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Bahá'í Chronology: years 186-

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186-

date event locations tags firsts
c. 1860 Mírzá Mihdí, the son of Bahá'u'lláh, was taken from Tihrán to join his family in Baghdád. He was about 12 years old. [RB3:205]
  • He traveled with the second wife of Bahá'u'lláh, Mahd-i-‘Ulyá. [MMNF] [key]
  • Tihran; Iran; Baghdad; Iraq Mirza Mihdi (Purest Branch); Mahd-i-Ulya (Fatimih Khanum)
    1860 (In the year) Birth of Shaykh Muhammad-‘Alíy-i-Qá'iní, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Naw Firist, near Bírjand. [EB273] [key] Naw-Firist; Birjand; Iran Shaykh Muhammad-Aliy-i-Qaini; Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths
    c. 1861 ‘Abdu'l-Bahá wrote the Sharh-i Kuntu Kanzan Makhfiyan, the commentary on the Islamic tradition ‘I was a Hidden Treasure …' for ‘Alí Shawkat Páshá. He is reported to be 17 years old at the time. [AB14]
  • See Commentary on the Islamic Tradition "I Was a Hidden Treasure..." by Abdu'l-Bahá translated by Moojan Momen.
  • Baghdad; Iraq Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Sharh-i Kuntu Kanzan Makhfiyan (Commentary on the tradition of the Hidden Treasure); Commentaries; Hadith; Islam; Hidden Treasure (Hadith); Ali Shawkat Pasha; Bahaullah, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1861 -1862 Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Kitáb-i-Íqán (The Book of Certitude), ‘a comprehensive exposition of the nature and purpose of religion'. In the early days this Tablet was referred to as the Risáliy-i-Khál (Epistle of the Uncle). [BBD134, 162; BKG159; BBD134; BBRSM64–5; GPB138–9; RB1:158]
  • The Tablet was revealed in answer to four questions put to Bahá'u'lláh by Hájí Mírzá Siyyid Muhammad, a maternal uncle of the Báb. He had been persuaded by a devout Bábí, Aqá Mírzá Núru'd-Dín, to make a pilgrimage to the holy Shrines of the Imáms in Iraq and where he could put these questions to Bahá'u'lláh as well as visit his sister, the mother of the Báb, who was not yet herself a Bábí. [BBD134, 162; BKG163–5; RB1:158]
  • It was revealed in the course of two days and two nights. [BBD 134; BKG165; GPB238; RB1:158]
  • The original manuscript, in the handwriting of ‘Abdu'l-Bahá, is in the Bahá'í International Archives. See Reflections p149 for the story of the receipt of the original tablet, written in the hand of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, by Shoghi Effendi in the Holy Land. [BKG165; RB1:159]
  • It was probably the first of Bahá'u'lláh's writings to appear in print. [BKG165; EB121]
  • For a discussion of the circumstances of its revelation, its content and major themes see RB1:153–97.
  • BEL1.77 gives the year of Revelation as 1862.
  • Baghdad; Iraq; Tihran; Iran Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Kitab-i-Iqan (Book of Certitude); Haji Mirza Siyyid Muhammad; Bab, Family of; Bab, Uncles of; Uncles; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Interfaith dialogue; Islam; Quran; Christianity; Bible; Prophecies First (probably) of Bahá'u'lláh's writings to appear in print
    1861 .c Hájí Ákhúnd (Mullá ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí), Hand of the Cause, became a Bábí in Mashhad. [EB266] [key] Mashhad; Iran Haji Akhund (Mulla Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi); Hands of the Cause first Babi in Mashhad
    1861 .c Mullá Sádiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khurásání (Ismu'láhu'l-Asdaq), a Bábí and father of Ibn Asdaq, met Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád and became a follower. [BKG18] [key] Baghdad; Iraq Mulla Sadiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khursuni; Ibn-i-Asdaq (Mirza Ali-Muhammad)
    1861 25 Jun Death of Sultán ‘Abdu'l-Majíd and accession of Sultán ‘Abdu'l-‘Azíz to the Ottoman throne. He ruled until 1876. [BBR485]
  • Note: BKG139 says this was 14 August.
  • Istanbul (Constantinople); Turkey Sultan Abdul-Majid; Sultan Abdul-Aziz; Ottoman Empire
    1862 (Dates undetermined) In order to regain ownership of the House of the Báb, Mírzá Áqá Nuri'd-Din convinced the residents of the fact that because of the recent earthquakes some parts of the House had been structurally damaged, making it unsuitable to live in. He agreed to purchase or lease another dwelling for them while he did repairs.
  • After some minor repairs, a believer named`Abdu’r-Razzaq lived there for three years.
  • After him, it was occupied by the late Hájí Abu’l-Hasan [Bazzaz], who had accompanied the Báb on His hajj journey to Mecca and was one of the first believers of Shiraz.
  • Afterwards, the House was leased to Mulla Áqá Buzurg-i-Zarqani, who was a Bábí but not known as one.
  • Following him, Hájí Abu’l-Hasan lived in the House with his wife and two sons, Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí and Mírzá Muhammad-Baqir, who later adopted the surname Dihqan. His wife was a relative of the Imam-Jum`ih Abu-Turab and, consequently, the family enjoyed some measure of protection. After five years of living in the Blessed House, his wife passed away and the protection of the `ulama was withdrawn. Because he was known as a Bábí, Hájí Abu’l-Hasan was forced to leave the city in the middle of the night, taking his two young sons with him. He departed in January of 1872.
  • With Zarqani’s departure, in January 1872 a mother and daughter of Nayriz, who were brought as captives to Shiraz after the battles of 1853, occupied the House in order to preserve it. They remained there until about 1872. [MBBA169-170] [key]
  • Shiraz Mirza Áqa Nuri'd-Din; Bab, House of (Shiraz)
    c. 1862 Bahá'u'lláh sent a ring and cashmere shawl to His niece, Shahr-Bánú, the daughter of Mírzá Muhammad-Hasan, in Tihrán to ask for her hand in marriage to ‘Abdu'l-Bahá. Shahr-Bánú's uncle, acting in place of her dead father, refused to let her go to Iraq. [BKG342–3] [key] Tihran; Iran; Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Life of; Rings; Shawls; Gifts; Shahr-Banu; Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Abdul-Baha, Life of
    1862 – 1868 Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alí, a cousin of the Báb, lived in Shanghai during this period. This is the first record of a Bábí or Bahá'í living in China. [PH24]
  • From 1870 he lived in Hong Kong dealing as a merchant and was joined by his brother, Hájí Mírzá Muhammad Husayn. [PH24] [key]
  • Shanghai; Hong Kong; China Haji Mirza Muhammad-Ali (Afnan); Haji Mirza Muhammad Husayn (Afnan); Afnan; Bab, Family of; First Bahais by country or area First record of Bábí or Bahá'í living in China
    1862 - 1863 Hájí Mírzá Haydar-`Alí and six other prominent Bahá'ís were arrested in Cairo for being Bahá'ís at the instigation of the corrupt Persian consul, Mírzá Husayn Khán. They were banished to Khartoum, where Haydar-`Alí spent the next 9 years in confinement. [BBR257; BKG250; GBP178, SDH32-66] [key] Egypt Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali; Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1862 c. Mar - Jun Birth of Sádhijíyyih, second daughter of Bahá'u'lláh and His second wife, Mahd-i-‘Ulyá. Baghdad; Iraq Sadhijiyyih; Bahaullah, Family of; Mahd-i-Ulya (Fatimih Khanum); Births and deaths
    1862 10 May The Persian ambassador requested that the Ottomans move the Bábís farther from Persia. Istanbul (Constantinople); Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of
    1863 or earlier Colonel Sir Arnold Burrowes Kemball, the British Consul-General in Baghdád, offered Bahá'u'lláh the protection of British citizenship and offered Him residence in India or anywhere of Bahá'u'lláh's choosing. [BBR183, 234; BBRSM65; GPB131]
  • Bahá'u'lláh declined the invitation, preferring to remain in Ottoman lands. [GBP131]
  • See BBR183, 508 for details on Kemball; see BBR160–1 for a picture.
  • Baghdad; Iraq; India; Britain Colonel; Arnold Burrowes Kemball; British; Consul-General; Bahaullah, Life of
    1863 (In the year) The passing of Hájí Mubárak, the servant of the Báb. He was born in 1823 and died at the age of 40. He was buried in the grounds of the Imam Husayn Shrine in Karbala, Iraq.
  • He had been purchased in Bushir at the age of 5 by Hájí Mírzá Abú'l-Qásím, the great-grandfather of Shoghi Effendi and brother-in-law of the Báb and was sold to the Báb in 1842, just prior to His wedding, at the age of 19 for fourteen tomans. [BP5, 18] [key]
  • Bushihr; Iran; Karbala; Iraq Haji Mubarak; In Memoriam
    1863 c. Jan 1863 The governor of Baghdád, Námiq Páshá, received the first of ‘five successive commands' from ‘Alí Páshá, the Grand Vizier of Turkey, to transfer Bahá'u'lláh to Constantinople. This order was ignored by the governor, who was sympathetic to Bahá'u'lláh. In the next three months, four more orders were received and similarly ignored before the governor was compelled to comply. [BKG154; GPB131] [key] Baghdad; Iraq; Istanbul (Constantinople); Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Governors; Namiq Pasha; Grand Viziers; Ali Pasha First of ‘five successive commands' to transfer Bahá'u'lláh to Constantinople
    1863 Mar Bahá'u'lláh celebrated the two-week festival of Naw-Rúz at the Mazra‘iy-i-Vashshásh, a farm along the river Tigris, not far from His house in Baghdád. [BKG154; GPB147; SA163] [key] Mazraiy-i-Vashshash; Tigris; Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Life of; Naw-Ruz
    1863 26 Mar Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Tablet of the Holy Mariner on the fifth day of Naw-Rúz. The Tablet was revealed to the friends present and Nabil wrote that they understood it portended to a new period and greater tests. His further exile was being foretold. Immediately after it was chanted Bahá'u'lláh ordered the tents to be folded and everyone to return to the city. The party had not yet left when a messenger arrived from Námiq Páshá summoning Bahá'u'lláh to the governorate the next day to receive the invitation to go to Constantinople. [RB1:228-229; SA163-165; BKG154; GPB147]
  • The Tablet was recited by Mírzá Áqá Ján. [RB1:228]
  • See GPB147 and RB1:228 for the effect on those present.
  • See Tablet of the Holy Mariner (Lawh-i-Malláhu'l-Quds): Study Compilations by Aziz Mboya. .
  • Mazraiy-i-Vashshash; Iraq; Istanbul (Constantinople); Turkey Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Lawh-i-Mallahul-Quds (Tablet of the Holy Mariner); Naw-Ruz; Mirza Áqa Jan; Namiq Pasha; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1863 27 Mar Bahá'u'lláh met the deputy governor in a mosque opposite the Government House where the Farmán which had been sent by the Sultán was announced to Him and advised that He and His family were to be exiled to an unknown destination. Námiq Páshá could not bring himself to meet Bahá'u'lláh and give Him this news in person. At first he summoned Him to the courthouse but when He refused to attend he asked Him to meet in the mosque. [CH81-82,BKG154–5; GPB147–8; RB1:229]
  • See BKG155–6 and GPB148 for the effect of this news on the believers.
  • Bahá'u'lláh and His family had been given Ottoman citizenship by this time. [BBRSM66]
  • See BKG156–8 for a list of those chosen by Bahá'u'lláh to migrate with Him.
  • See TN50–3 for the story of the sedition behind Bahá'u'lláh's removal from Baghdád.
  • Fearful of Bahá'u'lláh's growing influence in Baghdád, the Persian Consul had made representation to the Sultan to have Him delivered to the Persian authorities. The Sultan, although the Caliph of Sunni Islam, considered himself a mystical seeker and was no doubt intrigued with Bahá'u'lláh from the reports of the Governor of 'Akká, Námiq Páshá, and his own Prime Minister, 'Alí Páshá. This combination of sympathy and interest led the Ottoman government to invite Him to the capital rather than send Him to a remote location or return Him to Persia to an uncertain fate. [BBD196; BBIC13, 57note 68] [key]
  • Baghdad; Iraq; Istanbul (Constantinople); Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Governors; Namiq Pasha; Ottoman citizenship
    1863 18 Apr Birth of William Henry (Harry) Randall, Disciple of ‘Abdu'l-Bahá, in Boston. Boston; Massachusetts; United States William Harry Randall; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Births and deaths
    1863 22 Apr - 3 May Declaration of Bahá'u'lláh in the Garden of Ridván.

    The garden was located in a large agricultural area immediately north of the walls of the city of Baghdad, about 450 metres (1,480 ft) from the city's northern Mu'azzam gate. Located on the eastern bank of the Tigris River in what is now the Bab al-Mu'azzam neighbourhood of Baghdad's Rusafa District, it was directly opposite the district in which Bahá'u'lláh lived during his stay in the city, on the river's western bank. [Wiki] [key]

    Baghdad; Iraq Ridvan; Bahaullah, Declaration of; Ridvan garden; Najibiyyih Garden; Gardens; Holy days; Bahaullah, Life of; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Basic timeline
    1863 22 Apr Thirty–one days after Naw-Rúz, which in this year fell on 22 March, Bahá'u'lláh left His house for the last time and walked to the Najíbíyyih Garden, afterward known as the Garden of Ridván (Paradise). This garden was on the island of Najib Páshá in the Tigris River. The river has since changed its course and the island is now a park on the north bank of the Tigris River. [C3MT15]
  • See BKG168, GPB149, RB1:260–1 and SA234–5 for details of His walk.
  • For the first time, He wore a tall táj as a symbol of His station. [BBD221; BKG176; GPB152]
  • Bahá'u'lláh entered the Garden just as the call to afternoon prayer was being made. [GPB149; RB1:261]
  • On this day Bahá'u'lláh declared His mission to a few of His disciples. [RB1:260, 262]
  • On the afternoon of Bahá'u'lláh's arrival at the Garden He revealed the Lawh-i-Ayyúb (Tablet of Job) (also known as the Súriy-i-Sabr (Súrat of Patience), Madínatu's-Sabr (City of Patience) and Súrat Ayyúb for Hájí Muhammad-i-Taqíy-i-Nayrízí whom He surnamed Ayyúb (Job). He was a veteran of the battle of Nayríz. The Tablet praised Vahíd and the believers of Nayríz. [SA239; Tablet of Patience (Surih Íabr): Declaration of Bahá’u’lláh and Selected Topics by Foad Seddigh]
  • He also revealed the Tablet of Ridván, an Arabic tablet beginning with "He is seated upon this luminous throne.... [SA239]
  • ...and Húr-i-'Ujáb (The Wondrous Maiden). [SA239]
  • ...as well as Qad atá Rabí'u'l-Bayán, ...The Divine Springtime is come.... [SA240]
  • and an Arabic Tablet that begins...When the gladness of God seized all else. [SA240]
  • ‘Of the exact circumstances … we, alas, are but scantily informed.' [BKG173; GPB153]
  • For such details as are known, see BKG173–5 and GPB153. iiiii
  • For the import of the event, see BKG169–73; G27–35; GBP153–5.
  • This initiated the holy day of the First Day of Ridván, to be celebrated on 21 April. [BBD196]
  • This marked the end of the dispensation of the Báb and of the first epoch of the Heroic or Apostolic Age of the Bahá'í dispensation. [BBD72, 79]
  • On the same day Bahá'u'lláh made three important statements to His followers:
    1. He forbade the use of the sword.
    2. He stated that no other Manifestations will appear before one thousand years. This was later reiterated in the Kitáb-i-Badí‘ and in The Kitáb-i-Aqdas.
    3. He stated that, as from that moment, all the names and attributes of God were manifested within all created things, implying the advent of a new Day. [RB1:278–80]

    During the 12 days in the Ridván Garden Bahá'u'lláh confided to ‘Abdu'l-Bahá that He was ‘Him Whom God shall make manifest'. [CH82]

  • See CH82–3 for the effect of this announcement on ‘Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Writings of; Ridvan; Naw-Ruz; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Declaration of; Ridvan garden; Najibiyyih Garden; Ages and Epochs; Heroic Age; Lawh-i-Ayyub; Haji Muhammad-i-Taqiy-i-Nayrizi; Abdul-Baha, Life of; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Firsts, Other; Taj; Holy days; Z^^^^ First time Bahá'u'lláh wears tall táj as symbol of His station; First Day of Ridván; first epoch of Heroic or Apostolic Age
    1863 Apr Mírzá Yahyá fled Baghdád, travelling to Mosul in disguise. [BKG158; RB252–5]
  • Mírzá Yahyá had, since Bahá'u'lláh's return, concealed himself indoors ore, whenever danger threatened, would withdraw himself to Hillih or Basra where he disguised himself as a Jewish shoe merchant. [BKG224]
  • CH59 says that he left Baghdád about two weeks before the larger party.
  • Bahá'u'lláh advised him to go to Persia to disseminate the Writings of the Báb. [RB1:252–3]
  • Mírzá Yahyá abandoned the Writings of the Báb and travelled surreptitiously to Constantinople, joining the exiles when they passed through Mosul. He had obtained a passport in the name of Mírzá 'Alíh-i-Kirmánsháhí. [ESW167–8; RB1:255; BKG224]
  • See ESW167 and RB1:253–4 for Yahyá's movements.
  • Baghdad; Mosul; Iraq; Istanbul (Constantinople); Turkey; Iran Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal)
    1863 30 Apr Bahá'u'lláh's family joined Him in the Garden. [BKG175; RB1:281; SA235]
  • This initiated the holy day of the Ninth Day of Ridván, to be celebrated on 29 April. [BBD 196] [key]
  • Baghdad; Iraq Ridvan; Bahaullah, Declaration of; Bahaullah, Family of; Bahaullah, Life of; Ridvan Festival; Najibiyyih Garden; Holy days
    1863 3 May Bahá'u'lláh left the Garden of Ridván.
  • This initiated the holy day the Twelfth Day of Ridván, to be celebrated on 2 May. [BBD196]
  • As He was about to leave He revealed a Tablet addressed to Áqá Mírzá Áqá in Shíráz. It brought relief and happiness to those who received it. [EB222]
  • His leaving was accompanied by symbolic signs of His station: He rode a horse rather than a donkey and wore a tall táj. [BBD221; BKG176]
  • See BKG175–6, GPB155 and RB1:281–2 for descriptions of the scenes that accompanied His departure.

    Bahá'u'lláh and His party arrived at Firayját, about three miles away on the banks of the Tigris. [BKG176]

  • They remained here for seven days. [BKG176]
  • See BKG for a description of activities during this period.
  • One of the loyal followers who was left behind was Ahmad-i-Yazdi. He would later make the journey to Constantinople where he received a Tablet from Bahá'u'lláh. [C3MT17] [key]
  • Baghdad; Firayjat; Iraq; Shiraz; Iran Ridvan; Bahaullah, Declaration of; Bahaullah, Life of; Ridvan Festival; Aqa Mirza Aqay-i-Afnan (Nurud-Din); Afnan; Horses; Donkeys; Taj; Tigris; Rivers; Ridvan garden; Najibiyyih Garden; Holy days
    1863 9 May Bahá'u'lláh and His party left Firayját for Istanbul although at this point the destination was unknown to the exiles. [CH57, GPB156; SA235]
  • The journey took 110 days. [GPB156]
  • For the number of people on the journey see BKG179 (72), GPB156 (26 plus members of His family plus guards), RB2:5–6 (54) and SW13:277 (72).
  • The caravan consisted of fifty mules, a mounted guard of ten soldiers with their officer, and seven pairs of howdahs, each pair surmounted by four parasols. By virtue of the written order of Namiq Pasha Bahá'u'lláh was accorded an enthusiastic reception by the religious notables and government officials as the caravan wound its way northward. [ALM12]
  • For the details of the journey see BKG176–96; GPB1567; SW13:277.
  • See BKG180 for a map of the journey.
  • They passed through the following:
    • Judaydih
    • Dilí-'Abbás
    • Qarih-Tapih
    • Saláhíyyih (stay two nights)
    • Dúst-Khurmátú
    • Táwuq
    • Karkúk (stay two days)
    • Irbíl
    • By the River Záb
    • Bartallih
    • Mosul (stay three days)
    • khú
    • Jazírih
    • Nisíbín (Nusaybin)(On the boarder of Iraq, Syria, and Turkey)
    • Hasan-Áqá
    • Márdiín (three day halt)
    • Díyár-Bakr (after three days of travel) (stay two-three days) It was here that Mírzá Yahyá made himself known to the party after having travelled in disguise from Mosul. [ALM12]
    • Ma'dan-Mis (one night)
    • Khárpút (one day's travel)(stay two or three days)
    • Ma'dan-Nuqrih
    • Dilik-Tásh
    • Sívás
    • Túqát (Tokat)
    • Amasia (Amasya)(stay two days)
    • Iláhíyyih (the last day of the overland journey)
    • Sámsún on the Black Sea. (110 days after departure) [The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953 :Information Statistical & Comparative p43]
  • As the party drew close to Sámsún on the Black Sea Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Súriy-i-Hawdaj. [BKG195; RB2:6]
  • Picture
  • The party remained in Sámsún for seven days. [GPB157] [key]
  • Iraq; Turkey; Firayjat; Samsun; Istanbul (Constantinople); Judaydih; Dili-Abbas; Qarih-Tapih; Salahiyyih; Dust-Khurmatu; Tawuq; Karkuk; Irbil; Bartallih; Mosul; Zakhu; Jazirih; Nisibin; Hasan-Aqa; Mardiin; Diyar-Bakr; Madan-Mis; Kharput; Madan-Nuqrih; Dilik-Tash; Sivas; Tuqat; Amasia; Ilahiyyih Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Journeys; Black Sea; Suriy-i-Hawdaj; Bahaullah, Writings of
    1863 13 Aug Bahá'u'lláh and His party departed from Sámsún by steamer for Istanbul. [BKG196; GPB157]
  • They touched in Sinope, a port of call on the 14 of August and in Anyábulí on the 15th. [The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953 :Information Statistical & Comparative p43] [key]
  • Samsun; Sinope; Anyabuli; Istanbul (Constantinople); Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of
    1863-1873 During this period Bahá'u'lláh made His proclamation to the kings and rulers. Bahaullah, Writings of
    1863 16 Aug Bahá'u'lláh and His party arrived at Constantinople at noon. He was received with great honour by a government official appointed At that time it was a city of about 100,000 inhabitants. [BKG197; GPB157; RB2:1]
  • Picture.
  • The band of exiles had been augmented along the journey and now numbered about 70. At first the Governor allotted them space in an inn that was inadequate for their numbers and then 'Abdu'l-Bahá asked the governor that the family have a house apart. Mírzá Yáhyá and his family were invited to share the house. [CH59]
  • See The Bahá'í Faith in Turkey or Essays and Notes on Babi and Bahá'í History Chapter 4 by John Walbridge.
  • Istanbul (Constantinople); Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal) first time a Manifestation of God had set foot on the European continent.
    1863 16 Aug - 1 Dec Bahá'u'lláh in Constantinople

                 "spot that art situate on the shores of the two seas" [KA217] 

    Upon arrival He and His family were driven to the residence of Shamsi Big near the Sharif Mosque. They stayed here about one month. His companions were given accommodation elsewhere in the city. [BKG197, 204; GPB157–61, HDBFXXVIII]

  • See BKG197–204 for an account of Bahá'u'lláh's stay.
  • His arrival in Constantinople and stay of about 5 years marked the first time in history that a Manifestation of God had set foot in the European continent. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 2 June 1982 addressed To the Friends gathered at the International Conference in Dublin.]
  • Among the works Bahá'u'lláh revealed in Constantinople was Mathnaví-i-Mubárak. [RB2:29–54]
  • Istanbul (Constantinople); Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mathnaviyi-i Mubarak; Shamsi Big; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Sultan Abdul-Aziz; Lawh-i-Abdul-Aziz-Va-Vukala; Grand Viziers; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Writings of; Z^^^^ first among the sovereigns to receive the Divine Summons.
    1863 c. Aug - Nov Death of Sádhijíyyih, 18-month-old daughter of Bahá'u'lláh and Mahd-i-‘Ulyá. Her body was buried in a plot of land outside the Ádirnih Gate of Constantinople. [BKG203] [key] Istanbul (Constantinople); Turkey Sadhijiyyih; Bahaullah, Family of; Mahd-i-Ulya (Fatimih Khanum); Edirne Gate
    1863 16 Aug -16 Sep Bahá'u'lláh was resident in the House of Shamsí Big near the mosque of Khirqiu-i-Sharifh. During this period He revealed:
  • The Subhánika-Yá-Hú (Tablet of the Bell). [BKG206; BW14:632; RB2:18]
  • See SDH41-43 for the story of Hájí Mirzá Haydar-'Alí and the use of this tablet during his imprisonment in Egypt.
  • He also revealed the Lawh-i-'Abdu'l-'Aziz Va-Vukalá. [BW19p583] [key]
  • Istanbul (Constantinople); Turkey; Egypt Bahaullah, Writings of; Lawh-i-Naqus (Tablet of the Bell); Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali; Bab, Declaration of; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Writings of
    1863 Sep Because the Shamsi Big residence was too small Bahá'u'lláh and His family were moved to the house of Visi Pasha, situated near the mosque of Sultan Fatih Mehmet. They spend three months in this residence. [ALM21] [key] Istanbul (Constantinople); Turkey Visi Pasha; Bahaullah, Houses of; Shamsi Big
    1863 Dec Prelude to the exile from Constantinople:
  • It was during Bahá'u'lláh's stay in Constantinople that the conciliatory attitude of the authorities changed to that of hostility as a direct consequence of the intrigues and misrepresentations of the Persian Ambassador. [ALM16]
  • News was brought to Bahá'u'lláh by Shamsí Big of the possibility that He would be transferred to Adrianople. [BKG199]
  • Bahá'u'lláh refused to leave, on pain of martyrdom, but Mírzá Yahyá and his comrades, cowardly and fearful, persuaded Him to go. [BKG201–3]
  • Sultán ‘Abdu'l-‘Azíz issued an edict banishing Bahá'u'lláh to Adrianople. It was issued "less than four months after the arrival of the exiles." [GPB159–60; RB2:57]
  • The decision was taken to further exile Bahá'u'lláh in part due to the machinations of the Persian Ambassador Mírzá Husayn Khán and his accomplice, Hájí Mírzá Hasan-i-Safá whose government was continually pressing the Turkish forces to arouse hostility against HIm. [GPB159]
  • See BBIC:34, note 68, BKG201 and GPB159 for reasons for the edict.
  • On the same day Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Lawh-i-‘Abdu'l-‘Azíz-Va-Vukalá, a Tablet addressed to the Sultán. When the Grand Vizier perused it he turned pale. The text of this Tablet has been lost. [BKG206; GPB160]
  • "...Sultán 'Abdu'l-'Azíz, the self-styled vicar of the Prophet of Islám and the absolute ruler of a mighty empire. So potent, so august a personage was the first among the sovereigns of the world to receive the Divine Summons, and the first among Oriental monarchs to sustain the impact of God's retributive justice." [GPB158] [key]
  • Istanbul (Constantinople); Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Bahaullah, Writings of; Lawh-i-Abdul-Aziz-Va-Vukala (Tablet to the Sultan); Mirza Husayn Khan; Haji Mirza Hasan-i-Safa; Mirza Yahya; Sultan Abdul-Aziz
    1863 1 Dec Bahá'u'lláh and His companions left Constantinople for Adrianople. Carriages, wagons and pack animals were provided as well as ox-carts for their possessions. [BKG204; GPB161; RB2:427; ALM22]
  • His departure has been described by Shoghi Effendi as the event that "closes the opening scene of one of the most dramatic episodes in the ministry of Bahá'u'lláh". [GPB162]
  • The journey took twelve days and they passed through the following villages en route: [BKG204; GPB161; The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953 :Information Statistical & Comparative p43]
    • chik-Chakmachih Three hours from Constantinople - spent one night [N7N21]
    • Buyúk-Chakmachih Arrived about noon. [N&N23]
      • Picture of the bridge at Buyúk-Chakmachih (Büyükçekmece) which Bahá’u’lláh and His companions crossed on their way from Constantinople to Adrianople.
      • Map.
    • Salvarí The procession left at midnight in the pouring rain and intense cold.
    • Birkás
    • Bábás
    • Bábá-Iskí
  • See BKG204–5, GPB161 and RB2:62 for the rigours of the journey. The winter was extremely cold and the travellers were not clad for freezing weather.
  • Istanbul (Constantinople); Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Winter; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1863 12 Dec Bahá'u'lláh in Adrianople

    Bahá'u'lláh and His companions arrived in Adrianople (the "remote prison") ("The Land of Mystery") (GPB174). It would be here where the sun of His revelation would ascend to its zenith, where He proclaimed the Message of His revelation to the whole world. [BKG206; GPB161; RB2:62]

  • Picture.
  • This was the furthest point from His native land that Bahá'u'lláh reached and the first time in known history that a Manifestation of God had lived on the European continent. [BKG217]
  • See BKG218–19, 221–2; GPB161–2 and MRHK179–96 for a description of the houses Bahá'u'lláh lived in during this period.
  • See BKG219–20 for the hardships of the first winter.

      "at a time when the forces of schism had rent asunder the ties that united the little band of exiles which had settled in Adrianople and whose fortunes seemed then to have sunk to their lowest ebb!" [BW5p175]
    [key]
  • Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey; Europe Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Houses of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Firsts, Other; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Land of Mystery
    1863 Dec Bahá'u'lláh and His party spent three nights in the Khán-i-'Aráb caravanserai. [BKG218] [key] Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Baha'u'llah, Houses of; Z^^^^
    1863 c. 12 - 21 Dec Bahá'u'lláh and His family stayed for one week at a house in the Murádíyyih quarter of the city, in the north-eastern section near Takyiy-i-Mawlavi. The house was located on high ground with a good view of the city and close to the Muradiyyih mosque. The rest of the exiles remained at the inn. [BKG218] During this time He revealed:
  • Kitáb-i-Badí' (The Wonderous or Unique Book) .
  • Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Bahaullah, Writings of; Baha'u'llah, Houses of; Z^^^^
    1863 c.22 Dec - 22 Jun or 22 Oct Bahá'u'lláh and His family spent about six to ten months in another house in the Murádíyyih quarter near the Takyiy-i-Mawlaví. Those who were still in the caravanserai moved to the house thus vacated. Next door to this house a place was rented for Áqáy Ridá, Mírzá Yahyá and their families. [BW19p584; BKG221]

    During this time He revealed the following:

  • Lawh-i-Sayyáh (Tablet of the Traveller. [BKG220] (Leiden list suggests "following Separation, February - June 1867]
  • Lah-i-Naqtih (Tablet of the Point). [BKG220]
  • Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Bahaullah, houses of; Bahaullah, Writings of; Z^^^^
    1864 (In the year) Birth of Mírzá Hádí Shírází, the father of Shoghi Effendi, in Shíráz. Shiraz; Iran Mirza Hadi Shirazi; Shoghi Effendi, Family of; Births and deaths
    1864 Apr Upheaval at Najafábád
  • Several hundred Bahá'ís were arrested by Shaykh Muhammad-Báqir (later stigmatized as ‘the Wolf' by Bahá'u'lláh) and taken to Isfahán to be put to death. He was dissuaded from this plan by other ‘ulamá of Isfahán. Two of the prisoners were executed, 18 were sent to Tihrán and the remainder were sent back to Najafábád where they were severely beaten. Those sent to Tihrán were put in a dungeon but released after three months by the Sháh. Two of these were beaten then executed upon their return from Tihrán on the order of Shaykh Muhammad-Báqir. [BBD213; BBR268–9; BW18:382] [key]
  • Najafabad; Isfahan; Tihran; Iran Shaykh Muhammad-Baqir; Wolf; Najafabad upheaval; Upheavals
    1864 27 Mar Birth of A. L. M. Nicolas, who later became an important European scholar on the life and teachings of the Báb, in Rasht. [BBR516] [key] Rasht; Iran; Europe A.L.M. Nicolas; Births and deaths
    1864 Apr Sulaymán Páshá, a Súfí, succeeded Muhammad Pásháy-i-Qibrisí as Governor of Adrianople. Both were admirers of Bahá'u'lláh. [CH59, BBR487; BKG254] [key] Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Sulayman Pasha; Sufism; Muhammad Pashay-i-Qibrisi; Governors
    1864 15 Aug Birth of Mírzá Díyá'u'lláh, the third son of Bahá'u'lláh and Mahdi-‘Ulyá. [BKG222] [key] Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Mirza Diyaullah; Bahaullah, Family of; Mahd-i-Ulya (Fatimih Khanum); Births and deaths
    1864 (between Jun and Oct) Bahá'u'lláh and His family moved to the house of Amru'lláh (The Cause of God) located to the north of the Mosque of Sultán Salím and close to it. They occupied the upper floor, Mírzá Muhammad-Qulí and his family the middle one and some of the attendants were housed on the ground floor. Other houses were found in the same quarter, one for Áqáy-i-Kalím and his family and one for Mírzá Yahyá and his. [BKG221, ALM35]
  • Picture - The Mosque of Sultan Salim.
  • Picture - The interior of the mosque.
  • Picture - The interior of the mosque.
  • It was while they were in this house that Mírzá Yahyá, a discontent since the early days in Baghdad, began to rebel more openly with support from Siyyid Muhammad-i-Isfahani. It was the "first major internal convulsion which seized a newly re-arisen community and which threatened to cause an irreparable breach in the ranks of its members". Bahá'u'lláh designated this period and the time following as Ayyám-i-Shidád (Days of Stress) . [BKG223-233; GPB163] [key]
  • Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey House of Amrullah; Bahaullah, Houses of; Bahaullah, Life of
    1864 c. During time in Adrianople At some point near the end of His life the Báb had consigned His remaining papers, His seal, His qalam-dán (pencil-box) and His last Tablets to Mírzá 'Abdu'l-Karím Qazvíní with instructions to deliver them to Mírzá Husayn-'Alí Núrí should something happen to Himself. In His last Tablets, Mírzá Husayn-'Alí Núrí was referred to again and again as "Him Whom God shall make Manifest" also, He was referred to as "Bahá'u'lláh". Mírzá 'Abdu'l-Karím Qazvíní fulfilled this trust and these items remained in the possession of Bahá'u'lláh until the days of Adrianople. When Mírzá Yáhyá asked permission to see these articles Bahá'u'lláh consented but they were never returned. Yahyá kept these items as a support of his claim to leadership asserting that the Báb had given them to him. [CH49] [key] Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Bab, Life of; Bahaullah, Life of; Bab, Writings of; Mirza Abdul-Karim Qazvini; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Box with writings; Boxes; Relics
    1864 c. After years of imprisonment in Tehran, Àbdu'r '-Rasúl-Qumí visited Bahá'u'lláh in Adrianople then took up residence in Baghdad, caring for the garden of the House of Bahá'u'lláh. He was well-known to the Muslims and a target of their attacks. One morning as he was carrying skins of water from the Tigris River he was ambushed by a number of attackers and was mortally wounded. He managed to disperse the assailants, drag himself to the garden where he watered the flowers for the last time.

    His name was mentioned in many Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh, consoling his family. His son was appointed caretaker of the pilgrims in 'Akká and he served in this capacity until the days of Shoghi Effendi. [FAA8] [key]

    Baghdad; Iraq; Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey; Akka House of Bahaullah (Baghdad); Abdur-Rasul-Qumi; Gardeners; Caretakers; Murders
    1864 Dec Death of Governor Sulaymán Páshá of Adrianople. He was succeeded by ‘Árif Páshá, who was not well-disposed to Bahá'u'lláh and His followers. [BBR487] [key] Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Governors; Sulayman Pasha; Arif Pasha; Bahaullah, Life of
    1864 c. During the time in Adrianople In their efforts to discredit Bahá'u'lláh and His companions, the followers of Azál made complaints to the authorities. They alleged that they had insufficient means of livelihood, blaming Bahá'u'lláh for depriving them of their share of the allowances. Àqá Ján Kajkuláh, instigated by Siyyid Muhammad, wrote to dignitaries and government representatives with the false accusation that Bahá'u'lláh had made an alliance with Bulgaria for the purpose of conquering Constantinople.
  • The Persiana ambassador in Constantinople took advantage of the disturbance in Turkey to inform Persian Consuls in Iraq and in Egypt that the Turkish government had withdrawn protection for the Bábí sect. This news precipitated malice and mischief in both countries. [FAA7] [key]
  • Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Aqa Jan Kajkulah; Siyyid Muhammad-i-Isfahani; Antichrist
    1864 Dec Mírzá Yahyá began his attempts on Bahá'u'lláh's life about one year after the arrival of the exiles. He invited Bahá'u'lláh to a feast and shared a dish, half of which was laced with poison. Bahá'u'lláh was ill for 21 days following this attempt and was left with a shaking hand for the rest of His life.
  • Bahá'u'lláh was attended by a foreign Christian doctor named Shíshmán who died shortly after seeing Him. Bahá'u'lláh intimates that the doctor has sacrificed his life for Him.
  • On another occasion he poisoned the well which provided water for the family and companions of Bahá'u'lláh. [BKG225]
  • Mírzá Yahyá tried to convince the barber, Ustád Muhammad-'Alíy-i-Salmání, to assassinate HIm. This enraged the barber and, contrary to Bahá'u'lláh's instructions, disclosed Mírzá Yahyá's intentions to the community thus causing further discontent. [CH60, BKG225–30, CB82–3, GPB165-166 and RB2:158–61] [key]
  • Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Bahaullah, Attempts on; Poison; Sacrifice
    1865 (In the year) French diplomat Joseph Comte de Gobineau published Religions et les Philosophies dans l'Asie Centrale, over half of which is devoted to a study of the Bábí movement. He relied heavily on the Násikhu't-Taváríkh (The History to Abrogate All Previous Histories) written by Lisánu'l-Mulk. Bahá'u'lláh had condemned this account as "a falsification of history, one which even an infidel would not have had the effrontery to produce". [SUR36-37]
  • "The Comte de Gobineau’s work with its obvious parallels drawn between the life and martyrdom of the Báb with that of Jesus Christ, was the most influential volume in carrying the story to Western minds. The English poet and cultural critic Matthew Arnold, in A Persian Passion Play, wrote that the chief purpose of Gobineau’s book was to give a history of the career of Mirza Ali Mahommed…the founder of Bâbism, of which most people in England have at least heard the name. The notion that most people in England, in Arnold’s view, were aware of the Báb indicates how deeply His fame had penetrated into far-off societies." [Tales of Magnificent Heroism: The impact of the Báb and His followers on writers and artists by Robert Weinberg.
  • Gobineau's work was written when Mírzá Yahyá was still known as the nominal head of the Bábí Faith between 1855 and 1858 when Gobineau was First Secretary and Chargé d'Affaires of the French Legation. Two embassy employees during his time there were ardent supporters of Mírzá Yahyá, one of whom was his brother-in-law. (He served as the Ambassador from March 1862 until September 1863.)
  • This work attracted a number of other European intellectuals, including E. G. Browne of Cambridge, who eventually became the most prolific western writer and researcher of the Bábi religion. [BBR17, MCS483; 500; 512 The Comte de Gobineau’s Religions et Philosophies dans l’Asie Centrale (1865)—with its obvious parallels drawn between the life and martyrdom of the Báb with that of Jesus Christ—was the most influential volume in carrying the story to Western minds. The English poet and cultural critic Matthew Arnold, in A Persian Passion Play, wrote that the chief purpose of Gobineau’s book was to give a history of the career of Mirza Ali Mahommed…the founder of Bâbism, of which most people in England have at least heard the name. The notion that most people in England, in Arnold’s view, were aware of the Báb indicates how deeply His fame had penetrated into far-off societies.
  • France; Iran Joseph Comte de Gobineau; Babi studies; Edward Granville Browne; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Matthew Arnold
    1865 (In the year) Mírzá Kazem-Beg of St Petersburg University published Bab Babidy, the first Western book written entirely on the subject of the Bábí religion. [BBR26] [key] St Petersburg; Russia Babi studies; Mirza Kazem-Beg; First publications First Western book written entirely on the subject of the Bábí religion
    c. 1865 Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Arabic Tablet of Ahmad (Lawh-i-Ahmad) for Ahmad, a believer from Yazd. [RB2:107]
  • The Tablet may have been revealed as early as 1864.
  • See RB2:107–66 for the story of Ahmad. He had walked from Baghdad to Constantinople, a distance of 1,600km on his way to visit Bahá'u'lláh in Adrianople. He was some 220km away when he received the Tablet. Upon reading it he understood that Bahá'u'lláh wanted him to go teaching and so he immediately started his journey to Persia, a 3,200km trip.
  • See Bahá'í News No 432 March 1967 pg 1 for A Flame of Fire: The Story of the Tablet of Ahmad by A.Q. Faizi. Part 2 of the story can be found in the April 1967 edition.
  • It can also be found at Bahá'í Library.
  • The Ocean of His Words by John Hatcher deals with this Tablet in chapter7.
  • See RB2:119–26 for an analysis of the Tablet.
  • Shoghi Effendi states that the Tablet has a special potency and significance. [DG60]
  • See "Ahmad, The Flame of Fire" by Darius Shahrokh.
  • See Learn Well This Tablet by H. Richard Gurninsky, published by George Ronald Publisher, Oxford, 2000.
  • See Commentaries on Three Major Tablets by John Kolstoe pages 1-86.
  • Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey; Yazd; Iran Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Lawh-i-Ahmad (Tablet of Ahmad; Lawh-i-Ahmad (Tablet of Ahmad (Arabic)); Ahmad of Yazd; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1865 Mar Death of former Prime Minister Mírzá Áqá Khán, in Qum. He was buried at Karbalá. [BBR165] [key] Qum; Iran; Karbala; Iraq Prime Ministers; Mirza Aqa Khan
    1865 Nov Nabil Zarandi arrived in Tehran where he remained for four months. At that time the proclamation of Baha'u'llah was not common knowledge although some had been commissioned to slowly reveal to the Babis of Tehran the extent of Azal's opposition to Baha'u'llah. [BCI1p14] [key] Tehran
    1865 - 1866 Prior to and during the crisis that was to follow, Bahá'u'lláh began revealing Tablets at a prodigious rate. From about this time until approximately June, 1867 when He transferred His residence to the house of ‘Izzat Áqá, Bahá'u'lláh had revealed the following Tablets among numerous others:
  • The Lawḥ-i-Nuqṭih (The Tablet of the Point)
  • The Lawḥ-i-Aḥmad-i-Arabí (The Tablet of Ahmad, Arabic), revealed in honour of Ahmad of Yazd.
  • The Súriy-i-Aṣḥáb (Tablet of the Companions) addressed to Mírzá Áqáyi-Muníb
    • The Lawḥ-i-Sayyáḥ (Tablet of the Traveller) (Note there are several Tablets with this name revealed at different times to different recipients.)
    • The Súriy-i-Damm (The Tablet of Blood) addressed to Nabíl-i-A'zam
    • The Súriy-i-Ḥajj (Tablet of Pilgrimage) for pilgrimage to the House of the Báb
    • The Lawḥu’r-Rúḥ (Tablet of the Spirit)
    • The Lawḥu’r-Riḍván
    • The Lawḥu’t-Tuqá (The Tablet of Piety or the Fear of God)
      [GPB171; N&N23-29; BW13p1061-1062] [key]
  • Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Bahaullah, Writings of; Suriy-i-Amr (Surih of Command); Lawh-i-Nuqtih (Tablet of the Point); Lawh-i-Ahmad (Tablet of Ahmad (Arabic)); Suriy-i-Ashab (Surah of the Companions); Lawh-i-Sayyah (Tablet of the Traveller); Suriy-i-Damm (Tablet of Blood); Suriy-i-Hajj; Lawhur-Ruh (Tablet of the Spirit); Lawh-i-Ridvan (Tablet of Ridvan); Lawhut-Tuqa (Tablet of Piety or the Fear of God)
    1866 22 Feb Nabil Zarandi received a letter from Bahá'u'lláh giving him permission to proclaim the new religion openly and to reveal what he had witnessed in Baghdad of the actions of Azal and Siyyid Muhammad Isfahani. Prior to this time he had been asked to conceal this information. Almost all of the Bábís in Tehran became Bahá'ís upon hearing this news. [BCI1p14]
  • At this time number of Bahá'ís in Tehran was constantly being supplemented by those who had fled the persecution in their home towns. [BC1p15] [key]
  • Tihran; Iran Bahaullah, Life of; Nabil-i-Azam; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Siyyid Muhammad-i-Isfahani;
    1866 c. Mar The Most Great Separation

    Mírzá Yáhyá's behaviour could no longer be tolerated or concealed. Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Súriy-i-Amr (Súrih of Command) as a direct order to him. [CH60, 83, CB84; GBP166; BKG223-245]

  • This was the formal announcement to the nominee of the Báb of the station of ‘Him Whom God shall make manifest' and a summons for him to pay allegiance to His Cause. [CB83–4; RB2:161]
    • It should be noted that the Báb never appointed a successor or an interpreter. Shoghi Effendi refers to him as the “titular head” and “a mere figurehead”. [GPB90]
    • Bahá'u'lláh Himself conceived of the plan to elevate Yáhyá's status in the eyes of the public to divert attention from Himself. [TN37; RoB1p53-54]
    • See [RoB2p241-242] for the story of the nightingale and the crow.
    • See [UD631n] for information in his titles.
    • See as well the memorandum from the Research Department to the Uniververal House of Justice regarding the appointment of Azal and his titles.
  • Bahá'u'lláh directed his amanuensis to take the Tablet to Mírzá Yáhyá. Upon receipt he became very angry and a "jealous fire consumed him". He responded, after a requested day's respite, by claiming that he was the recipient of a divine revelation and all must turn to him. [CH60, BKG230; CB84; GPB166–7; RB2:162]
  • Shoghi Effendi described this event as "one of the darkest dates in Bahá'í history and was the signal for the open and final rupture between Bahá'u'lláh and Mírzá Yahyá. [GPB167]
  • The announcement that Bahá'u'lláh was the Promised One spread quickly to Iraq and to Persia. The followers were happy for the clarification and glad to be rid of Yáhyá. Only the express command of Bahá'u'lláh prevented them from ridding the world of such nefarious traitor. [CH61]
  • It is believed that Yáhyá's conduct and accusations precipitated the next exile. [CH61]
  • Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Suriy-i-Amr (Surih of Command); Tablet of the Nightingale and the Owl; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Most Great Separation; Firsts, other; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Z^^^^
    1866 Mar Khurshíd Páshá took up the governorship of Adrianople. [BBR487; BKG233] [key] Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Khurshid Pasha; Governors
    1866 c. Mar Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Lawh-i-Bahá in honour of Khátún Ján, a believer and close friend of Táhirih. [RB2:171, 179]
  • It was probably revealed just before He took up residence in the house of Ridá Big. [RB2:171]
  • This was the first Tablet in which Bahá'u'lláh used the term ‘people of Bahá' to refer to His followers, to distinguish them from the ‘people of the Bayán'. [RB2:179] [key]
  • Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Lawh-i-Baha; Khatun Jan; Rida Big; Firsts, Other; Bahaullah, Writings of first Tablet in which Bahá'u'lláh uses the term ‘people of Bahá' to refer to His followers
    1866 10 Mar Bahá'u'lláh and His family withdrew from the house of Amru'lláh, the residence shared with the exiles, and went to the house of Ridá Big. [BKG230; GPB167; RB2:162]
  • He stayed in this house for about one year. [GPB168]
  • See BKG235 for a description of the house of Ridá Big.
  • Bahá'u'lláh went into isolation for two months. He ordered that all of the family's goods should be divided. He even hed delivered to him certain relics he had long coveted such as the seals, rings and manuscripts in the handwriting of the Báb. The companions were to choose between Himself and Azal. This has become known as the ‘Most Great Separation'. [BBRSM67; BKG230–2; GPB167–8; RB2:162]
  • See BKG231–2, GPB167 and RB2:163 for the effect of this.
  • See BBRSM59–60 for a description of Azal's leadership.
  • The continued efforts of Mírzá Yahyá and Siyyid Muhammad sullied the reputation of Bahá'u'lláh in Adrianople and in the capital. In addition, temporary beach had been made in the ranks of the supporters. [GPB170]
  • Mírzá Yahyá sent messengers to Persia with false accounts of the events. He sent one of his wives to the authorities claiming that Bahá'u'lláh had deprived him of his fair share of the allowances. [BKG233] [key]
  • Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; House of Amrullah; Rida Big; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Most Great Separation
    1866 14 Nov The ‘star-fall' of 1866. [RB2:270, 422–6]
  • The falling of stars was predicted in Matthew 24:29.
  • For Bahá'u'lláh's reference to this see ESW131–2.
  • For the symbolism of falling stars see KI41.
  • See The Delight of Hearts pg87 for an account.
  • The spectacular shower of meteors in the early hours of the morning of 14 November 1866 was observed all over Europe. It was an extraordinary event exciting comment from professional astronomers and laymen alike. The following sample account is from The Times Saturday, 17 November 1866:

    The Rev. Robert Main, the Radcliffe Observer at Oxford, gave the following account of the meteorological phenomenon of Tuesday night last: --

    '...This great display began about 13h. (or 1 o'clock in the morning), and reached its maximum at about 13h.24m., after which time it gradually began to slacken. The watch, however, was kept up till 18h., though after 15h., there were not many meteors seen. In all there were observed not fewer than 3,000 during the night, of which about 2,000 fell between 13h. and 14h., or between 1 a.m. and 2 a.m. As to the general appearance of the meteors, it was noticed that the majority of them were of a whitish or yellowish colour. Some, however, were reddish or orange-coloured, and one meteor was noticed to be bluish. The brightest left generally a train behind them, which was to be seen for a few seconds after the meteor disappeared.' (Adapted from ‘The Revelation of Baha’u’llah', by Adib Taherzadeh, vol. 2)

  • Falling stars; Symbolism; Prophecies; Lawh-i-Ibn-i-Dhib (Epistle to the Son of the Wolf); Bible; Christianity
    1866 Dec About a hundred Bahá'ís were arrested in Tabríz following a disturbance in which a Bábí is killed. [BBR251–3; BW18:382] [key] Tabriz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1866 1 Dec Birth of Marion Jack, prominent Bahá'í travel teacher, pioneer and artist, known affectionately as ‘General jack' for her services to the Bahá'í community, in Saint John, New Brunswick.
  • LDG1:217 for information on her pioneer work.
  • Saint John; New Brunswick; Canada Marion Jack; Births and deaths
    1867 (In the year) Birth of Mírzá Badí'u'lláh, fourth son of Bahá'u'lláh and Mahd-i‘Ulyá in Adrianople. [BKG247] [key] Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Mirza Badiullah; Bahaullah, Family of; Mahd-i-Ulya (Fatimih Khanum); Births and deaths
    1867 11 Jan Three Bahá'ís were executed in Tabríz. Their arrest was precipitated by conflict and rivalry between the Azalís and the Bahá'ís. [BBR252–3; BKG237–8; BW18:382–3; RB2:61]
  • BW18:382 says this was 8 January.
  • Tabriz; Iran Azali Babis; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1867 Jan or Feb Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alí, a Bahá'í physician, was executed in Zanján. [BBR253; BKG238; BW18:383]

    Áqá Najaf-‘Alíy-i-Zanjání, a disciple of Hujjat, was executed in Tihrán. [BBR254; BW18:383] [key]

    Zanjan; Tihran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1867 c. Mar Bahá'u'lláh moved back to the now empty house of Amru'lláh. [GPB168]
  • He stayed for about three months. [GPB168]
  • BKG239 says that within six months of Bahá'u'lláh's return to the house the owner sold it.
  • Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Houses of; House of Amrullah
    1867 Apr The appeal by 53 Bahá'ís "in Baghdád" addressed to the United States Congress arrived at the American Consulate in Beirut. [BBR265, Petition from the Persian Reformers]
  • Also see An 1867 Petition from Bahá'ís in Shushtar, Iran, to the U.S. Congress translated by Manuchehr Derakhshani and Nesreen Akhtarkhavari.
  • Baghdad; Shushtar Petitions; United States government; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1867 c. Jun (or later) Bahá'u'lláh rented the house of ‘Izzat Áqá where He and His family lived until their departure from Adrianople. [BKG239; GPB168]
  • See BKG241 for a description of this house.
  • Picture.
  • Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Bahaullah, Houses of; Bahaullah, Life of; House of Izzat Aqa; Houses
    1867 c. Aug Bahá'u'lláh refused to draw the allowance granted Him by the Ottoman government. [RB2:327]
  • Mírzá Yahyá had twice petitioned the government to convince it that he ought to be the recipient of the allowance. [RB2:327]
  • Bahá'u'lláh sold some of His belongings to provide the necessities for Himself and His dependents. [RB2:327] [key]
  • Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Ottoman government; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal)
    1867 Sep - Aug 1868 Bahá'u'lláh addressed a Tablet to to Mullá-'Alí Akbar-i-Sháhmírzádí and Jamál-i-Burújirdí in Tehran to transfer the casket containing the remains of the Báb to a safer hiding place so they temporarily concealed it within a wall of the Masjid-i-M´shá'u'lláh outside of the gates of the city of Tehran. After the hiding place was detected the casket was smuggled into the city and deposited in the house of Mírzá Hasan-i-Vazír, a believer and son-in-law of Hájí Mírzá Siyyid 'Alíy-i-Tafríshí, the Majdu'l-Ashráf. [GPB177; ISC-1963p32] [key] Iran Bab, Burial of; Bab, Remains of; Haji Akhund (Mulla Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi); Jamal-i-Burujirdi; Imam-Zadih Masum; Z^^^^
    1867 Sep "The Most Great Idol" was cast out of the community.

    Mírzá Yahyá's henceman, Siyyíd Muhammad, convinced Yahyá to challenge Bahá'u'lláh to to face-to-face encounter in the mosque of Sultán Salím in a distant part of the city, believing that Bahá'u'lláh would not show. Bahá'u'lláh immediately set out to walk to the appointed mosque. Upon learning this Mírzá Yahyá postponed the interview for a day or two. Bahá'u'llah returned to His home and revealed a Tablet to be delivered to Siyyíd Muhammad when he produced a sealed note stating that should Mírzá Yahyá fail to appear at the trysting-place, he would produce a document refuting Yahyá's claims. Neither were forthcoming and the Tablet to Siyyid Muhammad remained undelivered.

    Prior to this the community had been divided however this incident firmly established His ascendency. The Covenant of the Báb had prevailed [GPB168-170]

  • A period of prodigious activity ensued. Bahá'u'lláh later stated in the Lawh-i-Siraj, "In those days the equivalent of all that hath been sent down aforetime unto the Prophets hath been revealed." [GPB171] [key]
  • Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Siyyid Muhammad; Covenant-breakers
    1867 Sep - Aug 1868 Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Kitáb-i-Badí‘, the Munájátháy-i-Síyám (Prayers for Fasting), the first Tablet to Napoleon III, the Lawh-i-Sultán written to Násiri'd-Dín Sháh, and the Súriy-i-Ra'ís. [BKG245; GBP172]
  • See RB2:370–82 for details of the Kitáb-i-Badí'.
  • Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Súriy-i-Ghusn (Tablet of the Branch) in which ‘Abdu'l-Bahá's future station was foreshadowed. [BBD218; BKG250; GPB177]
  • See RB2:338–9 for a description of the Tablet.
  • Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Tablets to kings and rulers; Suriy-i-Muluk (Surih to the Kings); Kitab-i-Badi (Wondrous Book); Munajathay-i-Siyam (Prayers for Fasting); Prayer; Lawh-i-Napulyun (Tablet to Napoleon III); Lawh-i-Sultan (Tablet to Nasirid-Din Shah); Suriy-i-Rais (Tablet to Sultan Ali Pasha); Suriy-i-Ghusn (Tablet of the Branch); Abdul-Baha, Life of; Firsts, Other; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded First time Bahá'u'lláh directs His words collectively to entire company of monarchs of East and West; first Egyptian centre established; first pilgrimages to residence of Bahá'u'lláh
    1867 Sep Thinking that He will not accept, Mírzá Yahyá, prodded on by Mír Muhammad, challenged Bahá'u'lláh to a public confrontation in the mosque of Sultán Salím. In the end, it was Mírzá Yahyá who did not appear. [BKG239–41; GPB168–9; RB2:291–300, SDH22]
  • The incident gained Bahá'u'lláh respect in the eyes of the people. [RB2:289]
  • See [RB2:304] for a picture of the mosque.
  • Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Mir Muhammad; Bahaullah, Life of; Confrontation; Mosques; Challenges
    1867 Sep - Aug 1868 In this period the extent of the Faith was enlarged with expansion in the Caucasus, the establishment of the first Egyptian centre and the establishment of the Faith in Syria. [GPB176]
  • While Nabil was in Khorasan in spring 1866, at his suggestion, the greeting Alláh-u-Abhá (God is the most Glorious) was adopted by the followers of Bahá'u'lláh, replacing the old salutation of Allāho Akbar (God is the Greatest), which was common among the Bábis. This was a significant action that gave group identity to the Bahá'ís and was a sign of their independence from the Bábís and the Azális, a Bábí faction that considered Mírzá Yaḥyā Ṣobḥ-e Azál as the legitimate successor to the Báb. The greeting Alláh-u-Abhá superseded the Islamic salutation and was simultaneously adopted in Persia and Adrianople. [BKG250; GPB176, “Nabil-e aʿzam Zaranadi, Mollā Mohammad,” by Vahid Rafati, Encyclopædia Iranica,]
  • The phrase ‘the people of the Bayán', which now denotes the followers of Mírzá Yahyá, was discarded and is replaced by the term ‘the people of Bahá'. [BKG250; GBP176] [key]
  • Caucasus; Egypt; Syria; Khurasan; Iran; Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Nabil-i-Azam; People of the Bayan; People of Baha; Allah-u-Abha; Greatest Name; Most Great Separation
    1867 Sep - Aug 1868 Persecutions began anew in Ádharbáyján, Zanján, Níshápúr and Tihrán. [GPB178] [key] Adharbayjan; Zanjan; Nishapur; Tihran; Iran Persecution, Adharbayjan; Persecution, Iran; Persecution
    1867 Sep - Aug 1868 Nabíl-i-A‘zam was dispatched to Iraq and Iran to inform the Bábís of the advent of Bahá'u'lláh. He was further instructed to perform the rites of pilgrimage on Bahá'u'lláh's behalf in the House of the Báb and the Most Great House in Baghdad. [BKG250; EB224; GPB176–7]
  • For details of his mission see EB224–7.
  • On hearing Nabíl's message, the wife of the Báb, Khadíjih Khánum, immediately recognized the station of Bahá'u'lláh. [EB225]
  • Nabil was the first Bahá'í to perform pilgrimage to the house of the Báb in Shiraz in fall 1866, in accordance with the rites prescribed in the Surat al-ḥajj revealed by Bahá'u'lláh. He also went to Baghdad and performed the pilgrimage to the House of Bahá'u'lláh in spring 1867, according to another sura, Surat al-damm written by Bahá'u'lláh for that purpose. Nabil’s pilgrimage to those two houses marked the inception of pilgrimage laws ordained by Bahá'u'lláh later in his Kitāb-i-Aqdas. For the rites of these two pilgrimages performed by Nabíl see SA113–15. [GPB176-177, “Nabil-e aʿzam Zaranadi, Mollā Mohammad,” by Vahid Rafati, Encyclopædia Iranica, DB434-435] [key]
  • Shiraz; Iran; Baghdad; Iraq Nabil-i-Azam; Pilgrims; Pilgrimage; First pilgrims; Khadijih Khanum; House of Bahaullah (Baghdad) The first pilgrimage to the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdad
    1867 (In the year) In this period the extent of the Faith was enlarged with expansion in the Caucasus, the establishment of the first Egyptian centre and the establishment of the Faith in Syria. [GPB176] [key] Caucasus; Egypt; Syria
    1867 c. 15 - 21 Dec During His short stay at this house Bahá'u'lláh also revealed the Súriy-Mulúk (Súrih of Kings). [BKG245; GPB171–2; RB2:301-336; BW19p584]
  • This is described by Shoghi Effendi as ‘the most momentous Tablet revealed by Bahá'u'lláh', in which He, ‘for the first time, directed His words collectively to the entire company of the monarchs of East and West'. [GPB171]
  • See GPB172–5 and RB2:301–25 for a description of the content of the Tablet.
  • Tablet to the Kings (Súratu'l-Mulúk): Tablet study outline by Jonah Winters.
  • An Introduction to the Súratu'l-Haykal (Discourse of The Temple) by Mohamad Ghasem Bayat.
  • In The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953: Information Statistical & Comparative p41 Shoghi Effendi dated this tablet as "1863". Given the intense activity of that year an assumption was made that it was revealed near the end of the year in either Constantinople or Adrianople.

    Chronological list of significant events related to Bahá'u'lláh's historic pronouncement in the Súriy-i-Múlúk

    • Fall of the French Monarchy (1870)
    • Virtual extinction of the Pope's Temporal Sovereignty (1870)
    • Assassination of Sultán 'Abdu'l-'Azíz (1876)
    • Assassination of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh (1896)
    • Overthrow of Sultán 'Abdu'l-Hamíd II (1909)
    • Fall of the Portuguese Monarchy (1910)
    • Fall of the Chinese Monarchy (1916)
    • Fall of the Russian Monarchy (1917)
    • Fall of the German Monarchy (1918)
    • Fall of the Austrian Monarchy (1918)
    • Fall of the Hungarian Monarchy (1918)
    • Fall of the Turkish Monarchy (1922)
    • Collapse of the Caliphate (1924)
    • Fall of the Qájár Dynasty (1925)
    • Fall of the Spanish Monarchy (1931)
    • Fall of the Albanian Monarchy (1938)
    • Fall of the Serbian Monarchy (1941)
    • Fall of the Italian Monarchy (1946)
    • Fall of the Bulgarian Monarchy (1946)
    • Fall of the Rumanian Monarchy (1947)
      [The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953: Information Statistical & Comparative p41-42] [key]
  • Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Suriy-i-Muluk (Surih to the Kings); Tablets to kings and rulers; History (general); Summons of the Lord of Hosts (book); Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Peace; World peace (general); Z^^^^
    1868 – 1870 During this period Bahá'u'lláh revealed a number of Tablets to rulers including the Lawh-i-Ra'ís to `Alí Páshá, His second Tablet to Napoleon III and Tablets to Czar Alexander II, Queen Victoria and Pope Pius IX. [BBD13]
  • President Grant of the United States was in office when Bahá'u'lláh addressed a Tablet to the `Rulers of America and the Presidents of the Republics therein'. [BFA1:80N]

    The writings of Bahá’u’lláh during this period, as we survey the vast field which they embrace, seem to fall into three distinct categories. The first comprises those writings which constitute the sequel to the proclamation of His Mission in Adrianople. The second includes the laws and ordinances of His Dispensation, which, for the most part, have been recorded in the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, His Most Holy Book. To the third must be assigned those Tablets which partly enunciate and partly reaffirm the fundamental tenets and principles underlying that Dispensation. [GPB205-206] [key]

  • Akka Ali Pasha; Napoleon III; Pope Pius IX; Popes; Christianity; Queen Victoria; Alexander II; Lawh-i-Napulyun (Tablet to Napoleon III); Lawh-i-Pap (Tablet to Pope Pius IX); Lawh-i-Malikih (Tablet to Queen Victoria); Lawh-i-Malik-i-Rus (Tablet to Alexander II); President Grant; Lawh-i-Rais (Tablet to Sultan Ali Pasha); Tablets to Kings and rulers; Summons of the Lord of Hosts (book); Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Peace; World peace (general); Z^^^^
    1868 (In the year) Hájí Mullá `Alí-i-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí (later Hand of the Cause Hájí Ákhúnd) was imprisoned in Tihrán as a Bahá'í on the order of Mullá `Alí Kání. This is the first of many imprisonments. [EB266]
  • He was imprisoned so often that `Abdu'l-Bahá later said of him that at the first sign of disturbances, he would `put on his turban, wrap himself in his `abá and sit waiting' to be arrested. [MF11] [key]
  • Tihran; Iran Haji Akhund (Mulla Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi); Mulla Ali Kani; Hands of the Cause
    1868 Apr Seven Bahá'ís in Constantinople were arrested and interrogated by a commission of inquiry whose mandate it was to verify the claims of Bahá'u'lláh and Mírzá Yahyá. [BKG250–2; GPB179; MF99–100 RB2:3289]
  • See RB2:329–32 for the conduct of the interrogations.
  • Among those arrested was Mishkín-Qalam, the calligrapher. He was particularly distraught because he is not allowed pen or paper. Eventually these were given to him. [BKG252] [key]
  • Istanbul (Constantinople); Turkey Mishkin-Qalam; Calligraphy; Persecution; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Turkey
    1868 c. May Bahá'u'lláh sent Nabíl-i-A`zam to Cairo to enquire after Hájí Mírzá Haydar-`Alí. He was instructed by Bahá'u'lláh to appeal to the officials for the release of several Bahá'ís who had been imprisoned in Cairo at the instigation of their enemies. He was thrown into prison in Cairo for two months and then in the Alexandria jail for a few more months. While there he befriended a Christian cellmate, Fáris Effendi, who soon becomes a Bahá'í. [BKG248, 265–6; EB268; GPB178]
  • Fáris Effendi was probably the first Christian to become a Bahá'í. [RB3:10, “Nabil-e aʿzam Zaranadi, Mollā Mohammad,” by Vahid Rafati, Encyclopædia Iranica]
    • Law˙-i-Aqdas (“Most Holy Tablet,” late 1870s?) was most probably addressed to (“Dr.”) Fáris Effendi.
  • See BKG265–8 for an account of Nabíl's arrest and imprisonment.
  • After his release he travelled to Cyprus and Beirut and then joined the Bahá'u'lláh's exiled community in Akka in late October of 1969. He spent the last two decades of his life in that area. [“Nabil-e aʿzam Zaranadi, Mollā Mohammad,” by Vahid Rafati, Encyclopædia Iranica] [key]
  • Cairo; Egypt Nabil-i-Azam; Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali; Faris Effendi; Imprisonments; First believers by background; Christianity; Conversion; Interfaith dialogue First Christian to become a Bahá'í
    1868 c. 7 Jun Nabíl had a dream in which Bahá'u'lláh appeared to him in his cell and assured him that he will have reason to rejoice within the next 81 days. [BKG267] [key] Cairo; Egypt Nabil-i-Azam
    1868 c. Jul Principal Bahá'ís in Baghdád were arrested by the Turkish authorities and exiled to Mosul and other places. [BBR265; BKG247; CH129–30; RB2:333]
  • RB2:333 indicates this took place towards the end of Bahá'u'lláh's stay in Adrianople.
  • About 70 people were exiled. [GPB178; RB2:334] Estimate given by Hájí Mirzá Haydar-;Alí is 80. (DOH12]
  • See BKG184 for an illustration of Mosul.
  • See BKG183 for a description of the city.
  • See RB2:334 for the hardships suffered by the exiles.
  • They remained in Mosul for some 20 years until Bahá'u'lláh advised the community to disband (1885-1886). Their hardship was lessened by generous contributions from the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs. A charity fund was established, the first fund of that kind in any Bahá'í community. [RB2:334–6] [key]
  • Baghdad; Mosul; Iraq Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Charity and relief work; Funds; Firsts, Other; Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution First charity fund
    1868 c. 21 Jul Mírzá Abu'l-Qásim-i-Shírází was arrested in Egypt and money extorted from him. [BBR257–8; BKG243; GPB178] [key] Egypt Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1868 26 Jul Bahá'u'lláh was banished to 'Akká

    Sultán `Abdu'l-`Azíz, at the instigation of his Prime Minister, Ali Pasha, issued a firmán condemning Bahá'u'lláh to perpetual banishment. [BKG283–4; GPB179, 186; RB2:401–2]

  • See RB2:402 for a list of those included in the edict.
  • BKG261, GPB181 and RB2:403 indicate that it was not until the party reached Gallipoli that they were informed that their ultimate destination was `Akká.
  • BBD40 says that it was because of the disloyal Mírzá Yahyá's plotting against Bahá`u`lláh that the Turkish authorities condemned Him to perpetual imprisonment in `Akká.
  • Edirne (Adrianople); Istanbul (Constantinople); Turkey; Baghdad; Iraq; Gallipoli; Akka Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Sultan Abdul-Aziz; Khurshid Pasha; Firmans; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1868 Aug One morning without warning Bahá'u'lláh's house was surrounded by soldiers. The inhabitants were rounded up and taken to government headquarters. They were told to make ready for their departure for Gallipoli. [BKG255; GPB179; RB2:403]
  • The party was given three days to prepare for the journey. It it had been rumoured that they were to be separated, Bahá'u'lláh to one place, 'Abdu'l-Bahá to another and the friends to still another place. [CH62]
  • One of the companions, Karilá'í Ja'far was so grieved by the threatened separation that he attempted to kill himself. He was prevented from do so but was too ill to travel. Bahá'u'lláh refused to leave until the Governor in Adrianople made a promise to care for him until he was well enough to travel. He joined the friends in 'Akká forty days after their arrival. [CH62, RoB1p97-98]
  • The Consuls of European powers offered assistance to Bahá'u'lláh and were prepared to ask the intervention of their governments. Bahá'u'lláh refused these offers. [BKG255, 257–8]
  • Western accounts of this incident suggest that Bahá`u`lláh asked for such assistance. [BBR187–91]
  • The next day the goods of the Bahá'ís were sold or auctioned for very low prices. [BKG255, 258]
  • Group and individual photographs were taken of the Bahá'í and Azalí exiles in Adrianople, including one of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • Edirne (Adrianople); Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1868 Aug Mullá Muhammad-Ridá, Ridá'r-Rúh was poisoned in Yazd. [BW18:383] [key] Yazd; Iran Mulla Muhammad-Rida (Ridar-Ruh); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1868 12 Aug Bahá'u'lláh, His family and companions, escorted by a Turkish captain and a number of soldiers, set out for Gallipoli. [BKG260; GPB180; RB2:409]
  • En route they passed through the villages of Uzún-Kuprí and Káshánih before reaching Gallipoli after 4 days. [The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953: Information Statistical & Comparative p44]
  • The Súriy-i-Ra’ís, which addresses ‘Álí Páshá, the Ottoman Prime Minister, was revealed as the exiles were being moved from Adrianople to Gallipoli. [Summons of the Lord of Hosts; RoB2p411-417]
  • N&N26 says the Lawh-i-Ra'ís (Tablet of Ra'ís) was revealed in Káshánih. This is incorrect; it should read the Súriy-i-Ra’ís. iiiii
  • Edirne (Adrianople); Gallipoli; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Bahaullah, Writings of; Z^^^^
    1868 15 Aug The Bahá'ís imprisoned in Constantinople arrived in Gallipoli to be exiled with Bahá'u'lláh's party. [BKG260] [key] Gallipoli; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of
    1868 16 Aug They arrived in Gallipoli on the fifth day. [BKG260]
  • GPB180 says it was a four-day journey. CH62 says it took three days of travel by cart and wagon.
  • They remained there for three nights. CH62 says they remained there for a week awaiting replies to telegrams that had been sent to Constantinople. [BKG263; GPB181]
  • BKG261 says they were there for `a few days'.
  • Gallipoli; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of
    1868 21 Aug Bahá'u'lláh and His companions left Gallipoli on an Austrian-Lloyd steamer. CH62 says it was a Turkish boat. [BKG263; GPB182; RB2:411]
  • CH62 says it was a Turkish boat.
  • There were 72 exiles, 10 soldiers and 2 officers. The journey took 11 days. [CH63]
  • See BKG270 for map of the journey.
  • Towards sunset the same day the steamer touched on Madellí and stoped for a few hours. It continued on to Smyrna the same night where they stayed for two days and left at night. [BKG264; N&N22] [key]
  • Gallipoli; Madelli; Smyrna; Famagusta; Turkey; Cyprus Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Ships; Mishkin-Qalam; Mirza Aliy-i-Sayyah-i-Maraghihi (Mulla Adi-Guzal); Aqa Abdul-Ghaffar; Aqa Muhammad-Baqir (Qahvih-chiy-i Mahallati); Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Exile; Cyprus exiles; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1868 22 Aug Soon after sunrise the ship arrived at Smyrna. [BKG264]
  • It stays for two days and left at night. [BKG264; GPB182; N&N22]
  • The illness of Mírzá Áqáy-i-Káshání (Jináb-i-Muníb) necessitated his removal to the hospital. He died before 'Abdu'l-Bahá and Mírzá Musá could return to the ship. 'Abdu'l-Bahá maked arrangements with the local funeral director. They held a simple funeral and burial took place in Izmír. [CH65, BKG264–5; GPB182]
  • This young and vibrant man had arrived in Baghdad before the exile and travelled with the party holding the bridle of the horse of Bahá'u'lláh the whole route, often with 'Abdu'l-Bahá on the other side. When the party reached Constantinople he was instructed to go on teaching trip to Persia and to Iraq, a long and an arduous tour. He rejoined the group in Adrianople just prior to the exile and he was in precarious condition but begged Bahá'u'lláh for permission to be included. It is reported in FAA21 that he died two or three days after the departure of the ship.
  • Izmir (Smyrna); Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mirza Aqay-i-Kashani
    1868 23 Aug The steamer left Smyrna at night for Alexandria, which she gained on a morning two days later. [BKG265] [key] Izmir (Smyrna); Turkey; Alexandria; Egypt Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Ships
    1868 26 - 27 Aug The steamer carrying Bahá'u'lláh docked at Alexandria, early in the morning. [BKG265; RB3:6]
  • The exiles changed ships, again onto an Austrian-Lloyd ship. [BKG265]
  • Several exiles go ashore to make purchases. One passes by the prison house where Nabíl was detained. Nabíl, watching from the roof of his prison cell, recognized him. [CH65, BKG265, 267; RB3:6]
  • Nabíl and Fáris Effendi write letters to Bahá'u'lláh which were delivered by a Christian youth. The youth returned with a Tablet from Bahá'u'lláh and gifts from `Abdu'l-Bahá and Mírzá Mihdí. [BKG267–8; RB3:6–7]
  • The ship bearing Bahá'u'lláh and the exiles left Alexandria for Port Said. [BKG268] [key]
  • Alexandria; Egypt Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Nabil-i-Azam; Faris Effendi; Gifts; Ships
    1868 29 Aug In the morning the ship arrived in Port Said. At nightfall it traveled on to Jaffa. [BKG268] [key] Port Said; Jaffa; Israel Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Ships
    1868 30 Aug The ship arrived at Jaffa at sunset. At midnight the ship left for Haifa. [BKG168] [key] Jaffa; Haifa; Israel Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Ships
    1868 31 Aug The ship arrived in Haifa in the early morning. [BKG269; GPB182; RB3:11]
  • Bahá'u'lláh and His companions — 70 in all — disembarked and were taken ashore in sailing boats. [RB3:11]
  • One of the Bahá'ís, Áqá `Abdu'l-Ghaffár, one of the four companions of Bahá'u'lláh condemned to share the exile of Mírzá Yahyá, threw himself into the sea when he learned he was to be separated from Bahá'u'lláh. [BKG269; GPB182]
  • A few hours later Bahá'u'lláh's party was put aboard a sailing vessel and taken to `Akká. [RB3:12]
  • Mírzá Yahyá and the four Bahá'ís arrested at Constantinople, including Mishkín-Qalam, were sent on to Famagusta in Cyprus. [BKG268; GPB179]
  • See also The Cyprus Exiles by Moojan Momen.
  • See photo of the sea gate by which the exiles entered the citadel.
  • See CH66 for Bahíyyih Khánum's account of the journey.
  • The exiles landed in `Akká and began a confinement in the citadel that was to last two years, two months and five days. [CH67, BBR205; BKG169; DH12; RB3:11]
  • Photo of the citadel.
  • See BKG277–9 for a list of the exiles. Two others joined them immediately after arrival. [BBR205]
  • See BR205–6 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's account of the journey of exile.
  • See RB32:2 and RB3:21 for prophecies regarding Bahá'u'lláh's exile to `Akká.
  • See DH17–24 for a history of `Akká before the arrival of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • See DH26–8 and GPB186–7 for a description of the exiles' walk to the prison.
  • See GPB186–7 for Bahá'u'lláh's description of the citadel and the conditions there on His arrival.
  • See BKG275–7 for Áqá Ridá's description of the citadel and the conditions there.
  • See DH30–1 for a description of the citadel building and the accommodation used by Bahá'u'lláh.
  • The first night the exiles were refused both food and drink. [GPB187]
  • Afterwards each prisoner was allocated three loaves of stale black bread as a daily food ration plus filthy water. [GBP187]
  • Within two days all fell ill with typhoid but for two, 'Abdu'l-Bahá and another man who was able to help Him nurse and care for the others. [CH234]
  • Three of the exiles died soon after arrival. Soon after their death, Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Lawh-i-Ra'ís, the second Tablet to `Alí Páshá. [BKG283; GPB187; RB3:20, 34]
  • See BKG317–21 and CH250–1 for the story of the Azalís who were confined to `Akká with the exiles.
  • See BBRSM69–70 for details on the system of communications used between the Holy Land and the Bahá'í communities.
  • At first the Governor was disinclined to relax the strict rules of the exiles but eventually allowed Mírzá Ja'far to go into town, accompanied by a soldier, to purchase food. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had sent Mírzá 'Abdu'l-Ahad ahead sometime before with instructions to open a shop. It was six months before the exiles could make contact with him. During this time a Greek, Dr. Petro, became a friend and, after having made investigations, assured the Governor that the exiles were not criminals. [CH67]
  • The King of Martyrs and his brother The Beloved of Martyrs were the first to make contact with the exiles by telegraph. They were able to provide much need assistance. [CH67]
  • After the restrictions had been relaxed somewhat Shaykh Salmán was able to function as a courier carrying Tablets and letters to and from Persia. When he was arrested in Aleppo, carrying a most important supplication from a friend in Persia to Bahá'u'lláh, he swallowed the letter to avoid detection. [CH67-68] [key]
  • Haifa; Famagusta; Akka; Israel; Cyprus Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mishkin-Qalam; Aqa Abdul-Ghaffar; Lawh-i-Rais (Tablet to Sultan Ali Pasha); Tablets to kings and rulers; Mirza Jafar; Citadel; Prophecies; Cyprus exiles; Exile; Firsts, Other; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre First night in citadel in `Akká
    1868 3 Sep The firmán of the Sultán `Abdu'l-`Azíz condemning Bahá'u'lláh to life imprisonment was read out in the Mosque of Al-Jazzár. [BKG284–5; GPB186; RB3:18]
  • See CH64, BKG283–4, 286; GBP186, RB2:402 and RB3:18 for the terms of the edict. They were labelled as malefactors, sowers of sedition, hardened criminals, enemies of the pure religion of God and of man. The faithful were commanded to shun these outcasts. All of those that did a disservice to the captives might flatter themselves that they "did service to God".
  • See RB3:18–19 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's response.
  • See BKG283–8, RB3:19-20 for conditions of life in the barracks.
  • The local authorities and the clerics did their part to stir up the populus against the exiles. See DH197 and CH239-242 for the story of a man who made an attempt on the life of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • From this time forward Bahá'u'lláh met only with His followers.
  • Akka; Israel Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Firmans; Mosque of Al-Jazzar
    1868 5 Sep The ship that had delivered the exiles to 'Akká carried on and Mírzá Yahyá arrived in Cyprus with his entire family but without a single disciple or even a servant. [BBR306]
  • Also exiled to Cyprus were four loyal Bahá'ís and they were:
      Mishkín-Qalam (Áqá Hussain Isfahání)
      Mirzá ‘Alíy-i-Sayyáh-i-Maraghih'í (Mullá Ádí-Guzal)
      Áqá ‘Abdu’l-Ghaffár
      Áqá Muḥammad-Báqir (Qahvih-chiy-i Mahallátí) (coffee-maker)
  • With their arrival Cyprus became the first island in the Mediterranean to receive the Faith.
  • See also GPB 182 and AB285, 523.
  • Famagusta; Cyprus Mishkin-Qalam; Mirza Aliy-i-Sayyah-i-Maraghihi (Mulla Adi-Guzal); Aqa Abdul-Ghaffar; Aqa Muhammad-Baqir (Qahvih-chiy-i Mahallati); Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Exile; Cyprus exiles; First Bahais by country or area; Islands the first island in the Mediterranean to receive the Faith.
    1868 c. Oct Nabíl was released from prison in Egypt and departed for `Akká. [BKG290–1; RB3:57]
  • He visited Cyprus on the way. [BKG291] [key]
  • Cairo; Egypt; Akka; Cyprus Nabil-i-Azam
    1868 30 Oct Christoph Hoffman, founder of the Templers, and Georg David Hardegg, his principal lieutenant, landed in Haifa to gather the Children of God in Jerusalem in preparation for the Second Coming of Christ. Hardegg remained in Haifa to head the Tempelgesellschaft while Hoffman went to Jaffa in 1869 to found a school and a hospital there. [BBD224; BBR204, 2, 15–16; DH133, SBBH1p215-218]
  • The colony on Mount Carmel was composed of a few dozen Templer families from Württemberg (S. Germany) and they were joined by kindred families of German origin from southern Russia and by some who had emigrated to America and become citizens, mainly from New York state. [Tablet to Hardegg (Lawh-i-Hirtík): A Tablet of Bahá'u'lláh to the Templer Leader Georg David Hardegg by Stephen Lambden and Kamran Ekbal, A Tablet of Bahā'-Allāh to Georg David Hardegg, the Lawḥ-i Hartīk by Stephen Lambden]
  • DH139 and GPB277 say this was 1863.
  • See BBR215–18 for the relationship between Bahá'u'lláh and the Templers.
  • A tablet addressed to Georg David Hardegg, Lawh-i-Hirtik, contained the proclamation of Bahá'u'lláh as the Promised One and the return of the Father. He also was warned not to make the same errors of the Pharisees who neglected the validity of Christ's own claims.
  • Bahá'u'lláh stayed in the houses of the colony several times. [BBR234]
  • See BBR236–9 for articles written about the Bahá'ís by Templers.
  • Haifa; Jaffa Christoph Hoffman; Georg David Hardegg; Templer colony; Bahaullah, Life of; Lawh-i-Hirtik (Tablet to Hardegg); Interfaith dialogue; Christianity; Prophecies
    1868 end Oct Nabíl entered `Akká in disguise but was recognized and after three days was expelled from the city. [BKG290–1; GPB188; RB3:57]
  • He spent the next four months wandering about Haifa, Mount Carmel and the Galilee waiting for another opportunity to enter `Akká. He lived for a time in the cave of Elijah on Mount Carmel. He would walk the 10 miles to the vantage point outside of the citadel where he might, on rare occasion, see the hand of Bahá'u'lláh waving from the small middle window.[BKG290–1; RB3:57, CH68] [key]
  • Akka Nabil-i-Azam
    1869 – 1872 A great famine occurred in Iran in which about 10 per cent of the population died and a further 10 per cent emigrated. [BBRSM86; GPB233] [key] Iran Iran, General history; Famine; History (General)
    1869 Early in the year Hájí Amín-i-Iláhí arrived in `Akká from Iran and was the first pilgrim to see Bahá'u'lláh. [DH33]
  • He was `only able to do so in the public bath, where it had been arranged that he should see Bahá'u'lláh without approaching Him or giving any sign of recognition'. This was the bath of Al-Jazzár. [DH33; GBP817] [key]
  • Akka Haji Amin (Abul-Hasan-i-Ardikani); Public baths; Pilgrims; First pilgrims First pilgrim to see Bahá'u'lláh in `Akká
    1869 (In the year) Franz Josef, Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary, maked a pilgrimage to Jerusalem but failed to enquire after Bahá'u'lláh. [KAN116] [key] Jerusalem; Israel; Hungary Franz Josef; Bahaullah, Life of; Tablets to kings and rulers
    1869 (In the year) The 17-year-old Áqá Buzurg-i-Níshápúrí, Badí`, arrived in `Akká having walked from Mosul. He was able to enter the city unsuspected. [BKG297; RB3:178]
  • He was still wearing the simple clothes of a water bearer. [BKG297]
  • For the story of his life, see BKG294–297 and RB3:176–179.
  • For his transformation see RB3:179–182. Badí` saw `Abdu'l-Bahá in a mosque and was able to write a note to Him. The same night Badí` entered the citadel and went into the presence of Bahá'u'lláh. He met Bahá'u'lláh twice. [BKG297; RW3:179]
    • Badí` asked Bahá'u'lláh for the honour of delivering the Tablet to the Sháh and Bahá'u'lláh bestowed it on him. [BKG297; RB3:182]
    • The journey to Tehran took four months; he traveled alone. [BKG298]
    • For the story of the journey see BKG297–300 and RB3:184.
    • For the Tablet of Bahá'u'lláh to Badí` see BKG299 and RB3:175–176.
    • Regarding the tablet to the Sháh

      “Bahá’u’lláh’s lengthiest epistle to any single sovereign” -- Lawḥ-i-Sulṭán, (the Tablet to Náṣiri’d-Dín Sháh) Of the various writings that make up the Súriy-i-Haykal, one requires particular mention. The Lawḥ-i-Sulṭán, the Tablet to Náṣiri’d-Dín Sháh, Bahá’u’lláh’s lengthiest epistle to any single sovereign, was revealed in the weeks immediately preceding His final banishment to ‘Akká. It was eventually delivered to the monarch by Badí‘, a youth of seventeen, who had entreated Bahá’u’lláh for the honour of rendering some service. His efforts won him the crown of martyrdom and immortalized his name. The Tablet contains the celebrated passage describing the circumstances in which the divine call was communicated to Bahá’u’lláh and the effect it produced. Here, too, we find His unequivocal offer to meet with the Muslim clergy, in the presence of the Sháh, and to provide whatever proofs of the new Revelation they might consider to be definitive, a test of spiritual integrity significantly failed by those who claimed to be the authoritative trustees of the message of the Qur’án. [The Universal House of Justice (Introduction to ‘The Summons of the Lord of Hosts’)] [key]

  • Akka; Mosul; Iraq; Tihran; Iran Badi (Mirza Aqa Buzurg-i-Nishapuri); Lawh-i-Sultan (Tablet to Nasirid-Din Shah); Suriy-i-Muluk (Surih to the Kings); Tablets to kings and rulers; Nasirid-Din Shah; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Apostles of Bahaullah; Youth
    1869 Feb Nabíl made a second attempt to enter `Akká. He was able to remain for 81 days and met Mírzá Áqá Ján and others but did not see Bahá'u'lláh. [BKG291; RB3:57]
  • DH35 says Nabíl spent 81 days in the citadel from 21 March to 9 June 1870.
  • Akka Nabil-i-Azam
    1869 1 May Nabíl met Bahá'u'lláh. [RB3:57] [key] Akka Nabil-i-Azam; Citadel
    1869 12 May Birth of Clara Davis Dunn, Hand of the Cause, in London. London; United Kingdom Clara Dunn; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
    1869 Jul Badí` delivered the Tablet of Bahá'u'lláh to the Sháh. He was tortured and executed. [BBRXXXIX; BKG300; BW18:383; RB3:184–6]
  • For details of his torture and martyrdom see BKG300, 304–7 and RB3:186–91.
  • For the account of the French Minister in Tihrán see BBR254–5.
  • He is given the title Fakhru'sh-Shuhadá' (Pride of Martyrs). [BKG300]
  • Shoghi Effendi listed him among the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW3:80–1]
  • For the effect on Bahá'u'lláh of the martyrdom of Badí` see BKG300 and GPB199.
  • See also BKG293–314; GPB199, RB3:172–203; TN589
  • Iran Badi (Mirza Aqa Buzurg-i-Nishapuri); Apostles of Bahaullah; Shahs; Nasirid-Din Shah; Lawh-i-Sultan (Tablet to Nasirid-Din Shah); Tablets to kings and rulers; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1869 17 Nov The Suez Canal was opened to navigation. At this time the canal was only 25 feet deep, 72 feet wide at the bottom, and 200 to 300 feet wide at the surface. Consequently, fewer than 500 ships navigated it in its first full year of operation. Major improvements began in 1876 however and the canal soon grew into the one of the world’s most heavily traveled shipping lanes. In modern times about 50 ships navigate the canal daily.
  • See 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Egypt pg96 for 'Abdu'l-Bahá's "The Spiritual Lesson Drawn from the Material Progress of Port Said and the Suez Canal".
  • Port Said; Egypt Suez Canal; Unity; Teaching
    1869 25 Dec A mob attacked the Bahá'ís in Fárán, Khurásán, Iran, and two were severely beaten. [BW18:383] [key] Faran; Khurasan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Mobs; Persecution
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