|1911 11 Aug
||The beginning of `Abdu'l-Bahá's first Western tour. [AB139]
`Abdu'l-Bahá departed from Egypt with a party of four on the S. S. Corsica for Marseilles, Thonon-les-Bains and London. [AB139; GPB280; SBR22, SoW Vol2 no.10 (8 September, 1911) p7]
Subsequent research has shown that the ship was not the S.S. Corsica as stated in GPB280 but rather the L'Orenoque. See 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Paris page 6 note 47.
See BW1:130 for a list of cities He visits between 1911 and 1913.
It is believed that funds for ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s teaching journeys to the West were provided by an oil-rich believer in Baku, Áqa Músá Maqiof (alternate spelling Musa Naghiyev) (1849-1919). [AY11; ABF295note684]
||Baku; Alexandria; Egypt; Marseilles; Thonon-les-Bains; France; London; United Kingdom
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha in Egypt; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; S. S. Corsica; Orenoque; Ships; Funds; Donations; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Musa Naghiyev; Musa Maqiof
|1911 16 Aug
||After four and half days of travel over 2500 kilometres L'Orénoque arrived in Marseille, France's major port on the Mediterranean. 'Abdu'l-Bahá was met by Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney who had recently married (28 April). He and his wife would be 'Abdu'l-Bahá's constant companions in France and would later be in His company in England and the eastern United States. They had already met 'Abdu'l-Baha in Palestine and Laura stayed there between 1904 and 1906. [ABF8]
He stayed at the Hôtel Louvre de la Paix at 53, la Canebière (today a C&A department store). [ABF9]
||Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; Laura Clifford Barney; Orenoque; Ships
|1911 18 Aug
||'Abdu'l-Bahá had an exchange of telegrams with Wellesley Tudor Pole from the Theosophical Summer School in Derbyshire, England where he had just presented a lecture on the Bahá'í Faith. [ABF9-10, SoW Vol 2 no10 p.7]
||Marseille; France; Derbyshire; United Kingdom
||Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Wellesley Tudor Pole; Theosophical Society
|1911 19 Aug
||'Abdu'l-Bahá sent a telegram to Charles Mason Remey in America inviting him to join HIm in Europe. [SoW vol2 no.12 (16 October 1911) p9, ABF10]
||Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Charles Mason Remey
|1911 20 Aug
||'Abdu'l-Bahá and His party left Marseille and traveled by train to Geneva, arriving late in the day and checking into the Hôtel de la Paix.
||Marseille; France; Geneva; Switzerland
||Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
|1911 22 Aug - 3 Sep
||`Abdu'l-Bahá took up residence at Thonon-les-Bains on Lake Leman (Lake Geneva). [AB140; GPB280; SBR219]
While there He encountered Zillu's-Sultán, the eldest son of the Sháh of the time, Násirid-Dín Sháh. It was he who had ratified the execution of the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs and at least 100 others. The whole family was in exile in Geneva at this time. 'Abdu'l-Bahá was very courteous to this man who had been such an inveterate enemy of the Cause. [DJT172, AY19, GPB201] .
The Master sent for Juliet Thompson who had been waiting in London for His permission to join Him.
During His stay he had a visit from Annie Boylan, a member of the New York community that was experiencing disharmony. Unaware of Bahá'í election procedures, a group that was unhappy with the disunity and ineffectiveness of the Council had organized a vote to be rid of several of its Council members. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had written to the community a short time before recommending that the Council be expanded from 9 to 27 members so that all factions could be represented. He also recommended that women be included on the Council and that the name be changed to "the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of New York". This apparently addressed the problem of disunity because the New York community went on to contribute significantly to the progress of the Faith on a national level. [DJT181, BFA2p338]
Horace Holley, who lived at Quattro Torri, Siena, Italy at the time, along with his wife Bertha Herbert and baby daughter Hertha, visited 'Abdu'l-Bahá on the 29th and 30th of August. Please see his Religion for Mankind p 232-237 for a pen portrait of 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
He met with Elizabeth Stewart and Lillian Kappes who were on their way to Tehran. [find reference]
It would appear that He returned to Marseilles and travelled to London by sea. [SCU22-23]
||Thonon-les-Bains; Lake Leman; Marseille; France; Switzerland; Italy; London; United Kingdom; New York; United States
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies; Unity; Zillus-Sultan; Persecution; Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Juliet Thompson; Horace Holley; Elizabeth Stewart; Lillian Kappes; Ships
|1911 2 Dec
||`Abdu'l-Bahá left Paris for Marseille by train arriving late in the day. Little is known about His stay in that city save for one talk. [ABF246]
See ABF256-260 for some of the places that 'Abdu'l-Baha visited while in Paris for which the visits are undated. Included in the list is His visit to the the Senat of the French Republic [PUP72].
There are also a number of undated talks and fragments of talks the have been published in a variety of sources. [ABF261-264]
See ABF264-268 for a list of persons with whom 'Abdu'l-Bahá had undocumented visits.
||Paris; Marseille; France
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Life of
|1911 6 Dec
||'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk on materialism at a meeting of theosophists, possible at 25, Boulevard Baille. For the text of this talk see ABF247-254.
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Theosophical Society
|1911 7 Dec
||'Abdu'l-Bahá departed Marseille for Egypt on board Le Portugal. It travelled to Beirut via Alexandria and Port Said and reached Alexandria on the 12th of December. [ABF255-256; AB167; GPB280; SBR25]
||Marseille; France; Alexandria; Egypt
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha in Egypt; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Ships
|1912 23 Apr
||Harriet Gibbs Marshall (1868-1941) became a Bahá’í while ‘Abdu’l Bahá was visiting the US. It is possible that she heard Him speak on this day as He spoke at both Howard University and in a Black church.
She was an extremely educated woman for the time, she studied piano, pipe organ, and voice culture at the Oberlin Conservatory of Music and in 1889. Marshall was the first African American to complete the program and earn a Mus.B. degree (Bachelor of Music degree). In 1903 she founded the Washington Conservatory of Music. According to blackpast.org “Marshall’s conservatory was a landmark in the history of black education. The Centre sponsored regular concerts for the black community, trained many prominent musical professionals and attracted the nation’s most talented musicians as teachers. It remained in operation until 1960.” [blackpast.org; Bahá'í Chronicles]
|Washington; United States
||Harriet Gibbs Marshall; Washington Conservatory of Music; Schools
|1913 12 Jun
||`Abdu'l-Bahá left Paris for Marseilles, arriving the same evening. [AB395]
In total 'Abdu'-Bahá spent about 171 days in Paris.
3 October to 2 December 1911 - 60 days
21 January to 30 March 1913 - 69 days
1 May to 12 June 1913 - 42 days
Total 171 days
- See PG117-118 for 'Abdu'l-Bahá continuing concern for Paris in 1919.
|Paris; Marseille; France
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
|1913 13 Jun
||`Abdu'l-Bahá left Marseilles on the S. S. Himalaya for Port Said. [AB395]
He sent a telegram to Haifa instructing the many pilgrims awaiting His return to come to Port Said. Because of the great numbers who came, there wasn't sufficient hotel accommodations and a large tent was erected on the roof in which to hold meetings. SoW Vol 4 No 7 p121.
||Marseille; France; Port Said; Egypt
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha in Egypt; S. S. Himalaya; Ships; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Pilgrims; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline
|1940 25 May
||Shoghi Effendi and Rúhíyyih Khánum left for England via Menton and Marseilles after having obtained a visa for Britain in Rome. A few days later the Italians enter the war against the Allies. [PP179]
||Rome; Italy; Menton; Marseilles; France; United Kingdom
||Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; World War II
|1954 7 Aug
||Marcia Steward de Matamoros Atwater arrived in the Marshall Islands and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:454]
||Marcia Atwater; Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
||Appeals were made by National Spiritual Assemblies around the world through the Bahá’í International Community to the UN Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjöld to ask the Iranian government to halt the attacks on the Bahá’ís. [BW13:789–91; BW16:329; MBW88–9; PP304, 311]
The intervention of the Secretary-General of the UN, along with the efforts of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States, brought an end to the physical persecution of the Bahá’ís, although their human rights are still denied. [BW13:790; BW16:329]
This marked the first time the Faith was able to defend itself with its newly born administrative agencies. An “Aid the Persecuted Fund” was established.
Historian Mohamad Tavakoli-Targhi noted that the 1955 anti-Bahá'í campaign was both the apogee and the point of separation of the state-clergy co-operation. The Shah succumbing to international pressure to provide human rights, withdrew support. The result was that the period from the late fifties until 1977-1978 was a period of relative safety. [Towards a History of Iran’s Bahá'í Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani.]
||New York; United States; Iran
||Bahai International Community; Dag Hammarskjöld; United Nations, Secretary-Generals; United Nations; NSA; Human rights; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
||The National Spiritual Assembly of the Marshall Islands was formed with its seat in Majuro. [BW17:174]
||Majuro; Marshall Islands
|1990 (In the year)
||Amata Kabua, President of the Marshall Islands, visited the Bahá'í World Centre. [BW94–5:83]
||Marshall Islands; Oceania; BWC
||Amata Kabua; Presidents; Prominent visitors; Islands
||The first Bahá'í Youth Symposium of the Marshall Islands was held in Majuro, attended by youth from six island groups. [BW93–4:124]
||Majuro; Marshall Islands
|1993 26 Nov
||The National Spiritual Assembly of the Marshall Islands signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the Majuro local government in which the operation of administration of five elementary schools was legally handed over to the National Spiritual Assembly.
President Amata Kabua was the first head of state to respond to the Peace Statement of the Universal House of Justice. [BINS307:4–5; BW93–4:101, CBN Vol 7 no 1 May/June 1994 p29]
||Education; Peace Statement
|2005 1 Dec
||The president of the Republic of the Marshall Islands, Kessai Note, paid an official visit to the Bahá'í World Centre. [BWNS410]
||Marshall Islands; BWC; Haifa
||Kessal Note; BWC; Prominent visitors; BWNS