Search for tag "women"
|1848. c. 26 Jun - 17 Jul
||The Conference of Badasht
Bahá'u'lláh, who hosted and directed the event, rented three gardens, one for Quddús, another for Táhirih and the third for Himself. [B168; GPB31, 68; MF200]
The conference coincided with the removal of the Báb to Tabríz for interrogation in July. It was held near the village of Sháhrúd in Semnan province. [BBRSM23; DB292]
`The primary purpose of that gathering was to implement the revelation of the Bayán by a sudden, a complete and dramatic break with the past — with its order, its ecclesiasticism, its traditions, and ceremonials. The subsidiary purpose of the conference was to consider the means of emancipating the Báb from His cruel confinement in Chihríq.' [BBRSM23; BKG43; DB297–8; GPB31, 157]
From the beginning of His ministry the Báb had implicitly claimed some higher spiritual station than merely that of being the "bábu'l-imám" and in the early months of 1848 while still in prison in Máh-Kú He put forward these claims to his companions. He proclaimed HImself to be the Imam Mahdi, the promised Q´'im (He who will arise), the inaugurator of the Resurrection and the abrogator of the Islamic holy law. [BBRSM23]
Bab167 says that the Bábís did not come to Badasht to make plans to rescue the Báb.
It was attended by 81 believers and lasted 22 days. [BKG43–4, 46; DB292–3; GPB312]
Each day Bahá'u'lláh revealed a Tablet, and on each believer He conferred a new name. Each day an Islamic law was abrogated. Henceforth, when the Báb was addressing the believers, He used the new name that Bahá'u'lláh had bestowed upon them. [DB293; GPB32]
See BKG44–5, DB293 and MF201 for the story of the central event, Táhirih's confrontation with Quddús and removal of her veil.
Also see B167–9; BBD31–2; BBRSM46; BKG43–7; DB292–8; RB2:353.
|Badasht; Tabriz; Shahrud; Chihriq; Iran
||Conference of Badasht; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Writings of; Quddus; Tahirih; Veils; Women; Womens rights; Gender; Equality; Bab, Life of; Bayan; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bab, Basic timeline; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Letters of the Living
|1848 19 - 20 Jul
||The Women's Rights Convention was held in the Wesleyan Chapel at Seneca Falls, NY. The principle organizer was Lucretia Mott, with Elizabeth Cady Stanton as its driving intellect. A significant role was played by an African-American man, an abolitionist and a recently freed slave, Frederick Douglass. The convention adopted a Declaration of Rights and Sentiments that consisted of 11 resolutions including the right for women to vote. The signatories were the 68 women and 32 men in attendance. The right for women to vote became part of the United States Constitution in 1920. [The Calling: Tahirih of Persia and her American Contemporaries p114-160, "Seneca Falls First Woman's Rights Convention of 1848: The Sacred Rites of the Nation"
by Bradford W. Miller (Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8.3, 1998)]
This conference has been compared to the Conference of Badasht with respect to the emancipation of women and entrenched prejudices.
Tahirih and Women's Suffrage written by / on behalf of Universal House of Justice in which they deal with the question of the relationship between Táhirih and women's sufferage as well as the station of Táhirih herself.
||Seneca Falls; New York; United States; Badasht; Iran
||Womens rights; Human rights; African Americans; Women; Gender; Equality; Conference of Badasht; Tahirih
|1850. 19 May
||The Governor sent a mob against Hujjat, which was dispersed by Mír Saláh. The Governor sent to Tihrán for reinforcements and the town Zanján was split into two camps. [BW18:381]
See BBD245 and GPB45 for the story of Zaynab, the Bábí woman who dressed as a man and defended the barricades.
Zaynab and the Women of Zanjan.
|Tihran; Zanjan; Iran
||Governors; Hujjat; Mir Salah; Zaynab; Gender; Women; Equality; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Mobs; Persecution
|1852 16 – 27 Aug
||The martyrdom of Táhirih (Qurratu'l-'Ayn) in Tihrán. [BBR172–3; BBRSM:30; BW18:382; BKG87; MF203]
She was martyred in the Ílkhání garden, strangled with her own silk handkerchief which she had provided for the purpose. Her body was lowered into a well which was then filled with stones. [BBD220; DB622–8; GPB75]
See GPB73–5 for a history of her life.
See the story of her martyrdom and her life in the article in Radio France International.
||Tahirih; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Women; Gender; Equality; Letters of the Living; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1901 29 May
||The Bahá'í women of Chicago elected their own Board and held the first business meeting of the `Women's Auxiliary Board'. [BFA2:XV, 49–50]
||Chicago; United States
|1908 25 Apr
||Charles Mason Remey and Sydney Sprague sailed from New York for Iran and Russia. [BFA2:289]
For details of their journey see BFA2:289–95.
In Tihrán Táhirih Khánum, a Bahá'í woman with advanced ideas, hosted them at a meeting at which the women removed their veils. [BFA2:292–4]
They give Táhirih Khánum the address of Isabella Brittingham and the two women began a correspondence. [BFA2:294]
||New York; Tihran
||Charles Mason Remey; Sydney Sprague; Tahirih Khanum; Isabella Brittingham; Women; Gender; Equality
|1909 Jan c.
||Isabella Brittingham organized 12 Bahá'í women into a `Unity Band' to write monthly to the 12 Bahá'í women's clubs formed in Iran. [BFA2:294]
||New Jersey; United States; Iran
||Isabella Brittingham; Women; Writing
|1909 25 Nov
||Dr Susan Moody, a famed American homeopathist, arrived in Tihrán. She and four Persian Bahá'í doctors start the Sehat Hospital. Because the hospital was only accessible to the wealthy she established a private practice that was open to all women regardless of their ability to pay. [BFA2:359-360]
She spent two days in 'Akká en route to Persia and 'Abdu'l-Bahá conferred upon her the title Amatu'l-'Alí (Handmaid of the Most High). [BFA2:358]
Dr Sarah A. Clock arrived from Seattle in 1911 to assist her followed by Miss Elizabeth Stewart (nurse). [BFA2:361]
Dr Sarah Clock sailed from New York for Iran on 8 December 1910. She served the Bahá'í community of Iran with great sacrifice for years. While her main task was treatment of the sick, she never ceased educating the youth. She was an energetic tolerant and contented woman. Very often needy people were not only exempted from paying her meagre honoraria, but also received medicaments fro free. She was highly respected by the Bahá'í community and non-Bahá'í alike. Finally after twelve years of devoted service, she died of pneumonia in Tehran. [OLOMp43-44]
||Susan Moody; Sehat Hospital; Sarah Clock; Elizabeth Stewart; Women; Social and economic development; Homeopathy; Names and titles
|1910 (In the year)
||Within a year of her arrival in Persia, Dr. Susan Moody opened the Tarbíyat School for Girls in Tihrán. [BBD221–2; BFA2:360–1]
Some of those serving at the school were:
Miss Lillian Kappes of Hoboken, New Jersey arrived in December of 1911 to serve as a teacher. She stopped in Thonon to visit 'Abdu'l-Bahá on the way. [SoW Vol 2 No 17 Jan 19. 1912 p2] She died on the 1st of December, 1920 of typhus and was buried there.
She was replaced by Genevieve Coy, a qualified psychologist, a Ph.D. in 1922 who was followed by Adelaide Sharp in 1929. Her mother, Clara Sharp joined her in 1931. [BFA2p361, AY233]
Elizabeth Stewart who served as a nurse at the school accompanied Lillian Kappes on her arrival. Miss Stewart served until 1924 when she returned to Philadelphia where she died in 1926. [ABF43]
Munírih Khánum Ayádí, the mother of Dr Karím Ayádí (later famed as the Shah much-trusted doctor) was Persia’s first official Director of the Tarbíyat School for Girls. She was widely recognized as exceptional, at a time when Persia’s Bahá’í women were only gradually emerging from their earlier state under Islam. Much respected by the men, her attitude toward them was one of total equality. Her greatness was in herself, her devotion to the Faith absolute, and she was made a member of such advanced committees as the Bahá’í Women’s Committee. Her views were moderated by her sense of humour, which included self-deprecation so that she never subjected you to her piety. One day during the Bahá’í Fast, she asked Marzieh Gall: ‘Do you think God would notice if I ducked into that room and sneaked a few puffs of tobacco?’ [AY333]
||Tarbiyat School; Bahai schools; Susan Moody; Lillian Kappes; Genevieve Coy; Adelaide Sharp; Clara Sharp; Elizabeth Stewart; Women; Equality; Gender; Social and economic development; Munirih Khanum; Karim Ayadi
|1913. 28 Aug
||'Abdu'l-Bahá revealed a tablet to an unnamed woman saying that only two things were not open to women, front-line military duties and service on the Universal House of Justice. He promised equality to men and "as regards tenderness of heart and abundance of mercy and sympathy" superiority. [PT182-184]
||Abdul-Baha, Life of; Women; Equality
|1917 (in the year)
||The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-Taqíy-i-Abharí (Ibn-i-Abhar). He was born in 1853/4 in Abhar.
For four years he suffered in Síyáh-Chál wearing the very same chains as Bahá’u’lláh had worn in 1852.
His services during the time of the Master included teaching journeys through Persia, the Caucasus and India. He also made some eleven journeys to the Holy Land with the permission of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá.
A special service rendered by Ibn-i-Abhar was the promotion of the education of women. He and his wife played an important part
in the advancement of women in Persian society.
In 1886 Bahá’u’lláh appointed him a Hand of the Cause. He died in 1917. [LoF13-16, BBD114, EB268; Bahaipedia]
||Abhar; Tihran; Iran; Caucasus; India
||Hands appointed by Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Ibn-i-Abhar (Mulla Muhammad Taqi); Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Chains; Women; Gender; Equality
|1930. In the early 1930's
||In Iran " [i]n the early years of the 1930s Bahá'í women joined the movement of discarding the veil and gradually abandoned the traditional veiling practice. This development opened new fields of service for women and made possible their fuller participation in the social and administrative activities of the communities."
[BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati]
||Women; Human rights; Veils
||The first Asian Women’s Conference was held in India. [BW17:180]
||Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women; First conferences; Asia
|1936 (In the year)
||The first woman was elected to the National Spiritual Assembly of India, Shirin Fozdar.
||Shirin Fozdar; Women; NSA; Firsts, Other
|1944 (In the year)
||In Iran a Central Women’s Progress Committee was formed to organize women’s activities throughout the country. Some of the fundamental tasks accomplished by this committee and its supportive bodies in various localities included holding the first convention of Anjoman-e Tarraqī-e Neswān (Society for the Advancement of Women) in 1947 in Tehran following which local and regional conferences, educational gatherings, and regular classes for illiterate women were conducted. As a result of continued effort and educational training, particularly during the Four Year Plan (1946-1950) the Bahá'í Persian women were enabled to acquire sufficient self-confidence and social recognition to fill elective and appointive offices in the community.
[BW11p563; BW12p65; BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati]
||Central Women’s Progress Committee; Society for the Advancement of Women; Gender; Equality; Social and economic development
|1946. 21 Jun
||The Commission on the Status of Women (CSW) is the principal global intergovernmental body exclusively dedicated to the promotion of gender equality and the empowerment of women. It was established as a functional commission of the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) on this day in 1946. UN Document E/90]
||New York; NY
||United Nations; Commission on the Status of Women
|1946 Oct 11
||The Bahá'ís of Iran launched a Forty-five Month Plan, the Persian 45 Month Plan ( 11 October 1946 to 9 July 1950, The Centenary of the Martyrdom of the Báb). Every province had specific assignments. [BBRSM158; CB316]
The objectives of the plan included;
1. Consolidation of all local Bahá'í communities.
2. Reestablishment of 62 dissolved Assemblies. (93 LSAs formed)
3. Formation of 22 groups. (37 established)
4. Creation of 13 new centres. (24 localities established)
5. Development of Assemblies from groups in three adjoining countries, namely in Kabul, Afghanistan, Mecca, Arabia and Bahrein Island, Persian Gulf.
6. The formation of groups in four localities on the Arabian Peninsula.
7. The sending pioneers to India and 'Iráq to assist in the formation of new groups.
The Bahá'ís of Tehran were called upon to send out 50 families into the pioneer field. (160 arose) Every individual Bahá'í was included in the operation of the Plan-as a volunteer, by deputizing a pioneer, by contributing funds, by circuit teaching or by providing hospitality to students whose parents had become pioneers. [BW4p34-35; BW11p34-36]
Concurrent with the Forty-Five Month Plan the Bahá'ís of Iran made a concerted effort to remove Bahá'í women from the traditional shackles of a lack of education and an inability to participate in public affairs. Women's conferences were held, educational opportunities were created, equality of opportunity, right and privilege was declared to be an essential. [BW11p36].
|Iran; India; Pakistan; Myanmar (Burma)
||Teaching Plans; Teaching Plans, National; Social and economic development; Women
|1951 (In the year)
||Bahá’í women in Egypt were extended the right of membership on local spiritual assemblies. [MBW12]
Shoghi Effendi called this ‘a notable step in the progress of Bahá’í women of the Middle East’. [MBW12]
||Bahá’í women in Iran were accorded full rights to participate in membership of both national and local Bahá’í assemblies. [MBW65]
This removed the ‘last remaining obstacle to the enjoyment of complete equality of rights in the conduct of the administrative affairs of the Persian Bahá’í Community’. [MBW65]
||NSA; LSA; Women; Gender; Equality
||Adelaide Sharp, who had been in Iran since 1929, was elected to the National Spiritual Assembly of Iran, the first woman elected to that body. [BFA2:361]
||Adelaide Sharp; NSA; Firsts, Other; Women
||Shoghi Effendi announced the extension to Egyptian Bahá’í women of the right to be elected to the national spiritual assembly and to participate in the national convention. [MBW96–7]
||National Spiritual Assembly, Women; Women
||The first Bahá’í Women’s Conference of the Solomon Islands took place at Auki, Malaita Island, attended by more than 90 women. [BW16:282]
||Solomon Islands; Oceania
||Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women; Women; First conferences
|1975 19 Jun - 2 Jul
||Two* Bahá’í women represented the Bahá’í International Community at the first World Conference on Women in Mexico City. It was the first international conference held by the United Nations to focus solely on women's issues and marked a turning point in policy directives. Nine Bahá’ís represented the Bahá’í International Community at the parallel NGO Tribune. Those attending were: Dorothy Nelson*; Jane Faily, Sheila Banání, Edris Rice-Wray, Carmen Burafato, Catherine Mboya, Shirin Fozdar*, Jyoti Munsiff, Elsie Austin and Shomais Afnán.
The purpose of the Conference was to give shape to a Ten-Year Plan of Action to promote equality between men and women in member nations by stressing better education and increased participation of women in decision-making in order to bring the neglected resources of women into the struggle for development and peace. [CBN No 287 Aug/Sep 1975 p16; Wikipedia]
The Bahá'í International Community issued a statement entitled International Women's Year.
||Mexico City; Mexico
||Baha'i International Community; Conference; Women's Conference; Dorothy Nelson; Jane Faily; Sheila Banani; Edris Rice-Wray; Carmen Burafato; Catherine Mboya; Shirin Fozdar; Jyoti Munsiff; Elsie Austin; Shomais Afnan; BIC statements
|1977 24 Mar
||In a cabled message, the Universal House of Justice called upon Bahá’í women around the world to arise and play an active role in the service of the Faith. [BW17:202]
For the report of the response to this call see BW17:202–14.
|1977 13 – 16 Oct
||The Asian Bahá’í Women’s Conference was held in New Delhi, attended by more than a thousand women from across Asia. 1,200 women from 36 countries were in attendance. [BW17:180]
For picture see BW17:212.
||New Delhi; India; Asia
||Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women; Women
|1977 17 Oct
||At the end of the Asian Bahá’í Women’s Conference Hand of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum laid the foundation stone of the Mother Temple of the Indian Subcontinent. [BW17:85, 180, 368–70; VV35]
||New Delhi; India; Asia
||Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Delhi; Lotus temple; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Foundation stones and groundbreaking; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women
||The first International Conference of Bahá’í Women in South America was held in Lima, Peru, attended by 200 women from 12 countries. [BW17:172]
For picture see BW17:211.
||Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; Conferences, Women; Women; First conferences
|1978 15 Jan
||The first National Bahá’í Women’s Conference of Niger took place.
||Women; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women; Conferences, National; First conferences
|1978 28 – 30 Dec
||The West African Bahá’í Women’s Conference was held in Monrovia, Liberia with the theme, "Spiritual Education of Women-The Foundation of a New Human Society". [BW17:154]
Delegates from sixteen countries attended. It was attended by 150 women and 50 men. Keynote speaker was Dr. Jane Faily, Consultant to the Bahá'í International Community's representative to the United Nations and a clinical psychologist associated with the University of Ottawa. [BN 136 April, 1979 pg10-15]
||Monrovia; Liberia; Africa
||Women; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women; Conferences, International; Jane Faily; Baha'i International Community
|1980. Oct (Mid)
||The First Latin American Bahá'í Women's Conference was held in Brasilia at the Convention Centre.
Leonera Armstrong, on her deathbed in Salvador, Bahia at the time, addressed the conference via a message recorded on cassette tape.
"Woman, light of the future generation - when we, the women of the world, reflect on the true meaning of this theme that was chosen and as its full meaning penetrates more and more deeply into the conscience of each woman, we must understand that affectionate, that supreme privilege is ours and that inescapable duty is ours, and so we must rise as never before, to fulfill our first obligation. Women know that they are the first educators of humanity ... "
|Brasilia; Brazil; Salvador, Bahia; Brazil
||Latin American Baha'i Women's Conference; Leonora Armstrong
|1983. 24 Feb
||The inauguration of the Bahá'í Vocational Institute for Rural Women at Indore, India. It offered rural women residential courses on literacy, health care and income generating skills. The success of this school was recognized when it won one of the Global 500 Environmental Action awards that was presented at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 [The Baha'is magazine].
||Bahai Vocational Institute for Rural Women; Women; Social and economic development; Bahai schools; Earth Summit
|1983 21 - 23 Nov
||A brief entitled The Future of Canada: A Bahá’í Perspective was presented to The Royal Commission on the Economic Union and Development Prospects of Canada on behalf of the Canadian Bahá’í Community through the National Spiritual Assembly in Saskatoon. [The Future of Canada: A Bahá’í Perspective]
||Social and economic development; Ethics; Economics; Consultation; Agriculture; Women; Native Americans; Elderly; Education
|1985 15 – 26 Jul
||Ten representatives of the Bahá’í International Community attended the World Conference to Review and Appraise the Achievements of the United Nations Decade for Women and Forum ‘85 in Nairobi. [BW19:147–8, 412; VV28–9]
For a report of the Bahá’í participation see BW19:4.12–15.
For pictures see BW19:413, 415.
||Baha'i International Community; United Nations; Women
|1986. 1 Jan
||The publication of the compilation entitled "Women" by the Universal House of Justice. [Messages63-86p704, Compilation of CompilationsVol 2 p355]
Also see a message to an individual from the Universal House of Justice entitled "Women-Their Role in Society and the Establishment of Peace; Membership on the Universal House of Justice". [Messages63-86p707-709]
||Women; Peace; Compilations; Publications; Universal House of Justice, Membership on
|1988 (In the year)
||The first Caribbean Bahá’í Women’s conference took place in Antigua.
||Caribbean; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women; First conferences
|1988 (In the year)
||The Bahá’í International Community became a founding member of ‘Advocates for African Food Security: Lessening the Burden for Women, a coalition of agencies and organizations formed to act on behalf of farm women in Africa, and is convener for 1988–92.
||Bahai International Community; Rural development; Social and economic development; Women
|1988 8 Mar
||Shirin Fozdar, ardent champion of women’s rights and influential women’s leader, was honoured for her work for equality and women’s advancement at a ceremony organized by the Singapore Council of Women, which she founded in 1952. [BINS176:7]
||Shirin Fozdar; Women; Awards
|1988 15 Jul
||The first International Women’s Conference of Paraguay opened, attended by 130 women from seven countries. [BINS180:5]
||Paraguay; Latin America
||Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women; Women
|1989 23 – 26 Mar
||The First National Women’s Conference of Spain was held in Madrid. [BINS201:6]
||Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women; Conferences, National; Women; First conferences
|1989 1 – 2 Jul
||The first European Bahá’í Women’s Conference was held at De Poort Conference Centre, the Netherlands. [BINS203:2]
||Groesbeek; Netherlands; Europe
||Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women; Conferences, International; De Poort; First conferences
|1989 21 – 22 Oct
||The Southern African Bahá’í Association for the Advancement of Women was formed in Johannesburg. [BINS210:8]
||Johannesburg; South Africa
||Maureen Nakekea and Marao Teem were elected to the National Spiritual Assembly of Kiribati, the first indigenous women to be elected to the institution. [BINS224:7]
||NSA; Indigenous people; Women; Islands; Firsts, Other
|1990 18 - 20 May
||The first of seven European women's conferences sponsored by the Continental Board of Counsellors was held in Iskenderun, Turkey. [BINS230:1]
||Conferences, Women; Conferences, Bahai; Counsellors
|1992 5 Jun
||The Bahá'í Vocational Institute for Rural Women, a non-profit education project based in Indore, India, was one of 74 individuals and institutions presented with the United Nations Environment Programme ‘Global 500' award in Rio de Janeiro. [BINS272:5; BW92–3:125; VV110]
For picture see BW92–3:183.
||Rio de Janeiro; Brazil; Indore; India
||Bahai Vocational Institute for Rural Women; Women; Social and economic development; United Nations; Environment; Awards
||The Universal House of Justice announced its decision to establish an Office for the Advancement of Women at the headquarters of the Bahá'í International Community in New York. Support for UN efforts to improve the status of women, which had been carried out for twenty years by the United Nations Office, continued uninterrupted under the auspices of this new office. At annual sessions of the UN Commission on the Status of Women, statements addressed appropriate topics on the agenda, such as partnership between women and men, the status of girl children, the participation of women in decision making, partnership for development, and the human rights of women. [VV29; 54;
BIC Document #: 95-0228; BW92–3:136]
The Office for the Advancement of Women officially opened its doors on the 26th of May, 1993. [BINS296:2; BW93–4:83–9; VV29]
For pictures see BW93–4:83, 86.
||New York; United States
||Baha'i International Community; Women; Office for the Advancement of Women; Social and economic development; BIC statements;
|1995 30 Aug – 8 Sep
||Some 400-500 Bahá'í women and men from more than 50 countries around the world participated in the NGO Forum on Women at the Fourth United Nations International Conference on Women held in the resort city of Huairou some 50 kilometers north of Beijing.
See One Country Vol 7 Issue 2 for profiles of some of the attendees.
Bahá'í perspectives on equality were also shared with both Conference and Forum participants through distribution of The Greatness Which Might Be Theirs , a collection of Bahá'í International Community statements and essays by Bahá'ís reflecting on the Agenda and Platform for Action. The booklet's title is drawn from the words of `Abdu'l-Bahá: "As long as women are prevented from attaining their highest possibility, so long will men be unable to achieve the greatness which might be theirs."
See Towards the Goal of Full Partnership: One Hundred and Fifty Years of the Advancement of Women by Ann Boyles written in anticipation of the conference. It is a survey of the Bahá’í community's efforts to understand and practice the principle of equality between men and women. [BW93-94p237-275]
||Beijing; China; Huairou, China
||United Nations; Women; Baha'i International Community; BIC statements
|1995. 4 - 15 Sep
|| Fourth World Conference on Women was held at the Beijing International Conference Centre. It was one of the largest international meetings ever convened under United Nations auspices, some 17,000 people were registered including 5,000 delegates from 189 states and the European Union, 4,000 NGO representatives, and more than 3,200 members of the media. [BW95-96p151-158]
See Equality, Development, and Peace: Baha'is and the United Nations Fourth World Conference on Women and NGO Forum. [BW95-96p145-158]
The conference was called by the United Nations to review progress made toward implementation of the "Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women" adopted at the Third World Conference in Nairobi in 1985.
Seven Bahá'í delegations were accredited to the conference: the Bahá'í International Community, the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States, the Bahá'í community of the Netherlands, the Bahá'í community of Canada, l' Association Bahá'íe de Femmes (France), l' Association médicale Bahá'íe (France), and the National Bahá'í Office for the Advancement of Women (Nigeria).
By the end of the conference it was determined that much remains to be done, and a Declaration and Platform for Action was adopted aimed at launching a global campaign to bring women into full and equal participation in all spheres of public and private life worldwide. The Platform addressed twelve critical areas of concern: poverty, education, health, violence, armed conflict, economic structures, power sharing and decision-making, mechanisms to promote the advancement of women, human rights, the media, the environment, and the girl child.
The Greatness Which Might Be Theirs: Protection of Women's Rights
The BIC distributed the statement The Role of Religion in Promoting the Advancement of Women.
The Bahá'í International Community and
and the parallel Non-Governmental Organization Forum,
In year 2000, the follow-up documant for the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action entitled Beijing +5 Political Declaration and Outcome which reviewed progress towards the Platform for Action five years after its adoption.
||United Nations; Baha'i International Community; Women; BIC statements
|1996 23 – 24 Mar
||The first National Women's Seminar of Bulgaria was held in Sofia, organized by the European Task Force for Women. [BINS365:8]
||Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women; Women; First conferences
|1996. 22 Jul
||The ECOSOC in resolution 1996/6 (see p. 20) expanded the mandate of the Commission of the Status of Women and decided that it should take a leading role in monitoring and reviewing progress and problems in the implementation of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action, and in mainstreaming a gender perspective in UN activities.
||New York; NY;
||United Nations; Commission of the Status of Women
|1997 (In the year)
||The Tahirih Justice Center was founded to address the acute need for legal services of immigrant and refugee women who have fled to the U.S. to seek protection from human rights abuses.
The Center's founder, Ms. Layli Miller, created the Center after she was besieged by requests for legal assistance following her involvement in a high-profile case that set national precedent and revolutionized asylum law in the United States. The case was that of Fauziya Kassindja, a 17 year-old woman who fled Togo in fear of a forced polygamous marriage and a tribal practice known as female genital mutilation. After arriving in the U.S. and spending more than seventeen months in detention, Ms. Kassindja was granted asylum on June 13th, 1996 by the United States Board of Immigration Appeals in a decision that opened the door to gender-based persecution as a grounds for asylum. [Tahirih Justice Center]
For more on the Tahirih Justice Center see article in the Religion News Service.
||Tahirih Justice Center; Human rights; Women; Refugees; Migration; Layli Miller-Muro
|1998. 2 - 13 Mar
||During the 42nd Session of the UN Commission on the Status of Women in March, the Bahá'í International Community presented its statement Empowering the Girl Child, which supported the girl child as a critical area of concern.
||Baha'i International Community; Women; United Nations; BIC statements
|2000. 31 Oct
||The United Nations Security Council unanimously passed Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security. It was the first United Nations Security Council resolution to specifically mention the impact of conflict on women.
The Resolution formally acknowledged the changing nature of warfare, in which civilians are increasingly targeted, and women continue to be excluded from participation in peace processes. It specifically addressed how women and girls are disproportionally impacted by violent conflict and war and recognized the critical role that women can and were playing in peacebuilding efforts. UNSCR 1325 affirmed that peace and security efforts are more sustainable when women are equal partners in the prevention of violent conflict, the delivery of relief and recovery efforts and in the forging of lasting peace.
The four pillars of the resolution were Participation, Prevention, Protection, Relief & Recovery.
It was the first formal and legal document from the Security Council that required parties in a conflict to prevent violations of women's rights, to support women's participation in peace negotiations and in post-conflict reconstruction, and to protect women and girls from wartime sexual violence. Specifically, the key provisions called for:
See Background Paper by Françoise Nduwimana.
- Increase of representation and participation of women in decision-making at all levels.
- Specific attention to gender-based violence in conflict situations.
- Gender perspective in post-conflict processes.
- Gender perspective in UN programming, reporting and in Security Council missions.
- Gender perspective & training in UN peace support operations. [Wikipedia]
|New York, NY
||United Nations; Women; Gender; Peace; Human rights
|2003 11 Mar
||Bani Dugal Gujral was appointed Principal Representative of the Bahá'í International Community to the United Nations.
Ms. Dugal Gujral had been serving as interim Principal Representative since the resignation of Techeste Ahderom in 2001.
Ms. Dugal Gujral came to the Bahá'í International Community in 1994 and served as Director of the Community's Office for the Advancement of Women. A native of India, where she practiced law before coming to the United States, Ms. Dugal Gujral holds a Master's degree in Environmental Law from Pace University School of Law in New York. [One Country Vol.14 Issue4]
||New York; United States
||Bani Dugal Gujral; Baha'i International Community; Women; Techeste Ahderom; United Nations
|2003 16 Dec
||Shirin Ebadi, was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, the first Muslim woman to win the coveted distinction.
For a long time she has fought for the rights of women and children in Iran and it is most fitting that she, a woman lawyer who dared to speak out against the sexist Iranian regime, be praised and recognised by the world.
She was an author and also the founder of the Association for Support of Children's Rights in Iran. [Nobel Peace Prize 2003]
In 2002 she founded the Defender of Human Rights Center and in 2009 she was forced to flee into exile after briefly serving as legal counsel for the imprisoned Yaran. Mrs. Ebadi was threatened, intimidated, and vilified in the news media after taking on their case and was not given access to their case files. [BWNS694]
||Shirin Ebadi; Nobel Peace Prize; Human rights; Women; Firsts, Other; BWNS
|2004 11 Feb
||A member of the British Bahá'í community, Lois Hainsworth, received the award of Member of the Order of the British Empire (MBE) at Buckingham Palace.
The announcement of the award for services to three organizations that promote the rights of women was made in the United Kingdom's New Year's Honours List. The citation refers to Mrs. Hainsworth's services to the Women's National Commission, the Bahá'í Office for the Advancement of Women, and UNIFEM UK. [BWNS273]
||Buckingham Palace; London; United Kingdom
||Lois Hainsworth; Order of the British Empire (MBE); Women; Awards; BWNS
|2005. 28 Feb - 11 Mar
||As Chair of the NGO Committee on the Status of Women, Ms Bani Dugal facilitated and organized the participation of over 2,700 civil society representatives from nearly 600 NGOs and the Bahá'í International Community sponsored the 49th NGO consultation for the Commission on the Status of Women at Barnard College, New York. [UN Women 49th
||New York; United States
||Bahai International Community; United Nations; Committee on the Status of Women; Commission on the Status of Women; Bani Dugal
|2006. 27 Feb - 10 Mar
||The 50th session of the Commission on the Status of Women was held at the UN Headquarters in New York. [UN Women]
The Bahá'í International Community presented Beyond Legal Reforms: Culture and Capacity in the Eradication of Violence Against Women and Girls.
||United Nations; Baha'i International Community; Women; Commission on the Status of Women; BIC statements
|2008. 25 Feb - 7 Mar
||The 52nd session of the Commission on the Status of Women was held at the United Nations headquarters in New York. [UN Women]
The Bahá'í International Community presented Mobilizing Institutional, Legal and Cultural Resources to Achieve Gender Equality.
Baha'i International Community Representative, Ms. Bani Dugal was elected to serve as the President of the NGO Committee on Freedom of Religion or Belief in New York. During the 52nd Commission on Status of Women. [BIC History 2008]
||United Nations; Baha'i International Community; Women; Bani Dugal; Commission on the Status of Women; BIC statements
|2010. 2 Jul
||The UN General Assembly voted unanimously to create UN Women, (General Assembly resolution 64/289) a new entity merging the four UN offices focusing on gender equality: the UN Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), the Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW), the Office of the Special Adviser on Gender Issues, and the International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women. Following the passage of the resolution, the Bahá'í International Community, as one of the core NGOs leading the campaign for the new gender entity, received congratulatory notes from NGOs and women around the world expressing their appreciation and support for its role in the four-year campaign. [BIC History; UN Women]
See as well A short history of the Commission on the Status of Women (PDF).
||United Nations; Baha'i International Community; UN Women; Commission on the Status of Women; BIC statements
|2011. 22 Feb - 4 Mar
||The 55th session of the Commission on the Status of Women took place at United Nations Headquarters in New York. [UN Women; One Country].
The Bahá'í International Community contributed the statement Education and training for the Betterment of Society
||New York; United States
||Baha'i International Community; United Nations; Commission on the Status of Women; BIC statements
|2012. 15 Nov
||In contribution to the 57th Session of the Commission on the Status of Women the Bahá'í International Community issued a statement entitled Towards the Eradication of Violence Against Women and Girls.
||New York; New York
||Baha'i International Community; Equality; Women; statements
|2018 12 Mar
||The Bahá'í International Community in New York released the statement "Beyond Mere Economics: A Moral Inquiry into the Roots of Empowerment" to the 62nd session of the Commission on the Status of Women (12 to 23 March 2018). [BWNS1243]
||New York; United States
||Baha'i International Community; BIC statements; Publications; Women; Empowerment; Economics; United Nations; BWNS
|2018 15 Apr
||The design for the local Bahá'í House of Worship was unveiled at a gathering in Matunda Soy, Kenya attended by about 1,000 people. The temple will accommodate about 250 people and the design incorporated the diamond-shaped pattern, a motif commonly found in Kenyan culture. It will be built of construction materials found locally; the roof will be made of local state and the walls from from stone quarried nearby. The Temple’s architect, Neda Samimi, was the first female architect whose design for a Baha’i House of Worship was selected. [BWNS1251]
||Matunda; Matunda Soy; Kenya
||Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Local; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Kenya; Architecture; Architects; Women; Firsts, Other; BWNS
|2020. 9 -20 Mar
||The Bahá'í International Community submitted a statement entitled Developing New Dynamics of Power to Transform the Structures of Society to the
Commission on the Status of Women in the follow-up to the Fourth World Conference on Women and to
the twenty-third special session of the General Assembly.
The statement can be found on the UN website.
||Baha'i International Community; Statements; Equality of men and women
|2020. 29 Jun
||The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Papua New Guinea issued a statement through its External Affairs department entitled Forging a Path to Gender Equality in response to a series of tragic events and a situation that intensified during the pandemic. [BWNS1439]
Statement on the External Affairs website.
||Port Morseby; Papua New Guinea
||Equality; Women; Statements; Public discourse
|2020. 18 Sep
||The passing of Talat Bassari (b. 1923 Babol, Iran) in Los Angeles. She was an Iranian Bahá'í poet, feminist, academic, and writer with a doctorate in Persian language and literature. She was the first woman to be appointed as vice-chancellor of a university in Iran when she worked at the Jondishapur University in Ahvaz (1956–1979). In the aftermath of the Islamic revolution in Iran and because of her Bahá'í faith, she was dismissed from her university position and eventually migrated to the United States.
In addition to her critiques on Persian literature she published a biography of Zandokht Shiraizi, a pioneer in the feminist movement in Iran. She resided in New Jersey where she worked on the editorial board of the New Jersey-based magazine, Persian Heritage. Bassari also assisted in books on the life of Táhirih and contributed with Persian to English translations in academia. [Wikipedia]
|Los Angeles; United States; Iran
||In Memoriam; Talat Bassari; Literature; Women; Tahirih
|2021. 3 Feb
||To mark the 25th anniversary of the landmark Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action that resulted from the Fourth World Conference on Women in 1995, the Bahá'í International Community released a film that reflected on the advances made toward the goals for gender equality articulated in the declaration.
The feature-length film called Glimpses into the Spirit of Gender Equality premiered at a virtual screening before a gathering of UN officials, ambassadors of member states, non-governmental organizations, and other civil society actors.
“The film examines advances in the area of equality of women and men at the level of the grassroots and their connection with the conversations that have been unfolding at the UN, drawing on examples inspired by Bahá’í community-building efforts in different countries around the world,” said Saphira Rameshfar, Representative of the BIC.
The film available on YouTube.
For the response to this film see BIC News.
||Baha'i International Community; film; Equality of men and women; Saphira Rameshfar; Glimpses into the Spirit of Gender Equality
from the main catalogue
See all tags, sorted numerically or alphabetically.
- 1970-1995: Newspaper articles archive (1970). Collection of newspaper articles from 1970-1995. [about]
- A New Cycle of Human Power: Abdu'l-Bahá's Encounters with Modernist Writers and Artists, by Robert Weinberg, in Bahá'í World (2021). On the impact of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá on a number of individuals who were at the cultural vanguard of a society undergoing rapid, radical change. [about]
- 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Encounter with Modernity during His Western Travels, by Wendi Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). Abdu'l-Baha's responses to the West's technology and innovations on the one hand, vs. its archaic racist and sexual philosophies on the other. [about]
- Activities in the Bahá'í World Community to Improve the Status of Women during the United Nations Decade for Women, by Bahá’í International Community (1985). Report presented to the World Conference to Review and Appraise the Achievements of the United Nations Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace [about]
- Additional Tablets, Extracts and Talks, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2018). 57 selections, updated 2019. [about]
- Advancement of Women: A Bahá'í Perspective, by Janet and Peter Khan: Transforming the roles of women and men, a Review, by Veronica Shoffstall, in One Country, 10:3 (1999). [about]
- Advancing Toward the Equality of Women and Men, by Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity (2009). Issues that lie at the heart of the struggle for the equality of women and men, via the Institute’s efforts to generate systematic learning and gain new insights, in collaboration with others. [Link to PDF, offsite.] [about]
- Advent of Divine Justice, by Shoghi Effendi (1971). [about]
- Advocates for African Food Security: Lessening the Burden for Women, by Bahá'í International Community (1991). A joint statement to the 35th session of the United Nations Commission on the Status of Women, Agenda Item 4: Monitoring the implementation of the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women [about]
- Affirmative Action and the Jurisprudence of Equitable Inclusion: Towards a New Consensus on Gender and Race Relations, by Steven Gonzales, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 7:2 (1995). [about]
- African Culture, Traditional, Aspects of, by Universal House of Justice (1998). Challenges and opportunities in the African continent; eliminating prejudices; dance and music; alcohol; hunting; initiation rites; the supernatural; tribal leadership; status of women. [about]
- Ambivalence of Hostility and Modification: Patriarchy's Ideological Negotiation With Women, Modernity and Cinema in Iran, by Elnaz Nasehi, in International Journal of Advanced Research, 8:10 (2020). Passing mentions of the Baha'i Faith in the context of how forces behind the Constitutional Revolution paved the way for the presence of women in public sphere and Iranian cinema. [about]
- Año Internacional de la Mujer, El, by Bahá'í International Community (1974). Exposición presentada por la Comunidad Internacional Bahá’í en el 25° período de sesiones de la Comisión de las Naciones Unidas sobre la Condición Jurídica y Social de la Mujer. [about]
- Australian Women and Religious Change: Margaret Dixson and the First Melbourne Baha'is, by Graham Hassall, in Proceedings of the Association for Bahá'í Studies (1988). [about]
- Authority of the Feminine and Fatima's Place in an Early Work by the Bab, The, by Todd Lawson, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). While Tahirih inspired many in Europe and eventually America, she is very much a daughter of her own culture, history, mythology, and religion. She was a religious mystic who felt a new day arising in the world, and seen by some as the "return" of Fatima. [about]
- Badasht, by Moojan Momen, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 3 (1989). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
- Bahá'í-Inspired Perspectives on Human Rights (2001). Articles by Kiser Barnes, Greg Duly, Cheshmak Farhoumand-Sims, Graham Hassall, Darren Hedley, Nazila Ghanea-Hercock,
Chichi Layor, Michael Penn, Martha Schweitz, and Albert Lincoln. [about]
- Base Espiritual de la Igualdad, La, by Bahá'í International Community. [about]
- Breastfeeding and the Bahá'í Faith, by Haig V. Setrakian and Marc B. Rosenman, in Breastfeeding Medicine, 6:4 (2011). The Writings reference breast-feeding literally and symbolically, and provide guidance as to its practice. As the ideal form of infant nutrition, breastfeeding women are exempted from fasting, and it is linked to childhood moral development. [about]
- Bushido (Chivalry) and the Traditional Japanese Moral Education, by Nozomu Sonda, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). Japanese virtues explained by Nitobe in 1900 in comparison with the Baha'i perspective on moral education. [about]
- Calling, The: Tahirih of Persia and Her American Contemporaries, by Hussein Ahdieh and Hillary Chapman (2017). Simultaneous, powerful spiritual movements swept across both Iran and the U.S in the mid-1800s. On the life and martyrdom of Tahirih; the 1848 Seneca Falls Convention and the conference of Badasht; spiritualism and suffrage. [about]
- Condicion juridica y social de la mujer, La, by Bahá'í International Community. [about]
- Conferencia Mundial del Año Internacional de la Mujer: Declaración presentada por la Comunidad Internacional Bahá'í, by Bahá'í International Community. Declaración presentada por la Comunidad Internacional Bahá’í (en carácter consultivo con el Consejo Económico y Social — Categoría II) Ciudad de México, México, 1975 [about]
- Conferencia Mundial para el Examen y la Evaluación de los Logros del Decenio de las Naciones Unidas para la Mujer: Igualdad, Desarrollo y Paz, by Bahá'í International Community (1985). Informe presentado por la Comunidad Internacional Bahá'í acerca de las actividades de la Comunidad Bahá'í Mundial para mejorar la condición de la mujer durante el Decenio de las Naciones Unidas para la Mujer y Programas Futuros para el Adelanto de la Muje [about]
- Considerations Relating to the Inheritance Laws of the Kitab-i-Aqdas, Some, by Sen McGlinn, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 5:1 (1995). Gender distinctions in the Baha'i inheritance laws might at first glance seem to favor male heirs, but the laws actually create a symmetrical equality. [about]
- Dawn over Mount Hira and Other Essays, by Marzieh Gail (1976). A collection of essays on various topics of interest to Baha'i studies and history. Most of these were first published in Star of the West and World Order between 1929 and 1971. [about]
- Demographics of the United States National Spiritual Assembly, by Archives Office of the United States Bahá'í National Center (2016). Percentage of women, African-Americans, Native Americans, Asian Americans, and Latino Americans serving on the U.S. and Canadian NSAs from 1922-2015. [about]
- Dialogue between Yin-Yang Concepts and the Bahá'í Faith, The, by Phyllis Ghim-Lian Chew, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 6 (2001). Yin-yang, a pivotal theory in Chinese thought influencing government, architecture, relationships, and ethics, has many similarities with the Bahá’í Faith, including the origin of matter, the nature of history, man-woman relationships, and health. [about]
- Discussion with Farida Vahedi, Executive Director of the Department of External Affairs, National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of India, A, by Michael Bodakowski and Katherine Marshall (2011). Overview of Vahedi's life and work, history of the Faith in India and development projects, the Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity, and issues regarding migration and protection of women and girls. [about]
- "Easy Familiarity," Explanations of, by Ruhiyyih (Mary Maxwell) Khanum and Ann Boylan (1912). Statements on displays of affection (hugging and kissing) between members of the opposite sex. Also questions on assembly infallibility, and whether one with a minority opinion should vote against his conscience. [about]
- Education of women and socio-economic development, by Geeta Gandhi Kingdon, in Reason and Revelation: Studies in the Babi and Baha'i Religions, volume 13 (2002). The findings of recent research on the social and the economic benefits of female education, which provides insights as to why Bahá'u'lláh stressed its importance. [about]
- Education of women and socio-economic development, by Geeta Gandhi Kingdon: Commentary, by Erin Murphy Graham and Felicity Rawlings, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 8 (1998). [about]
- Effect of Philosophical and Linguistic Gender Biases on the Degradation of Women's Status in Religion, The, by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:1 (1997). [about]
- Elegibilidad de las Mujeres en la Casa Universal de Justicia, by Universal House of Justice (1988). [about]
- Enslaved African Women in Nineteenth-Century Iran: The Life of Fezzeh Khanom of Shiraz, by Anthony Lee, in Iranian Studies, 45:3 (2012). Through an examination of the life of this servant of The Bab, this paper addresses the enormous gap in our knowledge of the experience of enslaved women in Iran. [about]
- Equality and Baha'i Principles in Northern Ireland, by Edwin Graham, in Solas, 1 (2001). A paper in two parts: (1) the development of equality legislation in Northern Ireland, and (2) the Bahá’í Teachings in relation to equality and the extent to which Northern Irish legislation applies or does not apply them. [about]
- Equality of Women, The: The Bahá'í Principle of Complementarity, by John S. Hatcher, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 2:3 (1990). [about]
- Estudios Preliminares Sobre la Condición Jurídica y Social de la Mujer en la Comunidad Mundial Bahá'í, by Bahá'í International Community. Declaración presentada al 25° período de sesiones de la Comisión de las Naciones Unidas sobre la Condición Jurídica y Social de la Mujer, New York, 1974. [about]
- Exemption, by Bahiyyih Nakhjavani, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 3:1 (1993). Thoughts on Bahá'u'lláh's meaning in "exempting" women from certain Bahá'í obligations, especially pilgrimage. [about]
- Family Law in Iran, by Sen McGlinn (2001). Detailed overview of 20th-century Iranian laws regarding marriage, divorce, marriage rights and duties, dowry, and inheritance. Contains passing mentions of the Baha'i Faith. [about]
- Female Representations of the Holy Spirit in Bahá'í and Christian writings and their implications for gender roles, by Lil Osborn, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 4:1 (1994). A response to feminist theologian Mary Daly's argument that a male representation of God reinforces patriarchy with the suggestion that sexual equality is independent of, and unrelated to, gender images of the Divine. [about]
- Feminine Forms of the Divine in Bahá'í Scriptures, by Paula A. Drewek, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 5:1 (1992). Examples of the interaction between male and female principles in the writings. Complementarity of masculine and feminine images of divinity enriches our understanding of the divine–human encounter, but does not supplant the unity or unknowability of God. [about]
- Feminism, Men and the Bahá'í Faith, by Morgan Wilson, in 75 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in Australasia (1996). [about]
- Fifty Bahá'í Principles of Unity: A Paradigm of Social Salvation, by Christopher Buck, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 18 (2014). World religions are systems of salvation, liberation, or harmony, in direct response to the perceived human predicament. To Baha’is, this predicament is profound estrangement and the solution is world unity, from family to international relations. [about]
- For the Betterment of the World: The Worldwide Bahá'í Community's Approach to Social and Economic Development, by Office of Social and Economic Development (2003). Essays, photographs, and overviews of local projects around the world, illustrating how Bahá'í principles are being carried out in practice, prepared by the Office of Social and Economic Development of the Bahá'í International Community. [about]
- Gender in Babi and Bahá'í Law, by Siyamak Zabihi-Moghaddam (2010). [about]
- Gender perspectives and the work of the United Nations, by Bahá'í International Community (2007). Statement to the UN Human Rights Council on integrating gender perspectives. [about]
- Goddess Religion, Ancient, by Universal House of Justice (1992). Ancient goddess religions and the role of the feminine in theology. [about]
- Handmaidens of God: Baha'i Prayers for Women, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (1987). [about]
- Hora Decisiva para todas las Naciones, by Bahá'í International Community. Declaración de la Comunidad Internacional Bahá'í con motivo del 50 aniversario de Naciones Unidas Octubre 1995 [about]
- Husband and Wife, Relationship between, by Universal House of Justice, in Messages from the Universal House of Justice, 1963-1986: The Third Epoch of the Formative Age (1996). The "functional" divisions between husband and wife in the Baha'i Writings should be considered in the light of the general principle of equality between the sexes. [about]
- In All the Ways that Matter, Women Don't Count, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 4:1 (1994). The Bahá'í goal of achieving sexual equality cannot be achieved merely by trying to advance the position of women in society, but rather society itself must be "feminized." [about]
- Indigenous rights and women's rights in the Samoan Bahá'í community, by Maureen Sier, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 9 (1999). [about]
- Inheritance, by Seena Fazel, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 4:1 (1994). The apparent contradiction between sexual equality and the unequal inheritance laws contained in the Aqdas. [about]
- Inheritance Laws of the Kitab-i-Aqdas, by Sen McGlinn (1995). [about]
- Integracion de la mujer en el desarrollo enocomico y social de America Latina y el Caribe, La, by Bahá'í International Community. Revisión y evaluación crítica de algunos aspectos de la condición de la mujer en la region, incluso su integración en el mercado laboral, mujeres jefes de familia y el papel de la mujer en el comercio en el Caribe. [about]
- Interdependence of Bahá'í Communities, The: Services of North American Bahá'í Women to Iran, by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 4:1 (1991). [about]
- Keys to the Proper Understanding of Islam in The Dispensation of Baha'u'llah, by Brian Wittman, in Lights of Irfan, 2 (2001). [about]
- Letter to Corinne True re Women on the House of Justice, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1909). Translation by Amín Faríd of a short letter stating that "men and women are equal in all rights save in the Universal House of Justice; for the Chairman and the members of the House of Justice are men according to the Text of the Book." [about]
- Letters to Bahá'í princesses: Tablets revealed in honour of the women of Ibn-i Asdaq's household, by Dominic Parvis Brookshaw, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 5 (2004). [about]
- List of Articles on BahaiTeachings.org, by Christopher Buck (2014). List of online essays and articles by Christopher Buck. [about]
- Mary Magdalene: Lioness of God in the Bahá'í Faith, by Lil Osborn (2013). On the symbolic role of Mary Magdalene in the Baha’i tradition as a female archetype in the context of the doctrine of "return," and thus linked to the poet Tahirih, heroine of the Babi-Baha’i dispensation. [about]
- Meaning of Detachment, The, by Phyllis K. Peterson. Detachment as it relates to women, teaching, the media, and unity. [about]
- Meetings for women only, by International Teaching Centre (1997). It is acceptable and perhaps even sometimes necessary for Baha'is to hold gender-segregated meetings. [about]
- Men and the Baha'i Faith: The role of indigenous men in the early Baha'i community in the British Isles, by Lil Osborn (2016). Includes slide-show included when presenting the paper at the Baha'i Studies Seminar, Kellogg College, Oxford (July 2016). [about]
- Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-1986: Third Epoch of the Formative Age, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
- Mobilizing Institutional, Legal and Cultural Resources to Achieve Gender Equality, by Bahá'í International Community. [about]
- Monogamy, Sexual Equality, Marital Equality, and the Supreme Tribunal, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Questions about monogamy, the Supreme Tribunal, and the Baha'i concept of equality of the sexes in light of some Baha'i laws and history which appear to undermine it [about]
- Mujeres y Hombres, Una Sociedad para un Planeta Saludable, by Bahá'í International Community. Exposición presentada al "World Women's Congress for a Healthy Planet", Miami, Florida, 8-12 Noviembre, 1991. [about]
- Munirih Khanum: Memoirs and Letters, by Munirih Khanum (1986). Autobiography of Khanum (1847-1938), the wife of Abdu'l-Baha. Includes the arrangements for her marriage, her travel to Akka, her time with the wife of the Bab, and memorial letters written on the anniversaries of the passing of Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
- Mutilated Body of the Modern Nation: Qurrat al-'Ayn's Unveiling and the Persian Massacre of the Bábís, by Negar Mottahedeh, in Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East, 18:2 (1998). [about]
- National Spiritual Assembly members who are women, Percentage of, 1953-2007, by Bahá'í World Centre (1998). Two letters from the House, with attached tables, showing the number of women serving on NSAs 1953-1993, 1987-1997, and 1997-2007. Includes graphs showing numbers and percent of women serving on NSAs by continental region. [about]
- Off the Grid: Reading Iranian Memoirs in Our Time of Total War, by Negar Mottahedeh, in Middle East Research and Information Project (2004). Observations on contemporary culture and gender issues in Iran. [about]
- Perceiving Differences: A Look at Gender and Equality, by Mark Brush, in dialogue magazine, 2:2-3 (1988). Observations on what Richard DeNovellis' "Personality Type Preference Indicator" tests show about ages and genders; laws of nature vs. laws of God. [about]
- Power and the Bahá'í community, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 19 (2018). While Baha'i social teachings may have sounded new and exciting a century ago, that is no longer the case today. The problem the world faces is not in the principles that would lead to a better society, but in their application. [about]
- Preliminary Survey of the Bahá'í Community of Iran during the Nineteenth Century, A, by Moojan Momen, in Iran im 19. Jahrhundert und die Enstehung der Baha'i Religion, ed. Christoph Burgel and Isabel Schayani (1998). [about]
- Preparación para Vivir en Paz, La Contribución de la Mujer, by Bahá'í International Community. Declaración preparada por la Comunidad Internacional Bahá’í para el Seminario Regional Europeo para el Año Internacional de la Paz, Viena, Austria: 6 al 10 de mayo de 1985 [about]
- Preparing Bahá'í Communities in the East and West to Embrace Gender Equality, by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in Lights of Irfan, 12 (2011). The way Abdu'l-Baha dealt with the matter of gender equality, some of his writings revealed in honor of the Bahá’í women in Iran and North America, and the practical ways he educated Baha'i men to accept women as their equals. [about]
- Promoting the Equality of Women and Men: The Role of the Covenant, by Janet A. Khan, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 10:1-2 (2000). [about]
- Qourrèt-oul-Aíne [Qurratu'l-`Ayn], by A.L.M. Nicolas, in Tahirih in History: Perspectives on Qurratu'l-'Ayn from East and West, ed. Sabir Afaqi (2004). First publication in English translation of early accounts of the life and death of Táhirih. These passages are from Seyyed Ali Mohammad dit le Bab (1905) by A.-L.-M. Nicolas, French diplomat and author. [about]
- Quranic Roots of Some Legal and Theological Terms of the Kitáb-i Aqdas Regarding Women and Homosexual Relations, The, by Kamran Ekbal (1995). Interpretations and etymologies of Arabic terms for prostitution, virginity, dowry, menstruation, sodomy, pederasty, uncleanliness, and adultery. [about]
- Raising Children of Light: editorial, by Bahá'í International Community, in Jerusalem Post (2008). [about]
- Reflections on Human Rights, Moral Development, and the Global Campaign to Eradicate Gender-Based Violence, by Michael L. Penn, in Bahá'í-Inspired Perspectives on Human Rights (2001). [about]
- Resistance, Resilience and the Role of Narrative: Lessons from the Experiences of Iranian Bahá'í Women Prisoners, by Donna Hakimian, in Enquire (Electronic Nottinghom Quarterly for Ideas, Research, and Evaluation), 3 (2009). A study of Iranian Bahá’í women who were imprisoned in Iran following the 1979 revolution. Aspects of individual resistance and resilience are explored through life history interviews. Link to article (offsite). [about]
- Response, by Bahiyyih Nakhjavani: Review, by Elizabeth Shema, in dialogue magazine, 1:1 (1986). [about]
- Rewriting the Script: Some thoughts on gender roles and the Bahá'í Teachings, by Sonja van Kerkhoff (2000). A collection of visual and physical art exploring these themes. [about]
- Rights and Responsibilities in the Bahá'í Family System, by Hoda Mahmoudi and Richard Dabell, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 5:2 (1992). [about]
- Rizal, Revelation and Revolution: Rizal's Letter to the Women of Malolos and Baha'u'llah's letter to Nabil Akbar Lawh-i-Hikmat (Tablet of Wisdom) , by Stephen Ramo (2011). Comparison of letter by Philippine national hero José Rizal to the women of Malolos with Bahá'u'lláh's "Tablet of Wisdom" to Nabil. [about]
- Role of the Feminine in the Bahá'í Faith, The, by Ross Woodman, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 7:2 (1995). [about]
- Role of the Feminine in the New Era, The, by Marion Woodman, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 2:1 (1989). [about]
- Ruptured Spaces and Effective Histories: The Unveiling of the Babi Poetess Qurrat al-'Ayn-Tahirih in the Gardens of Badasht, by Negar Mottahedeh, in Occasional Papers in Shaykhi, Babi and Bahá'í Studies, 2:2 (1998). Implications of Tahirih's revolutionary act at Badasht in terms of a decisive break with Islamic history; also Shaykh Abu Turab's recollections of the event and his literary role in Nabil's Dawn-Breakers. [about]
- Science in the Hands of Women: Present Barriers, Future Promise, by Rhea Howard Harmsen, in World Order (1998). [about]
- Searching for May Maxwell: Bahá'í Millennial Feminism, Transformative Identity and Globalism in the New World Order, by Selena M. Crosson (2013). On forces influencing and shaping womens' roles in early Bahá’i culture, 1898-1940. A group of Western women, associated with Maxwell through ties of faith and friendship, was one of the first to establish a transnational feminist reform network. [about]
- Seed of Creation: A philosophical approach towards the status of Universal House of Justice in respect to Baha'i concept of creation, by Ahmad Aniss (1998). A philosophical approach towards the status of Universal House of Justice in respect to Baha'i concept of creation. [about]
- Selected Topics of Comparison in Christianity and the Bahá'í Faith, by Peter Mazal (1999). Comparison of Baha'i and Christian morality, archetypal events and people (e.g. the ideal woman) in early Christian and Bábí-Bahá'í history plus concepts of Christ (Christology) and the Messiah compared to Prophets, Messengers and Manifestations of God. [about]
- Seneca Falls First Woman's Rights Convention of 1848: The Sacred Rites of the Nation, by Bradford W. Miller, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:3 (1998). [about]
- Sex, Gender, and New Age Stereotyping, by Lata Ta'eed, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 4:1 (1994). Advocates the abolishing of culturally produced differences between men and women and challenges gender inconsistencies inherent in many Bahá'í discussions. [about]
- Sexual Equality in the Bahá'í Community, by Shiva Tavana, in dialogue magazine, 1:3 (1986). Women are oppressed minorities who often feel isolated, even in Baha'i communities. Baha'is need to explore new models of family life. Includes statistics on the percentages of female members of Baha'i institutions. [about]
- Social Basis of the Bábí Upheavals in Iran (1848-1953): A Preliminary Analysis, by Moojan Momen, in International Journal of Middle East Studies, 15 (1983). In the mid-19th century, Iran was shaken by unrest caused by the Babi movement, which set off a chain of events that led on the one hand, to the constitutional movement in Iran, and on the other, to the establishment of the now world-wide Baha'i Faith. [about]
- Social Justice, Wealth Equity and Gender Equality: Bahá'ís and non-Bahá'ís of Alberta, by Leslie William Kuzyk (2003). Baha'i theology takes distinctive positions on wealth distribution and gender equality. These issues are causal factors in a more just model of society. A social survey establishes empirically whether a Baha'i population differs from common society. [about]
- Spiritual Approach to Microcredit Projects, A, by Michel P. Zahrai (1998). Spiritual considerations that should guide the elaboration and implementation of microcredit schemes and measure their success. [about]
- Spiritual Dimensions of Microfinance, The: Towards a Just Civilization and Sustainable Economy, by Barbara J. Rodey (2001). Prepared for the Microcredit Summit to emphasize the importance of universal spiritual principles to achieve the real benefits of microfinance services. [about]
- Spiritual Inheritors, The, by Bahiyyih Nakhjavani, in dialogue magazine, 2:1 (1987). Reflections on growing up Baha'i, and a report on a conference about capturing the power of the Six Year Plan to focus attention on the role of women in establishing global peace, the destiny of the women of North America, and equality of sexes. [about]
- Spiritual Oppression in Frankenstein, by Phyllis Sternberg Perrakis, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 9:4 (1999). [about]
- Táhirih: A Religious Paradigm of Womanhood, by Susan Maneck, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 2:2 (1989). [about]
- Tahirih and Women's Suffrage, by Universal House of Justice, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 4:2 (1990). Two letters on Táhirih's association with women's suffrage, and the authenticity of the words "You can kill me as soon as you like, but you cannot stop the emancipation of women". [about]
- The active force and that which is its recipient", by Betty Hoff Conow, in dialogue magazine, 2:2-3 (1988). Metaphysics of gender and the Lawh-i-Hikmat; universal spiritualism; social indoctrination of gender roles. [about]
- Through the Eyes of Margaret Cousins: Irish and Indian Suffragette, by Keith Munro (2018). Biography of the co-founder of the Irish Women's Franchise League, a theosophist, who met both Martha Root and Shoghi Effendi. [about]
- Translation list (2009). Index to talks, letters, and other items translated from Persian and Arabic to English by Adib Ma'sumian; listed here for the sake of search engines and tagging. [about]
- True Foundation of All Economics, The, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (2000). Book-length compilation ordered by chapters covering 26 themes on the economy, welfare, development, women's employment, work ethics, morality, agriculture, extremes of wealth and poverty, profit-sharing, health and alcohol, consultation. [about]
- Two Books on the Life of Tahirih: Review, by Catherine Nash, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies (2019). Reviews of Rejoice in My Gladness: The Life of Táhirih and The Calling: Táhirih of Persia and Her American Contemporaries. [about]
- Two Wings of a Bird: The Equality of Women and Men, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States (1997). The emancipation of women, the achievement of full equality between the sexes, is essential to human progress and the transformation of society. [about]
- Unclipping the Wings: A Survey of Secondary Literature in English on Bahá'í Perspectives on Women, by Trevor R. J. Finch, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 4:1 (1994). Annotated bibliography of Bahá'í perspectives on women and women's issues. [about]
- Usuli, Akhbari, Shaykhi, Babi: The Tribulations of a Qazvin Family, by Moojan Momen, in Iranian Studies, 36:3 (2003). The emergence of the Usuli school in the evolution of Shi'is jurisprudence and theology in 18th and 19th-century Iran, viewed through the lens of the Baraghani family as it faced schisms of the Akhbari, Shaykhi, and Babi movements. [about]
- Violence Against Women and Children, by Universal House of Justice, in American Bahá'í (1993). Explains the nature and treatment of all forms of violent oppression against the weak. [about]
- What do Baha'is believe about gender?, by Gleibys L. Buchanan, in Washington Post (2011). [about]
- Why There are No Women in the Universal House of Justice, by Vladimir Chupin (2011). Upon learning that it is forbidden to elect women to the Universal House of Justice, many people become puzzled, given the Faith's strong emphasis on the equality of the sexes. This essay offers some perspectives. [about]
- Woman and Islam, by Elihu Grant, in Life and Light for Woman, 42:1 (1912). One-paragraph sympathetic mention. [about]
- Women, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá, in Compilation of Compilations, Volume 2 (1991). Explores the status of women in the world, the development of women, the role of education in that development, the Baha'i concept of gender equality and the application of that principle to family life. Includes bibliography of related Baha'i literature. [about]
- Women and Religious Change: A case study in the colonial migrant experience, by Miriam Dixson, in Australian Bahá'í Studies, vol. 2 (2000). The story of Margaret Dixson, and one woman's growth from Anglicanism, via numerology and astrology, to commitment to the world ideals of the Baha'i Faith. [about]
- Women and Wisdom in Scripture, by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in Lights of Irfan, 16 (2015). Treatment of women in religion; influence of Baha'i teachings in raising awareness about the plight of women and transforming attitudes across the globe; role of linguistic biases in degrading their status; role of wisdom in achieving gender equality. [about]
- Women Entrepreneurs: Catalysts for Transformation, by Diane Chamberlin Starcher (1997). Describes the dramatic rise in importance of women entrepreneurs and how feminine qualities contribute to their success. [about]
- Women in the Bahá'í Faith, by Susan Maneck, in Religion and Women (1994). Bahá'í paradigms of womanhood, and some highlights of women's participation in the Faith's history. [about]
- Women in the works of the Bab and in the Babi Movement, by Moojan Momen, in Encyclopaedia Iranica (2011). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
- Women on the House of Justice; meaning of "Umumi", by Universal House of Justice (1997). Clarifies that 'Abdu'l-Baha, in a tablet to Corinne True, indeed refers to the Universal House of Justice when affirming that membership is confined to men only. Includes a portion of Corinne True's original query to 'Abdu'l-Baha.
- Women on the Universal House of Justice, by Universal House of Justice (1988). Response to a paper presented at a Baha'i Studies conference which raised the possibility that women could one day be eligible for membership on the Universal House of Justice. [about]
- Women Serving as Continental Counselors or in the International Teaching Centre, Percentage of: 1980-2010, by Universal House of Justice (2013). Chart showing the percentage of women serving as members of the Continental Boards of Counsellors from 26 November 1980 — when the number of Boards was fixed at five — until November 2010. [about]
- Women's Education and Socio-Economic Development: The Pathways of Impact, by Geeta Gandhi Kingdon (2010). [about]
- Women, The Status of: Warwick Leaflets, by Warwick Bahá'í Bookshop (1995). Overview of the status of women in education, marriage, and the future. [about]
- Zaynab, by John Walbridge, in Military Women Worldwide: A Biographical Dictionary (2003). Brief biography of a female Babi fighter. [about]