Search for tag "elections"
|1899 (In the year)
||A local spiritual assembly called "The Consulting Assembly of Tihrán", a forerunner of the National Spiritual Assembly was established. [EB175–6; 26 November, 2007]
Four Hands of the Cause were permanent members; nine others were elected by special electors appointed by the Hands. [EB175–6]
||National Spiritual Assembly, formation; LSA; Hands of the Cause; Appointments; Elections
|1922 25 Apr
||A National Spiritual Assembly was elected in the United States to replace the Executive Board of the Bahá'í Temple Unity. [SBR94]
The difference between this body and its forerunner was little more than a change in name. [DP122]
The conversion of the Bahá'í Temple Unity into the National Spiritual Assembly took four years; it was not until 1925 that Shoghi Effendi recognized the American national body as a National Spiritual Assembly. [CT161; DP121-2; GPB333]
The election procedure followed that used in the United States and not the current Bahá'í procedure: there was electioneering and candidates were nominated, with a straw poll taken to trim the number of eligible candidates. [CT160; DP122]
||Chicago; United States
||National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Spiritual Assemblies; Executive Board; Bahai Temple Unity; Elections; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
|1927 29 Apr
||The British delegates, at their first National Convention, elected ten members because there were an equal number of votes for ninth and tenth places. [ER253; UD70–1]
One of the members was a Rev. Biggs. [ER253; UD71]
Shoghi Effendi wrote on 13 May recommending that next year the number of members be strictly confined to nine. In an earlier letter written on his behalf he explained that all of the delegates were to choose nine members of the National Assembly from all of those eligible. Prior to that time the understanding was that, for example, the London delegates would vote for a proportional number of persons from the London area, the Manchester delegates would choose a number of members based on their proportion of the total Bahá'í population. [ER253; UD70, SETEP1p140]
||NSA; Elections; Conventions, National; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; First conventions
|1963 21 Apr
||Establishment of the Universal House of Justice
The Universal House of Justice was elected for the first time. [BW14:427; MoC424]
The election was held at 9:30 in the morning at the home of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, 7 Haparsim Street, Haifa. [BW14:427; MoC425]
Ballots were received from all 56 national spiritual assemblies. [BW14:427]
288 members of 51 national spiritual assemblies were present at the election. [BW14:427]
For a list of the electors see MoC406–13.
For details of the election see BW14:425–9 and MoC20–1.
The election marked the end of the Second Epoch during which time the Faith had spread globally. The Third Epoch began.
||Universal House of Justice, Election of; Conventions, International; Elections; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Firsts, Other; Appointed arm; Universal House of Justice, Basic timeline; Covenant (general); Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Ages and Epochs; Formative Age
|1963 22 Apr
||The results of the election of the Universal House of Justice were announced at the close of the morning session of the International Convention: Charles Wolcott, ‘Alí Nakhjavání, H. Borrah Kavelin, Ian Semple, Lutfu’lláh Hakím, David Hofman, Hugh Chance, Amoz Gibson and Hushmand Fatheazam. [BBD231–3; BBRSM131; BW14:425 MoC425; SS50; VVXI-XII]
For a picture of the Hands of the Cause of God with the Universal House of Justice see ZK123.
||Charles Wolcott; Ali Nakhjavani; H. Borrah Kavelin; Ian Semple; Lutfullah Hakim; David Hofman; Hugh Chance; Amoz Gibson; Hushmand Fatheazam; Universal House of Justice, Election of; Elections; Conventions, International; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Firsts, Other
||The Universal House of Justice was elected for a second time by delegates from 81 National Spiritual Assemblies. [BW15:557]
Dr David Ruhe was elected to replace Dr Hakím, who resigned for reasons of ill health. The members were: Amoz Gibson, 'Ali Nakhjavani, Hushmand Fatheazam, Ian Semple, Charles Wolcott, David Hofman, H. Borrah Kavelin, Hugh Chance and David Ruhe. [VV3]
For a description of the second international convention and pictures see BW14:564–8.
||Universal House of Justice, Election of; Elections; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Conventions, International; Amoz Gibson; Ali Nakhjavani; Hushmand Fatheazam; Ian Semple; Charles Wolcott; David Hofman; H. Borrah Kavelin; Hugh Chance; David Ruhe
||The Universal House of Justice was elected for the third time. The conference was attended by 472 National Spiritual Assembly members of the possible 1,017 from the 113 National and Regional Assemblies. Members of 14 Assemblies were prevented from attending for circumstances beyond their control but at least one person attended from the remaining 99 Assemblies. [VV14, SDSC296]
The newly elected members of the Universal House of Justice were: 'Alí Nakhjavání, Hushmand Fatheazam, Amoz Gibson, Ian Semple, David Hofman, Charles Wolcott, Borrah Kavelin, David Ruhe, Hugh Chance. [Mess63-86]
||Universal House of Justice, Election of; Conventions, International; Elections
|1976 (In the year)
||The publication of Selections from the Writings of the Báb compiled by the Research Department of the Universal House of Justice and translated by Habib Taherzadeh with the assistance of a Committee at the Bahá'í World Centre. [SWB]
||Selections from the Writings of the Bab; Habib Taherzadeh; publications; Bab, Writings of
||The Universal House of Justice was elected for the fourth time at the International Convention held in Haifa. [BW17:293]
Those elected were: 'Alí Nakhjavání, Hushmand Fatheazam, Amoz Gibson, Ian Semple, David Ruhe, Charles Wolcott, David Hofman, Hugh Chance, Borrah Kavelin, . [Mess63-86p381]
For details of the International Convention and pictures see BW17:293–300.
||Universal House of Justice, Election of; Conventions, International; Elections
|1983 29 Apr - 2 May
||The Universal House of Justice was elected for the fifth time at the International Convention held in Haifa.
Those elected were: 'Al´Nakhjavání, Hushmand Fatheazam, Ian Semple, David Ruhe, Glenford Mitchell, David Hofman, Borrah Kavelin, Charles Wolcott, and Hugh Chance. [Mess63-86p359]
The National Spiritual Assembly of Iran was unable to attend but sent 133 red roses as its gift to its sister Assemblies. [BW18:461]
For a report of the Convention see BW18:461–4.
See BW18:462, 464 for pictures.
||BWC; Haifa; Iran
||Universal House of Justice, Election of; Elections; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Conventions, International; Gifts; Roses; NSA
|1985. 21 Jull
||Prior to this time, some national communities elected their delegates to the National Conventions on the basis of areas that had Local Spiritual Assemblies, while in other larger national communities, delegates were elected on the basis of electoral units in which all adult believers had the vote. From this time forward, all were to use the Electoral Unit system. There would be no change in the number of delegates elected to attend the National Convention.
When establishing the electoral unit basis for the election of delegates, a National Spiritual Assembly should divide the territory under its jurisdiction into electoral units, based on the number of adult Bahá’ís in each area, in such a way that each unit will be responsible for electing preferably one delegate only.
Given the wide variety of geography in the Bahá'í world, each National Spiritual Assembly was directed to establish the most effective means for the election of the delegates to its National Convention and for providing for an opportunity for consultation among the electors. [21 July 1985]
||National Convention; elections
||The Universal House of Justice was elected for the sixth time at the International Convention held in Haifa. Delegates from 148 National/Regional Assemblies participated. [BINS176; VV97]
Those elected were: ‘Alí Nakhjavání, Glenford Mitchell, Hushmand Fatheazam, Ian Semple, Peter Khan, David Ruhe, Hugh Chance, Hooper Dunbar, Adib Taherzadeh. [Mess86-01p49]
A gift of a large bowl of 120 roses was received from the Bahá'í of Iran.
Mr. Hooper Dunbar, born in the United States, was a film actor in Hollywood before moving to Central and South America where he taught arts and English. He is an accomplished painter. He was first elected to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Nicaragua in 1961. He later served as a Continental Counsellor before being appointed to the International Teaching Centre in 1973.
||BWC; Haifa; Iran
||Universal House of Justice, Election of; Elections; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Conventions, International; David Hofman; H. Borrah Kavelin; Retirements; Hooper Dunbar; Gifts; Roses; BWNS
|1993 29 Apr - 2 May
||The Seventh Bahá'í International Convention at the World Centre. Those elected to the Universal House of Justice were: Mr. Ali Nakhjavani, Mr. Glenford Mitchell, Mr. Adib Taherzadeh, Mr. Ian Semple, Mr. Peter Khan, Mr. Hushmand Fatheazam, Mr. Hooper Dunbar, Mr. Farzam Arbab and Mr. Douglas Martin. [BINS295, BW93-4p51-58]
Hugh Chance and David Ruhe announced their retirement. Mr. Chance had served since 1963 and Dr. Ruhe since 1968. [BINS295, BS93-4p57]
For a report of the Convention see BW93–4:51–8.
For pictures see BW93–4:52, 53, 54, 57.
Dr. Farzam Arbab, born in Iran, obtained his doctorate in physics at the University of California, Berkeley. He was the representative for the Rockefeller Foundation in Colombia (1974 to 1983) and the president of the FUNDAEC development foundation there. He was a member of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Colombia and a Continental Counsellor before being appointed to the International Teaching Centre.
Mr. Douglas Martin, born in Canada, held degrees in business administration and in history, and was an author and editor. He was a member of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canada, serving as its chief executive officer from 1965 to 1985 when he was appointed Director-General of the Office of Public Information at the Bahá'í World Centre. [BWNS208]
||Universal House of Justice, Election of; Elections; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Conventions, International; Ali Nakhjavani; Glenford Mitchell; Adib Taherzadeh; Ian Semple; Peter Khan; Hushmand Fatheazam; Hooper Dunbar; Farzam Arbab; Douglas Martin; Hugh Chance; David Ruhe; BWNS
||The Universal House of Justice restricted the formation of Local Spiritual Assemblies to the first day of Riḍván. This measure had the effect anticipated; there was a decrease in the number of these institutions but the fall was not drastic. [Message from the Universal House of Justice Ridván 2000]
||Ridvan; Elections; Administration; Local Spiritual Assemblies; LSA; Growth; Statistics; Bahai Faith, Evolutionary nature of; Maturity
|2003 29 Apr
||The election of the Universal House of Justice by postal ballot by 1,544 electors from 178 countries. Chosen were Hartmut Grossmann and Firaydoun Javaheri to replace retiring members Mr. Nakhjavani, 83, and Mr. Fatheazam, 79 and re-elected were Farzam Arbab, Kiser Barnes, Hooper Dunbar, Peter Khan, Douglas Martin, Glenford Mitchell and Ian Semple. [One Country Vol.15 Issue1, BWNS207]
Mr. Grossmann, born in Germany, had academic qualifications in the German and English languages. He served on the National Spiritual Assemblies of the Bahá'ís of Germany (1963 to 1969) and Finland (1977 to 1980). He was a university academic in Finland. Mr. Grossmann was appointed a Continental Counsellor in 1980, advising Bahá'í communities throughout Europe in their growth and development. He had been serving in the International Teaching Centre prior to his election.
Dr. Javaheri, who was born in Iran, had a doctorate in agronomy. He lived for 27 years in Africa -- Gambia then Zambia -- where he was Chief Technical Adviser for the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. He served the Bahá'í communities there in the area of social and economic development. He was appointed a Continental Counsellor in 1995 after serving for 19 years as a member of its Auxiliary Board. He, like Mr Grossmann, had been serving in the International Teaching Centre prior to his election. [BWNS208]
||Universal House of Justice, Election of; Elections; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Conventions, International; Firsts, Other; Hartmut Grossmann; Firaydoun Javaheri; Farzam Arbab; Kiser Barnes; Hooper Dunbar; Peter Khan; Douglas Martin; Glenford Mitchell; Ian Semple; Retirements; Ali Nakhjavani; Hushmand Fatheazam; BWNS
|2005 21 Apr
||The election of Dr. Payman Mohajer and Mr. Paul Lample to the vacancies on the Universal House of Justice. They filled the vacancies created by the departure at Naw-Ruz of Mr. Ian Semple and Mr. Douglas Martin, owing to age and the related needs of the Faith. Re-elected were: Firaydoun Javaheri, Hartmut Grossmann, Kiser Barnes, Farzam Arbab, Hooper Dunbar, Peter Khan, and Glenford Mitchell. [BWNS358]
||Payman Mohajer; Paul Lample; Ian Semple; Douglas Martin; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Universal House of Justice, Election of; Elections; BWNS
|2013 29 Apr – 2 May
||The Eleventh International Bahá'í Convention in Haifa and the 50th anniversary of the inaugural Convention in 1963 at which the first Universal House of Justice was elected. Those elected were Paul Lample, Firaydoun Javaheri, Payman Mohajer, Gustavo Correa, Shahriar Razavi, Stephen Birkland, Stephen Hall, Chuungu Malitonga, and Ayman Rouhani. [BWNS950, BWNS951, BWNS953]
More than a thousand
members of one hundred and fifty seven National Spiritual Assemblies attended, and nearly five
hundred more, including those from an additional fourteen countries, participated in the election
by mail. [Letter from the Universal House of Justice to the delegates gathered at
Bahá'í National Conventions dated 16 May, 2013]
||Universal House of Justice, Election of; Elections; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Conventions, International; Paul Lample; Firaydoun Javaheri; Payman Mohajer; Gustavo Correa; Shahriar Razavi; Stephen Birkland; Stephen Hall; Chuungu Malitonga; Ayman Rouhani; Anniversaries; BWNS
|2016. 4 Aug
||In a letter to National Spiritual Assemblies, communities were encouraged to establish electoral units on the basis of the cluster. The population of the country is divided by the number of National Convention delegates allowed by the Universal House of Justice to determine the number of electors per delegate.
See 21 July 1985.
||Elections; National conventions; Clusters
from the main catalogue
See all tags, sorted numerically or alphabetically.
- Aspects of the Bahá'í Teachings, Conditions for Membership, and Voting Rights: Seven various questions, by Universal House of Justice (1991). On Baha'i status and community membership, spiritual primacy, Most Great Spirit, studying the Covenant, revelation of the Bab, civil elections, and definition of a pioneer. Includes short compilation "Conditions for Membership in the Baha'i Community." [about]
- Bahá'í Conventions, by Moojan Momen, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 3 (1989). Brief article, short enough to qualify as "fair use." [about]
- Bahá'í Electoral Process, The: Servant Leadership or New Paradigm?, by Vickie Hu Poirier (2006). Exploratory survey of the unique electoral and leadership model which exists in the Bahá’í community, and the extent of servant and transformational leadership in the Bahá’í model, its conceptual basis, and participation of women and minorities. [about]
- Canadian National Convention functioning, by Universal House of Justice (1982). Reply to questions from an individual about the functioning of the National Convention in Canada with specific reference to the tellers report and the election of officers. [about]
- Democratic Elections without Campaigns? Normative Foundations of National Baha'i Elections, by Arash Abizadeh, in World Order, 37:1 (2005). Article on the philosophical foundations and core values of Baha’i elections, with particular attention to its relation to democratic theory. [about]
- Electioneering, by Universal House of Justice (1996). On how to recognize and avoid "electioneering," and how to determine who to vote for in the Baha'i administration. [about]
- Elections: Sanctity and Nature of Bahá'í Elections, by Shoghi Effendi and Universal House of Justice, in Compilation of Compilations, Volume 3 (2000). [about]
- Elections, Baha'i, by Shoghi Effendi, in Compilation of Compilations, Volume 1 (1991). [about]
- Elections, Bahá'í: Defining a "Minority" for the Purpose of Resolving a Tie for Ninth Place, by Universal House of Justice (1999). [about]
- Electoral Process, Bahá'í, by Universal House of Justice (2007). Refers to the responsibility of individual Baha'is in participating in Baha'i elections and mentions the permissibility of discussing qualifications of membership without reference to personality [about]
- Electoral Process, Bahá'í: Clarifications, and Three Way Tie, by Universal House of Justice (2012). How to resolve a 3-way tie when 2 parties are minorities; when voting, should one consider age distribution, diversity, and gender. [about]
- Extracts from Letters Written by or on Behalf of Shoghi Effendi Regarding the Absence of Clergy in the Baha'i Faith, by Shoghi Effendi (1998). Compilation included with a memorandum from the House of Justice from 1998/02/11 regarding the abolition of the priesthood. [about]
- How Bahá'ís Should Vote, by Arash Abizadeh, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 18 (2008). When voting, Baha'is should consider the qualifications of individual Assembly members, the collective makeup of the Assembly as a whole, changes in the individual Assembly members over time, and changes in the collective makeup of the Assembly over time. [about]
- Human Rights and the Rights of the Child: Implications for Children's Participation in the Bahá'í Community, by Greg Duly, in Bahá'í-Inspired Perspectives on Human Rights (2001). [about]
- Just System of Government: The Third Dimension to World Peace, by John Huddleston, in The Bahá'í Faith and Marxism (1987). Highlights a few points in the Bahá'í approach to government and collective action. [about]
- Letter to John B. Cornell, by Ruhiyyih (Mary Maxwell) Khanum (1943). Short personal letter relating answers from Shoghi Effendi to various questions of Cornell, on voting age, the election of the House, the "Source of all knowledge," etc. [about]
- Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-1986: Third Epoch of the Formative Age, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
- National Convention, The, by Universal House of Justice (1992). [about]
- National Convention, The, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi, in Compilation of Compilations, Volume 3 (2000). [about]
- Paradox of Protest in a Culture of Contest, The, by Michael Karlberg, in Peace and Change, 28:3 (2003). In our culture, political and legal institutions are structured as contests and reform is characterized as protest. This leads to injustice and unsustainability. Baha'i models of elections and decision-making offer a practical alternative. [about]
- Power and the Bahá'í community, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 19 (2018). While Baha'i social teachings may have sounded new and exciting a century ago, that is no longer the case today. The problem the world faces is not in the principles that would lead to a better society, but in their application. [about]
- Selección de los Escritos de 'Abdu'l-Bahá, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1985). Spanish translation of Selections from the Writings of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [about]
- Selección de los Escritos del Báb: Compilado por el Departamento de Investigación de la Casa Universal de Justicia, by Báb, The (1982). Spanish translation of Selections from the Writings of The Báb. [about]
- Selections from the Writings of Abdu'l-Bahá, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1978). [about]
- Selections from the Writings of His Holiness ‘Abdu'l-Bahá', by Abdu'l-Bahá, 3 (2002). [about]
- Selections from the Writings of His Holiness ‘Abdu'l-Bahá', by Abdu'l-Bahá, 2 (2002). [about]
- Selections from the Writings of the Báb, by Báb, The (1982). [about]
- Sin-covering Gaze, by Universal House of Justice (2001). Brief explanation of a possible source for a story of Christ told by Abdu'l-Baha about encountering a dead dog and commenting on the beauty of its teeth; i.e., having a "sin-covering gaze." [about]
- Six-Year Plan, 1986, by Universal House of Justice (1986). Outline of Baha'i goals for 1986-1992, and collection of letters from the House. [about]
- Universal House of Justice: Significance, Origin, Authority, and Election, The, by Shahin Vafai, in The Essence of the Covenant: Features, History, and Implications (2005). [about]