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from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1844 (In the year) Edict of Toleration: The relaxation of the order for the exclusion of the Jews from the Holy Land. GPB iv Luke 21:24
  • See The 1844 Ottoman 'Edict of Toleration' in Bahá'í Secondary Literature by Michael W Sours.
  • Israel Edict of Toleration; Jews; Judaism; History (general)
    1890 (In the year) A number of people of the Jewish, Zoroastrian and Buddhist Faiths became Bahá'ís. [BBR248–9; GPB195] Judaism; Jews; Zoroastrianism; Buddhism; Conversion; Interfaith dialogue
    1917. 2 Nov The Balfour Declaration was a letter sent to Lord Walter Rothschild by British Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour declaring support for the establishment of a ‘national home for the Jewish people’ in what was to become the British Mandate of Palestine. It was the first official declaration of political support for Jewish independence and is viewed by some as paving the way for the legal foundations of the modern State of Israel as evidenced by the level of international diplomacy that went into securing the letter. In the context of WWI which was still raging at the time, it offered Britain the opportunity for a stake in the Middle East in the expected wake of the collapse of the Ottoman Empire. It also marked one of the first major successes of the political Zionist movement which had officially been established with the First Zionist Congress in 1897.

    Given that the Balfour Declaration was not a unilateral document on behalf of the British but rather something which had been agreed upon privately by allied diplomats before it was issued, it is viewed as the beginning of a legal process, which involved the San Remo conference of 1920 where the Declaration was officially adopted by the allied powers and latter, the creation of the British Mandate for Palestine in 1922.

    The implementation of the Declaration was not without its failings. It provided for the safeguarding of the rights of the residents of Palestine saying ‘nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine’. In the run up to WWII that the British wanted to placate the Arab leadership in the Mandate. They issued a White Paper limiting Jewish immigration to the Mandate to fifteen thousand every year for five years, ultimately refusing entry to thousands of Jewish refugees from Europe, many of whom would tragically die in the Holocaust. [Wikipedia]

  • The Palestine Mandate.
  • Palestine; Israel; United Kingdom Balfour Declaration; Jews; Judaism; History (general); Palestine Mandate
    2000 17 - 21 Dec The first International Conference on Modern Religions and Religious Movements in Judaism Christianity and Islam and the Bábí-Bahá’í Faiths was held in Jerusalem with about 90 persons in attendance. [BWNS84] Jerusalem; Israel Conferences, Other; Interfaith dialogue; Judaism; Christianity; Islam; Firsts, Other; BWNS

    from the chronology of Canada

    from the main catalogue

    1. 1844 Ottoman 'Edict of Toleration' in Bahá'í Secondary Literature, The, by Michael W. Sours, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:3 (1998). This edict, issued the year the Bahá'í era began, permitted Jews to return to Palestine. The return of Jews to the Holy Land was thought by Christians to be an event anticipated by biblical prophecy, heralding the Second Advent of Christ. [about]
    2. 'Abdu'l-Bahá on Christ and Christianity: Introduction, by Seena Fazel, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 3:1 (1993). 'Abdu'l-Bahá's answers to questions posed by Pastor Monnier in Paris in 1913 on Christian subjects, notably the nature of Christ, and the relationship between Christianity and the Bahá'í Faith. [about]
    3. Anatomy of Figuration, The: Maimonides' Exegesis of Natural Convulsions in Apocalyptic Texts (Guide II.29), by Christopher Buck, in Sephardic Heritage Update (2020). Insights of medieval Jewish philosopher Maimonides on figurative language and symbolic exegesis in his book The Guide for the Perplexed. The Bahá'í Faith is mentioned in the Introduction; some interpretations are similar to concepts from the Iqan. [about]
    4. Andalusí Theosophy: A Recontextualization, by Vahid Brown, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 7 (2006). The role of interconfessionalism in the emergence of Islamic and Jewish theosophical movements in 10th- to 13th-century Spain.  [about]
    5. Anti-Semitism and the Holocaust, References in the Bahá'í Writings to, by Universal House of Justice (1998). [about]
    6. Are there indications of a Second Coming of a Messiah in the Old Testament?, by David Friedman (1999). Some claim that the New Testament teaching of a "Second Coming" is not found in the Old Testament; however, it is easy to find older references to a Return. [about]
    7. Background and Centrality of Apophatic Theology in Bábí and Bahá'í Scripture, The, by Stephen Lambden, in Revisioning the Sacred: New Perspectives on a Bahá'í Theology, Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions vol. 8 (1997). History of the theological position of the incomprehensibility-unknowability of God in past major Abrahamic religions and its importance and significance for contemporary Bahá'ís. [about]
    8. Bahá'í Cosmological Symbolism and the Ecofeminist Critique, by Michael W. Sours, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 7:1 (1995). Constituents of Bahá'í cosmological symbolism; introduction to the main feminist/environmentalist arguments; eschatological character of Bahá'í cosmological symbolism; Bahá'í eschatology provides answers to many feminist and ecological objections. [about]
    9. Bahá'í Faith and Its Relationship to Islam, Christianity, and Judaism, The: A Brief History, by Adam Berry, in International Social Science Review, 79:3-4 (2004). Bahá'í history in Iran and America; relationship with Christian missionaries in Iran and Christian converts in America; Jewish responses to the Faith. [about]
    10. Bahá'í Sources for the Study of Iranian Jewry during the Qajar Period, by Soli Shahvar (2005). Lecture delivered in Arabic. [about]
    11. Bahá'í Students and American University of Beirut in the Early 20th Century, by Reed M. Breneman (2008). The influential activities of the campus Bahá'í association in Beirut, 1900-1920 and during the first World War. [about]
    12. Bahá'í Understanding of Reincarnation in Relation to the World's Faiths, A, by Sateh Bayat and Vafa Bayat, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 6 (2005). Concepts of reincarnation in Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam; the Bahá'í religion's rejection of the idea of reincarnation; its model of a spiritual progress which continues after death. [about]
    13. Bahá'í World Faith: Redefinition of Religion, by James J. Keene, in Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 6:2 (1967). Bahá'ís consistently differ from Jews and Christians in the structure of their religious behavior and its relation to personality. Only the Bahá'ís evidenced a "fully balanced" religious activity. [about]
    14. Bahá'u'lláh as fulfilment of the theophanic promise in the Sermons of Imam 'Alí ibn Abí Ṭálib: Translation of al Tutunjiyya, Iftikhár and Ma'rifat bin-Nurániyyat, by Khazeh Fananapazir, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). Translations of Tutunjiyya "Sermon of the Gulf," Iftikhár "Sermon of Iftikhár," and Ma'rifat bin-Nurániyyat "Sermon of Ma'rifat bin-Nurániyyat." [about]
    15. Baha'u'llah's Prophetology: Archetypal patterns in the lives of the founders of the world religions, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 5.1 (1995). Explores the theory that the lives of the prophet-founders of the world religions have in some ways re-capitulated each other. [about]
    16. Bible Stories and Themes in the Bahá'í Writings and Guidance (2021). Bahá'í interpretation of Biblical stories and topics. [about]
    17. Bible, The: Extracts on the Old and New Testaments, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (n.d.). [about]
    18. Body, Mind, Soul and Spirit, by Anjam Khursheed, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 3 (1998). The Bahá'í view of human nature involves an interaction between spirit, soul and body — these three elements exist both in the Semitic religions and in the Far Eastern ones; Western dualist and Eastern monist traditions are in fact all tripartite. [about]
    19. Book of Revelation Revealed in Glory, The: A Summary of Glorious Revelation, by William Ridgers, in Lights of Irfan, Book 1 (2000). Bahá'í interpretation of St. John's Book of Revelation. [about]
    20. By the Fig and the Olive": `Abdu'l-Bahá's Commentary in Ottoman Turkish on the Qur'ánic Sura 95, by Necati Alkan, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 10 (2001). A translation and discussion of an Ottoman-Turkish Tablet by `Abdu'l-Bahá: his commentary on the Quaranic Sura of the Fig (#95).  [about]
    21. Catastrophe, Armageddon and Millennium: Some aspects of the Bábí-Bahá'í exegesis of apocalyptic symbolism, by Stephen Lambden, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 9 (1999). Preliminary consideration of selected Bábí-Bahá'í doctrines expository of apocalyptic symbolism associated with major Abrahamic religious prophecies. [about]
    22. Catastrophe, Armageddon and Millennium: Some Aspects of the Bábí-Bahá'í Exegesis of Apocalyptic Symbolism, by Stephen Lambden: Commentary, "The Apocalyptic Upheaval Completed?", by William P. Collins, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 10 (2001). Commentary on earlier article by Stephen Lambden. [about]
    23. Christians, Muhammadans, and Jews, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1940). An address delivered at Temple Emmanu-El, San Francisco, October 12, 1912. [about]
    24. Comparative Lives of the Founders of the World Religions, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 5.1 (1995). Table comparing the lives of the Founders of the world's religions. [about]
    25. Compare: Bahá'í Faith, Islam, Christianity, Judaism (2009). Comparison charts of statistics, basic beliefs, origins, and history. [about]
    26. Concept of Sacred Justice in Hebrew Eschatology, by Gary Selchert, in Lights of Irfan, Book 1 (2000). The concepts of Justice and Judgment in the Hebrew Bible; centuries before Christ, the social order of the Israelite tribes was legislated and enforced in accordance with the Covenant and Law of Moses; the formation of social ethics. [about]
    27. Conversion of Religious Minorities to the Bahá'í Faith in Iran: Some Preliminary Observations, by Susan Maneck, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 3:3 (1990). Conversion patterns of Zoroastrians and Jews in the period 1877-1921. [about]
    28. "Conversion of Religious Minorities to the Bahá'í Faith in Iran," by Susan Stiles Maneck: Commentary, by Foad Katirai, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 5:2 (1992). [about]
    29. Covenant of Baha'u'llah, The: A Compilation (1963). Lengthy compilation published as a book, first put together in 1950, of quotations from Scripture — Jewish, Christian, Muslim, Bábí, and Bahá’í — about the Covenant of God, the Eternal Covenant, and the Greater and Lesser Covenants. [about]
    30. Covenant, The: Brit Olam, by Peter Terry (1997). The concept of covenant is found in the Bible, the Qur'an, and Bahá'í writings. Using the form of an inter-religious dialogue, this paper correlates references to covenant in four religions, demonstrating the distinctive characteristics of each. [about]
    31. De la Córdoba Mora a los Bahá'ís de Irán, by Boris Handal, in Revista Cultura y Religión, 4:1 (2010). Contrast between the contemporary Iranian Bahá'í community and the treatment of religious minorities in Spain under the Moors. [about]
    32. Elucidation of the Meaning of The Greatest Name, by Mirza Abu'l-Fadl Gulpaygani (1945). Explanation of "The Greatest Name," with words of Abdu'l-Bahá, as copied by May Maxwell. Source and date not known. [about]
    33. End of Days, by Moshe Sharon, in Lights of Irfan, 19 (2018). On the word “messiah”, the anointed, which describes the redeemer like a priest, consecrated by being anointed with holy oil; prophecies about the last days and the final coming; predictions about the time of the "end," which Bahá'ís interpret as 1863. [about]
    34. Execution of the Jews of Banu Quraida and the Conquest of Persia, The: The Dilemma of Early Islam, by Kamran Ekbal, in Iran Nameh (2014). Abdu'l-Bahá's views on the mass execution of the Banu Qurayza Jews in Medina in 627 A.D. [article in Persian]. [about]
    35. From Adam to Bahá'u'lláh: The Idea of a Chain of Prophecy, by Zaid Lundberg, in Lights of Irfan, Book 3 (2002). Whilst the modern period has seen a series of scientific paradigm shifts which have radically altered the scientific understanding of man and nature, no theory of religion has had similar success; the potential of the Bahá’í perspective. [about]
    36. From Moorish Cordova to the Bahá'ís of Iran: Islamic Tolerance and Intolerance, by Boris Handal, in IDEA: A Journal of Social Issues, 12:1 (2007). Though Bahá'ís are persecuted in Iran, Muhammad taught understanding and respect towards religious minorities. Cordova, Spain is an example of historical tolerance where Muslims, Christians and Jews co-existed harmoniously under Islamic rule. [about]
    37. Further Comments on a Passage of the Lawh-i-Hikmat, by Amin E. Egea, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 10 (2009). A study of Pre-Islamic sources on the relation of Greek Philosophers and Jewish sages. [about]
    38. Genesis in King Lear: Joseph's Many-Colored Coat Suits Shakespeare, by Tom Lysaght, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 29:3 (2019). Creative comparison of the biblical figure of Joseph and the character of Edgar in Shakespeare's King Lear, in light of the Báb’s and Bahá'u'lláh's Writings. [about]
    39. God of Bahá'u'lláh, The, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Faith and the World's Religions (2005). A close look at the view of God presented in the Writings of Bahá’u’lláh and analysis of the consequences of a number of His statements. [about]
    40. Goddess Religion, Ancient, by Universal House of Justice (1992). Ancient goddess religions and the role of the feminine in theology. [about]
    41. Golden Age of Jewish/Christian Relations Revisited, The: The Contribution of H.J. Schoeps to Interfaith Dialogue, by Christopher Buck (1984). On Bavarian historian Hans Joachim Schoeps, considered a foremost authority on early Jewish Christianity. Includes appendix of previously unpublished correspondence between Schoeps and Bahá'í scholar Udo Schaefer, in both German and English translation. [about]
    42. He Whom God Shall Make Manifest: Notes on Gematria, Tetractys, The Báb's identification of Him, and Opposition to Bahá'u'lláh, by Grover Gonzales (2020). On the Bab's use of numerology and cabalistic interpretation of scripture, and his use of amulets and talismans, as tools to help his disciples find and recognize the coming Manifestation, the "Qa'im," Man Yuzhiruhu'lláh. [about]
    43. Heaven, Hell and the Afterlife, by Lynette Thomas, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 3 (1998). Judeo-Christian and Muslim views of life after death are often seen literally as bodily resurrection and a judgement day, vs. the Bahá'í perspective of the nature of the soul and its existence after the death of the body, heaven/hell, and the afterlife. [about]
    44. Hermes Trismegistus and Apollonius of Tyana in the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh, by Keven Brown, in Revisioning the Sacred: New Perspectives on a Bahá'í Theology, Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions vol. 8 (1997). History of alchemy, magic, and the hermetic arts, and their reflection in the later teachings of Bahá'u'lláh. [about]
    45. Hidden Words: References of 'Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi (1998). [about]
    46. Illuminator vs. Redeemer: Was Ebionite Adam/Christ Prophetology "Original," Anti-Pauline, or "Gnostic"?, by Christopher Buck (1982). Contains no mention of the Bahá'í Faith, but is of interest because of the phenomenological resonance between the Ebionite Christian doctrine of the "True Prophet" with the Bahá’í doctrine of the “Manifestation of God.” [about]
    47. Illuminator vs. Redeemer: A Trajectory of Ebionite Christology from Prophet Messianism to Bahá'í Theophanology, by Christopher Buck (1983). A continuity may be drawn by plotting a trajectory of prophetological concepts from Prophet Messianism to Baha'I Theophanology, wherein Ebionite Christology provides the missing link to an ideological evolution in Semitic milieus. [about]
    48. Immanence and Transcendence in Theophanic Symbolism, by Michael W. Sours, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 5:2 (1992). Bahá'u'lláh uses symbols to depict theophanies — the appearance of God and the divine in the realm of creation — such as "angel," "fire," and the prophets' claims to be incarnating the "face" or "voice" of God; these convey the transcendence of God. [about]
    49. "In the Beginning Was the Word": Apocalypse and the Education of the Soul, by Ross Woodman, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 5:4 (1993). Hidden meanings in scripture and the soul are metaphorically identified with the huris, or brides. The bridegroom, Bahá'ulláh, enters union as the marriage of the Manifestation with the Maid of Heaven, who releases the Logos and the newly created soul. [about]
    50. In the Noble, Sacred Place: One Rainy Day in a Holy City, by Sandra Lynn Hutchison, in elixir-journal.org, vol. 12 (2021). A memoir of visiting Jerusalem — a contemporary pilgrim's note written as a literary piece — with meditations on the spiritual truths of the Qur'an. [about]
    51. Introduction to the Súratu'l-Haykal (Discourse of The Temple), An, by Mohamad Ghasem Bayat, in Lights of Irfan, Book 2 (2001). One of Bahá’u’lláh's major writings. It includes references to the manifold stations of the Manifestation of God; God's promise to create a race of men to support His Cause; and the power of this revelation. [about]
    52. Is It Unethical to Evade Taxes in an Evil or Corrupt State?: A Look at Jewish, Christian, Muslim, Mormon and Bahá'í Perspectives, by Robert W. McGee, in Journal of Accounting, Ethics & Public Policy, 2:1 (1999). The ethics of tax evasion has been a neglected topic in both the accounting and ethical literature. This article reviews the recent literature, focusing on the question of whether tax evasion is ethical in a corrupt country. [about]
    53. Islam, the Baha'i Faith and the Eternal Covenant of Alast, by Susan Maneck (2009). [about]
    54. Jewish Conversion to the Bahá'í Faith, by Moshe Sharon (2011). On the conversion of Jews in Iran, where they were among the early converts to the new religion, first as occasional individuals, and from the late 1870s in massive numbers. [about]
    55. Jews and the Crucifixion, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States (1980). [about]
    56. Judaism and the Bahá'í Faith: Warwick Leaflets, by Warwick Bahá'í Bookshop (2004). [about]
    57. Judeo-Persian Communities of Iran in the Qajar Period: Conversion to the Bahá'í Faith, by Mehrdad Amanat, in Encyclopaedia Iranica (2009). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
    58. Kaleidoscope: Some Aspects of Angelology, Light, the Divine Throne and Color Mysticism in Bábí and Bahá'í Scripture, by Stephen Lambden, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 5 (2004). Miscellaneous notes relating to religious cosmology, angelology, color and “throne” symbolism in select Abrahamic, Bábí, Bahá’í, and religious and mystical texts. It will be seen that colours are related to the theology of the celestial Throne. [about]
    59. Key Passages from the Kitáb-i-Íqán (Book of Certitude) in Gleanings from the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh, by Bahá'u'lláh (2022). Cross-reference compilation of 40 passages from the Kitáb-i-Íqán selected by Shoghi Effendi for inclusion in Gleanings from the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh, adapted from Hooper Dunbar's Companion to the Study of the Kitáb-i-Íqán. [about]
    60. Kitáb-i-Íqán: The Book of Certitude, by Bahá'u'lláh (1931). Major theological work by Baháʼu'lláh, written prior to his declaration of mission. [about]
    61. Kitáb-i-Iqán, The: Revolutionizing the Concepts of Religion, Eschatology and Theology, by Sohrab Kourosh, in Lights of Irfan, 19 (2018). The Kitáb-i-Íqán resolves and removes eschatological barriers and establishes the fundamentals of a universal religion and a universal theology, that integrates and harmonizes other contending ideologies. [about]
    62. Laws Abrogated by Bahá'u'lláh (2018). Laws abolished from previous religions and from the Bayán. [about]
    63. Letters Written on Behalf of the Guardian, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). Three questions: Letters Written on Behalf of Shoghi Effendi; Status of Research Department Memoranda; Bahá'í Writings Based in Fact? [about]
    64. Life after Death: A Study of the Afterlife in Religions, by Farnaz Ma'sumian: Review, by Jack McLean, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:2 (1998). [about]
    65. List of Articles on BahaiTeachings.org, by Christopher Buck (2020). List of online essays and articles by Christopher Buck since 2014. [about]
    66. List of Baha'i Studies and Translations, by Stephen Lambden. A list of content available at Lambden's personal website, Hurqalya Publications, with select links to manuscripts, texts, introductions. Includes Shaykhi and Bábí studies, bibliographies, genealogies, provisional translations. [about]
    67. Lists of Articles, by Brent Poirier (2009). Lists of 126 articles at the author's six blog websites. [about]
    68. Lot and His Daughters, by Universal House of Justice (2015). Discussion of two Bahá'í references on the Biblical story of Lot; an interpretation of a Bible verse is not inevitably dependent on the Biblical source being authentic or reliable. [about]
    69. Medieval Islam: The Influence of Islam on Judaism and Christianity, by Anjam Khursheed, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 2 (1997). Prior to the Renaissance, Islam inspired revivals in the cultural traditions of Christianity and Judaism, indicating a harmony between the three religions. The reforms inspired by Islam were a prelude to the modern scientific revolution. [about]
    70. Messianic Roots of Babi-Bahá'í Globalism, The, by Stephen Lambden, in Bahá'í and Globalisation (2005). Contrast of the continuity between the globalism of the Bab’s Qayyum al-asma’ and Baha’u’llah’s globalism, verses breaks between the two, e.g. the abandoning of jihad as a means of promoting a globalisation process. [about]
    71. Mikhail Sergeev, Theory of Religious Cycles: Tradition, Modernity and the Bahá'í Faith: Review, by Benjamin Olshin, in Studies in Bahá'í Philosophy, vol. 4 (2015). [about]
    72. Miracles and Metaphors, by Mirza Abu'l-Fadl Gulpaygani (1981). Collection of essays on metaphysical topics and Bahá'í answers to old religious controversies: are the Scriptures to be taken literally? Do miracles occur? What is an angel? Are the stories of the Old Testament to be believed? [about]
    73. Miscellaneous philosophy topics, by John Walbridge, in Essays and Notes on Babi and Bahá'í History (2002). Islamic vs. Bahá'í philosophy; Greek philosophers and the Jews; other topics of philosophy. [about]
    74. Notes on Judaism from a Bahá'í Perspective, by Robert Stockman (1998). Overview of Judaism with many comments on Bahá'í teachings on Jewish history and prophets; includes chronology of Judaism. [about]
    75. One Common Faith, by Universal House of Justice (2005). Review of relevant passages from both the writings of Bahá'u'lláh and the scriptures of other faiths against the background of contemporary crises. [about]
    76. One Father, Many Children: Judaism and the Bahá'í Faith, by Burl Barer (2010). Judaic teachings on religious inclusivism and relativism, and the Bahá'í acceptance of Judaism. [about]
    77. Oneness of Reality, The: A Response to Moojan Momen's "Relativism as a Basis for Baha'i Metaphysics", by Peter Terry (2018). Dialogue on epistemology and ontology as presented in the core literature of the Baha’i religion. [about]
    78. Out of Jewish Roots: Studies of Prayer Patterns in Jewish, Christian, Muslim and Bahá'í Worship, by Ted Brownstein, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 7 (2006). An exploration of the development of liturgy and personal prayer patterns from its roots in Judaism and subsequent development in Christianity, Islam and the Bahá'í Faith. [about]
    79. Passages uit de Kitáb-i-Íqán (Boek van Zekerheid) in Bloemlezing uit de Geschriften van Bahá'u'lláh, by Bahá'u'lláh (2022). Compilatie van 40 passages uit de Kitáb-i-Íqán door Shoghi Effendi geselecteerd voor opname in Bloemlezing uit de Geschriften van Bahá'u'lláh. [about]
    80. Permanence of Change, The: Contemporary Sociological and Bahá'í Perspectives, by Hoda Mahmoudi, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 18:1-4 (2008). Sociohistorical changes of the Axial Age and the Renaissance, sociological views on modernity and its contemporary challenges, and key features of modernity as identified in the Bahá’í writings as "the universal awakening of historical consciousness." [about]
    81. Pilgrimage and Religious Identity in the Bahá'í Faith, by Per-Olof Akerdahl, in Lights of Irfan, Book 1 (2000). Pilgrimage has been an important part in the creation of a religious identity. The meaning of pilgrimage in the Bahá’í Faith, and in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. [about]
    82. Progressive Revelation: A Brief Circumstantial/Historical Contextualization, by Mehdi Wolf (2022). Progressive revelation must be understood in the context of the twin purposes of a divine Manifestation, as well as the prevailing historical circumstances. The varying attitudes to law and science are used as test cases. [about]
    83. Prolegomena to a Bahá'í Theology, by Jack McLean, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 5:1 (1992). Groundbreaking and thorough essay on the basic concerns of scholarly Bahá'í theology. [about]
    84. Prophets and Mountains, by Moshe Sharon, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 9 (2008). Metaphors of mountains and actual mountains in the history of religion; Mount Carmel. [about]
    85. Qur'an and Violence against Non-believers, The, by Ted Brownstein (2017). An examination of two sections of The Qur'an that supposedly authorize the slaughter of innocent non-Muslims. [about]
    86. Reconciliation of Races and Religions, The, by Thomas Kelly Cheyne (1914). Early history of the Bábí and Bahá'í movements, life stories of their participants, and their contemporary religious context, written by a distinguished British Biblical scholar. [about]
    87. Reis naar het Hart van de Qur'án: Het Heilige Boek van de islam voor hen die nadenken (door een niet-moslim), by David Russell Garcia (2022). Een overzicht van de Koran en zijn thema's: islam versus het christendom; wetten, geestelijke en sociale principes; heilige oorlog en vechten; redenen achter de reputatie van de islam als een oorlogsreligie; apocalypse. [about]
    88. Relativism: A Basis For Bahá'í Metaphysics, by Moojan Momen, in Studies in Honor of the Late Husayn M. Balyuzi, Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions, vol. 5, ed. Moojan Momen (1988). "Relativism" as a means of reconciling the often widely-divergent theologies of the world's religions. [about]
    89. Religion in the Middle East: Three Religions in Concord and Conflict: Volume 1, Judaism and Christianity, by Arthur J. Arberry (1969). Three mentions of the Babis and Bahá'ís. [about]
    90. Religious Behavior and Neuroticism, Spontaneity, and Worldmindedness, by James J. Keene, in Sociometry, 30:2 (1967). Bahá'ís were included in a broad survey of religious thoughts and actions, and their attitudes statistically compared with followers of other faiths. [about]
    91. Role of the Feminine in the Bahá'í Faith, The, by Ross Woodman, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 7:2 (1995). On the terms 'Masculine' and 'Feminine' as referring to 2 interdependent energies at work within the Manifestation of God and throughout creation, including the human individual; the important role of the 'Feminine' principle in the Bahá’í Faith. [about]
    92. Role of the Feminine in the New Era, The, by Marion Woodman, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 2:1 (1989). The  unveiled feminine, symbolized by the unveiling of the Persian poet Táhirih at the conference of Badasht in 1848, announces a long-awaited coming of age or psychic integration. [about]
    93. Scripture as Literature: Sifting through the layers of the text, by Frank Lewis, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 7 (1997). Literary and religious antecedents to some of the styles and genres of Bahá'í scripture. [about]
    94. Scriptures of Previous Dispensations, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (1981). Excerpts on what writings constitute the holy scriptures of previous Dispensations. [about]
    95. Seas Not Oceans, by Moshe Sharon (2013). References to "seas" and "oceans" in classical literature, Judaism, Islam, and metaphors in the Bahá'í writings. [about]
    96. Secret of Divine Civilization, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1957). Originally issued anonymously in 1875, this was ʻAbdu'l-Bahá's program for the developmental reform of society within an Iranian context. [about]
    97. Selected Talks and Statements on Interfaith Issues by Religious Leaders and Scholars, by George Townshend and Swami Vivekananda, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 4 (1999). Compilation of addresses to commemorate the 50th Anniversary of the Inter-Religious Organisation of Singapore; also includes talks by Jonathan Sacks, Abdullah Yusof Ali, Robert Runcie, and Pope John Paul II. [about]
    98. Sermon of the Gulf, by Imam Ali ibn 'Abu-Talib, in Mashariq Anwar al-Yaqín fi Asrár Amir Mu'minín (2000). The source of Bahá'u'lláh's quotation "Anticipate ye the Revelation of Him Who conversed with Moses from the Burning Bush on Sinai." [about]
    99. Sermon of the Gulf (Khutbih Tutunjiyyih): Introduction, by Khazeh Fananapazir (2000). Essay on Imám `Alí's sermon, which is also the source of Bahá'u'lláh's quote in Epistle to the Son of the Wolf, "Anticipate ye the Revelation of Him Who conversed with Moses from the Burning Bush on Sinai." [about]
    100. Shoghi Effendi's View of Providential History in Light of the Judaeo-Christian Tradition, by Jack McLean, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 13 (2005). The Guardian's letters reveal six feature of his historicity: palingenesis and transitional history; providential synchronization; teleological history; organically whole history; periodisation of ages and epochs; history as community identity-creation. [about]
    101. Spiritual Footprints in the Sands of Time, by Kevin Brogan, in Solas, 3 (2003). The covenantal relationship between God and humankind; the lives of the founders of Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Zoroastrianism, Hinduism, and Buddhism; the societies in which these religions developed; and some of their common features. [about]
    102. Station of Baha'u'llah: Three Letters, by Universal House of Justice (1991). Three letters on the station of Bahá'u'lláh, the souls of the Manifestations, the varying intensities of their Revelations, the phrase "most precious Being," and on teaching the Faith to Christians. [about]
    103. Story of Joseph in Five Religious Traditions, by Jim Stokes, in World Order, 28:3 (1997). The parable of Joseph in the Hebrew Bible, the New Testament, and Islam. Prefaced by comments by Moojan Momen. [about]
    104. Tablet about Jonah and the Whale, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1893). Short Tablet for an Iranian Baháʼí named Yúnis (Jonah), discussing the story of Jonah and the whale. Translated in the early 20th century by Ameen Fareed. [about]
    105. Tablet of the Temple (Súratu'l-Haykal): Comparison with the Prophecies of Zechariah, by Cynthia C. Shawamreh (1998). Comparison of Bahá'u'lláh's symbol of the Manifestation as "temple" and its analogues from the Hebrew Bible. [about]
    106. Tablet to 'Ustad Husayn-i-Khayyát, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2002). Short one-paragraph Tablet concerning the grades or degrees of certainty. [about]
    107. Tablet to Hájí Mírzá Kamálu'd-Dín: Excerpt, by Bahá'u'lláh (2002). Brief comments by Bahá'u'lláh on the Isaac/Ishmael controversy. [about]
    108. Tablet to Mirza Abu'l-Fadl Concerning the Questions of Manakji Limji Hataria: Baha'u'llah on Hinduism and Zoroastrianism, by Bahá'u'lláh (1995). Introduction to, article about, and translation of the Tablet to Maneckji. [about]
    109. Ten Commandments, The: A Baha'i Perspective, by Marco Oliveira (2019). Overview of the history and theology of the Ten Commandments. Like Christianity and Islam, the Bahá’í Faith inherited and expanded the moral values exposed in the Ten Commandments. [about]
    110. Ten Plagues of the Exodus in Light of the Bahá'í Writings, The, by JoAnn M. Borovicka, in Lights of Irfan, 16 (2015). The historical accuracy of Exodus is not essential to an appreciation of it; scholarship regarding the historicity of the Exodus story in general and the ten plagues specifically; contemporary significance of the metaphor of the plagues. [about]
    111. "The active force and that which is its recipient", by Betty Hoff Conow, in dialogue magazine, 2:2-3 (1988). Metaphysics of gender and the Lawh-i-Hikmat; universal spiritualism; social indoctrination of gender roles. [about]
    112. Towards the Summit of Reality: Table of Contents and Bibliography, by Julio Savi (2003). Front- and back-matter only of Savi's book Towards the Summit of Reality: An Introduction to the Study of Bahá'u'lláh's Seven Valleys and Four Valleys, which provides a snapshot of scholarship into these Writings of Bahá'u'lláh. [about]
    113. Translation list (2009). Index to talks, letters, and other items translated from Persian and Arabic to English by Adib Masumian; listed here for the sake of search engines and tagging. [about]
    114. Typological Figuration and the Meaning of "Spiritual": The Qurʾanic Story of Joseph, by Todd Lawson, in Journal of the American Oriental Society, 132:2 (2012). Meanings of the famous shirt (qamís) as a symbol of Joseph's spiritual journey and travails in the Qur'an and tafsír. Brief mentions of Shaykh Ahmad, Siyyid Kazim, and the Báb on pp. 229, 231 and 237-238. [about]
    115. Unique Eschatological Interface, A: Baha'u'llah and Cross-Cultural Messianism, by Christopher Buck, in In Iran: Studies in Babi and Baha'i History vol. 3, ed. Peter Smith (1986). Tracing themes of messianism through the Occidental religions. [about]
    116. Unity of Religions in This Century, Jews and the Crucifixion, and the Sacrifice of Ishmael, The, by Universal House of Justice (1990). [about]
    117. Unsuspected Effects of Religion on your Personality, by James J. Keene, in World Order, 2:2 (1967). Review of research reports in sociology and social psychology journals to analyse survey data from five religious groups — Jews, Catholics, Protestants, Bahá'ís and non-affiliates — to define four dimensions of key social psychological dynamics. [about]
    118. Valleys: Real, Symbolic and Holy Sites, by Moshe Sharon (2013). The nature of the metaphor of a valley; biblical references and meanings in Hebrew; comparison with Islamic concepts; valleys in the revelation of Bahá'u'lláh. [about]
    119. Voyage to the Heart of the Koran: The Holy Book of Islám for Thinking Minds (By a Non-Muslim), by David Russell Garcia (2003). A lengthy overview of the Qur'án and its themes for a Bahá'í audience; holy war and fighting; reasons behind Islám's reputation as a war-like religion; theology of Islám vs. Christianity; laws and admonitions; spiritual and social principles; apocalypse. [about]
    120. Women and Wisdom in Scripture, by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in Lights of Irfan, 16 (2015). Treatment of women in religion; influence of Bahá'í teachings in raising awareness about the plight of women and transforming attitudes across the globe; role of linguistic biases in degrading their status; role of wisdom in achieving gender equality. [about]
    121. Word Bahá, The: Quintessence of the Greatest Name, by Stephen Lambden, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 3:1 (1993). History of the concept of the Greatest Name and its place in Bahá'í theology. [about]
    122. World as Text, The: Cosmologies of Shaykh Ahmad al-Ahsa'i, by Juan Cole, in Studia Islamica, 80 (1994). Shaykh Ahmad's creative use of mythic symbols can be seen as an escape from the limitations of the conceptual and literary structures erected by his forebears; his millenarianism and rebellion against staid literalism as a means of reinvigorating Shi'ism. [about]
     
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