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The Bahá'í World:
Volume 18 (1979-1983)

compiled on behalf of Universal House of Justice.
published in Bahá'í World
Haifa: Baha'i World Center, 1986

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Frontispiece 1:
    Picture with the caption: Upper chamber of the House of the Báb, Shíráz,
    where He declared His Mission to Mullá Husayn in 1844 (photo courtesy of Mr. K. Mumtází).
Frontispiece 2:
    Picture with the caption: The Seat of the Universal House of Justice.
Frontispiece 3:
    [centered is the symbol of the Greatest Name]


© 1986 The Universal House of Justice - World Rights Reserved
NOTE: The spelling of the Oriental words and proper names used in this volume of The Bahá'í World
is according to the system of transliteration established at one of the International Oriental Congresses.
British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data
The Bahá'í World: an international record.
Vol. 18: 136-140 of the Bahá'í era, 1979-1983
1. Bahá'í Faith
I. Universal House of Justice
297'.89 BP365
Printed in Great Britain at the University Press, Oxford, by David Stanford, Printer to the University
                                                    CONTENTS  
  
  
   Preface.................................................................................................... v  
  
   Introduction  
   AIMS AND PURPOSES OF THE BAHA'I FAITH, by David Hofman..................................................... 1  
  
  
                                                    Part One  
                                            THE BAHA'I REVELATION  
  
   I. EXCERPTS FROM THE BAHA'I SACRED WRITINGS  
         1. Bahá'u'lláh........................................................................................ 9  
         2. The Báb........................................................................................... 15  
         3. 'Abdu'l-Bahá...................................................................................... 20  
  
   II.  EXCERPTS FROM THE WRITINGS OF SHOGHI EFFENDI.......................................................... 32  
  
  
                                                    Part Two  
                                  THE COMMEMORATION OF HISTORIC ANNIVERSARIES  
  
   I. THE FIFTIETH ANNIVERSARY OF THE PASSING OF BAHIYYIH KHANUM, THE GREATEST HOLY LEAF  
  
   1. Passages from the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh About the Greatest Holy Leaf................................. 41  
   2. Passages from the Writings of 'Abdu'l-Bahá About the Greatest Holy Leaf  
         and a Selection of His Letters to Her............................................................... 42  
   3. Passages from the Writings of Shoghi Effendi About the Greatest Holy  
         Leaf and Excerpts from His Letters About Her........................................................ 44  
   4. A Selection of the Letters of the Greatest Holy Leaf................................................... 47  
   5. A Tribute to the Greatest Holy Leaf, by Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum................................... 50  
   6. The Commemoration at the World Centre of the Fiftieth Anniversary of the  
         Passing of the Greatest Holy Leaf................................................................... 53  
   7. Some References to the Greatest Holy Leaf Found in Works Published in English.......................... 55  
   8. Some Works Published to Commemorate the Fiftieth Anniversary of the  
         Passing of the Greatest Holy Leaf................................................................... 57  
   9. The Greatest Holy Leaf: A Reminiscence, by 'Alí Nakhjavání............................................. 59  
  10. The Life and Service of the Greatest Holy Leaf, by Bahíyyih Nakhjavání................................. 68  
  
  
                                                    Part Three  
                            INTERNATIONAL SURVEY OF CURRENT BAHA'I ACTIVITIES 1979-1983  
  
  I. THE HOUSE OF ABDU'LLAH PASHA............................................................................ 77  
  
  II. THE SEVEN YEAR INTERNATIONAL TEACHING PLAN 1979-1986  
       1. The Launching of the Seven Year Plan............................................................... 81  
       2. The Seven Year International Teaching Plan 1979-1986: Progress to Ridván 1983...................... 86  
              A. The World Centre............................................................................ 86  
              B. World-wide Objectives...................................................................... 103  
       3.  Expansion and Consolidation of the Bahá'í Faith--Information Statistical and Comparative......... 134  
              A. Africa..................................................................................... 134  
              B. The Americas............................................................................... 135  
              C. Asia....................................................................................... 135  
              D. Australasia and the Pacific Islands........................................................ 136  
              E. Europe..................................................................................... 136  
  
  III. FIVE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCES  
       1.  Five International Conferences: A Pictorial Report............................................... 138  
       2.  Messages of the Universal House of Justice to the Five International Conferences:  
                 A. Dublin, Ireland 25-27 June 1982......................................................... 156  
                 B. Quito, Ecuador 6-8 August 1982.......................................................... 157  
                 C. Lagos, Nigeria 19-22 August 1982........................................................ 158  
                 D. Canberra, Australia 2-5 September 1982.................................................. 159  
                 E. Montreal, Canada 2-5 September 1982..................................................... 161  
  
  IV.  INTERNATIONAL SURVEY OF CURRENT BAHA'I ACTIVITIES 1979-1983  
       1.  Survey by Continents:  
                 A. Africa.................................................................................. 163  
                 B. The Americas............................................................................ 171  
                 C. Asia.................................................................................... 178  
                 D. Australasia and the Pacific Islands..................................................... 183  
                 E. Europe.................................................................................. 187  
       2.  The Association for Bahá'í Studies: 1979-1983, by Gerald Filson.................................. 194  
       3.  The Establishment of the Bahá'í International Health Agency...................................... 201  
       4.  Bahá'í Scholarship in Australia: 1979-1983....................................................... 202  
       5.  Bahá'í Studies Seminars at the University of Lancaster: 1977-1980, by Peter Smith................ 204  
       6.  The Development of Bahá'í Schools during the Seven Year Plan, by Barbara Barrett................. 207  
       7.  Bahá'í Youth Academy of India.................................................................... 230  
       8.  The Rabbani School at Gwalior, India, by Stephen H. Waite........................................ 233  
       9.  Trail of Light, by Barbara Barrett............................................................... 239  
      10.  The Centenary of the Founding of the Bahá'í Faith in India: 1880-1980............................ 246  
      11.  The Persecution of the Bahá'í Community of Irán: 1979-1983, by Geoffrey Nash..................... 249  
                A. Survey of Events......................................................................... 251  
                B. Identity of the Persecutors, and Charges Levelled Against the Bahá'ís.................... 267  
                C. Pattern of Persecution................................................................... 271  
                D. Last Letters, Wills and Testaments....................................................... 284  
                E. Bahá'ís Killed in Irán, Ridván 1978-Ridván 1983.......................................... 290  
                F. A Representative Selection of Documents Illustrating the Persecution of  
                   the Bahá'í Community of Irán: 1979-1983.................................................. 306  
                G. Bahá'í Children in Time of Persecution................................................... 331  
                H. Detailed Summary of Actions taken by the Bahá'í International Community, National and  
                   Local Bahá'í Institutions, Governments, Non-Bahá'í Organizations and 
                   Prominent People in Connection with the Persecution of the Bahá'ís of Irán............... 337  
      12.  Letter from the Universal House of Justice to Iranian Bahá'ís Living Outside Irán................ 357  
      13.  The Emergence of a Universal Moral Order and the Persecution of the  
              Iranian Bahá'í Community, by Will. C. van den Hoonaard........................................ 363  
      14.  Persecution of the Bahá'í Faith in Irán: A Partial Bibliography of References  
              from Books and Pamphlets, Journals, Newspaper Articles, and Official  
              Documents in some European Languages, compiled by William P. Collins  
               with the assistance of Janet H. Beavers...................................................... 369  
      15.  A Chronology of some of the Persecutions of the Bábís and Bahá'ís in Irán:  
                  1844-1978, compiled by Dr. Moojan Momen................................................... 380  
  
  V.  THE BAHA'I FAITH AND THE UNITED NATIONS  
       1.  Summary of the years 1947-1979................................................................... 393  
       2.  The Bahá'í International Community and the United Nations 1979-1983, by  
                  Victor de Araujo.......................................................................... 396  
                      Annex I............................................................................... 410  
                      Annex II.............................................................................. 410  
                      Annex III............................................................................. 412  
       3.  Activities of the Bahá'í International Community Relating to the Persecution  
                  of the Bahá'í Faith in Irán 1979-1983..................................................... 414  
  
  VI.  RECOGNITION OF THE BAHA'I FAITH  
       1.  Incorporation of National Spiritual Assemblies................................................... 426  
       2.  Incorporation of Local Spiritual Assemblies...................................................... 429  
       3.  A Selection of other Documents Recording Official Recognition of the Bahá'í Faith................ 437  
 
 
                                                    Part Four  
                                        THE WORLD ORDER OF BAHA'U'LLAH  
  
  I.  THE UNIVERSAL HOUSE OF JUSTICE  
       1. The Constitution of the Universal House of Justice................................................ 453  
       2. The Fifth International Convention for the Election of the Universal House of Justice............. 461  
       3. The Completion of Construction of the Building of the Seat for the Universal  
                House of Justice: A Pictorial Report........................................................ 465  
  
  II. THE HANDS OF THE CAUSE OF GOD
       1. The Hands of the Cause of God and the Extension of their Functions into the Future:  
                 A. The Rulers and the Learned.............................................................. 473  
                 B. The Hands of the Cause of God........................................................... 474  
                 C. The Continental Boards of Counsellors................................................... 475  
                 D. The International Teaching Centre....................................................... 477  
       2. The Work and Travels of the Hands of the Cause 1979-1983.......................................... 481  
       3. Hands of the Cause who Represented the Universal House of Justice at Conventions  
             for the election of New National Spiritual Assemblies 1979-1983................................ 515  
       4. A Tribute to the Hands of the Cause, by Lilian 'Alá'í............................................. 516  
       5. The Hands of the Cause of God: An Appreciation, by Ray Hudson..................................... 521  
       6. The Development of the Institution of the Continental Boards of Counsellors  
                (adapted from the Hawaiian History Calendar)................................................ 528  
  
  III. THE NATIONAL SPIRITUAL ASSEMBLY  
       1. Introduction, by Horace Holley.................................................................... 536  
       2. A Model Declaration of Trust and By-Laws for a National Spiritual Assembly........................ 538  
       3. A Procedure for the Conduct of the Annual Bahá'í Convention....................................... 546  
       4. New National Spiritual Assemblies................................................................. 548  
  
  IV. THE LOCAL SPIRITUAL ASSEMBLY  
       1. The Institution and its Significance.............................................................. 554  
       2. By-Laws of a Local Spiritual Assembly............................................................. 564  
  
  V. THE INSTITUTION OF THE MASHRIQU'L-ADHKAR  
       1. Foreword, by Horace Holley........................................................................ 568  
       2. The Spiritual Significance of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár............................................... 569  
       3. The Mother Temple of the Indian Sub-Continent, by F. Sahbá........................................ 571  
       4. The Lotus of Bahapur, by Sheriar Nooreyezdan...................................................... 574  
       5. The First Mashriqu'l-Adhkár of the Pacific Islands................................................ 585  
  
  VI. THE NON-POLITICAL CHARACTER OF THE BAHA'I FAITH  
           Excerpts from the Writings of Shoghi Effendi..................................................... 589  
  
  VII. RELATIONSHIP TO GOVERNMENT  
       1. Loyalty to Government............................................................................. 595  
       2. The Bahá'í View of Pacifism....................................................................... 596  
       3. Summary of the Guardian's Instructions on the Obligations of Bahá'ís in  
                Connection with Military Service............................................................ 596  
  
  VIII. BAHA'I CALENDAR, FESTIVALS AND DATES OF HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE  
       1. Foreword.......................................................................................... 598  
       2. Bahá'í Feasts, Anniversaries and Days of Fasting.................................................. 598  
       3. Bahá'í Holy Days on which Work should be Suspended................................................ 599  
       4. Additional Material gleaned from Nabíl's Narrative regarding the Bahá'í Calendar.................. 599  
       5. Historical Data gleaned from Nabíl's Narrative regarding Bahá'u'lláh.............................. 602  
       6. Dates of Historical Significance in the Rise of the Bahá'í Faith.................................. 606  
  
  
                                                    Part Five  
                                                   IN MEMORIAM  
  
  Abbas, Kamil (Kámil 'Abbás Ridá).............. 722    Korean, Suliana Halaholo............................ 793  
  Adlparvar, Hishmat............................ 775    Labib, Muhammad..................................... 751  
  Ahmadpúr, Fu'ád............................... 682    Leach, Bernard...................................... 669  
  'Alípúr, Guldánih Yúsifí...................... 811    Lith, Jacob Eduard (Bob) van........................ 817  
  Allen, John................................... 725    Lukmani, Dr. M. E. (Dr. M. E. Luqmání).............. 771  
  Altass, Florence Elizabeth.................... 788    Mahmúdí, Zhínús Ni'mat.............................. 781  
  Appa, Seewoosumbur Jeehoba.................... 754    Mavaddat, Nasrollah (Nasru'-lláh Maviddat).......... 791  
  Armstrong, Leonora............................ 733    Mesbah, Amine (Dr. Amín'u'-lláh Misbáh)............. 811  
  Balyuzi, Hasan M. (Hasan M. Balyúzí).......... 635    Mesbah, Jeanne (Jeanne Mis-báh)..................... 811  
  Baqá, Shídrukh Amír-Kíyá...................... 784    Missaghiyeh, Abdul-Missagh  
  Baker, Richard St. Barbe...................... 802        ('Abdu'l-Míthaq Míthaqíyyih).................... 779  
  Beard, Frances................................ 756    Mkhize, Bertha...................................... 773  
  Blake, Cecilia King........................... 723    Mobedzadeh, Shah Bahram (Sháh Bahrám Múbidzádih).... 731  
  Blakely, Dudley Moore......................... 809    Morais, Kenneth Allan............................... 762  
  Brechtefeld, Henry............................ 805    Muhájir, Dr. Rahmatu'lláh........................... 651  
  Chinniah, Imparaju............................ 711    Muhlschlegel, Dr. Adelbert.......................... 611  
  Cobb, Stanwood................................ 814    Mustafá, Muhammad................................... 768  
  Cookson, Alexe................................ 730    Nakhjavání, Jalál................................... 797  
  Dhacoo, Louis Pierre Henri.................... 728    Njang, Elizabeth Idang.............................. 819  
  Doktoroglu, Sami.............................. 683    Ober, Dr. Elizabeth Kidder.......................... 677  
  Edwards, Hermione Vera Keens-Douglas.......... 778    Olinga, Enoch....................................... 618  
  Eggleston, Helen.............................. 674    Outhey, Jeannette................................... 721  
  Eliás, Subhí.................................. 746    Pavón, Clementina Mejía de.......................... 671  
  Faizi, Abu'l-Qasim............................ 659    Pollinger, Franz.................................... 700  
  Falláh, Muhammad 'Alí (Afnán)................. 710    Raman, Appu......................................... 787  
  Farhangí, Masíh............................... 766    Raynor, Allan....................................... 696  
  Fizner, Sarah Florence........................ 727    Rhein, Ottilie...................................... 703  
  Furúghí, Rúhu'lláh............................ 690    Rostampour, Ardeshir (Ardashír Rustampúr)........... 792  
  Ghobad, Isfandiyar (Isfandíyár Qubád)......... 709    Rowling, Margaret................................... 757  
  Giachery, Angeline............................ 717    Ruggoo, Arthur Joseph Gustave....................... 761  
  Gibson, Amoz Everett.......................... 665    Sala, Rosemary...................................... 713  
  Greeves, Lisbeth.............................. 808    Sandando, Yowane.................................... 765  
  Hakím, Manúchihr.............................. 745    Scherer, Carl A..................................... 738   
  Halabí, Husayn................................ 707    Scherer, Loretta L.................................. 738  
  Hayden, Robert................................ 715    Schmidt, Dr. Eugen.................................. 800  
  Henseler, Julius.............................. 794    Seepé, Lot Max...................................... 806  
  Hezari, Ardeshir (Ardishír Hizárí)............ 776    Sneider, Mabel Adelle............................... 705  
  Hokafonu, Mosese.............................. 686    Sombeek, Ludmila Van................................ 689  
  Holley, Doris................................. 821    Sombeek, Rita van Bleyswijk......................... 763  
  Hutchinson-Smith, Jean........................ 681    Stettler, Karl Donald............................... 729  
  Joshi, Asanand Chagla......................... 795    Suleimani, Ridvaniyyih (Ridvániyyih Sulamání)....... 752  
  Kahaloa, Solomon.............................. 741    Vahdat, 'Ismat...................................... 743  
  Kamálí-Sarvistání, Mírzá Aqá Khán............. 817    Vahdat, Yadu'lláh................................... 758  
  Kazemi (Kázimí), Sharon Rickey................ 820    Vargas, Pedro....................................... 743  
  Kelsey, Olivia................................ 774    Vujdání, Bahár...................................... 698  
  Kempton, Honor................................ 748    Weeden, Gladys Anderson............................. 692  
  Kidder, Dr. Alice G........................... 677    Wilks, Helen Hazel.................................. 707  
  King, Melba M. Call........................... 687    Zonneveld, Arnold................................... 824  
   
  
                                                    Part Six  
                                          DIRECTORY, BIBLIOGRAPHY, GLOSSARY  
  
  I.  BAHA'I DIRECTORY  
       1. The Universal House of Justice.................................................................... 829  
       2. The Hands of the Cause............................................................................ 829  
       3. The International Teaching Centre................................................................. 829  
       4. Continental Boards of Counsellors................................................................. 830  
       5. Bahá'í International Community.................................................................... 830  
       6. National Spiritual Assemblies..................................................................... 830  
       7. Bahá'í Publishing Trusts.......................................................................... 830  
  
  II. BAHA'I BIBLIOGRAPHY  
       1. Bahá'u'lláh's Best-Known Works.................................................................... 833  
       2. The Báb's Best-Known Works........................................................................ 834  
       3. 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Best-Known Works................................................................... 835  
       4. Some Compilations from the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh, the Báb and 'Abdu'l-Bahá...................... 836  
       5. Shoghi Effendi's Best-Known Works................................................................. 836  
       6. Language and Literature Achievements, Ridván 1979-Ridván 1983:  
              A. Languages in International Use............................................................. 838  
              B. Invented Languages......................................................................... 839  
              C. Africa..................................................................................... 839  
              D. The Americas............................................................................... 841  
              E. Asia....................................................................................... 843  
              F. Australasia and the Pacific Islands........................................................ 843  
              G. Europe..................................................................................... 844  
              H. Total by Continents........................................................................ 845  
       7. Translations of Short Obligatory Prayer:  
              A. Africa..................................................................................... 847  
              B. The Americas............................................................................... 851  
              C. Asia....................................................................................... 857  
              D. Australasia and the Pacific Islands........................................................ 861  
              E. Europe..................................................................................... 863  
              F. Invented Languages......................................................................... 865  
              G. Miscellaneous.............................................................................. 865  
       8. A Bibliography of English Language Works on the Bahá'í Faith:  Selections,  
                     compiled by William P. Collins......................................................... 866  
              A. The Writings of Bahá'u'lláh................................................................ 867  
              B. The Writings of the Báb.................................................................... 869  
              C. The Writings of 'Abdu'l-Bahá............................................................... 869  
              D. Works Compiled from the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh, the Báb and 'Abdu'l-Bahá.................. 873  
              E. The Writings of Shoghi Effendi............................................................. 878  
              F. Works and Messages of the Universal House of Justice....................................... 881  
              G. Writings on the Bábí and Bahá'í Faiths..................................................... 881  
       9. A Partial Bibliography of some Major Original Works on the Bahá'í Faith in  
              Languages other than English, compiled by William P. Collins.................................. 887  
      10. A Bibliography of Theses Relating to the Bahá'í Faith,  compiled by William P. Collins............ 890  
      11. Partial Listing of some Current General Bahá'í Periodicals, compiled by William P. Collins........ 892  
  
  III.  ORIENTAL TERMS  
       1.  Transliteration of Oriental Words Frequently used in Bahá'í Literature........................... 893  
       2.  Guide to Transliteration and Pronunciation of the Persian Alphabet............................... 895  
       3.  Notes on the Pronunciation of Persian Words...................................................... 895  
       4.  Definition of some of the Oriental Terms used in Bahá'í Literature............................... 897  
  
  
                                                    Part Seven  
                                             LITERARY AND MUSICAL WORKS  
  
  I. ESSAYS AND REVIEWS  
       1.  Memories of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, by 'Alí M. Yazdí....................................................... 907  
       2.  Life as Metaphor, by John S. Hatcher............................................................. 912  
       3.  Remembering Bernard Leach, by Trudi Scott........................................................ 929  
       4.  The Concept of Spirituality, by William S. Hatcher............................................... 932  
       5.  One Kind Deed, by Dipchand Khianra............................................................... 966  
       6.  Kaushal Kishore Bhargava: An Appreciation, based on a Memoir by Dipchand Khianra................. 969  
       7.  August Forel Defends the Persecuted Persian Bahá'ís: 1925-1927, by John Paul Vader............... 970  
       8.  Bahá'u'lláh and the Fourth Estate, by Roger White................................................ 975  
       9.  August Rudd: The First Bahá'í Pioneer to Sweden.................................................. 980  
  
  II. VERSE................................................................................................. 983  
  
  III. MUSIC................................................................................................ 993  

                                                LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS  
  
  Frontispiece One:  Upper Chamber of the House of the Báb, Shíráz, where He declared His  
                     Mission to Mullá Husayn in 1844 (photo courtesy of Mr. K. Mumtází))  
  Frontispiece Two:  The Seat of the Universal House of Justice  
  
                                          Part One: The Bahá'í Revelation  
  
                              Part Two:  The Commemoration of Historic Anniversaries  
  
  Bahíyyih Khánum; circa 1890................................................................................ 43  
  Bahíyyih Khánum; an early photograph....................................................................... 49  
  Some relics of the Greatest Holy Leaf  preserved in the International Bahá'í Archives...................... 52  
  An early photograph of the marble monument erected by Shoghi Effendi over the  
       resting-place of Bahíyyih Khánum...................................................................... 54  
  Bahíyyih Khánum; circa 1895................................................................................ 56  
  Bahíyyih Khánum; October 1919.............................................................................. 58  
  Curtis Kelsey astride a donkey, Pilgrim House, Bahjí, 1921................................................. 61  
  Saichiro Fujita in Persian garb; 1921...................................................................... 61  
  Bahíyyih Khánum; circa 1919................................................................................ 66  
  View of the Greatest Holy Leaf's monument as it appears today.............................................. 67  
  Facsimile of Bahíyyih Khánum's handwriting................................................................. 72  
  The room occupied by 'Abdu'l-Bahá in the House of 'Abdu'lláh Páshá......................................... 74  
  The room occupied by the Greatest Holy Leaf n the House of 'Abdu'lláh Páshá................................ 74  
  
                           Part Three:  International Survey of Current Bahá'í Activities  
  
  Exterior view of the House of 'Abdu'lláh Páshá in its restored condition; 1983............................. 78  
  Main hall of the quarters of the Holy Family in the House of 'Abdu'lláh Páshá; 1983........................ 79  
  The room in the House of 'Abdu'lláh Páshá in which Shoghi Effendi was born in March 1897................... 79  
  The room in the House of 'Abdu'lláh Páshá in which 'Abdu'l-Bahá would receive His guests................... 80  
  Graph illustrating growth of the Bahá'í Faith 1953-1983.................................................... 82  
  The Seat of the Universal House of Justice on Mount Carmel................................................. 85  
  Hands of the Cause and Counsellor members of the International Teaching Centre; November 1979.............. 87  
  A representative sampling from the international press of reports and editorials in    
       defense of the Bahá'ís................................................................................ 91
  Facsimile of House Resolution No. 110, House of Representatives, Eighty-First  
       General Assembly, State of Illinois, adopted 15 March 1979............................................ 93  
  Facsimiles of documents protesting against the persecution of the Bahá'ís of Irán.......................... 95  
  Publications of the Bahá'í World Centre, 1979-1983......................................................... 97  
  Youthful participants in the satellite conference, Nairobi, Kenya, with the Hand of the  
       Cause William Sears; October 1982.................................................................... 101  
  Participants in the satellite conference, Yaoundé, Camaroon Republic; October 1982........................ 101  
  The Hand of the Cause Ugo Giachery viewing the construction of the House of  
       Worship, Western Samoa; September 1982............................................................... 105  
  His Excellency Lee Teng-Hui, Governor of Taiwan, honouring Mr. Suleiman A.  Suleimani..................... 105  
  A selection of newsletters in various languages published specifically for children....................... 113  
  Some published versions of Words of God................................................................... 114  
  Bahá'í mobile medical camp, India, with members of the Dang tribe......................................... 120  
  Participants in the Scottish Summer School; 1982.......................................................... 120  
  A selection of newsletters published in response to the goals of the Seven Year Plan...................... 122  
  Participants in the New Zealand Children's Camp; 1981..................................................... 122  
  First local all-girl teaching team of Papua New Guinea.................................................... 124  
  Táhirih--Iranian Bahá'í choir, Southern Ontario, Canada................................................... 124  
  A selection of newsletters for youth...................................................................... 126  
  Participants in the National Youth Conference, Hong Kong; December 1982................................... 126  
  Participants in the Bahá'í Winter School, Saenz Pena, Chaco, Argentiná.................................... 128  
  The Hand of the Cause Collis Featherstone with participants in the Finnish Bahá'í Summer School; 1982..... 128  
  Some Bahá'ís of the Tapi tribe, Mindoro, Philippines...................................................... 130  
  Chinese Bahá'ís of Calcutta, India........................................................................ 130  
  Bahá'ís at Local Bahá'í Centre  for Nineteen-Day Feast, Nagumeya, Ciskei; 1982............................ 133  
  Participants in the Pioneer Training Institute, Alberta, Canada; 1981..................................... 133  
  French Minister of State for the Interior, Gaston Defferre and Mme. Defferre, on their  
       visit to the Seat of the House of Justice; February 1983............................................. 137  
  Five International Conferences--a Pictorial Report........................................................ 138  
  Participants in the satellite conference, Nairobi, Kenya; October 1982.................................... 154  
  A representative sampling from Canadian newspapers of references to the International  
     Bahá'í Conference held in Montreal; September 1982..................................................... 155  
  Bushman and other participants who attended a deepening institute held in  
       Khudumelapye, Botswana; July 1981.................................................................... 164  
  First Bahá'í Summer School, Victoria, Cameroon Republic; March 1980....................................... 166  
  First Local Spiritual Assembly of Mariental, South West Africa/Namibia.................................... 169  
  Bus poster, Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.A. ..................................................................... 173  
  Antonio Cruz, first Bahá'í of the Totonaco tribe in Veracruz, Mexico...................................... 174  
  Second continental indigenous council, Wilmette, Illinois, U.S.A. ........................................ 175  
  Poster advertising a dance created by Ballet Shayda to honour the martyrs of Irán......................... 176  
  Local Bahá'í community poster commemorating the seven Bahá'ís of Yazd who   
       were martyred in September 1980...................................................................... 176
  The Local Spiritual Assembly of Chucuito, Puno, Peru; 1981................................................ 178  
  The 'Children of Bahá' choir performing in observance of  U.N. Human Rights Day, 1979..................... 179  
  'The Chosen Highway' youth choir , Panchgani, Maharashtra, India; 1982.................................... 179  
  Some Bahá'ís of the Dang tribe, Gujarat, India; 1982...................................................... 181  
  Some Bahá'í women of Burma................................................................................ 183  
  Regional Teaching Conference, Auckland, New Zealand; June 1981............................................ 184  
  The Local Spiritual Assembly of Albury, New South Wales, Australia; 1979.................................. 184  
  U.N. Day observance, Bahá'í House of Worship, Sydney, Australia; 1980..................................... 187  
  Teaching Institute, Sisimiut, Greenland; 25 July 1982..................................................... 188  
  National Hazíratu'l-Quds of the Republic of Ireland; September 1982....................................... 188  
  A selection of major original publications about the Bahá'í Faith in European languages................... 191  
  National Youth Symposium, Seiano, Italy; June 1980........................................................ 191  
  Annual convention, Iceland; 1981.......................................................................... 193  
  Exterior view of the Association for Bahá'í Studies centre, Ottawa, Canada................................ 195  
  View of the reception area, Bahá'í Studies centre, Ottawa, Canada......................................... 195  
  The Hand of the Cause Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum addressing the international  
       conference on marriage and family life, Ottawa, Canada; 1981......................................... 197  
  The Hand of the Cause John Robarts with recipients of awards.............................................. 197  
  Issues of Bahá'í Studies and Bahá'í Studies Notebook published in the  
       period Ridván 1979-1983.............................................................................. 199  
  The Hand of the Cause John Robarts with participants in the inaugural meeting of the  
       Bahá'í International Health Agency................................................................... 201  
  Mrs. Gayle Morrison delivering the Hasan M. Balyúzí lecture during the seventh annual  
       conference of the Association for Bahá'í Studies..................................................... 205  
  A representative sampling of Bahá'í scholarly journals, 1979-1983......................................... 206  
  Students of the New Era School, Panchgani, India.......................................................... 207  
  Anís Zunúzí School, Lilavoix, Haiti....................................................................... 208  
  Odusai School, Tororo District, Uganda; August 1981....................................................... 209  
  A woodworking class, New Era High School, Panchgani, India................................................ 210  
  Laying the cornerstone at the site of the Bahá'í Youth Academy, Panchgani, India.......................... 210  
  Glory School, Santiniketan, West Bengal State, India...................................................... 212  
  Glory School classroom; 1982.............................................................................. 212  
  Shoghi Children's School, Nunna, India.................................................................... 212  
  A Bahá'í tutorial school, Charolipada, India.............................................................. 213  
  Children in prayer, Bahá'í tutorial school, Bairagra, India............................................... 214  
  A Bahá'í tutorial school, Jhabua, India; 1983............................................................. 214  
  A Bahá'í tutorial school, Markara, India.................................................................. 214  
  Hostel for Bahá'í children from Mentawai Islands, Padang, Indonesia....................................... 216  
  A classroom, Tadong Bahá'í Primary School, Gangtok, Sikkim; 1980.......................................... 217  
  Students of Pachey Phirphiray tutorial school, Sikkim; 1983............................................... 217  
  Students of Colegio Núr, La Cisterna, Santiago, Chile; 1983............................................... 218  
  Colegio Núr, La Cisterna, Santiago, Chile................................................................. 220  
  Nursery class, Santitham School, Yasothon, Thailand....................................................... 222  
  Inaugeration of Anís Zunúzí School, Lilavoix, Haiti; 20 October 1982...................................... 222  
  The Faizí School, Loncopulle, Chile....................................................................... 222  
  Tutorial school, Quebrada Nigua, Panama................................................................... 225  
  Tutorial school, Piggs Peak, Swaziland.................................................................... 225  
  Gingalili Pre-School, Nakuru District, Kenya.............................................................. 225  
  Village tutorial school, Iriga City area, Philippines..................................................... 225  
  Louhelen School, Davison, Michigan, U.S.A. ............................................................... 227  
  Louis G. Gregory Institute, Hemingway, South Carolina, U.S.A.; 1983....................................... 227  
  Tutorial school, Bangwade, Upper Zaire; March 1983........................................................ 227  
  Tutorial pre-school, Bulembu, Swaziland; 1982............................................................. 228  
  Participants in second course of the Bahá'í Youth Academy of India; 1982.................................. 231  
  Faculty and students of Rabbani School; 1983.............................................................. 234  
  Ploughing with Rabbani School's team of water-buffalo..................................................... 237  
  Mrs. Sherman Waite conducting a class at Rabbani School................................................... 238  
  Four members of the Trail of Light group.................................................................. 240  
  The Trail of Light group with members of the Aguaruna tribe, Peru......................................... 240  
  The Trail of Light group in Porras, Bolivia............................................................... 240  
  The Trail of Light group, Southwest Bahá'í Institute, Arizona, U.S.A.; June 1982.......................... 241  
  An outdoor performance of the Trail of Light group, Pucyura, Peru......................................... 243  
  The Trail of Light group in Honduras...................................................................... 244  
  Press clippings reporting on the centenary of the founding of the Bahá'í Faith in India; April 1980....... 248  
  The national Hazíratu'l-Quds of the Bahá'ís of Irán, Tihrán, seized 15 February 1979...................... 250  
  Home of a Bahá'í family in Shíráz after being looted and destroyed; 1979.................................. 250  
  Translation into English of a circular letter addressed to a Bahá'í who was suspended  
       from employment in government service................................................................ 251  
  Site of the House of the Báb in process of being demolished............................................... 253  
  Towns and cities in Irán in which Bahá'í holy places, cemeteries and other properties  
       have been  seized or destroyed....................................................................... 254  
  Some members of the National Spiritual Assembly of Irán and other prominent  
       Bahá'ís who were kidnapped or executed............................................................... 258  
  A desecrated Bahá'í cemetery.............................................................................. 263  
  Mourners gathered for the funeral of. Dr. Manúchihr Hakím................................................. 263  
  Tent settlement of Bahá'í refugees, Katá.................................................................. 272  
  A Bahá'í family harassed and made homeless................................................................ 272  
  Mourners gathered for the funeral of. Mihdí Anvarí and Hidáyatu'lláh Dihqání.............................. 282  
  Visitors visiting graves of Bahá'í martyrs in graveyard reserved for 'infidels'........................... 282  
  The House of Bahá'u'lláh in Tákur, district of Núr, Mázindarán, Irán...................................... 289  
  Individual photographs of some of the martyrs............................................................. 295  
  
                                       Documentation of the Persecutions  
  
  Procession honouring the martyrs, the Hague; August 1982.................................................. 356  
  Three books describing the persecutions of the Bahá'ís of Irán............................................ 362  
  News-stand posters printed by Tribune de Genève and Journal de Genè for display in  
       public newspaper dispensers; 1980.................................................................... 379  
  Towns and cities in Irán in which Bahá'ís were arrested or killed between 1979 and 1983................... 392  
  Illustration depicting the death of a Bahá'í from the magazine Ima'ma, circa 1911......................... 392  
  Bahá'í International Community representatives, U.N. Commission on Human Rights,   
       Geneva; 31 January 1983.............................................................................. 395
  Bahá'í representatives, Second World Conference on the U.N. Decade for Women,  Copenhagen; July 1980...... 407  
  Bahá'í literature display, Second World Conference on Women............................................... 407  
  Bahá'í International Community representatives to the United Nations Commission on Human 
       Rights held in Geneva; 15 February 1982.............................................................. 409  
  A selection of major publications of the Bahá'í International Community................................... 413  
  U.N. Day observance, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 24 October 1980............................................... 413  
  Bahá'í delegations to the meetings of the European Parliament; September 1980............................. 416  
  Bahá'í delegation to the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe,  
       Strasbourg France; 29 January 1981................................................................... 416  
  Senior Iranian military officers are seen attacking the Bahá'í National Centre, Tihrán; 1955.............. 425  
  
                                  Part Four:  The World Order of Bahá'u'lláh  
  
  The members of the Universal House of Justice elected at Ridván 1983...................................... 460  
  Delegates to the International Convention................................................................. 462  
  Friends gathered at Pilgrim House, Haifa, for the observance during the International  
       Convention, 1983, of the Ninth Day of Ridván......................................................... 464  
  The Hand of the Cause 'Alí-Akbar Furútan with delegates to the Fifth International  
       Convention from Taiwan............................................................................... 480  
  The Hands of the Cause William Sears, Dr. 'Alí-Muhammad Varqá, John Robarts and  
       Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum; August 1980............................................................ 483  
  The Hand of the Cause Dr. Ugo Giachery with two young friends in Norway................................... 483  
  The Hand of the Cause Dr. Rahmatu'lláh Muhájir, Mendoza, Argentina; December 1979......................... 493  
  The Hand of the Cause Paul E. Haney with members of the Continental Board of  
       Counsellors in Asia; 6 January 1981.................................................................. 493  
  The Hands of the Cause Enoch Olinga, Abu'l-Qásim Faizí and Dr. Adelbert  
       Muhlschlegel, Plon, Germany; 1972.................................................................... 504  
  The Hand of cthe Cause Dhikru'lláh Khádem, Wilmette, Illinois, U.S.A.; August 1982........................ 504  
  The Hand of the Cause 'Alí-Akbar Furútan with some delegates to the International 
       Convention; April 1983............................................................................... 513  
  The Hand of the Cause H. Collis Featherstone, Savonlinna, Finland; July 1982.............................. 513  
  The Hand of the Cause John Robarts with four Bahá'ís from Zimbabwe........................................ 514  
  Inaugural meeting of the Continental Board of Counsellors in Africa with the Hand of  
         the Cause William Sears; 1981...................................................................... 529  
  Inaugural meeting of the Continental Board of Counsellors in the Americas with the  
         Hand of the Cause Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum; 1981............................................... 529  
  Inaugural meeting of the Continental Board of Counsellors in Asia with the Hand of the  
         Cause Paul E. Haney; 1981.......................................................................... 531  
  Inaugural meeting of the Continental Board of Counsellors in Australasia with the  
         Hand of the Cause H. Collis Featherstone, 1981..................................................... 531  
  Inaugural meeting of the Continental Board of Counsellors in Europe with the Hand of  
         the Cause Dhikru'lláh Khádem, 1981................................................................. 533  
  The members of the Universal House of Justice, the Hands of the Cause, Counsellor members of the  
         International Teaching Centre and members of the Continental Boards of Counsellors, Mazra'ih; 1983. 533  
  The Hand of the Cause Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum with His Excellency Sir Gerald Christopher  
         Cash, Governor General of the Commonwealth of the Bahamas; April 1981.............................. 533  
  
                                          New National Spiritual Assemblies  
  
  Transkei (1980)................................. 548    Windward Islands (1981)........................... 551  
  Bermuda (1981).................................. 548    Dominica (1983)................................... 551  
  Bophuthatswana (1981)........................... 549    St. Lucia (1983).................................. 552  
  Leeward Islands (1981).......................... 549    Uganda (re-established 1981)...................... 553  
  South West Africa/Nambia (1981)................. 550    Nepal (re-established 1982)....................... 553  
  Tuvalu (1981)................................... 550  
  
  The Mother Temple of the West, Wilmette, Illinois, U.S.A. ................................................ 570  
  Architectural drawings of the Indian Temple--Podium Level Key Plan and Main Building Section.............. 573  
  Construction worker at Indian Temple site................................................................. 581  
  The Mashriqu'l-Adhkár of the Indian sub-continent under construction; 1 December 1981..................... 583  
  Construction work in progress; 19 April 1983.............................................................. 583  
  Architect's model of completed Temple..................................................................... 584  
  His Highness Malietoa Tanumafili II visiting the Samoan Temple site at Apia, Western  
         Samoa; 18 December 1981............................................................................ 587  
  Aerial view of the Samoan Temple under construction; 15 January 1983...................................... 587  
  Two views of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár of the Pacific Islands under construction.............................. 588  
  Stairs leading to the main rooms of the House of 'Abdu'llah Páshá, 1983................................... 608  
  
                                                    Part Five:  In Memoriam  
  
  Muhlschlegel, Adelbert............................... 612    Vargas, Pedro................................ 744  
  Haney, Paul Edmond................................... 615    Hakím, Manúchihr............................. 745  
  Olinga, Enoch........................................ 618    Eliás, Subhí................................. 747  
  Enoch Olinga with some members of his family......... 635    Kempton, Honor............................... 749  
  Balyuzi, Hasan M.(Hasan M. Balyúzí).................. 636    Labíb, Muhammad.............................. 751  
  Muhájir, Rahmatu'lláh................................ 652    Suleimani, Ridvaniyyih (Ridvániyyih  
  Faizi, Abu'l-Qásim................................... 659         Sulamání)............................... 753  
  Gibson, Amoz Everett................................. 666    Appa, Seewoosumbur Jeehoba................... 754  
  Leach, Bernard....................................... 670    Beard, Frances............................... 756  
  Pavón, Clementina, Mejía de.......................... 672    Rowling, Margaret............................ 758  
  Pavón, Segundo....................................... 672    Vahdat, Yadu'lláh............................ 759  
  Eggleston, Helen..................................... 675    Ruggoo, Arthur Joseph Gustave................ 761  
  Ober, Elizabeth Kidder............................... 678    Morais, Kenneth Allan........................ 762  
  Kidder, Alice G. .................................... 678    Sombeek, Rita van Bleyswijk.................. 763  
  Hutchinson-Smith, Jean............................... 681    Sandando, Yowane............................. 766  
  Ahmadpúr, Fu'ád...................................... 682    Farangí, Masíh............................... 767  
  Doktoroglu, Sami..................................... 684    Mustafá, Muhammad............................ 769  
  Hokafonu, Mosese..................................... 686    Lukmani, M. E. (Muhammad Ibráhímjí  
  King, Melba M. Call.................................. 688          Luqmání)............................... 772  
  Sombeek, Ludmila Van................................. 689    Mkhize, Bertha............................... 773  
  Furúghi, Rúhu'lláh................................... 691    Kelsey, Olivia............................... 775  
  Weeden, Gladys Anderson.............................. 693    Adlparvar, Hishmat........................... 776  
  Raynor, Allan........................................ 696    Hezari, Ardeshihr (Ardishír Hizárí).......... 777  
  Vujdání, Bahár....................................... 699    Edwards, Hermione Vera Keens-Douglas......... 778  
  Mr. Vujdání's last letter to his family.............. 700    Missaghiyeh, Abdul-Missagh  
  Pollinger, Franz..................................... 701         ('Abdu'l-Míthaq Míthaqíyih)............. 779  
  Rhein, Ottilie....................................... 704    Mahmúdi, Zhínús Ni'mat....................... 781  
  Sneider, Mabel Adelle................................ 706    Baqá, Shídrukh Amír-Kíyá..................... 784  
  Halabí, Husayn (Husayn Rátibu'l-Halabí).............. 707    Raman, Appu.................................. 787  
  Wilks, Helen Hazel................................... 708    Altass, Florence Elizabeth................... 788  
  Ghobad, Isfandiyar (Isfándíyar Qubád)................ 709    Mavaddat, Nasrollah (Nasru'lláh  
  Falláh, Muhammad 'Alí Afnán.......................... 711         Maviddat)............................... 791  
  Chinniah, Inparaju................................... 712    Rostampour, Ardeshir (Ardashír  
  Sala, Rosemary....................................... 713         Rustampúr).............................. 792  
  Hayden, Robert....................................... 716    Korean, Suliana Halaholo..................... 794  
  Giachery, Angeline................................... 717    Henseler, Julius............................. 795  
  Nodada, Cecilia Mikize............................... 720    Joshi, Asanand Chagla........................ 796  
  Outhey, Jeannette.................................... 722    Nakhjavání, Jalál............................ 797  
  Abbas, Kamil (Kámil 'Abbás Ridá)..................... 722    Schmidt, Eugen............................... 800  
  Blake, Cecilia King.................................. 723    Baker, Richard St. Barbe..................... 802  
  Allen, John William.................................. 725    Brechtefeld, Henry........................... 805  
  Fitzner, Sarah Florence.............................. 727    Seepé, Lot Max............................... 807  
  Dhacoo, Louis Pierre Henri........................... 728    Greeves, Lisbeth............................. 808  
  Stettler, Karl Donald................................ 729    Blakely, Dudley Moore........................ 810  
  Cookson, Alexe....................................... 730    Mesbah, Amine (Amín'u'lláh Misbáh)........... 813  
  Mobedzadeh, Shah Behram (Sháh Bahrám                         Mesbah, Jeanne (Marie-Jeanne Irady Misbáh)... 813  
      Múbidzádih)...................................... 732    Cobb, Stanwood............................... 815  
  Armstrong, Leonora Stirling.......................... 733    Kamálí-Sarvistání, Mírzá Aqá Khán............ 817  
  Scherer, Loretta L. ................................. 739    Lith, Jacob Eduard (Bob) van................. 818  
  Scherer, Carl A. .................................... 739    Njang, Elizabeth Idang....................... 819  
  Shepherd, Harold..................................... 740    Kazemi (Kázimí), Sharon Rickey............... 820  
  Kahaloa, Solomon..................................... 742    Holley, Doris................................ 822  
  Vahdat, 'Ismat....................................... 743    Zonneveld, Arnold............................ 825  
  
                                                    Part Six:  Directory, Bibliography, Glossary  
  
  The Mayor of La Paz, Bolivia, at the La Paz book fair; July 1981.......................................... 845  
  Bahá'í exhibit, International Book Fair, Frankfurt, Germany; October 1982................................. 892  
  An example of Mishkín-Qalam's calligraphy................................................................. 896  
  
                                                      Part Seven:  Literary and Musical Works  
  
  Bernard Leach; July 1977.................................................................................. 931  
  Kaushal Kishore Bhargava.........................................................................,........ 969  
  August Forel; 1924........................................................................................ 974  
  The Times of London, 30 August 1980, reported the seizure of the members of the  
       National Spiritual Assembly of Irán.................................................................. 979  
  Anna and August Rudd...................................................................................... 981  
  Some participants in the first Winter School of Sweden; December 1979..................................... 982


[page v]

PREFACE

THE successive volumes of The Bahá'í World have come to be anticipated by Bahá'ís as the record of their own collective endeavours on behalf of their Faith, of the establishment and development of its administrative order throughout the world and as the source of data, both historical and statistical, relating to the rise of that Faith during its formative age.

By librarians and students The Bahá'í World is becoming ever more widely known as a source of authentic information about the aims, tenets, history, activities, organization and growth of the Bahá'í Faith. The editors therefore have always in mind the preservation of an even balance between the presentation of material of supreme interest to believers and of a fair and objective picture to enquirers. In this they are guided by the policy of Shoghi Effendi, Guardian of the Bahá'í Faith, who directed the compilation of the successive volumes from I to XII covering the years 1925 to 1954. The first volume, known as Bahá'í Year Book, was in fact a one-year survey; the next seven volumes were biennial, terminating in 1940; volume IX recorded the four years from 1940 to 1944; volume X was again biennial and volumes XI and XII presented the periods 1946 to 1950 and 1950 to 1954 respectively. All these volumes were published in the United States under the aegis of the National Spiritual Assembly and the supervision of the Guardian of the Bahá'í Faith. Volume XIII, which recorded the passing of the Guardian and the course and completion of his Ten Year Crusade, covered the entire period from 1954 to 1963 and was produced under the supervision of the Universal House of Justice, which henceforth assumed responsibility for publication. Volumes XIV, XV, XVI and XVII covered the years 1963 to 1968, 1968 to 1973, 1973 to 1976 and 1976 to 1979 respectively.

This volume, relating to the years 1979 to 1983, records the observance in the Holy Land in July 1982 of the fiftieth anniversary of the passing of The Greatest Holy Leaf, eldest daughter of Bahá'u'lláh and 'the outstanding heroine of the Bahá'í Dispensation'; the successful completion of the first stage of the restoration of the House of 'Abdu'lláh Páshá and its opening to pilgrims; the completion of construction of the permanent Seat of the Universal House of Justice and its occupation by that Institution in January 1983; the holding in the Holy Land in May 1983 of the fifth International Convention; the progress made towards construction of the first Mashriqu'l-Adhkár of the Indian Subcontinent in New Delhi and of the first Mashriqu'l-Adhkár of the Pacific Islands in Samoa; the holding in 1982 of five International Conferences dedicated to the Greatest Holy Leaf and marking the ftieth anniversary of her passing; the progress made in the Seven Year global teaching plan inaugurated at Ridván 1979 and constituting yet another stage in the unfoldment of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Divine Plan; and the resumption in Irán on a scale unprecedented in recent history of a campaign designed to xtirpate the Bahá'í Faith from the land of its birth through the systematic imprisonment and execution of its leaders, the expropriation, desecration and destruction of its holy places, and the persecution and harassment of its rank and file, a process which, to an extent never before witnessed, drew the sympathetic attention of governments, world leaders and the mass media to the true nature of the Revelation of Bahá'u'lláh and publicized its teachings.
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