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Search for location "Libya"

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from the Chronology

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1911. 29 Sep The start of the Italo-Turkish war which lasted until the 18th of October 1912 when the Ottoman Empire signed a treaty in Ouchy in Lausanne called the First Treaty of Lausanne, (often also called Treaty of Ouchy to distinguish it from the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne), (the Second Treaty of Lausanne). Italy's victory led to the annexation of the Ottoman Tripolitania Vilayet, including sub-provinces like Fezzan, Cyrenaica, and Tripoli itself. These regions later became Italian colonies known as Italian Tripolitania and Cyrenaica, which eventually merged into Italian Libya. Italy established control over Libya and would govern the region until the end of World War II.

After defeating the Ottoman army they confiscated on large scale the lands of the Arab peasants on which Italian settlements were established and large numbers of Italian settlers were brought in for the cultivation of cash products. The war cost Italy 1.3 billion lire, nearly a billion more than Prime Minister Giovanni Giolitti had estimated before the war. This ruined ten years of fiscal prudence.

This war is notable for the introduction of new military technologies including the use of the airplane for reconnaissance and bombing. It also included the first instance of an airplane being shot down by ground fire.

The Italians also used a wireless telegraph network established with the help of the Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconi.

This war is considered by historians as a precursor of the First World War. Members of the Balkan League, seeing how easily Italy defeated the Ottomans and motivated by incipient Balkan nationalism, attacked the Ottoman Empire in October 1912, starting the First Balkan War a few days before the end of the Italo-Turkish War. [Wikipedia]

The Battle of Benghazi was a preliminary to the fascist invasion of Ethiopia and Italy's ambitions to establish its own colonial empire. [Colonialism, Nationalism and Jewish Immigration to Palestine: Abdu´l-Baha's Viewpoints Regarding the Middle East by Kamran Ekbal p18]

Turkey; Italy; Libya Imperialism/colonialism; History (general)
1911 21 Oct News of the Battle of Benghazi (17 October) was headline news. It was one of the opening salvos of the Turko-Italian War and began on the 17th of October when Italian invasion forces began their bombardment of the Turkish garrison. The Turks were forced to abandon the city and there were many lives lost, Italians, Turks and civilians.
  • His talk, The Pitiful Causes of War, and the Duty of Everyone to Strive for Peace. [ABF96-100 PT28-30; Colonialism, Nationalism and Jewish Immigration to Palestine: Abdu´l-Baha's Viewpoints Regarding the Middle East by Kamran Ekbal p18]
  • See as well SoW Vol 2 No 14 November 23, 1911 p5 for His talk on the Battle of Benghazi.
  • The talk was attended by Remi de Gourmont, literary critic, essayist, poet and writer. The following day his editorial, "Le Béhhaïsmie: les idées dujour" was published in the newspaper Le France. [ABF95n287, 98]
  • Paris; France; Benghazi; Libya; Turkey; Italy Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; War (general); History (general); Peace; Remy_de_Gourmont; Imperialism/colonialism
    1952. 21 Feb For their part in the Africa Campaign, Egypt was asked to send pioneers to Libya and to Algeria. The first pioneer to Libya, Dr. Hussein Gollestaneh, arrived in Benghazi from Egypt.
  • By June 5, 1952 the first Libyan. Mr El Alamy, declared his faith in Bahá'u'lláh. Later in June a Bahá'í family, the Gorrah family, arrived to assist with the teaching work. [BN No 246 August 1951 p10; BN No 260 October 1952 p5]
  • Benghazi; Libya Hussein Gollestaneh; Mr El Alamy; Gorrah
    1953 26 Aug Ella Bailey (b. 16 December, 1864, Houston, Harris County, Texas) passed away in Tripoli, Tarabulus, Libya at the age of 88 years. [BW12:687]
  • She was elevated to the rank of martyr. [MBW170]
  • For the story of her life see PSBW131–42.
  • See Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • For her obituary see BW12:685–8.
  • For information on her burial site and a short biography see Find-a-grave.
  • See Youtube video I Adjure Them - The Ella Bailey Story as told by Hand of the Cause of God William Sears.
  • She had accompanied Mr and Mrs Rober Gulick in their settlement in Tripoli. [BN No 271 september 1953 p6]
  • Tripoli; Libya; Houston; Texas; United States Ella Bailey; Names and titles; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1953 (In the year) Pioneers began to arrive in Libya;
  • Mustapha Salem arrived in July and settled in Tripoli, [BN No 272 October 1953 p9}
  • Asia and Feridon Zein and their two children settled in Benghazi, [BN No 272 October 1953 p9}
  • Rizvaniyyih Iqrari pioneered to Benghazi, Libya on 10 September, Mohsen Enayat pioneered within Libya from Tripoli to Feezan on the 26th of September, Mr. and Mrs. Ne'mat 'Abdu'l Wahid and Mr. Wahid's sister-in-law arrived in Tripoli, Libya in late September. [BN No 273 November 1953 p12-13]
  • Mrs. Laura Kelsey Allen arrived in Tripoli, September 3, 1953. [BN No 280 June 1954 p9]
  • As a result a Local Spiritual Assembly was formed in Benghazi in 1953 and in November of the same year in Tripoli. . [BN No 274 December 1953 p2; BN No 280 June 1954 p10]
  • Tripoli; Libya; Banghazi; Libya Mustapha Salem; Asia Zein; Feridon Zein; Rizvaniyyih Iqrari; Mohsen Enayat; Laura Kelsey Allen; Local Spiritual Assembly, formation; Mr and Mrs Nemat Abdul Wahid
    1956 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of North East Africa was formed by expanding the jurisdiction of the National Spiritual Assembly of Egypt and Sudan. [BW13:284]
  • Its area of jurisdiction now included Egypt, Sudan, Abyssinia, Libya, Eritrea, British, French and Italian Somaliland and Socotra Island.
  • From this date forward all African territories originally allocated to the United States, the Persian, the Egyptian, the Indian, and the British National Spiritual Assemblies became, in the course of the Ten-Year Plan, to benefit from the advantages of sustained assistance by these Assemblies Spiritual Assemblies. [MBW71-72]
  • Since 1956 National Spiritual Assembly of North East Africa had been led by the former National Spiritual Assembly of Egypt and the Sudan. In 1960 difficulties in Egypt made it impossible to administer territories outside of Egypt a regional administrative committee was formed and this, in turn, was replaced with a new National Spiritual Assembly with its headquarters in Addis Abba. [BW13p287]
  • Egypt; Libya; Sudan; Eritrea; French Somaliland (Djibouti); Djibouti; Italian Somaliland; Ethiopia; Socotra Island; British Somaliland; Abyssinia; Eritrea National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1983 Ridván The number of Local Spiritual Assemblies in Africa rose to some 7,200 and localities where Bahá'ís resided to over 35,000. In Algeria, the Congo, Egypt, Libya and Niger the Faith remained banned. [BW19p147] Algeria; Congo; Egypt; Libya; Niger Statistics; Persecution; National Spiritual Assembly, formation

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    from the Main Catalogue

    1. Colonialism, Nationalism and Jewish Immigration to Palestine: Abdu'l-Baha's Viewpoints Regarding the Middle East, by Kamran Ekbal (2014). Abdu'l-Bahá was opposed to the cultural and political colonialism of foreign powers and their militaries. In spite of the Bahá'í principle of abstaining from politics, exceptions can be made in the face of tyranny and injustice. [about]
    2. References to the Bahá'í Faith in the U.S. State Department's Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, by United States Department of State (1991-2001). Excerpts from the State Department's annual compilation of Country Reports on Human Rights Practices on discrimination against the Bahá'í Faith and persecution of its adherents in twenty countries. [about]
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