained by the Báb in 1848 in the Persian Bayán (chapter 19 of unit 5), was reiterated in the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, verses 227-233 and in the Questions and Answers.
  • At first Bahá'u'lláh declined to accept the Huqúq from the believers stating that the funds were not needed. [Huqúqu'lláh: The Right of God p9]
  • When Bahá’u’lláh revealed The Kitáb-i-Aqdas, He ordered it not to be released for a while. The reason for this He states in a Tablet was because it contained the law of Ḥuqúq, and He worried that the friends may not obey it, or even worse, may come to the wrong conclusions. The very thought that some people, in their immaturity, might possibly assume that the Ḥuqúq was intended for Bahá’u’lláh’s personal use was extremely painful to Him. [Huqúqu'lláh The Right of God Study Guide by Firaydoun Javaheri 2015 p8]
  • "After the Kitáb-i-Aqdas had been revealed in response to the pleas of the friends, Bahá’u’lláh withheld it from publication for some time and even then, when a number of devoted Bahá’ís, having learned of the law, endeavored to offer the Ḥuqúqu’lláh, the payment was not accepted. The Tablets of Bahá’u’lláh show His acute consciousness of the way in which material wealth has been permitted to degrade religion in the past, and He preferred the Faith to sacrifice all material benefits rather than to soil to the slightest degree its dignity and purity. Herein is a lesson for all Bahá’í institutions for all time." [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1987]
  • Huququllah, Basic timeline; Huququllah; Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Questions and Answers (Kitab-i-Aqdas); Gradual implementation of laws
    1873 (Latter part of the year) The existence of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas was made known to the Bahá'ís. [SA248] Akka Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of
    1887. 27 Oct "When Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Kitáb-i-Aqdas He withheld the publication of certain laws. These included the text of the Obligatory Prayers. In one of His Tablets Bahá'u'lláh orders His amanuensis, Mírzá Áqá Ján, to send a copy of the Obligatory Prayers to Persia as a favour to Mullá 'Alí-Akbar who had asked for them. He confirms that the Obligatory Prayers had been revealed a few years earlier." [RoB4p299-300]
  • (It) "was shared with Hand of the Cause Alí Akbar SháhMírzádeh Hajji Akhund in the Lawh-i Bishárát-i 'Uzma (Tablet of the Most Great Glad-tidings), and thus diffused among the community. [Kitáb-i-Aqdas: the Obligatory Prayers Notes by the Universal House of Justice, Ismael Velasco, Peter Terry, Michael Sours]
  • See Kitáb-i-Aqdas: Tablet Study Outline .
  • Akka; Iran Obligatory prayer; Haji Akhund (Mulla Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi); Laws; Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Gradual implementation of laws; Bahaullah, Writings of
    1891 (In the year) In Bombay, on the instructions of Bahá'u'lláh, the Kitáb-i-Aqdas was published for the first time. [SA250]
  • It was published in Arabic. [SA250]
  • Mumbai (Bombay); India Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Publishing; Publications; First publications; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of
    1898. 10 Dec The first Western pilgrims arrived in `Akká. [AB68; BBD13; BBRXXX; DH214; GPB257; SCU13; Bahá'í Teachings]
  • See MBBA146-152 for a description of how arrangements were made to accommodate the Western visitors in a relatively new city with no hotels and few houses. The city was built to accommodate the construction of the Suez Canal which had been completed in 1869. Other sources indicate that the pilgrims were accommodated in Cairo.
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá expressed His appreciation to Mírzá Áqá Nuri'd-Din for his service in accommodating the Western pilgrims. His Tablet seems to indicate that he was kept in place for that purpose. [MBBA152]
  • They divided themselves into three parties, using Cairo as a staging post. [AB68; BFA1:143; SBBH1:93]
  • See AB68–72; BFA2:9; DH61; GPB257, 259 for those included in the pilgrimage group.
  • Included were Mrs Hearst's nieces, a few American friends and, joining in London, Mrs Mary Thornburgh-Cropper and her mother. [SCU13. CH234-236; LDNW15]
  • In Paris the group was joined by two nieces of Mrs Hearst, Mrs Thornburgh, her daughter Miriam Thornburgh-Cropper and May Bolles. [AB68]
  • LDNW15 says that Ella Goodall and Nell Hillyer and May Bolles joined the party in Paris.
  • There were further additions in Egypt. [AB68]
  • See BFA1:143–4 for those included in the first group.
  • Among the group was Robert Turner, the first member of the Black race to become a Bahá'í. For 35 years, Turner faithfully served as butler to Phoebe Apperson Hearst and Senator George Hearst, parents of newspaper magnate William Randolph Hearst. [AB72; BBD227; BFA1:139; GPB259]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá received the pilgrims in the House of `Abdu'lláh Páshá. [BBD13, 108; DH61]
  • See AB68–71; BW16:104–5; CH235–6 and GPB257–9 for the pilgrims' responses to the pilgrimage.
  • Edward Getsinger made a recording of `Abdu'l-Bahá chanting a prayer. [BFA1:160]
  • Getsinger also took photographs that he later tinted and published as an album. [LDNW16]
  • On the 18th of January, 1899, Lua received her first Tablet from 'Abdu'l-Bahá, in fact, it was the first Tablet addressed to a North American believer. [LGHC23]
  • See TF31-52 for details of Lua Getsinger's pilgrim experience and TF44-46 for 'Abdu'l-Bahá's parting remarks to the pilgrims.
  • The Getsingers returned from the pilgrimage with an Arabic copy of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas which was later translated by Anton Haddad. They departed on the 23rd of March, 1899. [BFA2:11; LGHC30]
  • See Star of the West, vol. VII, No. 4 or "Lua Getsinger - Herald of the Covenant" By Amine DeMille for a description of how 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave Lua the power to speak eloquently. [LDNW15] iiiii
  • Akka; Cairo; Egypt Pilgrims; Pilgrimage; First pilgrims; Mary Virginia Thornburgh-Cropper; Robert Turner; First believers by background; Edward Getsinger; Lua Getsinger; Anton Haddad; Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); House of Abdullah Pasha; Abdul-Baha, Voice recordings of; Abdul-Baha, Life of
    1900. c. 1900 The Kitáb-i-Aqdas was translated by Anton Haddad. It was not published but circulated in typescript form. [BFA2:27; SA251]
  • He had made his second pilgrimage in 1988. [Highlights of the First 40 Years of the Bahá’í Faith in New York, City of the Covenant, 1892-1932 by Hussein Ahdieh p3]
  • United States Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Translation; Anton Haddad
    1903 (In the year) The passing of Mullá Zaynu'l-'Ábidín, surnamed Zaynu'l-Muqarrabín (the Ornament of the Near Ones) in 'Akká. He is sometimes referred to as Jináb-i-Zayn (The Excellent Zayn), or Harfu'z-Zá (the Letter Z). He was born in Rajab, one of the villages of Najafábád near Isfahán to a family of Muslim clerics in May 1818. He had first heard of the Báb's claim while on pilgrimage in Karbilá in 1844 and became a believer in 1851. He met Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád after His return from Kurdistán in 1856. He was among the believers who were exiled from Baghdád in July of 1868 and under his leadership and guidance the believers in Mosul became a model community. He was invited by Bahá'u'lláh to come to 'Akká in Sep-Oct 1885 and shortly after that Baha'u'lláh asked that the community in Mosul be abandoned. [EB274-276; MoF150-154; TN412-425]

    Jináb-i-Zaynu’l-Muqarrabín was well versed in Islamic jurisprudence. After the revelation of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, he was authorized to submit questions concerning the laws. The treatise, titled Questions and Answers, an appendix to the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, is a compilation he made of Bahá’u’lláh’s answers to questions concerning the laws of the Most Holy Book. It took more than two decades for "Questions and Answers" to be published in Persian and much longer to be published in English and other languages. [KA9]

  • See Some Answered Questions" and Its Compiler by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani published in Lights of Irfan, 18, pages 425-452. In this paper the author compares the similarities and differences of Questions and Answers and Some Answered Questions.
  • For an image Zaynu’l-Muqarrabín see Picture Gallery (miniature by Ethel Rosenberg). This image can also been found in RoB1p78
  • He was named as one of the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • Rajab; Najafabad; Iran; Mosul; Iraq Zaynul-Muqarrabin (Mulla Zaynul-Abidin); Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Laws; Questions and answers (Kitab-i-Aqdas); Risalih-i-Sual va Javab (Questions and Answers); Ethel Rosenberg; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Apostles of Baha'u'llah
    1910 (In the year) The publication of Questions and Answers in the East. It was a document comprising exclusively of answers Bahá’u’lláh revealed in response to questions about the laws of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas. Questions were submitted in writing and answers were likewise revealed in writing. It is by nature of small size regarded as an appendix to the Most Holy Book. Its compiler was Zaynu’l-Muqarrabín, one of the erudite, devoted and trusted followers of Bahá’u’lláh. He was a mujtahid (specialized in Islamic jurisprudence) before embracing the Bábí and Bahá’í Faiths. Bahá’u’lláh authorized him not only to ask questions about the laws of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, but also to compile Risálih-i-Su’ál va Javáb (Questions and Answers).
    The text of Questions and Answers, though compiled during Bahá’u’lláh’s ministry, remained unpublished until 1910. Its English translation was published together with the authorized English translation of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas in 1992-3. The reason for the delay in the publication of Questions and Answers was the necessity for Bahá’u’lláh’s Book of Laws to be translated and annotated under the aegis of the Universal House of Justice. Without the Book, the appendix would have had no source of reference. [Lights of Irfán vol. 18 p430-432]
  • See Chronology 1993
  • Zaynul-Muqarrabin (Mulla Zaynul-Abidin); Questions and Answers; Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Bahaullah, Writings of; Publications
    1935 Oct Shoghi Effendi wrote to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada stating that the laws of fasting, obligatory prayer, the consent of parents before marriage, the avoidance of alcoholic drinks and monogamy should be regarded as universally applicable and binding. [CB313] United States; Canada Laws; Gradual implementation of laws; Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); - Basic timeline, Expanded; Obligatory Prayer
    1973 Ridván The Synopsis and Codification of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas was published. [BBRSM138; MUHJ105; VV14; BW15:169]
  • In 1953 Shoghi Effendi had included, as one of the goals of the Ten Year Plan, the preparation of a Synopsis and Codification of the Laws and Ordinances of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas as an essential prelude to the translation of Kitáb-i-Aqdas itself. In 1955 Shoghi Effendi initiated steps to this end and had made considerable progress when he passed in 1957. The task was continued on the basis of his work and the resulting volume was released. [Universal House of Justice Message 5 March, 1993]
  • The Synopsis and Codification covered the text of both the Kitáb-i-Aqdas and the Questions and Answers which constitutes an appendix to the Aqdas.
  • BWC Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Publications; Questions and Answers (Kitab-i-Aqdas)
    1974. 9 Jun In a letter to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Iceland, the Universal House of Justice reiterated the laws not yet binding on the Bahá'ís of the West in the Kitab-i-Aqdas. [9 June 1974] Iceland; BWC Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Laws
    1992 Ridván The announcement by the Universal House of Justice that the Law of Ḥuqúqu’lláh was to be in effect for the members of the entire world community. Prior to this time, it was only binding on the Eastern believers, regardless of where they lived. [Ridván Message, AWH106, 175, BW92–3:28, CBN Jan91 p2] BWC; Worldwide; Haifa Huququllah, Basic timeline; Huququllah; Gradual implementation of laws; Laws; Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1992 The annotated English translation of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas was published. [KAIV; VV142]
  • Note: The date of copyright is 1992 but the book was not available until Ridván 1993.
  • BWC Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Translation; Publications Find ref
    1993 Mar The English translation of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas was published. [BW92–3:44] [CBN vol 5 no 10 Mar93 pg1] [CoB310-13 UHJ Message 5Mar93] [VV142]
  • For the significance of its publication see BW92–3:45–6.
  • For its place in Bahá'í literature see BW92-3p45-6, p105-118.
  • This date also marks the first publication in the West of Questions and Answers, a document comprising exclusively of answers Bahá’u’lláh revealed in response to questions about the laws of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas. See Chronology 1910.
  • BWC Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Translation; Publications; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Questions and Answers; Zaynul-Muqarrabin (Mulla Zaynul-Abidin)
    1994 (In the year) His Highness King Malietoa Tanumafili II of Samoa received The Kitáb-i-Aqdas from Tongan Bahá'ís Sohrab and Soheyla Bolouri. [BINS314:9] Samoa Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Malietoa Tanumafili II of Western Samoa; Gifts Find date
    1999 28 Dec In a message from the Universal House of Justice addressed to the Bahá'ís of the world, some laws of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas which had not yet been universally applied were put into effect. Those were the laws that directly foster the devotional life of the individual and of the community which pertained to obligatory prayer, fasting and recitation of the Greatest Name ninety-five times a day.
  • Those laws of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas that were not yet universally applicable were delineated in the message dated 8 February, 2001.
  • BWC Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Laws; Gradual implementation of laws; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Obligatory prayer; Greatest Name; Fasting
    2000. 23 Feb In a message from the Department of the Secretariat to an individual, the Universal House of Justice explained the principle behind the application of Bahá'í law. [23 February 2000] BWC Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Laws
    2008 July The publication of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, the Most Holy Book, in Norwegian for the first time, bringing to about 30 the number of different language editions of the work. [BWNS646] Norway Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Translation; Publications; BWNS
    2018 Oct The announcement of the translation and publication of the Kitab-i-Aqdas into the Philippines’ second most widely spoken language, Cebuano. (Translation into Tagalog was completed in 2003.) This translation was done by Dr Gil Tabucanon and was completed after ten years of effort. Publication was done by the Philippines Baha’i Publishing Trust.
  • Among the languages into which the Kitab-i-Aqdas had been translated, in addition to English, were Albanian, Bengali, Bulgarian, Chinese, Danish, Dutch, Finnish, French, German, Hebrew, Hindi, Hungarian, Indonesian, Italian, Marathi, Norwegian, Oriya, Portuguese, Russian, Slovak, Spanish, Tagalog, Tamil, Telugu, Thai, Turkish, Urdu, and Vietnamese. [BWNS1294; BWNS646]
  • Manila; Solano; Philippines Translation; Cebuano language; Tagalog language; Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); BWNS

    from the chronology of Canada

    from the main catalogue

    1. Additional Tablets, Extracts and Talks, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2018). 57 selections, updated 2019. [about]
    2. All Abide by His Bidding: The Universal Law of God, by Peter Terry (2007). On the liberty of the individual vis-à-vis the laws of God guiding people to making the "right" choices. [about]
    3. Applicability of the Laws and Ordinances of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, by Universal House of Justice (2001). List of laws and ordinances of the Aqdas not yet universally applied (as of 2001). [about]
    4. Application of Bahá'í Laws, by Universal House of Justice (2000). On the application of Bahá’í law and how its procedures differ from civil law, with discussion of the examples of Huququ'llah, obligatory prayer, and fasting. [about]
    5. Ashgabat Collection, by Olga Mehti (2019). On the life and works of Alexander Tumansky and his involvement with Bahá'í history. [about]
    6. Authority of the Institutions According to the Will and Testament of Abdu'l-Bahá, The: A Text Analysis, by Gerald C. Keil (2017). Abdu'l-Bahá's Will and Testament is the indispensable starting point for understanding the Bahá'í Administrative Order, and the competencies and areas of responsibility of the various institutions. The text must be examined as a cohesive whole. [about]
    7. Bahá'í Shrines, by John Walbridge, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 3 (1989). [about]
    8. Balance hath been Appointed, The: Some Thoughts on the Publication of the Kitab-i-Aqdas, by Udo Schaefer, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 3:1 (1993). Significances of the Aqdas and the possible impact of its publication (1992) upon its Western audience. [about]
    9. Biographies of Jamal-i-Burujirdi, by Adib Taherzadeh and Dariush Lamie (1998). Three short biographies of about the man who asked to be exempt from the laws of the Aqdas. [about]
    10. Choice Wine: The Kitab-i Aqdas and the Development of Bahá'í Law, by Anthony Lee (1995). The Kitab-i Aqdas was not intended to establish a new law code (shari'a) similar to the one known to 19th century Muslim jurisprudence, but rather to discard that approach to law in favor of a more organic promulgation of ethical principles. [about]
    11. Commentary on the Kitab-i Aqdas, verse one, by Sen McGlinn (1997). Meanings why recognition of God and his Manifestations are the first two laws of the Aqdas. [about]
    12. Concept of Divine Law, The, by Mehrdad K. Meshgin, in The Kitáb-i-Aqdas: Studies from the First National Conference on the Holy Book, vol. 1 (1996). The changing impact of divine law on society; legal principles current in Europe are derived largely from the works on jurisprudence and the legal decision of Muslim theologians; Bahá'u'lláh's social teachings offer flexibility to address new concerns. [about]
    13. Considerations Relating to the Inheritance Laws of the Kitab-i-Aqdas, Some, by Sen McGlinn, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 5:1 (1995). Gender distinctions in the Bahá'í inheritance laws might at first glance seem to favor male heirs, but the laws actually create a symmetrical equality. [about]
    14. Deconstructing and Reconstructing the Shari'a: Babi and Baha'i Solutions to the Problem of Immutability, by Denis MacEoin (1997). Ways in which the Bab and Bahá'u'lláh adopted and changed the Islamic shari`a in their own, new codes of law. [about]
    15. Discovering a Sacred Numerical Pattern from Baha'i Scriptures, by Romuald Boubou Moyo (2020). Brief analysis of the inheritance shares outlined in the Kitab-i-Aqdas and how the abjad system of numerology might shed light on hidden patterns. [about]
    16. Exemption, by Bahiyyih Nakhjavani, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 3:1 (1993). Thoughts on Bahá'u'lláh's meaning in "exempting" women from certain Bahá'í obligations, especially pilgrimage. [about]
    17. Future of Mankind and the Most Holy Book, The, by Fazel Naghdy, in The Kitáb-i-Aqdas: Studies from the First National Conference on the Holy Book, vol. 1 (1996). At present the world models depicted by the past religions and leaders of the materialistic ideologies have failed to solve the contemporary problems facing humanity. Bahá'u'lláh has revealed a new world model and provided the means of achieving it. [about]
    18. Guardianship, Anticipation of, in the Kitab-i-Aqdas, by Universal House of Justice (1992). Did Bahá'u'lláh anticipate the Institution of the Guardianship in the Kitab-i-Aqdas? [about]
    19. Homosexuality in the Kitab-i-Aqdas, by Kamran Hakim (1996). Informal notes on the treatment of homosexuality in the Kitab-i Aqdas, and its background. [about]
    20. In A Blue Haze: Smoking and Baha'i Ethics, by Udo Schaefer (1997). Smoking as a focus of this first attempt to define certain aspects of Bahá'í ethics. [about]
    21. Inheritance, by Seena Fazel, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 4:1 (1994). The apparent contradiction between sexual equality and the unequal inheritance laws contained in the Aqdas. [about]
    22. Inheritance Laws of Bahá'í Community: A Gendered Analysis of Inheritance Under the Kitab-i-Aqdas and the Indian Succession Act, by Ishita Kohli, in Indian Journal of Law and Legal Research, 3:1 (2021). Bahá'í laws create a symmetrical equality between sexes, via the principle of mutatis mutandis; the concept of private property and its effect on testamentary succession seen through a progressive and gender-neutral lens. [about]
    23. Inheritance Laws of the Baha'i Community and Gender Equality, by Sarthak Sharma, in International Journal of Legal Science and Innovation, 3:6 (2021). Examination of whether the Bahá'í Faith's teachings on gender-justice and equality are reflected in its inheritance laws and the Kitab-i-Aqdas; scholarly articles on this subject; comparison with Islamic provisions and law. [about]
    24. Inheritance Laws of the Kitab-i-Aqdas, by Sen McGlinn (1995). Conceptualizing the Kitab-i Aqdas as establishing a fixed and elaborate set of laws and requirements is misplaced; even in the most central issues there has been a radical development in Bahá'í law. [about]
    25. Internationalism and Divine Law: A Baha'i Perspective, by Roshan Danesh, in Journal of Law and Religion, 19:2 (2004). On the internationalism motif in Bahá'í political and legal thought; the place of divine legal claims in contemporary debates about models of world order; religion as a unifying force; concept of divine law in both Persian and Islamic history. [about]
    26. Introduction to Bahá'í Law, An: Doctrinal Foundations, Principles and Structures, by Udo Schaefer, in Journal of Law and Religion, 18:2 (2003). A pioneering look at Bahá'í law both in general and in detail, the foundations and principles of which can only be understood within their theological context. [about]
    27. Islamische Grundlagen des Kitáb-i Aqdas: Mit neuen Erkenntnissen zu seiner Datierung, by Kamran Ekbal, in Iran im 19. Jahrhundert und die Entstehung der Bahá'í Religion, eds. Johann Christoph Bürgel and Isabel Schayani (1998). [about]
    28. Kitáb-i Aqdas of Mírzá Husain `Alí Núrí, Bahá'u'lláh, The: Redating its Beginnings, by Kamran Ekbal, in Proceedings of the Third European Conference of Iranian Studies, Part 2: Mediaeval and Modern Persian Studies (1999). The exact date when the Aqdas was written is unclear. It may have been composed over a period of about five years and in different locations. [about]
    29. Kitab-i Aqdas, the Most Holy Book, by John Walbridge (1999). [about]
    30. Kitáb-i-Aqdas, by Alessandro Bausani, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 2 (1987). Very brief article, short enough to qualify as "fair use." [about]
    31. Kitáb-i-Aqdas, by Bahá'u'lláh (1992). Full authoritative English translation of Baháʼu'lláh's book of laws, along with clarifying texts and detailed explanatory notes. [about]
    32. Kitáb-i-Aqdas: Bibliography (1998). [about]
    33. Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book): Notes on the Style of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, by Suheil Badi Bushrui (1995). The near-similarity between the style of the Qur'an and that of the Aqdas. [about]
    34. Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book): Wilmette Institute faculty notes, by Brent Poirier (1998). [about]
    35. Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book): Tablet study outline, by Jonah Winters (1998). [about]
    36. Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book): "Multilinear" Translation project and Glossary, by Bahá'u'lláh (1999). Side-by-side comparisons of the authorized translation with earlier translations of Anton Haddad and Earl Elder. Includes short glossary to the Aqdas. [about]
    37. Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book): Questions and Concordances, by Habib Riazati (2000). Study questions, categorized cross-references to the Aqdas and its notes and "Questions and Answers," topical concordances, and other research materials. [about]
    38. Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book): Notes on the "choice wine", by Abdu'l-Bahá and Brent Poirier (2000). [about]
    39. Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book): The Obligatory Prayers, by Universal House of Justice and Ismael Velasco (2000). [about]
    40. Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book): Correlation of passages from the Synopsis and Codification of the Aqdas to the textual passages of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas (2008). An unofficial correlation of the passages from the Synopsis and Codification of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas to the book's textual passages. [about]
    41. Kitab-i-Aqdas and the Expulsion of Covenant Breakers, by Universal House of Justice (1997). Discussion of a reference in the Kitab-i-Aqdas to the possible end of the Guardianship, and the authority of the Hands of the Cause to expel Covenant-breakers. [about]
    42. Kitáb-i-Aqdas and the Process of Transformation, The, by John A. Davidson, in The Kitáb-i-Aqdas: Studies from the First National Conference on the Holy Book, vol. 1 (1996). The Kitáb-i-Aqdas is the source and inspiration for the process of transformation initiated by the Revelation of Bahá'u'lláh. It defines the goals and provides the means. Its various dimensions (social, mystical, ethical, cultural). [about]
    43. Kitáb-i-Aqdas as a Lens with which to Examine some of the Dilemmas of Modernity, The, by Betsy Omidvaran, in Solas, 2 (2002). Contrast between the Aqdas - the source of laws of future society - and issues of the modern world as it had evolved up to the 19th century. Discussion of Houses of Worship, universal language, financial principles, justice, the Covenant, and unity. [about]
    44. Kitáb-i-Aqdas as Described and Glorified by Shoghi Effendi, by Cyrus Ala'i, in Lights of Irfan, Book 1 (2000). Basic facts about the Kitáb-i-Aqdas. Shoghi Effendi's analysis of the book in his God Passes By. [about]
    45. Kitab-i-Aqdas commentary, by Abu'l-Qasim Faizi, in Conqueror of Hearts (1973). Talk delivered in the United States (place not specified). [about]
    46. Kitab-i-Aqdas Questions and Concordances, by Habib Riazati (2002). The Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh and their relationship to selected passages in The Aqdas; New Laws That Abrogate the Laws of Former Dispensations; Correlation of Paragraphs, Notes, and Questions and Answers of the Aqdas; sample questions. [about]
    47. Kitáb-i-Aqdas Research Tools, by Various (2018). Links to six sites providing research materials for the Aqdas: translations, audio recitation, cross-references, and study guides. [about]
    48. Kitab-i-Aqdas Windows Help File software, by Peyman Talaei (1999). A hyperlinked version of the Aqdas in the Windows Help File format (for Windows 3) which can be used for easy study and reading. [about]
    49. Kitab-i-Aqdas, The: Bahá'í Law, Legitimacy, and World Order, by Martha L. Schweitz, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 6:1 (1994). On the Kitáb-i-Aqdas from the perspective of contemporary secular national and international law; its institution-building provisions as a Charter for future world civilization; relationship between law and principle; transformation of international law. [about]
    50. Kitáb-i-Aqdas, The: Studies from the First National Conference on the Holy Book Volume 1 (1996). Five papers, proceedings from a Bahá'í Studies Conference in Sydney, 1993. [about]
    51. Kitab-i-Aqdas: its place in Bahá'í literature, in Bahá'í World, 1992-1993 (1993). Offers a broad introduction to the Aqdas and its themes. [about]
    52. Law, Application of, by Universal House of Justice (1991). Questions concerning the violation of Bahá'í and civil law, and the removal of administrative rights. [about]
    53. Laws Abrogated by Bahá'u'lláh (2018). Laws abolished from previous religions and from the Bayán. [about]
    54. Laws from the Kitab-i-Aqdas Not Yet Binding, by Universal House of Justice (1974). Which laws of the Kitab-i-Aqdas are and are not currently (as of 1974) binding upon Western believers. [about]
    55. Laws of the Bayán reflected in The Kitáb-i-Aqdas (2008). List of 32 laws from the Báb's Persian Bayán or the Arabic Bayán which also appear in Bahá'u'lláh's book of laws. [about]
    56. Laws of the Kitab-i-Aqdas, Further Application of, by Universal House of Justice (1999). Announcement to the Bahá'í world that all elements of the laws dealing with obligatory prayer and fasting are now applicable. [about]
    57. Le Style du Kitáb-i-Aqdas - Aspects du Sublime, livre du Professeur Suheil Bushrui, by Suheil Badi Bushrui (2018). Une analyse du Kitab-i-Aqdas, un ouvrage rédigé en prose rimée typique des écrits arabes les plus exaltants. [about]
    58. Legacy of Verse 42 of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, The, by Gerald C. Keil (2021). Explores the circumstances under which a reading of Verse 42 which indicates that the line of Aghsan might end prior to the establishment of the Universal House of Justice came to predominate. Includes a memorandum from the Research Department. [about]
    59. Legislating on Morality, by Universal House of Justice (1988). Areas in which the Universal House of Justice is refraining from legislating on, e.g. abortion and homosexuality. [about]
    60. Legislative Responsibilities of the Universal House of Justice Regarding Obligatory Prayers, Guardian's Statement on, by Universal House of Justice (1995). Brief note about which aspects of obligatory prayer the House may one day legislate on. [about]
    61. Les Tablettes de Bahá'u'lláh révélées après le Kitáb-i-Aqdas, by Udo Schaefer, in Encyclopédie Philosophique Universelle, vol. 3 tome 1 (1992). [about]
    62. Letter to Jináb-i-Áqá Mírzá Bádí'u'lláh Khán of Abadih, by Shoghi Effendi (1997). Answers four questions: (1) re "Crimson Scroll"; (2) re the "Sacred Night"; (3) re the "Tablet of the Bell"; and (4) using the Kitab-i-Aqdas for bibliomancy. [about]
    63. List of Baha'i Studies and Translations, by Stephen Lambden. A list of content available at Lambden's personal website, Hurqalya Publications, with select links to manuscripts, texts, introductions. Includes Shaykhi and Bábí studies, bibliographies, genealogies, provisional translations. [about]
    64. Making the Crooked Straight: A Contribution to Baha'i Apologetics [excerpt], by Udo Schaefer and Nicola Towfigh (2000). Front- and back-matter of the book only: Contents, Preface, Introduction, Conclusion, Bibliography, Index. [about]
    65. Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-1986: Third Epoch of the Formative Age, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
    66. Mission of the Báb, The: Retrospective 1844-1994, by Douglas Martin, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 23 (1994-1995) (1996). The revelation of the Báb in the context of its impact on the Western writers of the period and its subsequent influence. [about]
    67. Monogamy, Sexual Equality, Marital Equality, and the Supreme Tribunal, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Questions about monogamy, the Supreme Tribunal, and the Bahá'í concept of equality of the sexes in light of some Bahá'í laws and history which appear to undermine it [about]
    68. Most Holy Book, The: Parallel Translation of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, by Bahá'u'lláh (1901). Two translations, side-by-side: the authorized one (1992) and a more literal one by Anton Haddad (1901). Includes image-scan of Haddad's translation. [about]
    69. Notes on Words of the Guardian, by Virginia Orbison (1956). Ten pages of notes, preserved as an appendix to Orbison's lengthy manuscript "Diary of a Pilgrimage to the Holy Land, Made by Virginia Orbison, January 15 to February 11". [about]
    70. Parallels Between Islamic and Baha'i laws and Constitutional Principles, by Afshin A. Khavari (1998). The roles of Sunnah, Hadith, and Ijtihad in Islamic constitutional law, and the development of the Bahá'í legal order and its unique approach to law-making. [about]
    71. Perspectives on the Inseparable Twin Duties Prescribed in the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, by Eamonn Moane, in Solas, 3 (2003). Religions differ in the balance of faith versus good works, the grace of God versus human strivings, and the scheme of salvation. To Bahá'ís, recognizing the Prophet and obedience to his laws are equal duties. For salvation, faith surpasses deeds. [about]
    72. Principle of Succession in the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, The: Wilmette Institute faculty notes, by Brent Poirier (1999). [about]
    73. Provisions for Sexuality in the Kitáb-i-Aqdas in the Context of Late Nineteenth Century Sexual Ideologies, by R. Jackson Armstrong-Ingram (1996). On three aspects of sexuality addressed in the Aqdas (and its supplementary Questions and Answers): the abolition of the concept of ritual pollution caused by sexual fluids (semen, menstrual blood); illicit sexual conduct (zina and liwat); and marriage. [about]
    74. Question of Gender, A: A Forum on the Status of Men in Bahá'í Law, by Susan Maneck and Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in dialogue magazine, 2:1 (1987). Six authors address issues of theology, sociology, law, inheritance, equality, the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, marriage, and feminism raised by John and Linda Walbridge's article "Bahá'í Laws on the Status of Men" (World Order 1984). [about]
    75. Quranic Roots of Some Legal and Theological Terms of the Kitáb-i Aqdas Regarding Women and Homosexual Relations, The, by Kamran Ekbal (1995). Interpretations and etymologies of Arabic terms for prostitution, virginity, dowry, menstruation, sodomy, pederasty, uncleanliness, and adultery. [about]
    76. Reflections on the Concept of Law in the Bahá'í Faith, Some, by Roshan Danesh, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 24:1-2 (2014). The concept of law in the Bahá’í Faith; its early Islamic context; the nature of legal language and discourse in Bahá’u’lláh’s writings. Religious law, rooted in conscious knowledge and the dynamics of love, rejects rigid and legalistic rules. [about]
    77. Reflections on the Structure of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, Some, by Roshan Danesh, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 25:3 (2015). While the Kitab-i-Aqdas might seem unstructured, lacking apparent logical or discernible order, there is meaning to be found in its organization — particularly the first 19 paragraphs: the pivotal constructs of Bahá’í spiritual and social teachings. [about]
    78. Revelation, Interpretation, and Elucidation in the Baha'i Writings, by Robert Stockman, in Scripture and Revelation, ed. Moojan Momen (1997). The complexities of the Bahá'í concepts of revelation, interpretation, infallibility, and elucidation [about]
    79. Secret of Divine Civilization Translation, Capital Punishment, and Other Questions, by Universal House of Justice (1991). On the capitalization of pronouns, reference to "we Muslims," works of Abdu'l-Bahá revealed during the time of Bahá'u'lláh, the first person to recognize Bahá'u'lláh, and designer of the temple in Ishqabad. Includes a compilation on capital punishment. [about]
    80. "Share your time with God", by Universal House of Justice (2004). Source of the quotation "Share your time with God. Spend half of the day in search of livelihood," from a pilgrim's note. [about]
    81. Significance of the Kitab-i-Aqdas, by Darius Shahrokh, in Windows to the Past (1993). History and background of the Aqdas; circumstances of its revelation; the text itself; authority and infallibility of Bahá'u'lláh; obedience vs. liberty; reward vs. punishment; prophecies; laws and ordinances; maturity of humankind. [about]
    82. Six Lessons on Bahá'í Law: A Deepening Course for Bahá'ís (1974). Principles of the Faith; justice and mercy; laws for the individual vs society; jurisdiction; civil law. [about]
    83. "Some Answered Questions" and Its Compiler, by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in Lights of Irfan, 18 (2017). Overview of the life of Laura Clifford Barney and her role in assembling and publishing the book Some Answered Questions, and a comparison with the appendix to the Kitab-i-Aqdas called Questions & Answers. [about]
    84. Special Report on Baha'i Burial vs. Maori Custom, by National Spiritual Assembly of New Zealand (1989). Special report about reconciling Bahá'í burial laws with local maori customs where they conflict; includes guidance from the Universal House of Justice. [about]
    85. State and Society: Implications of the Most Holy Book, by Graham Hassall, in The Kitáb-i-Aqdas: Studies from the First National Conference on the Holy Book, vol. 1 (1996). The purpose of law is for the order of the world and the security of people; the Kitáb-i-Aqdas reinstates authority and renews the linkages between society, law, virtue, and spirituality; the situation in future Bahá'í states. [about]
    86. Story of Joseph in the Babi and Baha'i Faiths, The, by Jim Stokes, in World Order, 29:2 (1997). The story of Joseph describes the eternal process by which the most profound kind of new knowledge comes into the world, simultaneously describing, in story form, its interrelated human, physical, and metaphysical dimensions. [about]
    87. Style of the Kitab-i-Aqdas, The: Aspects of the Sublime, by Suheil Bushrui: Review, by Sen McGlinn, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 6 (1996). [about]
    88. Style of the Kitab-i-Aqdas, The: Aspects of the Sublime, by Suheil Bushrui: Review, by Miles L. Bradbury (1998). [about]
    89. Synopsis and Codification of the Laws and Ordinances of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, by Bahá'u'lláh and Shoghi Effendi (1973). Original 1973 version, different than the version incorporated in the 1992 English translation of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas. [about]
    90. Tablet on Interpretation of Sacred Scripture (Ta'wíl), by Bahá'u'lláh (2001). An undated tablet from the Akka period on the interpretation of sacred scripture, with references to previous Tablets revealed after the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, Asl-i-Kullu’l-Khayr (Words of Wisdom) and Lawh-i-Maqsúd (Tablet of Maqsúd). [about]
    91. Tablet on Interpretation of Sacred Scripture (Ta'wíl), by Bahá'u'lláh, in Iqtidarat (n.d.). Tablet on "the legitimacy of figurative scripture interpretation." [about]
    92. Tablet to Mirza Abu'l-Fadl Concerning the Questions of Manakji Limji Hataria: Baha'u'llah on Hinduism and Zoroastrianism, by Bahá'u'lláh (1995). Introduction to, article about, and translation of the Tablet to Maneckji. [about]
    93. Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh Revealed after the Kitab-i-Aqdas, by Bahá'u'lláh (1988). [about]
    94. Textual Context and Literary Criticism: A Case Study based on a Letter from Shoghi Effendi, by Gerald C. Keil, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 11 (2010). The importance of systematic analysis of the written word prior to the process of exegesis to achieve clarity from the very start; textual questions; a specific example. [about]
    95. Themes in the Study of Bahá'u'lláh's Kitáb-i-Aqdas: Emerging Approaches to Scholarship on Bahá'í Law, by Roshan Danesh, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 27:4 (2017). Review of what emergent scholarship has thus far accomplished relating to the study of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas and Bahá'í law; suggested core themes and approaches; directions which future study of this topic might encompass. [about]
    96. Theological Ethics in a Bahá'í Perspective , by Jack McLean (1996). The Bahá'í writings are a rich source of moral precepts, with a large corpus of ethical statements in the form of laws, directives, exhortations, injunctions, and axioms of moral theology. What would Bahá'í divine ethics look like? [about]
    97. Two Episodes from the Life of Bahá'u'lláh in Iran, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 20 (2019). Regarding the conference of Badasht and Baha'u'lláh's arrival at the shrine of Shaykh Tabarsi, and on His experience in the Siyah Chal, close attention to the text of two Tablets leads to conclusions that differ from current Bahá'í history books. [about]
    98. Universal House of Justice and the Principles of Jurisprudence, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2001). Authorized translation of an excerpt of a tablet on "the wisdom of referring certain important laws to the House of Justice." [about]
    99. Universality of the Laws of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, The, by Bijan Samali, in The Kitáb-i-Aqdas: Studies from the First National Conference on the Holy Book, vol. 1 (1996). The laws of the Aqdas focus on the individual; are applicable to everyone; facilitate the realisation of the oneness of human race; ensure the equality of the sexes; are adaptable to cultural diversities; and call for the elimination of all prejudices. [about]
    100. Unsealing the Choice Wine at the Family Reunion, by John S. Hatcher, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 6:3 (1994). Bahá’í scripture portrays human progress as propelled by two inextricably related capacities: independently acquired knowledge coupled with social action; in revelation this dynamic relationship is symbolized by the Kitáb-i-Íqán and and the Kitáb-i-Aqdas. [about]
    101. Windows to the Past, by Darius Shahrokh (1992). Deepening talks on 25 topics about Bahá'í history and teachings, downloadable in MP3 audio format and PDF transcripts. [about]
    102. Women on the Universal House of Justice, by Universal House of Justice (1988). Response to a paper presented at a Bahá'í Studies conference which raised the possibility that women could one day be eligible for membership on the Universal House of Justice. [about]
    103. World Order of Baha'u'llah: Six Talks on the Various Aspects of, by Ali Nakhjavani (2004). Transcripts of six talks given at a week-long course on the World Order of Bahá'u'lláh, sponsored by the NSA of Italy. Document includes compilation and outline. (This online version compiled from three different editions of this book.) [about]
    104. Китаб-и-Агдас: Наисвятая Книга, by Bahá'u'lláh (2001). Основополагающий сборник законов Миропорядка Бахауллы с комментариями. [about]
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