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from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1893 23 Sep First public reference in North America to the Bahá'í Faith. [SBBH1p76]
  • Reference was made to it in a paper entitled The Religious Mission of the English Speaking Nations by Rev. Henry H. Jessup, a retired missionary from north Syria, read by Rev George A. Ford at the World Parliament of Religions in Chicago. [AB63–4; BBD2412; BBR57; BFA1:323; BW2:230; GPB256; SBBH1:76, 88, 202]
  • See AB63–4, BW2:169 for text.
  • Historians have observed that, before this Parliament, "religion" was classified by many Americans into ethnic religion and universal religion. They considered there being only one universal religion: Christianity. In this view, all previous faiths were ethnic religions, and their purpose was to prepare the people for Christianity. Ethnic religions may have had portions of the truth, but only Christianity had all truth. This 1893 Parliament was a pivotal moment in the abolition of such classification, as representatives of "eastern" religions such as Swami Vivekananda and Anagarika Dharmapala promoted a new religious tolerance. [Paraphrased quote from Robert Stockman]
  • World Parliament of Religions 1893, a talk by Mr. Rothwell "Bud" Polk.
  • Chicago; United States World Parliament of Religions; Interfaith dialogue; Firsts, Other; Mentions; Henry Jessup; Christian missionaries; Bahai Faith, Early Western Accounts of
    1894 (In the year) Green Acre was founded by Sarah J. Farmer in the aftermath of the World Parliament of Religions. [BBRSM:104; BFA2:142–7; BW5:29; GPB261; SBBH1:125] Eliot; Maine; United States; Nishapur; Hamadan; Dastjirdan; Khurasan; Faran; Khurasan Sarah Farmer; Green Acre; Haji Yari; Aqa Abdul-Vahhab Mukhtari; World Parliament of Religions; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution Green Acre Bahá'í School (Wikipedia)
    1913 18 Jan `Abdu'l-Bahá received guests from the Muslim Community of Britain and was asked to speak at the Shah Jehan Mosque at Woking, one of the two mosques in England at the time and the first built in England and perhaps Western Europe. He spoke on the subject of the Unity of Religions and translation was done by Mírzá Ahmad Sohrab. [CH152, AB370, BW3p278-279, BW4p377]
  • Note ABTM303 reports that this event took place on the 17th of January.
  • Dr. Gottlieb Wilhelm Leitner (1840–1899) was the builder of the Oriental Institute, founded to train Asians living in Europe for the learned professions, to the study of linguistics and culture, and for the teaching of languages to Europeans who wished to travel to the East. To cater for the spiritual needs of students of all major faiths and to provide for any who lived within reach, Dr. Leitner intended to build a synagogue, a church, a temple and a mosque. Only the Shah Jehan Mosque was completed. (Oct-Nov 1889). The Institute relied too heavily upon Dr. Leitner’s personal enthusiasm and wealth and it did not survive his early death in March of 1899. The Mosque was closed and practically empty between 1899 and 1912. Khwaja Kamal-ud-Din, a prominent Kashmiri lawyer and founder of the Woking Muslim Mission, worked to repair and re-open the Mosque in 1913. It was the first formal place of Islamic worship in England and became a centre of Islam in the UK. [Dr. Gottlieb Wilhelm Leitner]
  • For a photo of the gathering see BW3p280 or BWNS818.
  • Woking; Surrey; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Mosques; Unity of religion; Interfaith dialogue; BWNS
    1932 (In the year) The publication of The Religion of the Baha'is by J R Richards, a CMS Missionary i Shiraz published by the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge in London. London The Religion of the Bahais; J R Richards
    1950 15 Jan The earliest observation of what has become known as World Religion Day was observed in Portland, Maine in October of 1947 and was entitled "World Peace Through World Religion" after a talk by Firuz Kazemzadeh. [Portland Sunday Telegram And Sunday Press Herald. Portland, Maine. October 19, 1947. p. 42.; BN No 229 March 1956 p1]
  • In 1949 there were observances in various communities in the United States and in December of 1949 it was standardized across the United States by the National Spiritual Assembly of the Baháʼís of the United States to be held January 15, 1950. The purpose of World Religion Day is to highlight the ideas that the spiritual principles underlying the world's religions are harmonious, and that religions play a significant role in unifying humanity. [BN No 226 December 1949 106BE p4-5]
  • It is celebrated internationally each year on the third Sunday in January. [Wikipedia]
  • See World Religion Day (January) by Christopher Buck
  • See message from the Universal House of Justice dated 22 October, 1968 to the Spiritual Assembly of Chicago in Lights of Guidance #1710 in which they describe the purpose of World Religion Day.

    ".....is a celebration of the need for and the coming of a world religion for mankind, the Bahá'í Faith itself." iiiii

  • United States World Religion Day; Interfaith dialogue; Firsts, Other; Firuz Kazemzadeh
    1986 (In the year) The Sri Lanka post office issued a commemorative postage stamp featuring the Bahá’í-sponsored World Religion Day. [BINS176:4] Sri Lanka World Religion Day; Stamps
    1991 20 Jan The first World Religion Day to be held in Bophuthatswana took place in Mmabatho. [BINS 244:1] Mmabatho; Bophuthatswana; South Africa World Religion Day
    1993 17 Jan The first World Religion Day commemoration to be held in Mozambique took place in Maputo. [BINS290:5; BW92–3:140] Maputo; Mozambique World Religion Day
    2002 Ridván The Universal House of Justice issued a letter addressed to the world’s religious leaders warning of “the danger posed by "the rising fires of religious prejudice" and called for decisive action against fanaticism and intolerance”. [One Country Vol.14 Issue 1]
  • For the text of the letter see To the World's Religious Leaders.
  • Also see One Country Vol.14 Issue 1 for an abridged version.
  • See also BWNS200; BWNS168, BWNS200; BW'02-‘03pg79-98.
  • The essential message was that God is one and all religions are from that same God and that recognition of these truths is a prerequisite that must be at the heart of all religious discourse. Bahá'i institutions throughout the world delivered thousands of copies of this message to influential figures and the major faith communities. Although some were dismissed out of hand, in general the message was warmly welcomed. [One Common Faith p.ii]
  • BWC Letter to the Worlds Religious Leaders; Universal House of Justice; Universal House of Justice, Letters and messages; Universal House of Justice, Basic timeline; BWNS; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Interfaith dialogue; Unity of religion
    2005 (In the year) The publication of One Common Faith by the Universal House of Justice.
  • "The statement ‘One Common Faith’, prepared under the supervision of the Universal House of Justice, addresses the following fundamental question of the modern world: On one hand the facts of history show clearly that revealed (prophetic) religion has been the primary driving force of the rise of human civilization. On the other hand, the current forms of the respective communities derived from these same religions have now become one of the most divisive and destructive forces of the twenty-first century. How could such a thing have occurred?" [Précis Commentary on ‘One Common Faith’ by William S. Hatcher]
  • Unlike the pamphlet written by George Townshend to all Christians under the title “The Old Churches and the New World Faith” in 1949 or the letter to the clergy in 2002, this statement is for "the thoughtful study of the friends". [One Common Faith p.iii-iv]
  • BWC One Common Faith (commentary); Interfaith dialogue; Universal House of Justice, Letters and messages; Unity of religion
    2018 1 - 7 Nov More than 7,500 people attended the Parliament of the World’s Religions held at the Metro Toronto Convention Centre. This forum began in 1893 at the World Columbian Exposition in Chicago as an effort to promote an emerging international movement devoted to promoting dialogue among religions. Since that time, it has been held in Cape Town (1999), Barcelona (2004), Melbourne (2009) and Salt Lake City (2015). [Website] Bahá'í presenters were:
    • Bani Dugal: “The Equality of Women and Men: Divine Imperative for an Age of Transition.”
    • Hugh Locke: “Half the Sky, Half the Land: The Role of Women Farmers in Transforming Agriculture,”
    • Payam Akhavan: “Equality and Justice, Global Perspectives” and “Countering War, Hate, and Violence Assembly.”
    • Emily Wright: “Making Interreligious Chaplaincy Education Meaningfully Inclusive” and “A New Cup of Grace—A Ukulele Opera
    • Hooshmand Badee: “Interfaith Peacemaking Perspectives from Across the World.”
    • Nader Saiedi: Presenting the new documentary film The Gate: Dawn of the Bahá’í Faith.
    • Paul Hanley: “Man of the Trees: Richard St. Barbe Baker, the First Global Environmentalist.”
    • JoAnn Borovicka: “Amazing Faiths! An Interactive Workshop on Interfaith Dialogue.”
    • Robert Atkinson: “New Thoughts in Interfaith Spirituality.”
    • Robert Stockman: “The Characteristics of Bahá’í Interfaith Dialogue.”
    • Candace Hill: “From Shiraz to Chicago: Bahá’í Women of the East and the West”
    • Edward Price: “The Divine Curriculum: Understanding the Báb, Divine Educator for the Modern Era.”
    • Sovaida Maani Ewing: “Achieving World Peace: Bahá’í and Catholic Teachings.”
    • Jean Muza: “Bahá’í Civic Engagement: How to Maneuver in America’s Divisive Political Landscape.”
    • Robert Atkinson: “The Golden Rule as the Basis for a Global Justice System: An Interfaith Perspective with a Call to Action.”
    • Edward Price: “The Divine Curriculum Concept as a Framework for Interfaith Inclusion and Love.” [CBN-Preparation; CBN-Inclusion; CBN-Films]

      During the conference the Hindu Swami Agnivesh said that instead of spending trillions of dollars on the war system, the peoples of the world need to unite and create a world parliament based on an Earth Constitution. He said that “without a world government, we cannot solve our major world problems.” [History News Network 13 Feb 2022]

    Toronto; Canada; Chicago; Cape Town; Barcelona; Melbourne; Salt Lake City World Parliament of Religions
    2019 Aug Religions for Peace is the world’s largest inter-religious coalition. Their mandate is to work to transform violent conflict, advance human development, promote just and harmonious societies. It is comprised of a world council of religious leaders and bodies from over 125 countries. Its organization, built over its 50-year history, comprises of six regional Interreligious Councils and is built on the principle of religious representation that reflects the fabric of religious demography.
  • The Bahá'í International Community’s Principal Representative, Ms. Bani Dugal, was elected as a co-president and member of the World Council of Religions for Peace to become part of the 51 member council of co-presidents. The election, which is held every five years, was held in August in Lindau, Germany. Ms. Dugal was elected by over 700 voting delegates.
  • Dr. Azza Karam, Professor of Religion and Development at the Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam, Netherlands and former senior advisor on culture at the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) was elected as the body’s new secretary-general, becoming the first woman to hold the post. At UNFPA, she also served as chairperson of the UN task force on engagement with faith-based organizations. [BIC News]
  • Lindau; Germany Bahai International Community; Bani Dugal; Religions for Peace; Azza Karam

    from the chronology of Canada

    date event locations tags see also
    1893 11-27 Sep  The World Parliament of Religions, the largest of the congresses held in conjunction with the World Columbian Exposition, was the first formal inter-religious dialogue worldwide of Eastern and Western spiritual traditions. The conference included new religious movements of the time, such as Spiritualism and Christian Science. The latter was represented by its founder Mary Baker Eddy. Rev. Henry Jessup addressing the World Parliament of Religions was the first to mention the Bahá’í Faith in the United States (it had previously been known in Europe. A number of Canadians who attended sessions at the World Parliament of Religions in Chicago, Illinois in 1893 became Bahá’ís. Since then Bahá’ís have become active participants in the World Parliament of Religions. [OBCC1-2] Chicago, IL World Parliament of Religions
    1951. 21 Jan The Ottawa community observed World Religion Day by securing a 15-minute slot on CFRA Radio where Rowland Estall read a script that had been prepared by Winnifred Harvey on the significance of the event. In the evening he spoke at a public meeting at the Chateau Laurier. [CBN No 18 March 1951 p12] iiiii Ottawa, ON; World Religion Day; Rowland Estall; Winnifred Harvey
    1959 Mar It was announced in the Canadian Bahá'í News in the March, 1959 issue that the criteria for testing for the Religion and Life Badge for the Canadian Girl Guides and the Boy Scout Association had been established. [CBN No 110 March 1959 p3-4] Religion and Life Badge
    1985. (In the year) The publication of The Bahá'í Faith; The Emerging Global Religion by William Hatcher and Douglas Martin. It was first published by Harper and Row, San Francisco and has seen numerous reprints. {BEL 7.1143 p87]
      Outlines the history, teachings, structure and community life of the international Baha'i community, in an updated edition that includes coverage of the Baha'i Faith's views about world peace and the equal roles of women.
    The Bahai Faith; The Emerging Global Religion; William Hatcher; Douglas Martin
    2018 1 - 7 Nov More than 7,500 people attended the Parliament of the World’s Religions held at the Metro Toronto Convention Centre. This forum began in 1893 at the World Columbian Exposition in Chicago as an effort to promote an emerging international movement devoted to promoting dialogue among religions. Since that time, it has been held in Cape Town (1999), Barcelona (2004), Melbourne (2009) and Salt Lake City (2015). [Website] Bahá'í presenters were:
    • Bani Dugal: “The Equality of Women and Men: Divine Imperative for an Age of Transition.”
    • Hugh Locke: “Half the Sky, Half the Land: The Role of Women Farmers in Transforming Agriculture,”
        Hugh Locke is president and co-founder of the Smallholder Farmers Alliance (SFA), a non-profit working with small-scale family farmers to help feed and reforest a renewed Haiti. He is author of The Haiti Experiment, and writes and lectures extensively on smallholder farming and sustainable development. Earlier in his career Hugh was director of the Office of Public Information at the Baha’i International Community in New York and served as a member of the program committee for the 1992 Baha’i World Congress. He was mentored by forester and environmentalist Richard St. Barbe Baker (1889 – 1982), established the Baker archives at the University of Saskatchewan, and continues to serve as literary trustee.
    • Payam Akhavan: “Equality and Justice, Global Perspectives” and “Countering War, Hate, and Violence Assembly.”
    • Emily Wright: “Making Interreligious Chaplaincy Education Meaningfully Inclusive” and “A New Cup of Grace—A Ukulele Opera
    • Hooshmand Badee: “Interfaith Peacemaking Perspectives from Across the World.”
    • Nader Saiedi: Presenting the new documentary film The Gate: Dawn of the Bahá’í Faith.
    • Paul Hanley: “Man of the Trees: Richard St. Barbe Baker, the First Global Environmentalist.”
    • JoAnn Borovicka: “Amazing Faiths! An Interactive Workshop on Interfaith Dialogue.”
    • Robert Atkinson: “New Thoughts in Interfaith Spirituality.”
    • Robert Stockman: “The Characteristics of Bahá’í Interfaith Dialogue.” Candace Hill: “From Shiraz to Chicago: Bahá’í Women of the East and the West”
    • Edward Price: “The Divine Curriculum: Understanding the Báb, Divine Educator for the Modern Era.”
    • Sovaida Maani Ewing: “Achieving World Peace: Bahá’í and Catholic Teachings.”
    • Jean Muza: “Bahá’í Civic Engagement: How to Maneuver in America’s Divisive Political Landscape.”
    • Robert Atkinson: “The Golden Rule as the Basis for a Global Justice System: An Interfaith Perspective with a Call to Action.”
    • Edward Price: “The Divine Curriculum Concept as a Framework for Interfaith Inclusion and Love.” [CBN-Preparation; CBN-Inclusion; CBN-Films]

      The Hindu Swami Agnivesh said that instead of spending trillions of dollars on the war system, the peoples of the world need to unite and create a world parliament based on an Earth Constitution. He said that “without a world government, we cannot solve our major world problems.” [Black News 6Feb2022]

    Toronto, ON World Parliament of Religions

    from the main catalogue

    1. 'Abdu'l-Bahá on the World Stage, by Iraj Ghanooni (2022). A contrast of the spiritual purpose of ‘Abdu'l-Bahá's first visit to Paris with the secular aims of some famous Iranian contemporaries who went there around the same time; includes philosophical discussions and an analysis of two talks by ‘Abdu'l-Bahá. [about]
    2. 'Abdu'l-Bahá on Christ and Christianity: An interview with Pasteur Monnier on the relationship between the Bahá'í Faith and Christianity, Paris, by Abdu'l-Bahá, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 3:1 (1993). Revised translation of an interview with Pasteur Monnier, from chapter 5 of 'Abdu'l-Bahá on Divine Philosophy. [about]
    3. African Culture, Traditional, Aspects of, by Universal House of Justice (1998). Challenges and opportunities in the African continent; eliminating prejudices; dance and music; alcohol; hunting; initiation rites; the supernatural; tribal leadership; status of women. [about]
    4. African religions; miracles; strange phenomena, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Five questions: the religion of Santeria; relationship to Sabaeanism; Yoruba-based new world religions; visions and miracles of the Virgin Mary and Fatima; UFOs, aliens, and genetic engineering. [about]
    5. Ameen Rihani and the Unity of Religion: The Politics of Time and the Politics of Eternity, by Suheil Badi Bushrui, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 24:3-4 (2014). Overview of the life and thought of a Lebanese-American writer, intellectual, and political activist, who believed in the oneness of religions and the brotherhood of nations and devoted his life to promoting East-West understanding. [about]
    6. Bahá'í Attitude towards Celebration of Christmas, by Universal House of Justice (2002). A clarification on whether Baha’is are permitted to celebrate Christmas: believers should not be deterred from participating in festivities in which the religious meaning has, over time, given way to purely culturally-oriented practices. [about]
    7. Bahá'í Cosmological Symbolism and the Ecofeminist Critique, by Michael W. Sours, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 7:1 (1995). Constituents of Bahá'í cosmological symbolism; introduction to the main feminist/environmentalist arguments; eschatological character of Bahá'í cosmological symbolism; Bahá'í eschatology provides answers to many feminist and ecological objections. [about]
    8. Baha'i Faith and Syncretism, The, by Robert Stockman, in Resource Guide for the Scholarly Study of the Bahá'í Faith (1997). Addresses the common misunderstanding that the Bahá'í Faith is syncretistic. [about]
    9. Bahá'í Faith, Sect or Religion? by Udo Schaefer: Review, by Roger Lapointe, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 2:1 (1989). [about]
    10. Bahá'í Faith, The: Sect or Religion?, by Udo Schaefer, in Bahá'í Studies, volume 16 (1988). Lengthy study defining the distinguishing features of the Bahá'í Faith as contrasted with other contemporary religious movements. [about]
    11. Baha'i Principle of Religious Unity and the Challenge of Radical Pluralism, by Dann J. May, in Revisioning the Sacred: New Perspectives on a Bahá'í Theology, Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions vol. 8 (1993). A shorter version of this thesis is published as "The Bahá'í Principle of Religious Unity: A Dynamic Perspectivism." [about]
    12. Bahá'í Worldview on Unity of Religions: Progressive Revelation, The: Principles and Insights from the History of Science, by Jena Khadem Khodadad, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 10 (2009). Examination of the Bahá’í belief in the unity of religions and the doctrine of "progressive revelation" through the lens of Thomas Kuhn's concept of scientific revolutions. [about]
    13. Bahá'ísm: Some Uncertainties about its Role as a Globalizing Religion, by Denis MacEoin, in Bahá'í and Globalisation, ed. Margit Warburg (2005). On Bahá'í self-understanding as the religion to unite all faiths in the culmination of globalisation, vs. the challenges which secular values present to a religion that, rooted in Islamic thinking, aims to fuse the spheres of religion and society. [about]
    14. Baha'u'llah and the Reconciliation of Religions, by Peter Terry (2014). The reconciliation of religions is one of the principal themes of Bahá'u'lláh's writings, yet one rarely discussed in introductions to the Bahá'í Faith and often ignored in surveys of Bahá'í teachings. [about]
    15. Bahá'u'lláh as fulfilment of the theophanic promise in the Sermons of Imam 'Alí ibn Abí Ṭálib: Translation of al Tutunjiyya, Iftikhár and Ma'rifat bin-Nurániyyat, by Khazeh Fananapazir, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). Translations of Tutunjiyya "Sermon of the Gulf," Iftikhár "Sermon of Iftikhár," and Ma'rifat bin-Nurániyyat "Sermon of Ma'rifat bin-Nurániyyat." [about]
    16. Bahá'u'lláh's "Most Sublime Vision", by Wolfgang A. Klebel, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 9 (2008). Examines the question: What philosophical viewpoints are necessary to understand what Bahá’u’lláh calls "Thy transcendent unity," i.e., the concept of unity and oneness, which are ubiquitous in the Bahá’í Writings? [about]
    17. Baha'u'llah's Prophetology: Archetypal patterns in the lives of the founders of the world religions, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 5.1 (1995). Explores the theory that the lives of the prophet-founders of the world religions have in some ways re-capitulated each other. [about]
    18. Baha'u'llah's Unity Paradigm: A Contribution to Interfaith Dialogue on a Global Ethic?, by Udo Schaefer, in Dialogue and Universalism, 6:11-12 (1996). The mystic unity of religions and the concept of progressive revelation. [about]
    19. Beyond Pluralism, by Moojan Momen (1995). Brief thoughts on the Bahá'í Faith as a "metareligion." [about]
    20. Beyond the Clash of Religions: The Emergence of a New Paradigm, by Udo Schaefer (1998). Religious pluralism and associated issues: diversity and unity of religions, absoluteness, relativity of truth, New Age thought, and interfaith dialogue [about]
    21. Brothers and Sisters: Buddhism in the Family of Chinese Religion, by Phyllis Ghim-Lian Chew, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 5 (2000). The endurance of Confucianism for 2,000 years is partly because Buddhism and Taoism were content to play a subordinate role and not infringe upon the "Chinese Great Tradition"; implications of Buddhism's role in relation to new religions in China. [about]
    22. Cause of the Rise and Fall of Civilizations, The, by Ruhaniyyih Ruth Moffett (1954). A chart correlating the growth of maturity of humanity and the evolution of religions with major events in history. [about]
    23. Challenges for Bahá'í Youth in a Western Way of Life, by Universal House of Justice (2013). Difficulties young people might face in upholding Bahá'í ideals and standards of behaviour in the context of Western culture and sexual mores. [about]
    24. Chinese Family Religion and World Religion, by Yeo Yew Hock, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 2 (1997). Principles of filial piety and ancestor worship as practised in Chinese tradition; maintenance of genealogies and moral instruction of children with traditions of their forebears and "ancestral cults" help to reinforce the lineage and family solidarity. [about]
    25. Christmas and Bahá'ís: Warwick Leaflets, by Warwick Bahá'í Bookshop (2002). [about]
    26. Common Teachings from Chinese Culture and the Bahá'í Faith: From Material Civilization to Spiritual Civilization, by Albert Cheung, in Lights of Irfan, Book 1 (2000). An examination of the similarities in belief between the Bahá'í Faith and traditional Chinese culture. [about]
    27. Communal Harmony: India's Greatest Challenge, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of India (1993). A formal statement from the NSA of the Bahá'ís of India on the need to overcome religious, linguistic and caste-based tensions. [about]
    28. Comparative Lives of the Founders of the World Religions, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 5.1 (1995). Table comparing the lives of the Founders of the world's religions. [about]
    29. Concept of the Manifestation of God in Chinese Symbolism: An Inter-civilizational Hermeneutic Study, by Amrollah Hemmat, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 26:1-2 (2016). Seemingly incompatible symbols can point to a common underlying meaning, connecting worldviews and perspectives often considered incommensurable. There are elements of the Chinese tradition that resonate deeply with the Bahá’í concept of Manifestation. [about]
    30. Crisis and the Power of an Inclusive Historical Consciousness: Progressing from Delusional Habits to Dynamic Freedom, by Todd Smith, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 30:1-2 (2020). On delusional ways of thinking: the habits of totalizing reality vs. fragmenting reality. These lead us to ideologize and dichotomize. Maturity needs inclusive historical consciousness and equal interplay between the individual and the collective. [about]
    31. Dialogue Among Civilizations: Ancient and Future, Transitions and Potentials, by Theo A. Cope, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 6 (2001). Many ideas in Chinese civilization resonate with Bahá'í thought. The I Ching highlights differences between western and eastern philosophy, the notion of embodiment in the Confucian view of the noble person, and transforming material to spiritual. [about]
    32. Emergence and Organization of Chinese Religions, The, by Phyllis Ghim-Lian Chew, in Lights of Irfan, 15 (2014). The nature of leadership and succession in Chinese religious organisations and society, home temples, village temples, and monasteries. [about]
    33. Fifty Bahá'í Principles of Unity: A Paradigm of Social Salvation, by Christopher Buck, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 18 (2014). World religions are systems of salvation, liberation, or harmony, in direct response to the perceived human predicament. To Baha’is, this predicament is profound estrangement and the solution is world unity, from family to international relations. [about]
    34. Filosofías y Analogías en Educación, by Boris Handal, in La Pluma del Conocimiento, 2 (2002). Teorías educativas recientes han validado académicamente el rol de las creencias, opiniones y emociones en el aprendizaje y la enseñanza, inclusive en las llamadas ciencias fácticas como las matemáticas. [about]
    35. First Public Mentions of the Bahá'í Faith in the West, by Bahá'í Information Office of the UK (1998). Short essay based on research by Moojan Momen and Derek Cockshutt. The first mention for the Faith in the West was not in 1893, but rather in a number of earlier talks on the Faith in England, and reports on the Babis in the 1850s. [about]
    36. For the Student of Religion, by Bahá'í International Community (1985). Adapted from William S. Hatcher and Douglas Martin's The Bahá'í Faith: The Emerging Global Religion (1985), for posting at bahai.org (2006). [about]
    37. Fourth Candle, The: The Unity of Religion and Interfaith Dialogue, by Christopher Buck, in dialogue magazine, 1:2 (1986). What does "Unity in Religion" mean, and how does it apply for Bahá'ís' interactions with other religious communities? An essay inspired by Abdu'l-Bahá's Tablet "Seven Candles of Unity," utopia, Hans Kung, and the Lesser Peace. [about]
    38. From Adam to Bahá'u'lláh: The Idea of a Chain of Prophecy, by Zaid Lundberg, in Lights of Irfan, Book 3 (2002). Whilst the modern period has seen a series of scientific paradigm shifts which have radically altered the scientific understanding of man and nature, no theory of religion has had similar success; the potential of the Bahá’í perspective. [about]
    39. Future of Confucianism, The, by Yeo Yew Hock, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 5 (2000). The history of Confucianism, its teachings, a critique of its place in the modern world, its future, and its survival into the 21st century. [about]
    40. Good Tree, The: Distinguishing the Bahá'í Faith From Destructive Cults, by Stephen Vaccaro (1996). Examination of some fundamental characteristics of a cult, to determine whether or not the Bahá'í Faith can be so defined. [about]
    41. Great Tao, The, by Phyllis Ghim-Lian Chew, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 4:2 (1991). On a philosophy of the ancient Chinese people, a Tao whose eternal spirit has seeped into the very heart of Chinese tradition, culture, and way of life for centuries; similarities with other religions and the Bahá'í Faith. [about]
    42. Greenacre on the Piscataqua, by Anna Josephine Ingersoll (1900). An early history of Greenacre and some of its notable visitors and presentations. [about]
    43. Heaven in China without "Religion" and Manifestation, by Theo A. Cope, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 5 (2000). Some believe there never was a time when humanity was without a Prophet to guide it, but as none is known in Chinese history, a Bahá'í-Chinese dialogue needs a different starting point — one more inclusivist and with a different concept of "religion." [about]
    44. Hinduism and the Bahá'í Faith, by Moojan Momen (1990). An attempt to explore the relationship between Hinduism and the Bahá'í Faith and to explain the Bahá'í Faith to those who are from a Hindu background. [about]
    45. I am all the Prophets": The Poetics of Pluralism in Bahá'í Texts, by Juan Cole, in Poetics Today, 14:3 (1993). Literary analysis of a passage from Tablet of Blood (Súriy-i-Damm) in which Bahá'u'lláh identifies Himself with all the past Prophets and their sufferings, depicting himself mortally wounded on the field of battle, like Imám Husayn. [about]
    46. Immanence and Transcendence in Theophanic Symbolism, by Michael W. Sours, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 5:2 (1992). Bahá'u'lláh uses symbols to depict theophanies — the appearance of God and the divine in the realm of creation — such as "angel," "fire," and the prophets' claims to be incarnating the "face" or "voice" of God; these convey the transcendence of God. [about]
    47. Importance of Religion, The: Warwick Leaflets, by Warwick Bahá'í Bookshop (2015). [about]
    48. Introduction to the Doctrines of Soul and Enlightenment in Mahayana Buddhism and the Bahá'í Faith, An, by Yeo Yew Hock, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 3 (1998). The development of Mahayana and how the Chinese people adopted and adapted it; non-self/enlightenment vs. the "True Poverty and Absolute Nothingness" of the Seven Valleys; sunyata/emptiness and Buddhist monism vs. the Valley of Unity's nonduality. [about]
    49. Is the Bahá'í Faith a "World Religion" or a "New Religious Movement"?, by Denis MacEoin and Robert Stockman (1997). Compilation of emails about the socio-religious classification of the Bahá'í Faith. [about]
    50. Is the Baha'i Faith a World Religion?, by Moojan Momen, in Soundings: Essays in Bahá'í Theology, ed. Sen McGlinn (1989). The Bahá'í Faith has the potential to become a world religion, but whilst it has achieved a global distribution, it is still limited by the cultural presuppositions of some of its adherents, and so does not reach all types of people. [about]
    51. Is the Bahá'í Faith a World Religion?, by Seena Fazel, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 6:1 (1994). Examination of the terms "world religion" and "new religious movement" to demonstrate that the Bahá'í Faith is best categorized as a "world religion." [about]
    52. Key Passages from the Kitáb-i-Íqán (Book of Certitude) in Gleanings from the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh, by Bahá'u'lláh (2022). Cross-reference compilation of 40 passages from the Kitáb-i-Íqán selected by Shoghi Effendi for inclusion in Gleanings from the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh, adapted from Hooper Dunbar's Companion to the Study of the Kitáb-i-Íqán. [about]
    53. Kitáb-i-Íqán: The Book of Certitude, by Bahá'u'lláh (1931). Major theological work by Baháʼu'lláh, written prior to his declaration of mission. [about]
    54. Knowledge and Civilization: Implications for the Community and the Individual, by Farzam Arbab, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 26 (1997-1998) (1999). Exploration of the relationship between science and religion as two great systems of knowledge that have a vital social role to play in the building of a world civilization. [about]
    55. L'histoire de Salut et Changement de Paradigme: Deux Contributions à la Théologie Bahá'íe, by Udo Schaefer (1993). French translation of Beyond the Clash of Religions: The Emergence of a New Paradigm. [about]
    56. Language of the Heart, The: Parallels between Chinese and Bahá'í Approaches to the Spiritual Self, by Sim Tze Hong, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 4 (1999). Parallels between Chinese and Confucian thought vs. Bahá'í teachings about the spiritual self, the nature of the heart, the pathway to perfection, the knowledge of oneself, and symbolism in language like "open heart" and "use heart." [about]
    57. Letter to the World's Religious Leaders, by Universal House of Justice (2002). On historic challenges that leaders of religion must respond to, if spiritual leadership is to have meaning in the new global society. [about]
    58. Life, Death and Immortality: The Taoist Religion in Singapore and the Bahá'í Faith, by Phyllis Ghim-Lian Chew, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 2 (1997). Main features of Taoist practices in Singapore compared with Bahá'í which, at first glance, could not be more disparate; whether unity may be found behind the apparent dichotomy; spanning the gulf between these two distinct religions from different times. [about]
    59. List of Articles on BahaiTeachings.org, by John S. Hatcher (2015). List of online essays and articles by Dr. John Hatcher. [about]
    60. List of Articles on BahaiTeachings.org, by Christopher Buck (2020). List of online essays and articles by Christopher Buck since 2014. [about]
    61. Logos, Mythos and Kerygma: The Logic of Reconciliation and the Occultation of the Promised Qá'im in Bábí-Bahá'í Scripture, by Ismael Velasco (2004). Theological background of the Twelfth Imam in Shi'i Islam, comprehensive interpretation of Bahá'u'lláh's and 'Abdu'l-Bahá's position on the occultation and the Qá'ím, and the historicity of the 12th Imám in the Bahá'í writings. [about]
    62. May Knowledge Grow in our Hearts: Applying Spiritual Principles to Development Practice, by Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity (2010). On how an organization can employ the methods of science and the principles of religion together while working for a more humane and just world, via the case of India's Seva Mandir (Temple of Service). [Link to PDF, offsite.] [about]
    63. Mikhail Sergeev, Theory of Religious Cycles: Tradition, Modernity and the Bahá'í Faith: Review, by Benjamin Olshin, in Studies in Bahá'í Philosophy, vol. 4 (2015). [about]
    64. Miracles in Religion: A Study of the miraculous in religion in context of the Baha'i Faith, by Anil Sarwal (1996). Guide to spirituality, offers insights on the purpose of religion, experiences of Himalayan masters, worship of gods and goddesses, idol worship, psychic phenomena, prayer, meditation, and fasting. [about]
    65. Monotheistic Religion in Africa: The Example of the Swazi People, by Margaret Pemberton-Pigott and Crispin Pemberton-Pigott, in Bahá'í Faith and the World's Religions (2005). Similarities between the Bahá'í Faith and the ancient traditional beliefs of the Swazi people of Southern Africa. [about]
    66. Mysticism in African Traditional Religion and in the Bahá'í Faith: Classification of Concepts and Practices, by Enoch Tanyi, in Lights of Irfan, Book 3 (2002). Both African Traditional Religion and the Bahá'í Faith originate from God, but at different times in the evolution of humankind. Owing to this common origin, the two have much in common. Both are essentially mystic in nature. [about]
    67. New Religious System for Contemporary Society, by Peter Beyer, in Global Religious Vision, 1:4 (2001). On scholarship and categories of religions in the global society, religion as a function system, and unity in differences. Contains only one passing mention of the Bahá'í Faith. [about]
    68. Next Stage, The, by Douglas Martin, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 23:1-4 (2013). Bahá'í scholars find themselves at a stage in the Faith’s development where they must construct a discourse that is free of "haughty intellectualism." The Association for Bahá’í Studies can help promote the Bahá'í cause to institutions of higher learning. [about]
    69. One Common Faith, by Universal House of Justice (2005). Review of relevant passages from both the writings of Bahá'u'lláh and the scriptures of other faiths against the background of contemporary crises. [about]
    70. Passages uit de Kitáb-i-Íqán (Boek van Zekerheid) in Bloemlezing uit de Geschriften van Bahá'u'lláh, by Bahá'u'lláh (2022). Compilatie van 40 passages uit de Kitáb-i-Íqán door Shoghi Effendi geselecteerd voor opname in Bloemlezing uit de Geschriften van Bahá'u'lláh. [about]
    71. Path of God, The, by Wolfgang A. Klebel, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 11 (2010). A comparison of the 'Global Ethic' (Hans Küng) with the Bahá'í Faith. The core ethical principles found in all religions are the most likely first step towards the unification of all religions: an inspiration for Unity in Diversity. [about]
    72. Permissibility of Chinese New Year Celebrations and Cultural Prostrations, by Universal House of Justice (2019). Permissibility of observing Chinese New Year; prostrating is permissible for cultures in which prostrations do not signify submission or humiliation, but are merely gestures of respect or politeness. [about]
    73. Phenomenon of Religion, The by Moojan Momen: Review, by Christopher Buck, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 9 (1999). This review of The Phenomenon of Religion utilizes Buck's DREAMS paradigm: Doctrinal, Ritual, Ethical, Artistic, Mystical, and Social dimensions of religion, a refinement of the dimensional model of religion. [about]
    74. Précis Commentary on One Common Faith, by William S. Hatcher (2008). Commentary on the statement ‘One Common Faith’. [about]
    75. Progressive Revelation and Oneness of Religion, by William Sears (1972). A videotaped talk (possibly from 1972), along with a shorter animated 2018 presentation prepared by a graphic designer for the Bahá'í Journeys website. [about]
    76. Purpose and Mission of the Manifestations of God, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (2002). [about]
    77. Reading of Sona Farid-Arbab's Moral Empowerment: In Quest of a Pedagogy, A, by Gerald Filson, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 28:3 (2018). On the central goal of education and how it can address our evolving need to learn about both the physical and social world at a time when knowledge and information are accumulating at such an incredible pace. [about]
    78. Reconciliation of Races and Religions, The, by Thomas Kelly Cheyne (1914). Early history of the Bábí and Bahá'í movements, life stories of their participants, and their contemporary religious context, written by a distinguished British Biblical scholar. [about]
    79. Reconciliation of Religions, The: Imperative for the 21st Century, by Peter Terry (2015). While the 12 principles attributed to 'Abdu'l-Bahá include the harmony of religion with science and reason and the imperative that religion lead to unity, one principle that was at least as prominent is often left out: the reconciliation of religions. [about]
    80. Reis naar het Hart van de Qur'án: Het Heilige Boek van de islam voor hen die nadenken (door een niet-moslim), by David Russell Garcia (2022). Een overzicht van de Koran en zijn thema's: islam versus het christendom; wetten, geestelijke en sociale principes; heilige oorlog en vechten; redenen achter de reputatie van de islam als een oorlogsreligie; apocalypse. [about]
    81. Religion and Exclusivism: A Bahá'í Perspective, by Julio Savi, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 7 (2006). Various factors have distracted the attention of religionists from the essential teachings of religion rather than its secondary aspects; this has led to dangerous claims to exclusivity or finality, which need to resolved to ensure peaceful coexistence. [about]
    82. Religion in an Ever-Advancing Civilization, by Bahá'í International Community, in The Bahá'ís (2017). On the unity of humanity and the decline and renewal of religion. [about]
    83. Religious Mission of the English-Speaking Nations, The, by Henry H. Jessup, in Neely's History of the Parliament of Religions and Religious Congresses of the World's Columbian Exposition (1894). The report mentioned by Shoghi Effendi in God Passes By, and often (erroneously) referred to as being the one of first public mentions of the Faith. [about]
    84. Religious Pluralism: A Bahá'í Perspective, by Julio Savi, in World Order, 31.2 (2000). On resolving the conflicting truth claims made by different religious traditions; finding definitions for "religion" and "prophet"; problems of historical texts; the current state of religion. [about]
    85. Religious Pluralism and the Baha'i Faith, by Seena Fazel, in Interreligious Insight, 1:3 (2003). Provides an overview of the Bahá'í poisition on religious pluralism, reviewing relevant Bahá'í texts and scholarship that bear on this theme. Published with minor revisions. [about]
    86. Rise and Fall of the Parliament of Religions at Greenacre, The, by Robert P. Richardson, in The Open Court, 45:3 (1931). Background of the first parliament and Chicago Columbian Exposition and the role of Sarah Farmer and other Bahá'ís in bringing it to fruition, written from an unsympathetic outsider's perspective. Not yet proofread. [about]
    87. Sabaeans and African-based Religions in the Americas, The, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). Overview by the Research Department about the religion of the Sabaeans [aka Sabeans], and some indigenous practices in the southern Americas such as Yoruba, Santeria, and Brazilian Candomble. [about]
    88. Science and Religion in Dynamic Interplay, by Todd Smith, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 29:4 (2019). An approach to conceptualizing and contributing to the harmony of science and religion; some legitimate concerns many thinkers have with religion; three ways in which science and religion can complement each other. [about]
    89. Science, Religion and Development: Some Initial Considerations, by Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity (2008). An initial set of concepts and principles guiding the exploration of the complementary and constructive contributions that both science and religion must make to processes of social and economic development. [Link to PDF, offsite.] [about]
    90. Science, Religion, and Development: Promoting a Discourse in India, Brazil, and Uganda, by Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity (2010). The experience and insights of academics, policy makers, and development practitioners who have contributed to the discourse on science, religion, and development on three continents. [Link to PDF, offsite.] [about]
    91. Secret of Divine Civilization, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1957). Originally issued anonymously in 1875, this was ʻAbdu'l-Bahá's program for the developmental reform of society within an Iranian context. [about]
    92. Security for a Failing World, by Stanwood Cobb (1934). An overview of the influence of religion on the world and its relation to modern problems. Bahá'í precepts are included in the text without the work being a strictly introductory work on the Bahá'í Faith. [about]
    93. Selected Talks and Statements on Interfaith Issues by Religious Leaders and Scholars, by George Townshend and Swami Vivekananda, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 4 (1999). Compilation of addresses to commemorate the 50th Anniversary of the Inter-Religious Organisation of Singapore; also includes talks by Jonathan Sacks, Abdullah Yusof Ali, Robert Runcie, and Pope John Paul II. [about]
    94. Seven Narratives of Religion: A Framework for Engaging Contemporary Research, by Benjamin Schewel, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 25:1-2 (2015). Academic discourse on religion is beginning to resonate with the broader Bahá'í vision. Seven narrative frameworks are examined and contrasted: subtraction, renewal, transsecular, post-naturalist, construct, perennial, and developmental. [about]
    95. Soul in Chinese and Bahá'í Belief, The, by Phyllis Ghim-Lian Chew, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 3 (1998). On Chinese religions and the Bahá'í Faith; their beliefs in the presence of a soul and an afterlife; the nature of the soul and the human being; the human quest for happiness and meaning in life; free will and its relation to justice. [about]
    96. Spiritual Footprints in the Sands of Time, by Kevin Brogan, in Solas, 3 (2003). The covenantal relationship between God and humankind; the lives of the founders of Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Zoroastrianism, Hinduism, and Buddhism; the societies in which these religions developed; and some of their common features. [about]
    97. Station of Baha'u'llah: Three Letters, by Universal House of Justice (1991). Three letters on the station of Bahá'u'lláh, the souls of the Manifestations, the varying intensities of their Revelations, the phrase "most precious Being," and on teaching the Faith to Christians. [about]
    98. Station of Bahá'u'lláh and the Significance of His Revelation, The, by Universal House of Justice (1992). As the soul is a mystery that the human mind cannot unravel, even more ineffable is the nature of the Manifestations of God, the relationships between them, and their relationship to God. [about]
    99. Study of Religion, The: Some Comments on Methodology of Studying Religion, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 1:1 (1991). Reasons for the broad variety of different theoretical frameworks from which to view religious phenomena and the lack of a unified model. [about]
    100. Tablet to Mirza Abu'l-Fadl Concerning the Questions of Manakji Limji Hataria: Baha'u'llah on Hinduism and Zoroastrianism, by Bahá'u'lláh (1995). Introduction to, article about, and translation of the Tablet to Maneckji. [about]
    101. Taking Care with Translation of Sacred Scripture, by Edward Price (2016). Examination of the importance of using reliable translations of the Qur’án. Includes technical discussion of the meanings of Islam, Muslim, and Allah, aspects of the Arabic language, and errors of translation. [about]
    102. Theses on Modernity and the Bahá'í Faith, by Mikhail Sergeev, in Studies in Bahá'í Philosophy, vol. 4 (2015). On how new religious movements respond to modernity; cycles of religion; project of modernity; culture vs. civilization; the Bahá'í extension of modernity; Bahá'í departure from modernity; separation of religion and state. [about]
    103. Three Ages of Man, The: Are They Integrated?, by Viva Rodwell, in 75 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in Australasia (1996). Childhood, adulthood, old age, and family integration in contemporary culture. [about]
    104. Two Parts of the Law of God, The: The Essential and the Secondary Teachings of the True Religion of God, and Counterfeit Doctrines (2022). Four compilations on themes related to the progressive revelation of the religion of God; essential vs. secondary teachings; counterfeit doctrines of the false religion of man. [about]
    105. Unity of Religions in This Century, Jews and the Crucifixion, and the Sacrifice of Ishmael, The, by Universal House of Justice (1990). [about]
    106. Unsuspected Effects of Religion on your Personality, by James J. Keene, in World Order, 2:2 (1967). Review of research reports in sociology and social psychology journals to analyse survey data from five religious groups — Jews, Catholics, Protestants, Bahá'ís and non-affiliates — to define four dimensions of key social psychological dynamics. [about]
    107. Voyage to the Heart of the Koran: The Holy Book of Islám for Thinking Minds (By a Non-Muslim), by David Russell Garcia (2003). A lengthy overview of the Qur'án and its themes for a Bahá'í audience; holy war and fighting; reasons behind Islám's reputation as a war-like religion; theology of Islám vs. Christianity; laws and admonitions; spiritual and social principles; apocalypse. [about]
    108. Why the Bahá'í Faith Is Not Pluralist, by Grant S. Martin, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). Argues against Seena Fazel that the Bahá’í Faith is not a form of religious pluralism. [about]
    109. Wittgensteinian Language-Games in an Indo-Persian Dialogue on the World Religions, by Juan Cole, in Iran Nameh, 30:3 (2015). Reflections on Bahá'u'lláh's theology of previous religions and Ludwig Wittgenstein’s concept of "language games"; Hinduism, India, and 19th-century Iranian culture; Manakji’s questions about Hinduism and Zoroastrianism. [about]
    110. World Religion Day, by Christopher Buck, in Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices, Vol. 6, ed. J. Gordon Melton & Martin Baumann (2010). [about]
    111. World Religion Day (January), by Christopher Buck, in Religious Celebrations: An Encyclopedia of Holidays, Festivals, Solemn Observances, and Spiritual Commemorations (2011). [about]
    112. Yínyáng Cosmology and the Bahá'í Faith, by Phyllis Ghim-Lian Chew, in Lights of Irfan, 14 (2013). The yin-yang concept is pivotal to Chinese thought, culture, government, and ethics. It also bears many similarities with Bahá'í philosophy and practice. [about]
     
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