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Bahá'í Chronology: years 195-

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195-

date event locations tags firsts see also
1950 (In the decade) John Z. T. Chang arrived in Hainan Island and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:452] Hainan Island Knights of Bahaullah; Islands first pioneer Hainan Island
1950 (In the year) Clifford and Catherine Huxtable arrived in the Gulf Islands and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh (albeit in 1957 see LNW93). [BW13:457] Gulf Islands Clifford Huxtable; Catherine Huxtable; Knights of Bahaullah; Islands first pioneers Gulf Islands
1950 (In the year) By this year the Bahá’í population of Black Africa was probably no more than 12. [BBRSM190–1] Africa Statistics
1950 (In the year) The Court of the First Instance in Karkúk, Iraq, registered a Bahá’í marriage certificate. [MBW4; UD248]
  • This was the first time in the East, outside Israel, that a Bahá’í marriage was recognized as being legal, an important precedent for other Oriental countries. [MBW4; UD248]
  • Karkuk; Iraq Firsts, Other; Marriage; Weddings; Recognition first Bahá’í marriage recognized in the East (outside Israel)
    1950 (In the decade) In Iran, the Hujjatiyya Society was started by Shaykh Mahmúd Halabí to persecute and harass the Bahá’ís. [S1296]
  • During the Pahlaví era it confined itself to this end and was called the Anti-Bahá’í Society. [SI296]
  • Iran Hojjatieh Society; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1950 (In the year) The publication of Prescription for Living by Rúhíyyih Rabbani by George Ronald. The first edition was a run of 300 copies, done in a dark blue cloth, serial numbered and autographed by the author. There were subsequent printings in 1950, 1960, 1972, and 1978. [BEL7.2181-2185; CBN No 13 May 1950]
  • In 1971-1972 the book was transcribed by Gertrude D. Schurgast of Tuscon, AZ into braille. Another "printing" was done by the Service for the Blind Committee in Stevenage, England in 1983. [BEL8.118-119]
  • Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Publications
    1950 (In the year) Ghulam Reza Akhzari and his son Nur Allah were killed near Yazd and Bahram Rawhani was murdered in Taft. [Towards a History of Iran’s Bahá'í Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani.] Yazd; Taft; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1950 3 Jan A woman named Sughrá and her five children were brutally murdered. Members of the Spiritual Assembly of fhte Bahá'ís of Yazd were falsely accused of ordering the crime. The accusations were orchestrated by the judicial authorities from Yazd who were influenced by Mullá Khálisizádih. The trial of these innocent individuals occurred in Tehran with the help of fundamentalist religious authorities. As a result the guilty were never prosecuted and many innocent individuals were imprisoned and executed. [SCF123117] Ábarqú; Yazd; Iran Mulla Khalisizadih; Z****
    1950 20 Jan World Religion Day was first observed in the United States. [BBD242]
  • The purpose of World Religion Day is to highlight the ideas that the spiritual principles underlying the world's religions are harmonious, and that religions play a significant role in unifying humanity.
  • See World Religion Day (January) by Christopher Buck
  • See message from the Universal House of Justice dated 22 October, 1968 to the Spiritual Assembly of Chicago in Lights of Guidance #1710 in which they describe the purpose of World Religion Day.

    ".....is a celebration of the need for and the coming of a world religion for mankind, the Bahá'í Faith itself."

  • United States World Religion Day; Interfaith dialogue; Firsts, Other; Z****
    1950 3 Feb Dr Sulaymán Birgís was martyred in Káshán, Iran. [BW18:390]
  • For his obituary see BW12:684–5.
  • Kashan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1950 Mar Shoghi Effendi sent a further cable regarding his brother: "Faithless brother Hussein, already abased through dishonorable conduct over period (of) years followed by association with Covenant-breakers (in) Holy Land and efforts (to) undermine Guardian's position, recently further demeaned himself through marriage under obscure circumstances with lowborn Christian girl (in) Europe". [Bahá'í News, No. 229, p.1; Bahá'í News, No. 236, p.4] Haifa Husayn Ali Rabbani; Covenant-breakers
    1950 26 Mar - 10 Apr The British Community needed 22 declarations to complete the goals of their Six Year Plan. The National Spiritual Assembly of Canada sponsored a trip by John Robarts to lend his assistance. During his 13 day stay he visited London, Manchester, Blackpool, Blackburn, Sheffield, Oxford, Dublin, Belfast, Glasgow and Edinburgh and witnessed 18 declarations. By April 10th the goal had been won. [CBN No 13 May, 1950 p4] London; Manchester; Blackpool; Blackburn; Sheffield; Oxford; Dublin; Belfast; Glasgow; Edinburgh John Robarts
    1950 Apr Shoghi Effendi announced the Africa Campaign (1951-1953) in a cable to the British National Convention. [BW12:52; UD245–6]
  • The British community was to lead the campaign supported by the Bahá’ís of the United States and Egypt. [UD245]
  • The object was to open the Faith to three countries, Gold Coast, Tanganyika and Uganda. Shoghi Effendi termed it "the first International collaboration plan in Bahá'í history. (CG157, 159]
  • For the objectives of the campaign see UD245–6.
  • For the importance of the enterprise see UD260–3.
  • The plan was to be launched after a year’s respite but the British Bahá’ís begin to implement the plan immediately. [CB317]
  • At the time of the Campaign there was "...since the days of the Blessed Beauty and up to the early 1950s, the activities of the friends in Africa had produced the formation of one National Spiritual Assembly with its seat in Cairo, Egypt, the opening of 12 countries to the light of the Faith, and some 50 localities established throughout its vast lands. It was at such a time that the beloved Guardian ushered in the first African Teaching Plan" [Message from the Universal House of Justice To the Friends gathered at the Bahá’í International Conference at Lagos dated 19 August, 1982 ; The UK Bahá'í Journal/History]
  • The first to arise for the Campaign was Claire Gung who departed from England on the Warwick Castle on the 3rd of January, 1951 bound for Tanganyika. [CG13, 26]
  • Africa; United Kingdom; United States; Egypt Teaching Plans; Africa Campaign; Claire Gung; Z**** the first International collaboration plan in Bahá'í history
    1950 25 Apr Shoghi Effendi cabled the Bahá’í world with the successes of the Bahá’í work in the past year. [MBW3]
  • The number of sovereign states and dependencies where the Faith is established reaches 100, an increase of 22 countries since 1944.

    Approximate number of Localities where Bahá'ís reside in the largest Bahá'í communities.

  • European Goal Countries: --> Over thirty localities.
  • Germany and Austria: --> Over forty localities.
  • British Isles: --> Over fifty localities.
  • Australia and New Zealand: --> Over sixty localities.
  • Dominion of Canada: --> Over eighty localities.
  • India, Pakistan and Burma: --> Over eighty localities.
  • Latin America: --> Over one hundred localities.
  • Persia: --> Over seven hundred localities.
  • United States of America: --> Over eleven hundred localities. [Baha'i Historical Facts, January 15, 2018 quoted from ‘The Bahá'í Faith, The: 1844-1950: Information Statistical and Comparative’, compiled by Shoghi Effendi]
  • Statistics
    1950 25 May Dr Khodadad M. Fozdar, a medical officer of the State Railways in India, arrived in Singapore, the first pioneer to the country. [BW13:393]
  • His wife, Shirin Fozdar, joined him in September 1950.
  • Singapore Khodadad M. Fozdar; Shirin Fozdar first pioneer to Singapore
    1950 (Early June) In 1950 Sutherland Maxwell suffered from a severe illness from which he never recovered. He returned to Montreal in early June, 1951. [From CBN undated Memorial Issue] Haifa; Monteal; Sutherland Maxwell
    1950 Jul The British Six Year Plan was successfully completed. [BW11:25; MBW4] United Kingdom Teaching plans; Teaching Plans, National
    1950 4–30 Jul The third European Teaching Conference was held in Copenhagen. [BW12:49]
  • 177 Bahá’ís from 22 countries attended.
  • Copenhagen; Denmark; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International
    1950 9 Jul The Centenary of the Martyrdom of the Báb was commemorated.
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s message to the Bahá’ís on this occasion see BW12:191–3.
  • For accounts of commemorations around the world see BW12:205–8.
  • A small group of Bahá’í pilgrims visited the site of the Báb’s martyrdom and other places associated with His life. [BW12:217–26]
  • The columned arcade and parapet of the Shrine of the Báb were completed. [ZK284–5]
  • Haifa; Mount Carmel; Iran; Worldwide Centenaries; Bab, Martyrdom of; Bab, Shrine of; Pilgrimage; Pilgrims
    1950 Sep - Oct Four Bahá’ís in Iran were arrested on trumped-up charges. The trial lasted until 1954, when the accused were given prison sentences. [BW18:390] Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases
    1950 23 Oct Nur Ali, a well-known and respected public servant in Suva, became a Bahá’í, the first to accept the Faith in Fiji. Fiji First Bahais by country or area first Bahá'í in Fiji
    1950 Nov Brian Burland, the first Bermudian to become a Bahá’í, accepted the Faith in Canada. Canada; Bermuda First Bahais by country or area first Bermudian Bahá'í
    1950 Nov From Switzerland, Shoghi Effendi invited five Bahá’ís—Lotfullah Hakim, Jessie and Ethel Revell, Amelia Collins and Mason Remey—to Haifa. [PP251]
  • They, together with Ben and Gladys Weeden who were already there, were told that they would constitute the International Bahá’í Council. [PP251–2]
  • Switzerland; BWC; Haifa International Bahai Council; Lutfullah Hakim; Jessie Revell; Ethel Revell; Amelia Collins; Charles Mason Remey; Ben Weeden; Gladys Weeden
    1950 1 Nov Mírzá Badí‘u’lláh, the youngest son of Bahá’u’lláh, (b.1867 in Adrianople) described by Shoghi Effendi as the ‘chief lieutenant’ of the ‘archbreaker’ of the ‘divine Covenant’ died. [CB340, 355–6; CF89, BIC162, MSBR63, BBR460, RoB3pg230, CH209, SoB92, CoB340, 355-6, CoF89]
  • A close companion of Mírzá Muhammad-'Alí. [CoB165]
  • All his family became Covenant-breakers. [CoB362]
  • He had a short-lived repentance. [CoB152-3, GPB263, Historical Dictionary of the Bahá'í Faith p321, Interview with Badi'u'llah by Howard MacNutt]
  • He opposed both 'Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi. [CoB165] As an example, in 1939 when Shoghi Effendi proposed to relocate the remains of Mirza Mihdí and Ásíyih Khánum from 'Akka to Haifa, it was Mírzá Badí‘u’lláh who led the dissenting faction claiming that as he was more closely related to Mirza Mihdí, it was he, under Moslem law, who had the right to decide as to the disposal of the remains. [BBR460-461]
  • Haifa, BWC, Mirza Badiullah; Covenant-breakers
    1950 (Near end of year) Shoghi Effendi entered into negotiations with the government of Israel to exchange some farm land near the border with Jordan for the same acreage in the vicinity of the Shrine and the Mansion in Bahjí. The difficult and protracted talks lasted two years and involved Mr Hautz and Leroy Ioas, who in March 1952, had become the General Secretariat of the International Bahá'í Council and so had become the lead on the negotiations. [SETPE1p124-125] Bahji; Haifa Bahji; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1950 Dec Jalál Nakhjavání arrived in Tanganyika, the first Bahá’í pioneer to the country. [BW18:79] Tanganyika (Tanzania) Jalal Nakhjavani; Pioneers first Bahá’í pioneer to Tanganyika
    1950 15 Dec The Guardian appealed directly to Israel’s Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion to recognize the interest of the Bahá’í community in the property known as Mazra‘ih as a holy place. After a protracted struggle to obtain ownership of the property, then a Moslem religious endowment, he leased the site from the Department of Moslem and Druze affairs in the Ministry of Religions. [DH93, GBF137, PP290, CB331, MBW7, Bahá'í News, no. 244, June 1951, p. 4] Haifa; Mazraih; Akka; Israel House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); David Ben-Gurion
    1951 (In the year) Portuguese Bahá’ís Mr António and Mrs Ema Rocha, Mrs Guedes DeMelo Rocha and Mrs D. Laura Rodriquez, the first pioneers to Angola, took up residence in Luanda. Luanda; Angola First travel teachers and pioneers first pioneers to Angola
    1951 (In the year) Muhammad Kayvani was murdered in Najafabad. [Towards a History of Iran’s Bahá'í Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani.] Najafabad; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1951 (In the year) Shoghi Effendi received the original manuscript of The Kitáb-i-Íqán, in the handwriting of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá with some marginal additions by Bahá’u’lláh, and placed it in the International Bahá’í Archives. BWC International Bahai Archives; Kitab-i-Iqan (Book of Certitude); Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1951 (In the year) Throughout Iran, the government introduced repressive measures against Bahá’ís. [BW18:390]
  • Bahá’ís were dismissed from government positions. [BW18:390]
  • Fifty Bahá’í employees of the public hospital in Mashhad were dismissed. [BW18:390]
  • Mashhad; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1951 (In the year) Bahá’ís in Árán, Káshán, Iran, were attacked, and one died. [BW18:390] Aran; Kashan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1951 (In the year) The Nineteen-Month Teaching Plan (1951–3) for India, Pakistan and Burma was launched. [BBRSM158; DND148–50] India; Pakistan; Myanmar (Burma) Nineteen-Month Teaching Plan; Teaching plans; Teaching plans, National
    1951 (In the year) Bahá’í women in Egypt were extended the right of membership on local spiritual assemblies. [MBW12]
  • Shoghi Effendi called this ‘a notable step in the progress of Bahá’í women of the Middle East’. [MBW12]
  • Egypt LSA; women
    1951 (In the year) By this year the first Canadian Inuit had become a Bahá’í. Canada First Bahais by country or area; First believers by background; Inuit first Canadian Inuit Bahá'í
    1951 (In the year) Palle Benemann Bischoff, the first to become a Bahá’í in Denmark, settled in Aasiaat, and became the first Bahá’í to live in Greenland. [MC22]
  • He was best known for being the first person to teach the Greenlanders to ski and for having organized the first ski competition in West Greenland.
  • Greenland Palle Benemann Bischoff first Bahá’í in Denmark; first Bahá’í resident in Greenland
    1951 3 Jan Jalal Nakhjavani from Iran was the first Bahá'í s to arrive in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. Dar-es-Salaam; Tanzania; Tanganyika (Tanzania) Jalal Nakhjavani the first Bahá'í s to arrive in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania.
    1951 9 Jan Shoghi Effendi announced the formation of the International Bahá'í Council. [BBD118; BBRSM127; GBF109; MBW7–8; PP252]

    Proclaim National Assemblies of East and West weighty epoch-making decision of formation of first International Bahá'í Council, forerunner of supreme administrative institution destined to emerge in fullness of time within precincts beneath shadow of World Spiritual Center of Faith already established in twin cities of 'Akká and Haifa....

  • The members were: Rúhíyyih Khanum (1951–61) Liaison with Shoghi Effendi; Hand of the Cause of God Charles Mason Remey (1951–61) President; Hand of the Cause Amelia Collins (1951–61) Vice President; Hand of the Cause Leroy Ioas (1952–61) Secretary General; Hand of the Cause Jessie Revell (1951–61) Treasurer Luṭfu’lláh Ḥakím (1951–61) Eastern Assistant Secretary Ethel Revell (1951–61) Western Assistant Secretary Ugo Giachery (1952–61) Member-at-large; Hand of the Cause Ben Weeden (1951–52); Gladys Weeden (1951–52); Sylvia Ioas (1955–61).
  • See UD261 for the significance of the establishment of the International Bahá'í Council. Between 1951 and 1957 Shoghi Effendi directed the members and used the Council to create an image of an international body handling the Bahá'í affairs in Haifa. According to Shoghi Effendi, the Council's responsibilities were to:
  • establish links with the Israeli authorities, and
  • negotiate with them concerning an establishing of a Bahá'í court to deal with personal matters,
  • Shoghi Effendi to complete the superstructure of the Shrine of the Báb
  • as an international Bahá'í secretariat.

    This body functioned until the election of the Universal House of Justice in 1963.

  • It was a forerunner to the Universal House of Justice. [BBD118]
  • For its functions see MBW7–8.
  • Its seat is the Western Pilgrim House. [BBD178]
  • For the stages of its evolution see CB324.
  • BWC, Haifa, International Bahai Council; Universal House of Justice; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline
    1951 9 Jan The International Bahá’í Council was a multi-national body formed by Shoghi Effendi. Its first six members were appointed by Shoghi Effendi in 1951, and three additional members were added in later years. Beginning at Ridván 1961, the Council became an elected body. It served as a precursor to the Universal House of Justice. The head of the Bahá’í Faith in the first half of the 20th century, Shoghi Effendi, appointed Ioas to the International Bahá'í Council, precursor to the Universal House of Justice, in December 1951, where he served until 1961 as Secretary-General. In order to fulfill his duties, he quit his job in the railway industry, where he had worked for nearly forty years, and moved to Haifa, where he would reside until the end of his life. BWC International Bahai Council
    1951 25 Jan or 4 Feb Claire Gung arrived in Tanganyika aboard the Warwick Castle and obtained employment as a matron in a boys' boarding school. She was the second Bahá’í pioneer to the country. [CG160] Tanzania Knights of Bahaullah; Claire Gung
    1951 Mar The Bahá’ís of El Salvador called on the president of the Republic to dispel any suspicions that the Bahá’í community was linked to communism. El Salvador Communism
    1951 2 Mar Shoghi Effendi announced the completion of the restoration of the House of ‘Abbúd. [MBW8] Haifa; Akka House of Abbud; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Restoration; World Centre; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens
    1951 7 Mar The Prime Minister of Iran, Haj 'Alí Razmara was assassinated during a memorial service in a mosque in Tehran. He had planned to have the Bahá'í prisoners including the members of the Spiritual Assembly of Yazd and others, killed on their way to Tehran. [SCF123note63] Tehran; Iran Haj Ali Razmara; Prime Minister of Iran; Z****
    1951 12 Mar Bahá’ís in Taft, Iran, werre attacked and one died. [BW18:390] Taft; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1951 Ridván The Bahá'ís of the British Isles launched a Two Year Plan (1951-1953). [Ruhi 8.2 p46] United Kingdom Teaching Plans; Teaching Plans, National
    1951 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of India, Pakistan and Burma launched the Two Year Plan (1951-1953). [Ruhi 8.2 p46] India; Pakistan; Myanmar (Burma) Teaching Plans; Teaching Plans, National
    1951 Ridván Several National Spiritual Assemblies-Britain, Egypt, India, Iran and the United States, join forces in their first collaborative teaching effort called the Africa Campaign (1951-1953). [Ruhi 8.2 p46, BBRSM158, MBW135-140]
  • See also UD261 for the significance of the Africa Campaign.
  • See Bahá'í Communities by Country: Research Notes by Graham Hassall for further details of the Plan.
  • Africa; United Kingdom; United States; Egypt; India; Iran Teaching Plans; Africa Campaign
    1951 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of Central America was elected at a convention in Panama City. [BW12:60]
  • 25 delegates representing 12 countries were present at the convention. [BW12:60]
  • For a photo of those attending see Bahá'í Historical Facts.
  • Panama NSA of Central America first NSA of Central America
    1951 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of South America was elected at a convention in Lima, Peru. Elected were: Edmund J. Miessler (Sao Paulo), Mrs. Margot Worley (Bahia), Miss Eve Nicklin (Lima), Manuel Vera (Lima), Dr. Alejandro Reid (Punta Arenas), Mrs. Gayle Woolson (Bogota), Esteban Canales L. (Asuncion), Srta. Mercedes Sanchez (Lima), Rangvald Taetz (Montevideo) [BW1 2:60]
  • 18 of the 27 delegates were present at the convention. [BW12:60]
  • For a photo see Bahá'í Historical Facts.
  • Lima; Peru NSA of South America first NSA of South America
    1951 25 Apr Shoghi Effendi cabled the Bahá’í world with list of the successes of the Bahá’í work in the past year. [MBW11–13]
  • The number of sovereign states and dependencies open to the Faith was 106, while some of the writings had been translated into more than 80 languages. [MBW11]
  • Worldwide Statistics; Growth; Translation; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; statistics
    1951 25 Apr The Bahá’í International Fund was established. [MBW13–14] BWC Funds, International; Funds; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1951 23 May Jamshed and Parvati Fozdar arrived in Kuching with their son, Vijay, and became the first Bahá’ís to settle in Sarawak. Kuching; Sarawak; Malaysia Jamshed Fozdar; First Bahais by country or area first Bahá’í residents in Sarawak
    1951 Jun Bahá’ís in Fárán, Iran, were attacked and several houses burned. [BW18:390] Faran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution
    1951 Jul Mr P. K. Gopalakrishnan Nayer, an Indian, became a Bahá’í in Dar-es-Salaam, the first person to accept the Faith in Tanganyika. [BW12:53] Dar-es-Salaam; Tanganyika (Tanzania); Tanzania First Bahais by country or area first Bahá'í in Tanganyika
    1951 30 Jul Louis Gregory, Hand of the Cause of God, passed away in Eliot, Maine, near Green Acre. [BW12:666; TMW310, LOF98]
  • Soon after his passing he was designated by Shoghi Effendi the first Hand of the Cause of his race. (On 5 August, 1951) [BBD91; BW12:666, MoCxxii]
  • See TG114, 117-8 for a description of his passing .
  • For his obituary see BW12:666–70.
  • For biographical information on Hand of the Cause Louis Gregory see Gayle Morrison, To Move the World: Louis G. Gregory and the Advancement of Racial Unity in America (Wilmette, IL, USA Bahá’í Publishing Trust, 1982, 1999 printing).
  • For short biographical information see Bahá'í Encyclopedia]
  • Louis Gregory kept a journal of his visit to 'Abdu'l-Baha in 1911 including statements of 'Abdu'l-Baha, stories of the believers in the Holy Land and his experiences at the Shrines. It includes a selection of tablets 'Abdu'l-Baha addressed to him. A Heavenly Vista: The Pilgrimage of Louis G. Gregory".
  • Eliot; Maine; United States Louis Gregory; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Firsts, Other first black Hand of the Cause
    1951 2 or 3 Aug The establishment of the Faith in Uganda with the arrival of Mr. Músá Banání, his wife Samí'ih Banání, their daughter, Mrs. Violette and her husband, Mr. Ali Nakhjavani, of Iran, with their baby daughter Bahiyyih, and Mr. Philip Hainsworth who arrived in Kampala from England. [Wiki Bahá'í Uganda]
  • See BWNS135 for an account of the celebration of 50 years of the Faith in Uganda and the accomplishments.
  • Kampala; Uganda; Africa Musa Banani; Violette Nakhjavani; Ali Nakhjavani; Bahiyyih Nakhjavani; Philip Hainsworth; Knights of Bahaullah; Sami'ih Banani first pioneers to arrive in Uganda
    1951 Oct Marthe Jeanne Molitor, the first Belgian Bahá’í to settle in another country, left for the Belgian Congo (Zaire) one day after becoming a Bahá’í. Belgian Congo Marthe Jeanne Molitor first Belgian Bahá’í to settle in another country
    1951 11 Oct Edmund (Ted) Cardell, arrived in Kenya, the first Bahá’í pioneer to the country in the Africa Campaign. [UD488]
  • Marguerite Preston, the wife of a tea grower, had been living in Kenya since August 1945. She was killed in an air crash in February 1952.
  • Kenya Edmund (Ted) Cardell; Marguerite Preston first pioneer to Kenya in Africa Campaign
    1951 22 Oct Ethel Stephens, the first black American pioneer to Africa, arrived in Accra, the first Bahá’í pioneer to Ghana. Ghana Ethel Stephens first black American pioneer to Africa; first pioneer to Ghana
    1951 30 Nov Shoghi Effendi announced plans for the Great Jubilee commemorating the centenary of the birth of the Revelation of Bahá’u’lláh in the Síyáh-Chál. [BW12:24–6, 115–16; MBW16–18] Haifa Great Jubilee; Centenaries; Bahaullah, Birth of Revelation of
    1951 Dec Brothers-in-law Fred Bigabwa, a Mutoro, and Crispin Kajubi, a Muganda, became Bahá’ís in Uganda, the first to accept the Faith in that country. Uganda First Bahais by country or area first Bahá'ís in Uganda
    1951 Dec Shoghi Effendi's brother Riáz Rabbáni was the last of his siblings to become a Covenant-Breaker. "With feeling profound concern, grief, indignation, am compelled disclose Bahá'í world recent developments Holy Land furnishing further incontestable proof relationship established old and new Covenant-breakers demonstrating increasing boldness, marked, tragic decline in character and spiritual condition grandchildren `Abdu'l-Bahá. Their shameful attitude and conduct receiving approbation their elders. Evidences multiplying attesting Ruhi's increasing rebelliousness, efforts exerted my eldest sister pave way fourth alliance members family Siyyid Ali involving marriage his granddaughter with Ruha's son and personal contact recently established my own treacherous, despicable brother Riaz with Majdi'd-Din, redoubtable enemy Faith, former henchman Muhammad-'Ali, Archbreaker Bahá'u'lláh's Covenant. Convey information all National Assemblies." [MBW16, CoB358, 362, 364] Haifa; BWC Covenant-breakers; Riaz Rabbani
    1951 20 Dec Roy C. Wilhelm, (b.17 September, 1875) passed away in Lovel, Maine. He was buried in the Wilhelm Family Cemetery in Stoneham, Maine. [BW12:662]
  • He, along with Stanwood Cobb, and Genevieve Coy, wrote In His Presence: Visits to 'Abdu'l-Bahá These are said to be "three of the most important, and most touching, accounts of pilgrimages to the Holy Land in the time of `Abdu'l-Bahá. These are three classic works of Bahá'í history and literature. Roy Wilhelm's account is from his visit in 1907.
  • On his passing Shoghi Effendi designated him a Hand of the Cause of God. (23 December, 1951) [MoCxxii, BW12:662]
  • For his obituary see BW12:662–4.
  • Find a grave
  • Lovel; Maine; United States Roy Wilhelm; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi
    1951 24 Dec Shoghi Effendi appointed 12 Hands of the Cause of God, the first contingent of Hands to be appointed. BBRSM127; BW12:38–40, 374–5; BW13:333–4; MBW20; PG223-224]
  • They were Sutherland Maxwell, Mason Remey, Amelia Collins (she had been appointed in 1946, but her appointment had not been made public), Valíyu’lláh Varqá, Tarázu’lláh Samandarí, ‘Alí-Akbar Furútan, Horace Holley, Dorothy Baker, Leroy Ioas, George Townshend, Herman Grossmann and Ugo Giachery [GBF110–11; MBW20; PP253–4]
  • Haifa Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands of the Cause, Contingents; Hands of the Cause, First Contingent; Sutherland Maxwell; Charles Mason Remey; Amelia Collins; Varqa, Valiyullah; Varqa; Tarazullah Samandari; Ali Akbar Furutan; Horace Holley; Dorothy Baker; Leroy Ioas; George Townshend; Herman Grossmann; Ugo Giachery
    1952 (In the year) The establishment of the Bahá'í Service for the Blind and the Physically Handicapped as a committee of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States. Its purpose is to provide the literature of the Faith in mediums which can be used by those individuals whose physical or mental handicaps prevent them from using normal print. [website] United States blind
    1952 (In the year) Eric Manton and his son Terry arrived in Northern Rhodesia (Zambia), the first Bahá’ís to settle in the country. Northern Rhodesia First travel teachers and pioneers first residents in Northern Rhodesia
    1952 (In the year) Mr Narain Das, a textile salesman from India working in Singapore, became a Bahá’í, the first person in the country to accept the Faith. A few months later Mr Teo Geok Leng, a Chinese Singaporean, became a Bahá’í, the first native of Singapore to accept the Faith. Singapore First Bahais by country or area first Bahá'í in Singapore; first Chinese Singaporean Bahá'í
    1952 (In the year) Bahá’ís and their homes were attacked in Najafábád, Iran, and several houses were set on fire. [BW18:390] Najafabad; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution
    1952 (In the year) Dudley Smith Kutendere from Zomba in the south of Malawi became a Bahá’í in Dar-es-Salaam, the first African to become a Bahá’í in Tanganyika and the first in all of Central and East Africa. Dar-es-Salaam Dudley Smith Kutendere first African Bahá’í in Tanganyika, and Central and East Africa
    1952 (In the year) Walli Khan, a Fiji Indian, became a Bahá’í, the first person in Fiji to accept the Faith. Fiji First Bahais by country or area first Bahá'í in Fiji
    1952 Feb Enoch Olinga became a Bahá’í, the third Ugandan and the first of the Iteso tribe to accept the Faith.
  • See TG160 for the story of how he became a Bahá'í.
  • Uganda Enoch Olinga first Bahá'í of Iteso tribe
    1952 29 Feb Shoghi Effendi appointed the second contingent of Hands of the Cause of God. [BW12:375–6; CT202–3 MBW20–1; PP254; ZK47]
  • They were Fred Schopflocher, Corinne True, Dhikru’lláh Khádem, Shu’á’u’lláh ‘Alá’í, Adelbert Mühlschlegel, Músá Banání and Clara Dunn. [BW12:375–6; MWB19–20]
  • Shoghi Effendi described their two-fold function: propagation of the Faith and preservation of its unity. [BW12:376; MBW21]
  • Haifa Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands of the Cause, Contingents; Hands of the Cause, Second Contingent; Fred Schopflocher; Corinne True; Dhikrullah Khadem; Shuaullah Alai; Adelbert Muhlschlegel; Musa Banani; Clara Dunn
    1952 Mar Mariette Bolton of Australia visited New Caledonia, the first Bahá’í to visit the islands.
  • During her visit Mlle Françoise Feminier became a Bahá’í, the first person in New Caledonia to accept the Faith.
  • New Caledonia First Bahais by country or area; Islands first Bahá’í to visit New Caledonia; first Bahá'í in New Caledonia
    1952 Mar The Octagonal component of the Shrine of the Báb was completed. [The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1952 Information Statistical & Comparative p6] Haifa; Mount Carmel Bab, Shrine of
    1952 4 Mar Shoghi Effendi described plans for a marble colonnade to encircle the Shrine of the Báb as an intermediate step to building a superstructure for the Shrine and sent his ideas to Italy for scale drawings and estimate. [SE133–4] Haifa; Mount Carmel; Italy Bab, Shrine of
    1952 8 Mar Shoghi Effendi announced the enlargement of the International Bahá’í Council to eight members. [MBW22; PP252–3]
  • Its members were Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum, Mason Remey, Amelia Collins, Ugo Giachery, Leroy Ioas, Jessie Revell, Ethel Revell and Lotfullah Hakim. [BW12:379; MBW22]
  • Haifa International Bahai Council; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Charles Mason Remey; Amelia Collins; Ugo Giachery; Leroy Ioas; Jessie Revell; Ethel Revell; Lutfullah Hakim
    1952 25 Mar Sutherland Maxwell, Hand of the Cause of God, passed away in Montreal. He died in the very room that the Master had slept in during His visit to Canada. (b.14 November, 1874) [DH143; MBW132; PP246; CBN undated Memorial Issue]
  • For his obituary see BW12:657–62.
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
  • For his relationship with Shoghi Effendi and work on the superstructure of the Shrine of the Báb see PP236–43.
  • Shoghi Effendi named the southern door of the Báb’s tomb after him in memory of his services.
  • On June 16th, 1952, friends of the Montreal area gathered at the grave to place, under the headstone, an alabaster box that had been sent by the Guardian. The box contained a piece of plaster taken from the walls of the prison in Máh-Kú where the Báb had been incarcerated in 1847. Another piece of plaster from the same source had been placed under the first golden tile of the dome of the Shrine of the Báb. The superstructure of the Shrine had been designed by Sutherland Maxwell. [TG55]
  • Find a grave.
  • For a brief biography see LoF276-286.
  • Montreal; Canada Sutherland Maxwell; Architects; Fortress of Mah-Ku; Gifts; Relics; Bab, Shrine of; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1952 26 Mar Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum was appointed Hand of the Cause of God to replace her father. [GBF111; MBW132–3] Haifa Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Hands of the Cause, Appointments
    1952 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Central America launched a One Year Plan (1952-1953). [Ruhi 8.2 p46] Central America Teaching Plans; Teaching Plans, National
    1952 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly of Uganda was established in Kampala.
  • Enoch Olinga was a member.
  • Kampala LSA first LSA of Uganda
    1952 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Tanganyika was established in Dar-es-Salaam. Dar-es-Salaam LSA first LSA in Tanganyika
    1952 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly of Singapore City was established. [BW12:573; PH58, 67] Singapore LSA first LSA Singapore City
    1952 Ridván The National Convention of the Bahá'ís of Central America was scheduled to be held in a prestigious hotel in San Jose, Costa Rica. When a distinguish believer, Mr Matthew Bullock, was not allowed to register at the hotel because of his race, the National Assembly moved the Convention to another venue and registered guests moved to small pensions rather than staying at the hotel. [SDSC65]
  • Matthew Bullock was one of the early African-American believers in the United States. He became an enrolled believer in 1940 after 15 years of knowledge of the Faith. In 1952 he was elected to the National Spiritual Assembly and along with fellow NSA member Elsie Austin, represented that institution at the first Intercontinental Teaching Conference in Uganda in 1953. [LoS108, SDSC102]
  • San Jose; Costa Rica; Central America Conventions, National; NSA; Race (general); Matthew Bullock; Elsie Austin
    1952 27 Apr Hyde Dunn was appointed a Hand of the Cause of God posthumously in a cable sent to the National Spiritual Assembly of Australia and New Zealand. [BW13:861; SBR169] Hyde Dunn; Hands of the Cause; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi
    1952 18 May The case brought against Shoghi Effendi by the Covenant-breakers in connection with the demolition of a house adjoining the Shrine and Mansion of Bahá’u’lláh at Bahjí was removed from the civil courts by the government of Israel. [CB330; GBF138–9; PP233–4, 290]
  • For the history of this case and the outcome see BW12:384–7.
  • Haifa: Bahji Bahaullah, Shrine of; House of Bahaullah (Bahji); Court cases; Covenant-breakers
    1952 c. Jun Dudley Smith Kutendere returned to his home in Nyasaland, becoming the first Bahá’í in the country.
  • He taught the Bahá’í Faith to his brother, who becames the first person to accept the Faith in Nyasaland.
  • Nyasaland Dudley Smith Kutendere first Bahá’í resident in Nyasaland; first Bahá’í in Nyasalan
    1952 1 Jun In a letter written on behalf of the Guardian by the Assistant Secretary, the National Spiritual Assembly was informed that Ahmad Sohrab had cabled the Israeli Minister of Religion to influence the court case brought by the Covenant-breakers, against the Guardian, and which resulted in complete vindication of the Guardian's control of the Bahá'í Shrines and properties. Sohrab's cable identified the Caravan with the Covenant-breakers and stated that the organization was not under the authority of Shoghi Effendi. In a letter dated May 25, 1941, the Guardian wrote through his Secretary that Sohrab "is no doubt the most subtle, resourceful and indefatigable enemy the Faith has had in America." United States Covenant-breakers; New History Society; Ahmad Sohrab
    1952 Jun or Jul Mr C. C. Cheng, a newspaper reporter; Professor L. S. Tso, a professor of engineering; and Miss Rosie Du (Ruthy Tu) became Bahá’ís in Taiwan, the first people to accept the Faith in the country. Taiwan; Asia First Bahais by country or area first Bahá'ís in Taiwan
    1952 Jun Aaron (‘Arthur’) B. Wellesley Cole, a Sierra Leonean barrister, returned to Sierra Leone from England, the first Bahá’í to enter the country. Sierra Leone First Bahais by country or area first Bahá’í resident Sierra Leon
    1952 26 Aug The martyrdom of Nuri'd-Dín Fath-'Azam near Tehran. [BW12p690-692] Tihran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1952 8 Oct Holy Year, "The Great Jubilee", October 1952 to October 1953, was inaugurated. [BW12:116; DG84; PP409–10; SBR170–1]
  • Centenary celebrations of the birth of Bahá’u’lláh’s mission were initiated. [MBW16–18]
  • Four international conferences were scheduled in Kampala, Wilmette (dedication of the Temple), Stockholm and New Delhi. [SETPE2p31-43]
  • For a brief description of the Kampala Conference see CG20-21.
  • Kampala; Uganda; Wilmette; United States; Stockholm; Sweden; New Delhi; India Great Jubilee; Holy Years; Centenaries; Bahaullah, Birth of Revelation of; Siyah Chal (Black Pit)
    1952 8 Oct Shoghi Effendi announced his decision to launch ‘the fate-laden, soul-stirring, decade-long world-embracing Spiritual Crusade’ in the coming year. [BW12:253–5; MBW411
  • For the objectives of the Crusade see BW12:256–14.
  • Among the goals to be achieved was the construction of the International Bahá’í Archives building. [BBD22; DH168; MBW43]
      "the first of the major edifices destined to constitute the th seat of the World Bahá'í Administrative Centre to be established on Mout Carmel". [PP264]
  • He called upon the Hands of the Cause to appoint, during Ridván 1954, five auxiliary boards to act as their adjuncts or deputies to work with the national spiritual assemblies to execute the projected national plans. [MBW44, BW13p335]
  • BWC Ten Year Crusade; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; International Bahai Archives; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Auxiliary Board; Auxiliary Board Members and assistants; Appointed arm; NSA; Teaching plans; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1952 12 Nov The government of Israel exchanged 145,000 square metres of land surrounding Bahjí for property at Ein Gev on the eastern side of the Sea of Galilee belonging to the descendants of Bahá’u’lláh’s brother Mírzá Muhammad-Qulí and given to the Faith for this purpose. [DH118, 208; PP233, SETPE1p134-125, MBW454-46]
  • Bahá’í holdings at Bahjí up to this time amount to only 4,000 square metres.
  • Israel; Haifa; BWC Bahji; Mirza Muhammad-Quli
    1952 12 Nov Dagmar Dole, pioneer to Alaska and Denmark, passed away in Glion, Switzerland.
  • Shoghi Effendi said she was the ‘first to give her life for the Cause in the European project’. [BW12:702; ZK66–7]
  • For her obituary see BW12:701–2.
  • Glion; Switzerland; Alaska; United States; Denmark Dagmar Dole; In memoriam; Births and deaths first to give life for Cause in the European project
    1953 (In the year) Bahá’ís and their houses were attacked in Bushrúyih and Fárán, Iran. [BW18:390] Bushruyih; Faran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution
    1953 (In the year) The arrival of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Dr. K. M. Fozdar on the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. [BWNS271] Andaman and Nicobar Islands Knights of Bahaullah; BWNS
    1953 (In the year) The arrival of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Edith Danielsen in the Cook Islands. [BWNS265] Cook Islands; Pacific Knights of Bahaullah; BWNS
    1953 (In the year) The arrival of Knights of Bahá'u'lláh Dr. Mihdi Samandari and Mrs. Ursula Samandari (Newman) in Mogadishu, Somalia [BWNS230] Mogadishu; Somalia Knights of Bahaullah; BWNS
    1953 (In the year) Áqá Rahmán Kulayní-Mamaqání was martyred in Durúd, Iran. [BW18:390] Durud; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1953 (In the year) Katharine Meyer arrived on Margarita Island and was named Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:454] Margarita Island Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 (In the year) Alfred Amisi (Maragoli), Jacob Kisombe (Mtaita), Laurence Ouna (Mluhya), Labi Mathew (Zulu), and Zablon Bob (Luo) were among the first Kenyans to become Bahá’ís. Kenya Kenya first Kenyans Bahá’ís find reference
    1953 (In the year) Grant Mensah, a Ghanaian, became a Bahá’í in Ruanda-Urundi, the first person to accept the Faith in that country. Ruanda-Urundi (Burundi) Grant Mensah first Bahá’í in Burundi find reference
    1953 (In the year) Anjoman-e Hojjatieh ("Society of Allah's Proof Over Creation"), also called the Hojjatieh Society was founded specifically as an anti-Bahá'í organization by a charismatic Shiite Muslim cleric, Shaikh Mahmoud Halabi in the aftermath of the coup d'état of 1953. Between the early 1950s and the early 1970s a great number of the future elite of the Islamic revolution were trained by Hujjatieh. During the 1979 Iranian revolution, the Society was to play an important role in stirring animosity against Bahá'ís. However, in part because of differences in theology—among other things the Hojjatieh believe a truly Islamic state cannot be established until the return of the 12th Imam—the Society fell into disfavour and was banned by the regime in 1984. [Hojjatieh Society, Wiki] Iran Hojjatieh Society; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1953 12–18 Feb The first Intercontinental Teaching Conference was convened by the British National Spiritual Assembly in Kampala, Uganda. [BW12:121, MBW135-140]
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s message to the conference see BW12:121–4.
  • For a report of the conference see BW12:124–30.
  • It was attended by ten Hands of the Cause, Bahá’ís from 19 countries and representatives of over 30 tribes. [PP413]
  • Over a hundred new African believers attended as personal guests of the Guardian. [PP413]
  • With this conference the Ten Year World Crusade was launched. [BBRSM158–9; BW12:253; MBW41]
  • Picture. [BW12p118]
  • Kampala; Uganda; Africa Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Guardianship; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade; Teaching; First conferences first Intercontinental Teaching Conference; first international conference held in Africa
    1953 19 Mar Suhayl Samandarí arrived in Mogadishu and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for Italian Somaliland. [BW13:452]
  • Within a short time, Sa‘íd ‘Alí Masqatí, a Somali from the port of Baraawe, became a Bahá’í, the first person to accept the Faith in Somalia.
  • Mogadishu; Italian Somaliland Knights of Bahaullah first Somali Bahá’í
    1953 25 Mar Enayat Sohaili, an Iranian, arrived in Mozambique from India, the first Bahá’í pioneer to the country. [BW13:290]
  • He was imprisoned and deported in June 1953. [BW13:290]
  • Mozambique Enayat Sohaili; Pioneers; Persecution, Mozambique; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; First travel teachers and pioneers first Bahá’í pioneer Mozambique
    1953 Apr The first local spiritual assembly in Finland was established in Helsinki. Helsinki LSA first LSA in Finland find reference
    1953 19 Apr Shoghi Effendi announced plans to build a House of Worship in Frankfurt. [BW13:733; LDG191–2]l
  • For the difficulties in pursuing the project see BW13:733–7.
  • Langenhain; Frankfurt; Germany; Europe Mashriqul-Adhkar, Langenhain; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1953 20 Apr The Second Seven Year Plan ended with 2,425 localities, 611 local spiritual assemblies, 100 countries, islands and dependencies opened to the Faith. There were 12 national assemblies to this date; [UC43] Plans, Teaching Plans; Second Seven Year Plan; statistics
    1953 Ridván The Ten Year Crusade (1953-1963) was launched. See MBW151-156, MBW151 Also see Ali Nakhjavani's paper for The 22nd Hasan M. Balyuzi Memorial Lecture entitled The Ten Year Crusade.

    The four primary goals of the plan were outlined as follows:

    • the development of institutions at the World Centre
    • consolidation of the twelve countries where the Faith was well established
    • consolidation of all other territories already open
    • the opening of the remaining "chief virgin territories" around the globe (131)

    “…Sometimes people strive all their lives to render outstanding service. Here is the time and opportunity to render historic services; in fact the most unique in history, aiding in the fulfillment of Daniel’s Prophecies of the Last Day, and the 1335 days, when men are to be blessed by the Glory of the Lord, covering the entire globe—which is the real goal of the Ten Year Crusade. [DG54-55]

    To those Bahá’ís who arose to open new territories to the Faith during the Ten Year Crusade, the title 'Knight of Bahá’u’lláh' was given. In 1992, the Roll of Honour containing the names of all the Knights of Bahá’u’lláh was deposited beneath the entrance door to the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh.

    A map of goals for the Ten Year World Crusade by Shoghi Effendi can be found in Bahá'í World, Vol. 12 (April 1950-1954). Electronic versions, in both medium and large format can be found here.

    The achievements of the Ten Year Crusade were celebrated at the Most Great Jubilee in April and May 1963, which commemorated the Centenary of the Declaration of Baha’u’llah’s Mission. Two historic events transpired during that time: the International Convention, convened in Haifa, Israel, to elect the first Universal House of Justice; and the World Congress held in London, England.

  • See The Journal of Bahá'í Studies Vol 14, no. 3-4, 2004 for the essay The Ten Year Crusade by Ali Nakhjavani.
  • See CBN No 66 July, 1956 in a message dated the 13 of May, 1956 Leroy Ioas (unsure if it was sent on behalf of the Guardian or from the International Bahá'í Council, probably the former, Mr Ioas outlines the three phases of the Crusade; First Phase: open virgin territories, Second Phase: 1. widespread dispersal, 2. settlement in new areas, 3. formation of Local Assemblies and National Assemblies, 4. incorporate Local Assemblies. Third Phase: (open on 21 April, 1956, formation of National Assemblies, with their own Haziratu'l-Quds, have their own endowments and be incorporated.
  • BWC; Worldwide Ten Year Crusade; Teaching Plans; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1953 Ridván Mrs Meherangiz Munsiff, the wife of an Indian diplomat in London, arrived in Madagascar and was acknowledged as the first Bahá’í in the country. [news.bahai.org/story/288]
  • There was one other Bahá’í in Madagascar before Mrs Munsiff but he was not a Bahá’í in good standing.
  • Suffering ill health, Mrs. Munsiff left in January 1954 a day after Danile Randrianarivo, 29, accepted the Faith, becoming the first Malagasy Bahá'í.
  • Madagascar Meherangiz Munsiff; Danile Randrianarivo; First Bahais by country or area first Bahá’í in Madagascar
    1953 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Kenya was established in Nairobi. Nairobi; Kenya LSA first LSA in Kenya
    1953 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Italy and Switzerland was established. Elected were: Prof. Mario Fiorentini, Mrs. Anna Kunz, Dr. Ugo R. Giachery, Miss Elsa Steinmetz, Mrs. Stella Lonzar, Mrs. Anne Lynch, Friedrich Schar, Mrs. Marion Little, and Prof. Alessandro Bausani.
  • For a photo see Bahá'í Historical Facts.
  • Italy; Switzerland NSA first NSA Italy and Switzerland
    1953 Ridván Bahjí was lit for the first time by 99 four-branched wrought iron lamp posts. [GBF32; PP89–90] Bahji; Haifa Light (general); Firsts, Other; Bahaullah, Shrine of first time Bahjí lit
    1953 29 Apr In a moving ceremony, Shoghi Effendi placed a silver box containing a fragment of plaster from the ceiling of the Báb’s cell in Máh-Kú under a tile in the golden dome of the Shrine of the Báb. [BW12:239; ZK285] Haifa; Mount Carmel; Mah-Ku; Iran Bab, Shrine of; Mah-Ku; Boxes containing dust, earth or plaster
    1953 29 Apr - 2 May The All-American Jubilee celebrations began. [BW12:149] United States Centenaries
    1953 May Mary and Reginald (Rex) Collison, an elderly Canadian-American couple, arrived in Ruanda-Urundi (Burundi) from Uganda and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455]
  • For the story of Mary Collison’s life see BW15:486–8 as well as Servants of the Glory page34.
  • Ruanda-Urundi (Burundi) Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 1 May The House of Worship in Wilmette was consecrated in a simple ceremony for Bahá’ís only. [BW12:143, 152; ZK93]
  • For details of the dedication see BW12:152–4.
  • Wilmette; United States Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Dedications
    1953 2 May The House of Worship in Wilmette was dedicated in a public ceremony. [BW12:142, BWNS218]
  • For the text of the Guardian’s message of dedication see BW12:141–2.
  • For an account of the event see BW12:154–63.
  • See The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1952 Information Statistical & Comparative p24-26 for project statistics and a chronology of events.
  • Towards the end of his life in Tehran, Ahmad (of "Tablet of Ahmad" fame) had entrusted the original Tablet to his grandson Jamal who in turn, out of the purity of his heart and his devotion to the Faith of God offered it as a gift to Hand of the Cause, Trustee of Huqúq, the son and brother of two illustrious martyrs, Jinab-i-Valiyu'llah Varqá. When Jinab-i-Varqa, according to the instructions of the beloved Guardian, was sent to take part in this dedication ceremony he brought this most precious Tablet as his offering to the archives of the Bahá'ís of the United States. [A Flame of Fire by A.Q. Faizi.]
  • See the message of the Universal House of Justice dated 1 August, 2014 for more on the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in Wilmette.

    Specifics

      Location: Wilmette, Illinois, U.S. Cook County
      Administration: On the same day as the interment of the sacred remains of the Báb on Mount Carmel, March 21st, 1909, the first American Bahá'í Convention opened in Chicago. The Convention established the 'Bahá'í Temple Unity', incorporated to hold title to the Temple property and to provide for its construction. A constitution was framed and an Executive Board of the Bahá'í Temple Unity elected. This body became the future National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada. [BBD39; BBRSM:106; BW10:179; GPB349; PP397; SBBH1:146; BFA2:XVII, 309; BW13:849; MBW142–3]
      Foundation Stone: by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, 1 May, 1912
      Construction Period:The purchase of the site completed: 1914. Design Chosen: 1920. Superstructure: 1921 – 1 May 1931. External Ornamentation: June 1932 -1943. Interior: 1951
      Dedication: 1 May 1953
      Architects: Louis Bourgeois with Alfred Shaw (interior cladding) Bourgeois became a Baha’i in New York City in 1907, and two years later responded to the call for designs for the Temple. In 1920, delegates from across the country unanimously selected his innovative design. Bourgeois traveled to Haifa to consult with ‘Abdu’l-Bahá. With ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s encouragement, Bourgeois refined and scaled down the size of his design. [The House of Worship Architecture]
      Seating: 1,191 [DP220]
      Dimensions:203ft at the base and 49ft high
      Cost: $2.6 million (another source) $51,500 (land) plus $3,212,517.60 (construction costs 1921-1953)
      Dependencies: Construction of a home for the aged was began in December, 1957 and inaugurated on 1 February, 1959. It is located about three blocks away.
      Note: In GPB349 Shoghi Effendi states that “…this enterprise—the crowning achievement of the Administrative Order of the Faith of Bahá’u’lláh in the first Bahá’í century…”.
      References: CEBF236-241,GPB348-353, MDM121-239, The Dawning Place, The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1963 Information Statistical & Comparative p36-37.
  • Wilmette; United States Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Lawh-i-Ahmad (Tablet of Ahmad (Arabic)); Gifts; Archives; Dedications; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Alfred Shaw; Architects; Bahai home for the aged; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Dependencies of; BWNS; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1953 3 – 6 May The All-America Intercontinental Teaching Conference was held in Chicago. [BW12:133]
  • For the texts of Shoghi Effendi’s messages to the conference see BW12:133–41 and MBW142–6.
  • Twelve Hands of the Cause were present. The Guardian was represented by Amatu'l-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum. [BW12:143; CBN No 82 November, 1956 p3]
  • At the conference, five members of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States resigned from that body in order to go pioneering: Elsie Austin, Dorothy Baker, Matthew Bullock, Mamie Seto and Dr William Kenneth Christian. [ZK102]
  • Extract from the second message to All-American Intercontinental Conference from Shoghi Effendi... [MBW150]
    .....the lands contributed in Latin America for a similar purpose approximate one-half of a million square meters, ninety thousand of which have been set aside near Santiago, Chile, for the first Mashriqu’l-Adhkár of South America..
  • Chicago; United States; Santiago; Chile; America Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade; Teaching; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Pioneering; Elsie Austin; Dorothy Baker; Matthew Bullock; Mamie Seto; William Kenneth Christian; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Santiago; Purchases and exchanges first Mashriqu’l-Adhkár in South America
    1953 28 May In a message addressed on the eve of the 61st anniversary of the passing of Bahá'u'lláh, at the opening of the Ten Year Crusade, Shoghi Effendi encouraged 70 pioneers to arise to fill the goals promising that a Roll of Honour with their names would be deposited at the entrance door of the inner Sanctuary of the Tomb of Bahá’u’lláh. [MBW48-49]
  • He further elaborated in a message addressed to the National Spiritual Assembly of Canada. See the message of the 8 June 1953. [MtC177]
  • See 1992 28 May.
  • Haifa; BWC Pioneers; Knights of Bahaullah; Roll of Honour; Bahaullah, Shrine of
    1953 Jun Ghulám ‘Alí Kurlawala arrived in Daman and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:451] Daman Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 Jun Dunduzu Chisiza, a Nyasaland student who had recently become a Bahá’í in Uganda, arrived in Ruanda-Urundi (Burundi) and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455] Ruanda-Urundi (Burundi) Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 6 Jun ‘Izzatu’lláh Zahrá’í (Ezzat Zahrai) arrived in Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:456] Zimbabwe; Africa Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 20 Jun Shoghi Effendi designated the Maxwell home in Montreal as a Shrine. [MtC179] Montreal; Canada Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Montreal Shrine; Maxwell Home; Firsts, Other first Bahá'í Shrine in North America
    1953 Jul Rawshan Áftábí and Fírúzih Yigánigi arrived in Goa and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:452] Goa; India Knights of Bahaullah; Rawshan Aftabi; Firuzih Yiganigi
    1953 Jul Arthur and Ethel Crane arrived in Key West and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW16:453] Key West Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 Jul Sa‘íd Nahví arrived in Pondicherry and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455] Pondicherry; India Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 Jul Jack Huffman and Rose Perkal arrived on the Kodiak Islands and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:453] Kodiak Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 Jul Jenabe and Elaine Caldwell arrived in the Aleutian Islands and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:449] Aleutian Islands Jenabe Caldwell; Elaine Caldwell; Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 21 – 26 Jul The European Intercontinental Teaching Conference was held in Stockholm. [BW12:167; CBN No 46 November, 1953 p4]
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s message to the conference see BW12:167–71.
  • For a report of the conference see BW12:171–8.
  • Fourteen Hands of the Cause were present. [BW12:171]
  • 374 Bahá’ís from 30 countries attended, of these 110 come from the ten goal countries. [BW12:171]
  • Stockholm; Sweden; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade; Teaching; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities
    1953 27 Jul Siegfried (Fred) Schopflocher, Hand of the Cause of God, passed away in Montreal and was buried beside the grave of Sutherland Maxwell in Mount Royal Cemetery. He was born in Germany in 1877. [BW12:664-666, LOF390, TG119, CBNS 24 July 2014, Bahá'í Chronicles, SCRIBD, Schopflocher, Siegfried (1877–1953) by Will C. van den Hoonaard]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the second contingent on the 29th of February, 1952. [MoCxxiii]
  • See TG32, 228 and LoF384-390 for short biographies.
  • See Schopflocher, Siegfried by Will C. van den Hoonaard.
  • For his obituary see BW12:664–6.
  • He was known as the “Temple Builder” because of his great contributions to the completion of the first Mashriqu’l-Adhkár of the West. [BW12:664-666]
  • For a brief biography see Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • Find a grave.
  • Montreal; Canada Siegfried Schopflocher; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Second Contingent; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette
    1953 2 Aug Fred Schechter, an American, arrived in Djibouti and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for French Somaliland. [BW13:451]
  • Mr Schechter went on to pioneer to several Latin American countries, he spent thirteen year on the Continental Board of Councillors for the Americas and served on the International Teaching Centre. He passed away on 27 January 2017 in California, U.S.A. He was 89 years old. [BWNS1149]
  • French Somaliland (Djibouti); Djibouti Fred Schechter; Knights of Bahaullah; Counsellors; International Teaching Centre, Members of; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; BWNS
    1953 Aug Shiyam Behari arrived in Pondicherry and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455] Pondicherry; India Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 Aug Amír Húshmand Manúchihrí arrived in Liechtenstein and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:453] Liechtenstein; Europe Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 Aug Salísa Kirmání and Shírín Núrání arrived in Karikal and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:452] Karikal Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 Aug Amín and Sheila Banání, a Persian-American couple, settled in Athens-Kifissia in August 1953 and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for Greece. [BW452]
  • See Professor Amin Banani, 1926–2013: A Prominent Scholar of Iranian Studies by Ehsan Yarshater in Iranian Studies, 2014, Vol 47 No 2 p347-351 for an obituary of Amin Banani.
  • Athens; Greece Amin Banani; Sheila Banani; Knights of Bahaullah; In Memoriam
    1953 Aug Eskil Ljungberg of Sweden, aged 67, arrived in the Faroe Islands and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:451]
  • He was the only Bahá’í on the islands for over a decade.
  • For the story of his life see BW19:658–61.
  • Faroe Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 Aug Edythe MacArthur arrived in the Queen Charlotte Islands (now Haida Gwaii) and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455; BWIM143-145] Queen Charlotte Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 Aug Udai Narain Singh arrived in Sikkim and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455; PH63] Sikkim; India Udai Narain Singh; Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 11 Aug Virginia Orbison arrived in the Balearic Islands from a pioneer post in Spain and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for the Balearic Islands. [BW13:449] Balearic Islands Virginia Orbison; Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 26 Aug Ella Bailey (b. 16 December, 1864, Houston, Harris County, Texas) passed away in Tripoli, Tarabulus, Libya at the age of 88 years. [BW12:687]
  • She was elevated to the rank of martyr. [MBW170]
  • For the story of her life see PSBW131–42.
  • See Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • For her obituary see BW12:685–8.
  • For information on her burial site and a short biography see Find-a-grave.
  • See Youtube video I Adjure Them - The Ella Bailey Story as told by Hand of the Cause of God William Sears.
  • Tripoli; Libya; Houston; Texas; United States Ella Bailey; Names and titles; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1953 28 Aug Mildred Clark, a pioneer in Norway, and Loyce Lawrence (née Drugan), a nurse and hospital matron, arrived in the Lofoten Islands and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:453]
  • Mrs Lawrence began teaching the Saami.
  • Lofoten Islands; Norway Knights of Bahaullah; Sami people
    1953 Sep Brigitte Hasselblatt arrived in Shetland and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455] Shetland Islands; Scotland; United Kingdom Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 Sep Ada Schott, Elizabeth Hopper, Sara Kenny and Ella Duffield arrived in the Madeira Islands and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. BW13:453] Madeira Islands; Portugal; Europe Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 Sep Brigitte Lundblade (nee Hasselblatt), (b. 1923 - d. 17 May 2008) arrived in the Shetland Islands and was later honoured with being named as Knight of Bahá'u'lláh. [Bahaikipedia] Shetland Islands; Scotland; United Kingdom Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 Sep The arrival of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Enayat Sohaili in Nyasaland (now known as Malawi) [BWNS240] Nyasaland; Malawi; Africa Knights of Bahaullah; BWNS
    1953 Sep Kathleen Weston arrived in the Magdalen Islands and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:453] Magdalen Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 Sep Nellie French arrived in Monaco and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:454] Monaco Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 Sep Julius Edwards arrived in the Northern Territories Protectorate and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455] Northern Territories Protectorate (Ghana); Ghana Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 Sep Doris Richardson arrived on Grand Manan Island and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:452] Grand Manan Island Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 8 Sep Jameson and Gale Bond arrived in Arctic Bay in the District of Franklin and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:451, SDSC127] Arctic Bay; Franklin; Canada Jameson Bond; Gale Bond; Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 Sep Helen Robinson arrived on Baranof Island and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:449] Baranof Island Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 9 Sep José (d. 1985) and Hilda (née Summers) Xavier Rodrigues, a Portuguese-English couple, arrived in Bissau from Portugal as the first Bahá’í pioneers to Portuguese Guinea (Guinea Bissau) and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455] Bissau; Portuguese Guinea (Guinea Bissau); Guinea Bissau Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 Sep Cora Oliver arrived in British Honduras (Belize) and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:449] British Honduras (Belize); Belize Cora Oliver; Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 Sep Dick Stanton arrived in Keewatin and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:453] Keewatin Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 Sep Howard Snider arrived in Key West and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:453] Key West Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 Sep Diá’i’lláh Asgharzádih and Evelyn Baxter arrived in the Channel Islands and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:450] Channel Islands Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 Sep Elsa Grossman arrived in the Frisian Islands and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:452] Frisian Islands Elsa Grossman; Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 Sep Hugh McKinley and his mother, Violet, arrived in Cyprus and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:450] Cyprus Knights of Bahaullah; Hugh McKinley; Violet McKinley
    1953 18 Sep Dwight and Carole Allen arrived in Athens and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for Greece. [BW13:452] Athens; Greece Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 20 Sep The arrival of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Mr. Max Kanyerezi in Middle Congo (now called Republic of Congo) [BWNS246]
  • Max and his wife Florence later moved back to Uganda where he had been raised. [CG106-107]
  • Congo, Republic of; Africa Knights of Bahaullah; BWNS
    1953 23 Sep Ted and Joan Anderson arrived in Whitehorse, Canada, and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for the Yukon. [BW13:457] Whitehorse; Canada Knights of Bahaullah; Ted Anderson; Joan Anderson
    1953 26 Sep The martyrdom of Rahmán Kulayní Mamaqání. He was stabbed by a ruffian in a mob. [BW12p710-711] Durud; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Mobs
    1953 27 Sep Tábandih Paymán arrived in San Marino and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh in November. [BW13:455] San Marino Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 30 Sep Manúchihr Hizárí and Hurmuz Zindih arrived in Tangier and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for Morocco (International Zone). [BW13:454] Tangier; Morocco Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 Oct Claire Gung arrived in Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. She spent 18 months in Salisbury (Harare) where she was a member of the first local spiritual assembly. [CG161] Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe); Zimbabwe Knights of Bahaullah first spiritual assembly of Salisbury (Harare)
    1953 Oct The arrival of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Emma Rice, followed one week later by Knights Stanley and Florence Bagley and their three teenage children, Susan, Gerrold and Carol in Palermo, Sicily. [BWNS254] Sicily; Italy Knights of Bahaullah; BWNS
    1953 Oct Lionel Peraji arrived in Mahé and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:454] Mahe Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 Oct Charles Dunning arrived in the Orkney Islands and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455] ul>
  • In probably it was October of 1954 Harold and Marzieh Gail depart from St Matthew's Quay in Aberdeen destined to pay a visit to Charles Dunning in Kirkwall. On the island the diminutive Charles Dunning is referred to as "a wee chappie". [OPOP55-59]
  • Orkney Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 Oct Geraldine Craney arrived in the Hebrides and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:452] Hebrides Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 Oct Marie Ciocca arrived on Sardinia and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455] Sardinia Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 7 Oct William Danjon Dieudonné arrived in Andorra and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW12:449]
  • He continued to live in the country.
  • Andorra; Europe Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 7 – 15 Oct The Asian Intercontinental Teaching Conference was held in New Delhi. [BW12:178]
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s message to the conference see BW12:178–81.
  • For a report of the conference see BW12:181–8.
  • This was the first international Bahá’í gathering ever to be held in the East. [BW12:181; SBR171]
  • It was attended by 489 Bahá’ís representing 31 countries. [BW 12:181]
  • The design for the International Bahá’í Archives was revealed to the Bahá’ís of the world for the first time at this conference. [DH168]
  • New Delhi; India; Asia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade; International Bahai Archives; Teaching; First conferences first international Bahá’í gathering in the East
    1953 Oct Earle Render arrived in the Leeward Islands and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:453] Leeward Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 Oct Salvador and Adela Tormo arrived on the Juan Fernandez Islands and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:452] Juan Fernandez Islands; Chile Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 Oct Elly Becking arrived in Dutch New Guinea and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:451] Dutch New Guinea; Indonesia Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 11 Oct Fawzí Zaynu’l-‘Ábidín and his wife, Bahíyyih ‘Alí Sa‘di’d-Dín, and their sons Kamál and Sharíf arrived in Tetuán from Egypt and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for Spanish Morocco. [BW13:456]
  • For the story of Fawzí Zaynu’l-‘Ábidín’s life see BW16:544–6.
  • Tetuan; Spanish Morocco Knights of Bahaullah; Fawzi Zaynu’lAbidIn; Bahiyyih Ali SadidDin; Kamal Zaynu’lAbidIn; Sharif Zaynu’lAbidIn
    1953 13 Oct Esther Evans and Lillian Middlemast arrived in Castries, St Lucia, and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for the Windward Islands. BW13:457] Castries; St Lucia; Windward Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 13 Oct Frederick and Elizabeth Laws arrived in Basutoland (Lesotho) and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:449, BWNS262 ]
  • For the story of the life of Elizabeth Laws see BW17:459–60.
  • Chadwick Mohapi and his wife became the first Bahá'ís in Basutoland (Lesotho). [TG166]
  • Basutoland (Lesotho) Knights of Bahaullah first Bahá'ís in Basutoland (Lesotho)
    1953 13 Oct Una Townshend arrived in Malta and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:454, BWNS234] Malta Una Townshend; Knights of Bahaullah; Islands; BWNS
    1953 14 Oct Shoghi Effendi announced the settling of 13 further Knights of Bahá’u’lláh, with 178 territories now open to the Faith. [MBW173] Worldwide Knights of Bahaullah; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Statistics; Growth; Ten Year Crusade
    1953 14 Oct Gertrude Eisenberg arrived in Las Palmas and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for the Canary Islands. [BW13:450] Las Palmas; Canary Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 14 Oct Robert and Elinor Wolff arrived in Dutch Guiana and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:451] Dutch Guiana (Suriname); Suriname Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 14 Oct Edith M. Danielsen arrived on Aitutaki Island, 150 miles north of Rarotonga, before leaving for Avarua, Rarotonga, five days later and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for the Cook Islands. [BW13:450]
  • For the story of her life see BW19:625–6.
  • Cook Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 Oct Enoch Olinga arrived in Victoria (Limbé) and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for the British Cameroons. [BW13:449]
  • The first Cameroonian to become a Bahá’í in British Cameroon was a youth, Jacob Tabot Awo.
  • The first Cameroonian adult to become a Bahá’í was Enoch Ngompek of the Bassa tribe.
  • The first Cameroonian woman to become a Bahá’í was Esther Obeu, the wife of David Tanyi.
  • Victoria (Limbe); British Cameroon; Cameroon; Nigeria Enoch Olinga; Knights of Bahaullah; First Bahais by country or area first Cameroonian youth Bahá’í; first Cameroonian adult Bahá’í; first Cameroonian woman Bahá’í
    1953 15 Oct Eberhard Friedland arrived in French Guiana from the United States and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:451] French Guiana Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 16 Oct Benjamin Dunham Weeden and his wife Gladys (née Anderson) arrived in Antigua and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for the Leeward Islands. [BW13:453]
  • For the story of Ben Weeden’s life see BW15:478–9.
  • For the story of Gladys Weeden’s life see BW18:692–6.
  • Antigua; Leeward Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 17 Oct The arrival of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Bertha Dobbins in Vanuatu. [BWNS256] Vanuatu; Oceania Knights of Bahaullah; Islands; BWNS
    1953 18 Oct George and Marguerite (Peggy) True arrived on Tenerif with their 12-year-old son Barry and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for the Canary Islands. [BW13:450] Tenerif; Canary Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands; George True; Peggy True; Margarite True; Barry True
    1953 20 Oct Frances Heller arrived in Macau and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for the island. [BW13:453; PH73]
  • She was the first Knight of Bahá’u’lláh to settle in Chinese territory.
  • Macau Knights of Bahaullah; Frances Heller first Knight of Bahá’u’lláh to settle in Chinese territory
    1953 24 Oct Elsie Austin arrived in Tangier from the United States and Muhammad-‘Alí Jalálí, an Iranian, also arrived. They were both named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for Morocco (International Zone). [BW13:454] Tangier; Morocco Elsie Austin; Muhammad-Ali Jalali; Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 24 Oct Luella McKay, John and Erleta Fleming, and Alyce Janssen arrived in Spanish Morocco and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:456] Morocco Knights of Bahaullah; Luella McKay; John Fleming; Erleta Fleming; Alyce Janssen
    1953 29 Oct Opal Jensen arrived on Réunion Island from the United States and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455]
  • She was later declared a Covenant-breaker.
  • Reunion; France Knights of Bahaullah; Covenant-breakers
    1953 29 Oct Gladys (‘Glad’) Irene Parke and Gretta Stevens Lamprill arrived in Papeete from Australia and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for the Society Islands, French Polynesia. [BW13:455]
  • For the story of Gladys Parke’s life see BW15:457–8.
  • For the story of Gretta Lamprill’s life see BW15:534–5.
  • Papeete; Society Islands; French Polynesia Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 Oct Zunilda de Palacios arrived on Chiloé Island and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:450] Chiloe Island; Chile; Latin America Knights of Bahaullah; Islands; Zunilda de Palacios
    1953 Oct Gertrud Ankersmidt and Ursula von Brunn arrived in the Frisian Islands and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:452] Frisian Islands; Netherlands Knights of Bahaullah; Gertrud Ankersmidt; Ursula von Brunn
    1953 Oct Frederick and Jean Allen and Irving and Grace Geary arrived on Cape Breton Island and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:450] Cape Breton Island Knights of Bahaullah; Islands; Frederick Allen; Jean Allen; Irving Geary; Grace Geary
    1953 Oct Richard and Lois Nolen arrived in the Azores and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13p44g] Azores Knights of Bahaullah; Islands; Richard Nolan; Lois Nolen
    1953 Oct Shirley Warde arrived in British Honduras (Belize) and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:449] British Honduras (Belize); Belize Knights of Bahaullah; Shirley Warde
    1953 Oct Dr Malcolm King, an American pioneer in Jamaica, arrived in British Guiana and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:449] British Guiana Knights of Bahaullah; Malcolm King
    1953 Oct Rolf Haug settled in Crete and iwa named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for that island. [BW13:450] Crete Knights of Bahaullah; Islands; Rolf Haug
    1953 Oct Albert Nyarko Buapiah became a Bahá’í in Ghana, the first Ghanaian to become a Bahá’í in the country. Ghana First Bahais by country or area; Albert Nyarko Buapiah first Ghanaian Bahá’í find reference
    1953 Oct Muhammad Mustafá Sulaymán, an Egyptian, arrived in Spanish Sahara (Western Sahara) and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. BW13:456]< ul>
  • For the story of his life see BW18:768–71.
  • Spanish Sahara (Western Sahara) Knights of Bahaullah; Muhammad Mustafa Sulayman
    1953 Oct Max Kanyerezi, a Ugandan, was brought to Brazzaville by Violette and ‘Alí Nakhjavání and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for French Equatorial Africa. [BW13:451] Brazzaville; French Equatorial Africa Violette Nakhjavani; Ali Nakhjavani; Knights of Bahaullah; Max Kanyerezi
    1953 Oct ‘Amín Battáh, an Egyptian, arrived in Río de Oro (Western Sahara) and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455] Western Sahara; Africa Knights of Bahaullah; Amin Battah
    1953 Oct Bertha Dobbins arrived in Port Vila on the island of Efate from Adelaide, Australia, and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for the New Hebrides Islands (Vanuatu). [BW13:454] Port Vila; Efate; New Hebrides Islands (Vanuatu) Bertha Dobbins; Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 Oct Jean and Tove Deleuran arrived in the Balearic Islands and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh in December. [BW13:449] Balearic Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands; Jean Deleuran; Tove Deleuran
    1953 Oct Mrs (Alexandra) Ola Pawlowska arrived in St Pierre and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for Miquelon Island and St Pierre Island. [BW13:454] St Pierre Island; Miquelon Island Ola Pawlowska; Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 Oct Gail and Gerald Curwin and Maurice and Ethel Holmes arrived in Nassau and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for the Bahama Islands. [BW13:449] Nassau; Bahamas Knights of Bahaullah; Islands; Gail Curwin; Ethel Holmes; Gerald Curwin; Maurice Holmes
    1953 Oct Edmund (‘Ted’) Cardell arrived in Windhoek and wss named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for South West Africa (Namibia). [BW13:456]
  • He was later joined by his wife Alicia and the first German Bahá’ís to pioneer to Africa, Martin and Gerda Aiff and their children.
  • In 1955 Hilifa Andreas Nekundi, (also known as Tate Hilifa), was the first Namibian to become a Bahá'í. Mr. Nekundi later served on the first Local Spiritual Assembly of the Baha'is of Windhoek, and the National Spiritual Assembly of the Baha'is of Namibia. [BWNS280]
  • Windhoek; West Africa (Namibia); Namibia Knights of Bahaullah; Ted Cardell; Alicia Cardell; Martin Aiff: Gerda Aiff; Hilifa Andreas Nekundi; Tate Hilifa) first German Bahá’ís pioneers to Africa; the first Namibian to become a Bahá'í.
    1953 Oct The superstructure of the Shrine of the Báb was completed. [BBD210; CB324–5; PP235; ZK85–6]
  • Marble for the Shrine of the Báb came from Chiampo, Italy as did marble for the Archives Building, the Resting Place of Shoghi Effendi, the Seat of the Universal House of Justice, the Terraces Project, the Monument Gardens and the Houses of Worship in India and Samoa. [BWNS1223]
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá described the Shrine of the Báb as the first Mashriqu’l-Adhkár. [ABF18]
  • BWC; Haifa; Mount Carmel; Chiampo; Italy Bab, Shrine of; Marble; BWNS; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1953 Nov Mary Olga Katherine Mills (née Bieymann) arrived in Malta and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:454] Malta Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 Nov Samíra Vakíl arrived in Cyprus and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:450] Cyprus Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 Nov The arrival of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Kamil Abbas in the Seychelles. [BWNS272] Seychelles; Africa Knights of Bahaullah; BWNS
    1953 Nov Dr Mihdí Samandarí arrived in Italian Somaliland and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:452]
  • His wife Ursula (née Newman) arrived in 1954 and was also named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh.
  • Somalia Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 Nov Dr Khodadad M. Fozdar, an Indian of Parsi background, arrived in the Andaman Islands and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:449]
  • For the story of his life see BW13:892–3.
  • Andaman and Nicobar Islands; India Khodadad M. Fozdar; Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 Nov Husayn Rawhání Ardikání and his wife, Nusrat, arrived in Tangier with their daughter, Shahlá, and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for Morocco (International Zone). [BW13:454] Tangier; Morocco Knights of Bahaullah; Husayn Rawhani Ardikani; Nusrat Ardikani; Sahla Ardikani
    1953 Nov ‘Alí Akbar Rafí‘í (Rafsanjání) and his wife, Sháyistih, and their 19-year-old son, ‘Abbás, arrived in Tangier and all were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for Morocco (International Zone). [BW13:454] Morocco Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 Nov Matthew W. Bullock of Boston, Massachusetts, arrived in the Dutch West Indies and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:451] Dutch West Indies (Lesser Antilles); Lesser Antilles Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 11 Nov Shoghi Effendi announced the settling of a further contingent of Knights of Bahá’u’lláh in 21 virgin areas, bringing the number of territories open to the Faith to 200. [MBW52–3] Worldwide Knights of Bahaullah; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Statistics; Growth; Ten Year Crusade
    1953 11 Nov Ottilie Rhein (1903-79), an American of German origin, arrived in Mauritius and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for the island. [BW13:454]
  • For the story of her life see BW18:703–5.
  • On her first expedition to provide necessities for living, she met the proprietor of a shop, Mr. Yim Lim, who became the first resident of the country to join the Faith. [BWNS274]
  • Mauritius Knights of Bahaullah; Islands; BWNS; Ottilie Rhein; Yim Lim first Bahá'í in Mauritius
    1953 13 Nov Kámil ‘Abbás arrived in the Seychelles from Iraq and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455]
  • For the story of his life see BW18:722–3.
  • Seychelles Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 20 Nov The formation of the Israel Branch of the Bahá'ís of Canada. Canada; Israel Israel Branch of the Bahais of Canada find reference
    1953 Late in the year ‘Abdu’l-Karím Amín Khawja became a Bahá’í in Algeria, the first person to accept the Faith in that country. Algeria; Africa First Bahais by country or area first Bahá'í in Algeria find reference
    1953 Dec Kay Khusraw Dahamobedi, Bahíyyih Rawhání and Gulbár Áftábí arrived on Diu Island and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:451] Diu Island; India Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 Dec Adíb Baghdádí arrived in Hadhramaut and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:452] Hadhramaut; Yemen Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 Dec The arrival, from Egypt, of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Labib Isfahani in Dakar, Senegal. He was followed by his brother Habib Isfahani in April of 1954 who also received the honour. [BW13:452, BWNS283] Egypt; Dakar; Senegal Knights of Bahaullah; Labib Isfahani; Habib Isfahani; BWNS
    1953 Dec The arrival of Barbara Sims and her family, husband Sandy and daughter Sandra in Tokyo. [Barbara Sims' Contribution to Bahá'í Scholarship in Asia Pacific by Sandra S. Fotos; In memoriam Barbara Sims by Universal House of Justice, Sheridan Sims, and Sandra S. Fotos] Tokyo; Japan Barbara Sims; Sandra Fotos; Z****
    1953 7 Dec Jalál Kházeh was appointed a Hand of the Cause of God after the passing of Hand of the Cause of God Siegfried Schopflocher. [GBF111–12; MBW55] Jalal Khazeh; Siegfried Schopflocher; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments
    1953 8 Dec Loretta and Carl Scherer arrived in Macau from Milwaukee and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for that island. [BW13:453; PH73]
  • For the stories of their lives see BW18:738–40.
  • Macau Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 13 Dec A separate department for the Bahá’í Faith was established by the Israeli Ministry of Religious Affairs. [GBF137; PP 291; PP320] Israel; Haifa; BWC Recognition
    1953 19 Dec Yan Kee Leong became a Bahá’í, the first person to accept the Faith in Malaya. Malaya; Malaysia Yan Kee Leong; First Bahais by country or area first Bahá'í in Malaya
    1953 27 Dec Gilbert and Daisy Robert, a French couple, become Bahá’ís in Madagascar, the first people to accept the Faith in the country. Madagascar Gilbert Robert; Daisy Robert first Bahá'ís in Madagascar find reference
    1954 (In the year) The purchase of the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Istanbul was concluded. [SS38] Istanbul; Turkey House of Bahaullah (Istanbul); Purchases and exchanges
    1954 (In the year) The first native Fijian, the first Pygmy, the first Berber and the first Greenlander to accept the Bahá’í Faith enrolled. [MBW262] First Bahais by country or area; First believers by background first native Fijian; first Pygmy; first Berber; first Greenlander
    1954 (In the year) The first Tlinget from Alaska to become a Bahá’í, Eugene King, enrolled. Alaska; United States First Bahais by country or area first Tlinget Bahá'í find reference
    1954 (In the year) The first person to become a Bahá’í in the Balearic Islands, C. Miguel, enrolled. Balearic Islands First Bahais by country or area; Islands first Bahá’í in Balearic Islands
    1954 (In the year) ‘Aynu’d-Dín and Táhirih ‘Alá’í arrived in Southern Rhodesia and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:456] Zimbabwe Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 (In the year) Grace Bahovec arrived in the Baranof Islands and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:449] Baranof Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 (In the year) Mr and Mrs Sandikonda, Eliam Chisengalumbwe, Mr Musonda, Peter Chitindi and Elias Kanayenda became Bahá’ís, the first African Bahá’ís to enrol in Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia). BANANI BULLETIN, 1 AUG 1954] Zambia First Bahais by country or area first African Bahá’ís in Northern Rhodesia (Zambia)
    1954 (In the year) José Mingorance Fernandez and his wife, Carmen Tost, a Spanish couple, accepted the Bahá’í Faith; they were the first to enrol in Andorra. Andorra First Bahais by country or area first Bahá’ís in Andorra
    1954 (In the year) Khodadad Irani settled in Zanzibar, the first Bahá’í to do so. Zanzibar Khodadad Irani first Bahá’í pioneer in Zanzibar
    1954 (In the year) Mehraban Isfandiar Sohaili arrived on Mayotte and stayed for two months, the first Bahá’í to visit the island. Mayotte Mihriban Suhayli (Mehraban Sohaili) first Bahá’í to visit Mayotte
    1954 (In the year) The arrival in Zimbabwe (formerly Southern Rhodesia) of Knights of Bahá'u'lláh Izzat'u'llah Zahrai, Douglas Kadenhe, Nura Faridian (now Steiner), Enayat and Iran Sohaili, Shidan Fat'he-Aazam (later member of the Continental Board of Counsellors for Africa) and his wife Florence. [BWNS275] Zimbabwe; Africa Knights of Bahaullah; BWNS
    1954 (In the year) The arrival of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Violet Noehnke on the Admiralty Islands, now Manus Province in Papua New Guinea. [BWNS307, BWNS312] Admiralty Islands; Manus Province; Papua New Guinea Knights of Bahaullah; BWNS Find date
    1954 (In the year) The arrival of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Dulcie Dive in the Cook Islands. [BWNS265] Cook Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands; BWNS
    1954 (In the year) The arrival of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Ted Cardell in South West Africa (now called Namibia). [BWNS280] South West Africa (Namibia); Namibia Knights of Bahaullah; BWNS
    1954 or 1955 "The sacred dust of the Báb's infant son, extolled in the Qayyum-i-Asma, was respectfully and ceremoniously transferred on the anniversary of his Father's martyrdom, in the presence of pilgrims and resident believers to the Bahá'í cemetery in Shiraz, the prelude to the translation to the same spot of the remains of the Báb's beloved and long-suffering consort." [CBN No 65 June, 1955 p1]
  • The timing of the event is unclear. From the article, "the second year, second decade of the second century", it can be assumed that it took place on July 9th, 1955, however, the publication date was June, 1955.
  • Shiraz; Iran Ahmad (son of the Bab); Z****
    1954 Jan Jean Sevin arrived in Tuamotu Archipelago and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:457] Tuamotu Archipelago Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 Jan Charles M. Ioas arrived in the Balearic Islands and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:449] Balearic Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 3 Jan Howard and Joanne Menking arrived in the Cape Verde Islands and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:450] Cape Verde Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 Jan The arrival of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Abdu'l Rahman Zarqani, in the Seychelles. [BWNS272] Seychelles; Africa Knights of Bahaullah; Islands; BWNS
    1954 Jan Munír Vakíl, a former general in the Iraqi army, settled on one of the Kuria-Muria Islands in the Arabian Sea and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:453]
  • For the story of the hardships of his pioneering post see ZK99–101.
  • Kuria-Muria Islands; Oman Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 Jan Elizabeth Bevan (later Mrs Golmohammed) arrived in Rhodes and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455] Rhodes Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 Jan Virginia Breaks arrived on the island of Truk and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for the Caroline Islands. [BW13:450; MBW57] Truk; Caroline Islands Virginia Breaks; Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 Jan Kenneth and Roberta Christian arrived in Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:456] Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe); Zimbabwe Kenneth Christian; Roberta Christian; Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 Jan Andrew and Nina Matthisen arrived in the Bahamas and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:449] Bahamas; Caribbean Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 10 Jan Dorothy Baker, (b.21 December, 1898) Hand of the Cause of God, was killed in a plane crash in the Mediterranean Sea, near the island of Elba. [BW12:670]
  • In 1921 she married Frank Baker who had two motherless children. They had a girl and a boy of their own. [FMH73]
  • She was the granddaughter of Ellen "Mother" Beecher who took her to see 'Abdu'l-Bahá in New York in 1912. An early teacher (unnamed), after seeing the young girl had a vision and asked Jináb-i-Fazil for an explanation. He replied that "someday she will become on of the great teachers of the Cause" and Mother Beecher began to pray that this would be fulfilled. [FMH73]
  • See FMH76-77 for the story of how Doris McKay was able to help Dorothy deal with her depression in 1929.
  • For the Guardian’s cable see BW12:670, CF161.
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed her among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
  • For her obituary see BW12:670–4.
  • See also Freeman, From Copper To Gold.
  • See TG229 for a short story about her and a comment from her on the Long Obligatory Prayer.
  • See Remembering Dorthy Baker at Bahá'í Blog.
  • See Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • Mediterranean Sea; Elba; Italy Dorothy Baker; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, First Contingent
    1954 Jan John and Audrey Robarts with their two younger children, Patrick and Tina, left Toronto for their pioneer post in Mafeking (later Mafikeng), Buchuanaland (later Botswana and formerly Bophuthatswana). Older children Aldham and Gerald pioneered to Nigeria and a homefront post respectively. [LOF485-6]
  • Later the same year he was appointed to the newly established Auxiliary Board by Hand of the Cause of God Músá Banání. They returned to Canada some 13 years later. [LOF486, 491]
  • Canada; Botswana; Nigeria; Africa John Robarts
    1954 14 Jan Lilian E. Wyss arrived in Apia from Australia and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for the Samoa Islands. [BW13:455] Apia; Samoa Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 15 Jan ‘Abdu’l-Rahmán Zarqání, from India, arrived in the Seychelles and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455] Seychelles; Africa; India Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 18 Jan Mrs Dulcie Burns Dive arrived in the Cook Islands from Australia and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:450, 925] Cook Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 25 Jan Stanley P. Bolton, Jr. arrived in Nuku’alofa, on Tongatapu Island, from Australia and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for Tonga Islands. [BW13:456, BWNS286] Tonga Knights of Bahaullah; Islands; BWNS
    1954 Feb Shirin Fozdar arrived in Saigon, the first pioneer to Vietnam. Saigon; Vietnam Shirin Fozdar; pioneer first pioneer to Vietnam
    1954 Feb Rahmatu’lláh and Írán Muhájir arrived in Mentawai Islands and were named Knights of Bahá’u‘lláh. [BW13:454]
  • For the story of their pioneering activity see Muhájir, Dr Muhajir, Hand of the Cause of God, Knight of Bahá’u’lláh.
  • Mentawai Islands; Indonesia Rahmatullah Muhajir; Iran Muhajir; Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 Feb ‘Azízu’lláh and Shamsí Navídí arrived in Monaco and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455] Monaco Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 Feb Joan Powis arrived in Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:456] Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe); Zimbabwe Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 Feb Bernard H. Guhrke arrived on the Kodiak Islands and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:453] Kodiak Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 Feb Gail Avery arrived in the Baranof Islands and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:449] Baranof Islands Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 Feb John and Audrey Robarts and their son Patrick and young daughter Tina arrived in Mafikeng and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for Bechuanaland (Botswana). [BW13:449] Mafikeng; Botswana John Robarts; Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 Feb David Schreiber, an American, arrived in Antigua and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for the Leeward Islands. [BW13:453] Antigua; Leeward Islands Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 Feb Faríburz Rúzbihyán (Feriborz Roozbehyan) arrived in The Gambia and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:452] Gambia, The Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 10 Feb John Leonard arrived in the Falkland Islands and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:451] Falkland Islands Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 Feb Elise Schreiber (later Lynelle) arrived on St Thomas Island and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:456] St Thomas Island Elise Schreiber (later Lynelle); Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 Feb Husayn Halabi arrived in Hadhramaut and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:452] Hadhramaut; Yemen Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 15 Feb Charles Duncan (a musician and composer) and Harry Clark, both Americans, arrived in Brunei from Kota Kinabalu (Jesselton) in Sabah, where they had been waiting for several weeks, and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:451; PH63]
  • Later he pioneered to Thailand where he learned the language. See Servants of the Glory page 19
  • Brunei; Thailand Knights of Bahaullah; Charles Duncan; Harry Clark; Z****
    1954 21 Feb Charles (‘Chuck’) and Mary Dayton from the United States, settled in Charlotte Amalie, on St Thomas, and wre named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for the Leeward Islands. [BW13:453] Charlotte Amalie; St Thomas; Leeward Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 spring The Síyáh-Chál was acquired by the Bahá’ís. [BW12:64–5; SE153; SS45]
  • The purchase cost was $400,000 which was contributed by a Persian believer. [BW12:65; CBN No 52 May 1954 p2]
  • Tihran; Iran Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Purchases and exchanges
    1954 1 Mar Alvin J. Blum and his wife, Gertrude (née Gewertz), arrived in Honiara and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for the Solomon Islands. They were accompanied by their eight-year-old daughter Keithie. [BW13:456; BWNS291] Solomon Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 1 Mar Shirin Fozdar visited Cambodia to receive the first medallion and Certificate of Satrei Vatthana (Champion of Women) from His Majesty King Norodom Sihanouk. She was the first Bahá’í to enter the country.
  • She was not able to teach the Faith openly but she did speak about it to the king’s parents.
  • Cambodia Shirin Fozdar; King Norodom Sihanouk first medallion and Certificate of Satrei Vatthana (Champion of Women) recipient; first Bahá’í in Cambodia
    1954 Mar Qudratu’lláh Rawhání and Khudárahm Muzhgání arrived in Mahé and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:454] Mahe Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 4 Mar The arrival of Knights of Bahá'u'lláh Elena (Marsella) and Roy Fernie in Kiribati. [BWNS301, BW13:452]
  • They had left their home in Panama and their service on the National Spiritual Assembly of Panama to pioneer. They arrived on the island of Abaiang (aka Charlotte Island, of the Gilbert Islands), on March 4, 1954 and for this service they were named Knights of Baha'u'llah. About the first of June 1954, former Catholic seminarian and mission teacher Peter Kanere Koru became the first convert on the island.
  • Their teaching work brought opposition from the Roman Catholic priest who told his congregation not to attend the Bahá'í meetings. He began to criticize them in the Roman Catholic newsletter and actually contributed to the knowledge of the Faith because the newsletter had a wide distribution.
  • The priest persisted in his opposition by informing his bishop who asked the government to send the Fernies away and to send Peter Kanere, a native Bahá'í, back to his native island of Tabiteuea. At the time, to be a registered religious organization required a membership of at least 100 believers so the government approved sending the Fernies away however, in a single night some 300 people registered. A certificate of registration was issued on the 24th of September, 1955, but not before they managed to exile Roy Fernie. Elena continued the teaching work on her own and was responsible for firmly establishing the Faith on Abaiang.
  • Meanwhile, Peter Kanere, back on his home island, managed to teach a Protestant minister who was under discipline of his church at the time. Together they spread the Faith on Tabiteuea. [Island Churches: Challenge and Change by Makisi Finau page 101]
  • For more details on the life of Roy Fernie see Bahaikepedia.
  • See also The Origins of the Bahá’í Faith in the Pacific Islands: The Case of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands by Graham Hassall.
  • And Bahá'í Faith in the Asia Pacific: Issues and Prospects also by Graham Hassall.
  • Elena Maria Marsella published The Quest for Eden in 1966.
  • Tabiteuea; Kiribati; Gilbert Islands Knights of Bahaullah; First Bahais by country or area; Islands; BWNS first Bahá'í on Kiribati (Gilbert Islands)
    1954 Mar Olivia Kelsey and Florence Ullrich arrived in Monaco and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:454]
  • See Bahá'í Chronicles for the story of the life of Florence Maria Ullrich Kelley (b. November 3, 1932 d. February 17, 2016)
  • Monaco Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 19 Mar Paul Haney was appointed Hand of the Cause of God following the death of Hand of the Cause of God Dorothy Baker. [GBF111; MBW57] Paul Haney; Dorothy Baker; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments
    1954 21 Mar Shoghi Effendi announced that there were Bahá’ís in 219 countries. [MBW57] Statistics
    1954 25 Mar The passing of Marion Jack (General Jack) (b. St. John, New Brunswick) at her pioneer post in Sofia, Bulgaria at the age of 87. She had been at her post since 1931. [BWNS385; Never be Afraid to Dare p. 227]
  • Shoghi Effendi called her ‘a shining example to pioneers of present and future generations of East and West’. [CF163]
  • For her obituary see BW12:674–7.
  • See also BFA2155; MC359.
  • For a photo of her gravestone see CBNOct1972p.10.
  • See Bahá'í Chronicles for a biography.
  • For a photo by the Bahá'ís of Sofia see BW5p464.
  • See also Marion Jack: Immortal Heroine by Jan Jasion
  • See CBNOctober1979 for tributes as well as a photo of her gravesite.
  • Sofia; Bulgaria Marion Jack; Pioneers; In memoriam; Births and deaths; Pioneers; BWNS
    1954 25 Mar Leland Jensen arrived on Réunion Island from the United States and ws named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455]
  • He was later declared a Covenant-breaker.
  • Reunion; France Leland Jensen; Knights of Bahaullah; Covenant-breakers
    1954 28 Mar Suhráb Paymán, together with his five-year old-daughter Ghitty, arrived in San Marino from Tihrán to join his wife. He was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh in April. [BW13:455] San Marino Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 Apr Mrs Mehrangiz Munsiff pioneered to the city of Douala in the French Cameroons (later Cameroon). Both she and Mr Samuel Njiki were honoured as Knights of Bahá'u'lláh for this territory. [Bahá'í Journal UK Vol 20, No 5 Jan/Feb 2004, BW13:451]
  • For a photo see Bahá’í Media Bank.
  • French Cameroon; Cameroon; Douala Meherangiz Munsiff; Samuel Njiki; Knights of Bahaullah Knight of Bahá'u'lláh for Cameroons
    1954 Apr Bahá’í women in Iran were accorded full rights to participate in membership of both national and local Bahá’í assemblies. [MBW65]
  • This removed the ‘last remaining obstacle to the enjoyment of complete equality of rights in the conduct of the administrative affairs of the Persian Bahá’í Community’. [MBW65]
  • Iran NSA; LSA
    1954 Apr The arrival of Knight Mr. Enoch Olinga in British Cameroon. [BWNS291] British Cameroon; Africa Knights of Bahaullah; Enoch Olinga; BWNS
    1954 Apr The arrival of Knight Samuel Njiki in French Cameroon. [BWNS249] French Cameroon; Cameroon Samuel Njiki; BWNS
    1954 Apr Dr John Fozdar arrived in Brunei in April 1954 and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:450] Brunei John Fozdar; Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 6 Apr Shoghi Effendi announced the creation of five Auxiliary Boards with the following number of members: Asia 7; America 9; Europe 9; Africa 9; Australia 2. [MBW59]
  • Their function was to ‘act as deputies of the Hands in their respective continents’, to ‘aid and advise them in the effective prosecution of the’ and to assist them ‘in the discharge of their dual and sacred task of safeguarding the Faith and of promoting its teaching activities’. [MBW63]
  • See also BBD26; BBRSM127; MC3.
  • These boards were mandated with the propagation of the Faith.
  • Auxiliary Board Members and assistants; Appointed arm; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Ten Year Crusade; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline
    1954 6 Apr Five Continental Bahá’í Funds were inaugurated by Shoghi Effendi. [MBW59, 63] BWC Funds; Funds, Continental; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1954 6 Apr Shoghi Effendi announced that plans for the International Bahá’í Archives had been completed and that steps had been taken to begin its construction. [PP264BBD22–3; DH169; GBF117–8; MBW64] BWC; Mount Carmel; Haifa International Bahai Archives; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1954 Apr The arrival of Knight Edward Tabe in British Togoland (now part of Ghana). [BWNS249] British Togoland (Ghana); Ghana Knights of Bahaullah; BWNS
    1954 11 Apr Bula Mott Stewart arrived in Swaziland and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:456] Swaziland Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 12 Apr Shoghi Effendi accepted the bid made by the firm of Enrico Pandolfini of Pietrasanta in Tuscany, Italy for the supply of the obelisk will mark the place of the first Mashriqu'l-Adhkar of the Holy Land. After the delivery of the materials circumstances did not allow for the obelisk to be erected. The Universal House of Justice completed the project in August, 1971. Haifa; BWC; Pietrasanta; Tuscany; Italy Mashriqul-Adhkar, Haifa; Obelisks; Shoghi Effendi, Life of find reference
    1954 13 Apr David Tanyi, a tailor, arrived in French Togoland from British Cameroons and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:451] French Togoland (Togo); Togo Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 Apr The arrival of Knight David Tanyi in Togoland (now Togo). [BWNS249] Togoland (Togo); Togo Knights of Bahaullah; BWNS
    1954 Apr Edward Tabe and Albert Buapiah arrived in British Togoland and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:450] British Togoland (Ghana); Ghana Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 Apr The arrival of Knight Martin Manga to Northern Territories Protectorate (now part of Ghana). [BWNS249] Northern Territories Protectorate (Ghana); Ghana Knights of Bahaullah; BWNS
    1954 Apr Benedict Eballa arrived in Ashanti Protectorate and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:449] Ashanti Protectorate (Ghana); Ghana Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 Apr Martin Manga arrived in the Northern Territories Protectorate, and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455] Northern Territories Protectorate (Ghana); Ghana Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 18 Apr John and Valera Allen arrive in Swaziland and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:456] Swaziland Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 Apr Habíb Isfahání arrived in Dakar and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for French West Africa. [BW13:452] Dakar; French West Africa Habib Isfahani; Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 Apr Gayle Woolson arrived in the Galapagos Islands and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:452] Galapagos Islands; Ecuador Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 Ridván In his cablegram of October 8, 1952, Shoghi Effendi called upon all 15 "continental" Hands to appoint, during Ridván, 1954, five Auxiliary Boards, one on each continent, composed of nine members each to work as their deputies along with the National Assemblies to assist in the execution of the twelve teaching plans. [BW13p335, MBW44, 63] Auxiliary Board Members and assistants; Appointed arm
    1954 Ridván Adelaide Sharp, who had been in Iran since 1929, was elected to the National Spiritual Assembly of Iran, the first woman elected to that body. [BFA2:361] Iran Adelaide Sharp; NSA; Firsts, Other; Women first woman elected NSA Iran
    1954 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in the Malay Peninsula was established in Seremban. Seremban; Malay LSA first LSA Malay Peninsula
    1954 Ridván The first all African local spiritual assembly in Tanganyika was formed in Bukoba. Bukoba; Tanganyika (Tanzania) LSA first all African LSA in Tanganyika
    1954 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly was formed in British Cameroons. British Cameroon LSA first LSA British Cameroons
    1954 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly was formed in Ruanda-Urundi. Ruanda-Urundi (Burundi) LSA first LSA Ruanda-Urundi (Burundi)
    1954 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Algeria was formed in Algiers. Algiers; Algeria LSA first LSA Algeria
    1954 21 Apr Bruce Matthew arrived at Goose Bay and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for Labrador. [BW13:453] Goose Bay; Labrador; Canada Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 Apr Kay Zinky arrived in the Magdalen Islands and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:453] Magdalen Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 Apr Howard Gilliland arrived in Labrador and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:453] Labrador Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 Apr The arrival of Knight Benedict Eballa to Ashanti Protectorate (now part of Ghana). [BWNS249] Ashanti Protectorate (Ghana); Ghana Knights of Bahaullah; BWNS
    1954 Apr Samuel Njiki, the first Bahá’í of the Bamiliki tribe, arrived in French Cameroons from British Cameroons and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. French Cameroon; Cameroon Samuel Njiki; Knights of Bahaullah first Bahá’í of the Bamiliki tribe
    1954 26 Apr President of Israel Ben Zvi and his wife visit the Shrines on Mount Carmel, the first official visit paid by a head of a sovereign state to the Shrines of the Báb and ‘Abdu’l-Bahá. [GBF139–140; MBW68; PP2923] Haifa; Mount Carmel Ben Zvi; Presidents; Prominent visitors; Bab, Shrine of; Firsts, Other first official visit head of a sovereign state to Shrine of the Báb
    1954 Apr Corporal Richard Walters and his wife, Evelyn, and Richard and Mary L. Suhm arrived in Tangier from the United States and were all named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for Morocco (International Zone). BW13:454] Tangier; Morocco Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 Apr John and Marjorie Kellberg of Oak Park, Illinois, arrived in the Dutch West Indies and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:451] Dutch West Indies (Lesser Antilles); Lesser Antilles Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 Apr Robert B. Powers, Jr., a member of the U.S. armed forces at the Navy Air Station, arrived in Guam and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for the Mariana Islands. [BW13:454] Guam; Mariana Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 Apr The site for the first Mashriqu’l-Adhkár of the Holy Land was selected. [DH175; MBW63] Haifa Mashriqul-Adhkar, Haifa first Mashriqu’l-Adhkár of the Holy Land
    1954 Apr Shoghi Effendi announced that there were Bahá’ís in 228 countries and that Bahá’í literature has been translated into 130 languages. [MBW61–2] Statistics
    1954 May Elinore Putney arrived in the Aleutian Islands and was named a Knight of Bahá’u‘lláh. [BW13:449] Aleutian Islands; Alaska; United States; Russia Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 2 May The arrival of Knights of Bahá'u'lláh Mavis Nymon and Vivian Wesson in French Togoland (now called Togo). [BWNS329 ] French Togoland (Togo); Togo Knights of Bahaullah; BWNS
    1954 2 May The arrival of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Cynthia Olson in the Mariana Islands. [BWNS303] Mariana Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands; BWNS
    1954 2 May Cynthia R. Olson of Wilmington, Delaware, settled in Barrigada, the largest village in Guam, and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for the Mariana Islands. [BW13:454] Barrigada; Guam; Mariana Islands; Oceania Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 May Elise Schreiber (later Lynelle) arrived in Bata, the capital of Rio Muni, and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for a second time, this time for Spanish Guinea. [BW13:456] Equatorial Guinea Elise Schreiber (later Lynelle); Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 4 May Shoghi Effendi closed the Roll of Honour, except for those pioneers who have already left for their posts and those first arriving in the remaining virgin territories inside and outside the Soviet Republics and satellites. [MBW69] Haifa; BWC Roll of Honour; Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 4 May Elizabeth Stamp, an Irish-American widow from New York City, arrived in St Helena and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:456] St Helena Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 5 May Sabrí and Fahima (Ra’isa) Elias, an Egyptian couple with four children, arrived in Djibouti and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for French Somaliland. [BW13:451] French Somaliland (Djibouti); Djibouti Sabri Elias; Raissa Elias; Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 May Haig Kevorkian arrived in the Galápagos Islands and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:452] Galapagos Islands; Ecuador Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 2 May Mavis Nymon and Vivian Wesson, both Americans, arrived in French Togoland and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:451] Togo; Africa Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 17 May The arrival of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Elise Lynelle (then Schreiber) in Bata, Spanish Guinea, now Equatorial Guinea. [BWNS330] Bata; Spanish Guinea; Equatorial Guinea Elise Schreiber (later Lynelle); Knights of Bahaullah; BWNS
    1954 26 May Shoghi Effendi, Rúhíyyih Khánum and Leroy Ioas returned the visit of President Ben Zvi by visiting him in Jerusalem. [GBF140; PP293–4] Jerusalem; Israel Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Leroy Ioas; Ben Zvi; Presidents
    1954 Jun Harold and Florence Fitzner arrived in Portuguese Timor and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455] Portuguese Timor; East Timor Harold Fitzner; Florence Fitzner; Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 Jun Louise Groger arrived on Chiloé Island and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:450] Chiloe Island Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 Jun Shawqí Riyád Rawhání (Shoghi Riaz Rouhani), an Iranian from Egypt, arrived in Las Palmas and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for the Canary Islands. [BW13:450] Las Palmas; Canary Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 9 Jun The passing of Alain LeRoy Locke (b. September 13, 1885, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.) in New York. He was laid to rest in Congressional Cemetery in Washington DC.
  • Locke graduated from Harvard University and was the first African American to win a prestigious Rhodes Scholarship. Despite his intellect and clear talent, Locke faced significant barriers as an African American. Though he was selected as the first African-American Rhodes Scholar, Locke was denied admission to several colleges at the University of Oxford because of his race. He finally gained entry into Hertford College, where he studied from 1907 to 1910. Locke also studied philosophy at the University of Berlin during his years abroad. He subsequently received a doctorate in philosophy from Harvard and taught at Howard University. Locke publicized the Harlem Renaissance to a wide audience.
  • Locke declared his belief in the Bahá'í Faith in 1918. He is thus among a list of some 40 known African Americans to join the religion during the ministry of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá. His philosophical writings promoted pluralism, cultural relativism and self-expression. [Uplifting Words; Wiki]
  • See his article "Impressions of Haifa". [BW3p527-528]
  • See also his article "The Orientation of Hope". [BW5p527-528]
  • See articles on Alain Locke on Bahá'í Library
  • Find a grave.
  • Philadelphia; New York Alain Locke; In Memoriam the first African-American Rhodes Scholar,
    1954 18 Jun The first islander to become a Bahá’í in the Seychelles, Marshall Delcy, a local school teacher, enrolled. Seychelles First Bahais by country or area; Islands first islander Bahá'í in Seychelles
    1954 19 Jun The first Canary Islander to become a Bahá’í, Sr. José Jacinto Castillo y Gonzalez, enrolled. Canary Islands First Bahais by country or area first Canary Islander Bahá’í
    1954 24 Jun Shápúr Rawhání and Ardishír Furúdí, Iranian residents of India, arrived in Bhutan by foot and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. They spent about two months in Bhutan. However, circumstances did not permit them to remain longer and they had to return to India. [BW13:449]
  • They were accompanied to the Bhutan border by the prime minister of Bhutan, Jigme Dorji.
  • In about 1961 Dr. Anayat Soroosh Yaganagi, a Bahá'í of Zoroastrian background from Bangalore pioneered to Bhutan. See the brief history of his family and the development of the Faith in the country in "Bahá'í Recollections" written by one of his daughters, Geeti Yaganegi.
  • Bhutan; India Shapur Rawhani; Ardishir Furudi; Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 Jul c. The first person to become a Bahá’í in Brunei, Daphne Hassan, enrolled. Brunei Daphne Hassan first Bahá’í in Brunei
    1954 Jul José Marques arrived in Portuguese Timor and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455] Portuguese Timor; East Timor Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 Jul Dr John George Mitchell, an English physician who became a Bahá’í in 1950, arrived in Malta and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:454] Malta Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 Jul Reginald Stone and Allan Delph became Bahá’ís in British Guiana, the first two people to accept the Faith in that country. British Guiana; Latin America First Bahais by country or area first Bahá'ís in British Guiana
    1954 5 Jul Violet Hoehnke, an Australian, arrived in Papua New Guinea and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for the Admiralty Islands. [BW13:449] Papua New Guinea; Admiralty Islands Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 Second half of the year The first Somali to become a Bahá’í in Djibouti, ‘Alí ‘Abdu’lláh, a 21-year old employee of a commercial firm, enrolled. Djibouti; Somalia; Africa First Bahais by country or area first Somali Bahá’í find reference
    1954 12 Jul Dudley Moore Blakely, an artist, sculptor and designer, and his wife, Elsa (‘Judy’), British citizens living in Maine, arrived on Tongatapu and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for Tonga Islands. [BW13:456] They shared the honour with Dr. Stanley Bolton. [BWNS286] Tonga Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 15 Jul The first person to become a Bahá’í in Macau, Harry P. F. Yim (Yim Pui Foung), a 45-year-old small business proprietor born in Canton, China, enrolled. Macau Harry P. F. Yim (Yim Pui Foung) first Bahá’í in Macau
    1954 7 Aug Marcia Steward de Matamoros Atwater arrived in the Marshall Islands and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:454] Marshall Islands Marcia Atwater; Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 28 Aug Mihribán Suhaylí (Mehraban Sohaili) arrived on the Comoro Islands and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:450] Comoro Islands Mihriban Suhayli (Mehraban Sohaili); Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 Sep Four people had become Bahá’ís in Zanzibar by this date. Zanzibar Statistics
    1954 6 Sep The first people to become Bahá’ís in Bechuanaland (Lesotho), Chadwick and ‘Maselai (Mary) Mohapi, enrolled. [BW17:449–52] Bechuanaland (Lesotho) Lesotho; Africa first Bahá’ís in Bechuanaland (Lesotho)
    1954 26 Sep The first native Greek to become a Bahá’í, Emmanuel Petrakis, enrolled in Crete. Crete Emmanuel Petrakis first native Greek Bahá’í
    1954 Oct A National Haziratu'l-Quds was established in Kabul. [MBW70; 81] Kabul; Afghanistan Haziratul-Quds
    1954 1 Oct Shoghi Effendi announced that there were Bahá’ís in 235 countries and territories and over 3000 centres around the world. [MBW69–70] Worldwide Statistics; Growth; Ten Year Crusade
    1954 1 Oct Anthony and Mamie Seto arrived in Hong Kong. Hong Kong; Asia Knights of Bahaullah; Anthony Seto; Mamie Seto find reference
    1954 1 Oct The title of the a parcel of land on Mount Carmel was transferred to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canada, Israel Branch. The title deed was for Parcel No. 304, Block 10811 Mount Carmel, Haifa. Mount Carmel; Haifa; Israel; BWC Purchases and exchanges find reference
    1954 3 Oct Shoghi Effendi designated Martha Root as a Hand of the Cause of God posthumously. She had passed away on September 28, 1939 in Hawaii.
  • Shoghi Effendi called her the ‘archetype of Bahá’í itinerant teachers’, the ‘foremost Hand raised by Bahá’u’lláh since ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s passing’, ‘Leading ambassadress of His Faith’ and ‘Pride of Bahá’í teachers’. [GPB386]
  • Hand of the Cause of God; Martha root find reference
    1954 Oct The first person to become a Bahá’í in Nassau, Bahamas, Winfield Small, a young police officer from Barbados, enrolled.
  • Mr Small opened Barbados to the Faith.
  • Nassau; Bahamas; Barbados First Bahais by country or area first Bahá’í in Nassau, Bahamas
    1954 22 Oct Mr and Mrs Suleimani arrived in Keelung, Taiwan by ship. They spent the rest of their lives there. The Suleimanis, originally from Iran, had lived for about 28 years in Shanghai where Mrs Ridvaniyyih Suleimani's father, Mr Husayn Ouskouli Uskuli (or Uskui) had long resided and conducted a business. Mr and Mrs Suleimani had left Shanghai permanently in 1950 because of the difficult situations for foreigners in China but Mr Ouskouli decided to stay on and won the admiration of the Guardian. He died in Shanghai at the age of 86. [The Taiwan Bahá'í Chronicle by Barbara R. Sims p3] Keelung; Taiwan; Shanghai; China Knights of Bahaullah; Suleimani, Mr. and Mrs.; Husayn Ouskouli Uskuli
    1954 Nov A plot of land of slightly less than half an acre (1,300 metres) owned by Farah Sprague, a Covenant-breaker, was purchased (after expropriation by the state of Israel), overcoming the final obstacle to beginning the construction of the International Bahá’í Archives. This concluded a thirty-year struggle in the acquisition of land on the Arc for the Guardian. [LI210-211; DH169; MBW73–4; CBN No 60 January, 1955 p1] Haifa Farah Sprague; Covenant-breakers; International Bahai Archives Was she the Iranian-born wife of Sydney Sprague? See BFA2p155 Sister of Fareed? MBW73
    1954 20 Nov The first person to become a Bahá’í in Tonga, Harry Terepo, born in Rarotonga, Cook Islands, enrolled.
  • He was a teacher, interpreter and guide living in Ohonua on the island of Eua.
  • Tonga First Bahais by country or area first Bahá’í in Tonga
    1954 27 Nov Shoghi Effendi announced the commencement of "the excavation for the foundations of the International Archives heralding the rise of the first edifice destine to inaugurate the establishment of the seat of the World Baha'i Administrative order in the Holy Land". [MBW75] BWC International Bahai Archives; Z****
    1954 27 Nov Shoghi Effendi described the significance of the world administrative centre of the Faith and the ‘structures, which will serve as the administrative seats of such divinely appointed institutions as the Guardianship, the Hands of the Cause, and the Universal House of Justice’ to be ranged along a ‘far-flung arc’. [MBW74] BWC; Mount Carmel; Haifa Guardianship; Hands of the Cause; Universal House of Justice, Seat of; Arc (World Centre); - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1954 8 Dec Bahá’ís in Ádharbáyján were dismissed from their employment in the Ministries of Health and Public Highways. [BW18:390] Adharbayjan Persecution, Adharbayjan; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1955 to 2007 The fifth Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh was 'Ali-Muhammad Varqá. He inherited both the Trusteeship and the station of Hand of the Cause of God from his father upon his passing. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
  • During his tenure the compilation Huqúqu'lláh was published (1985) by the Universal House of Justice.
  • The delegates gathered at the National Convention of the Bahá'ís of the United States in 1984 petitioned the Universal House of Justice to make the Law of the Huqúqu'lláh applicable in their country. (Up to this point the law only applied to Bahá'is of Persian origin.) The Universal House of Justice replied that it was not yet time for such a measure but did agree to make more information available in preparation for such a time. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 3 January, 1985, AWH30]
  • Friends in Austria and the United States published codifications on the Law of the Huqúqu'lláh. To the benefit of the believers everywhere the Research Department at the World Centre was asked to prepare a brief history and a Codification. This information was sent to all national assemblies in the Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1987.
  • In 1991 the Central Office of Huqúqu'lláh was established in the Holy Land under the direction of the Chief Trustee in anticipation of the worldwide application of the law. Subsequently regional and national boards were established. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 26 November, 1991]
  • With the publication of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas in English in 1992 the law of the Huqúqu'lláh became universally applicable.
  • In 2005 an International Board of Trustees of the Huqúqu'lláh was established to guide the regional and national boards. Three members appointed to the Board were Sally Foo, Ramin Khadem, and Grant Kvalheim. Their term of office was to be determined. [Ridván 2005]
  • The last Hand of the Cause of Cause and Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh, Alí Muhammad Varqá, passed away in Haifa on the 22nd of September, 2007. [BWNS579]
  • BWC; Haifa Varqa, Ali-Muhammad; Huququllah; Huququllah, Trustees of; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Varqa; BWNS
    1955 (In the year) The first person to become a Bahá’í in The Gambia, Mr Nichola Banna, a Lebanese merchant, enrolled. Gambia, The First Bahais by country or area first Bahá’í in The Gambia
    1955 (In the year) The first indigenous Samoan to become a Bahá’í, Sa’ialala Tamasese, enrolled.
  • He was a member of one of the three royal families of Samoa. [BINS, No. 100, 1 MARCH 1979, p. 1]
  • Samoa First Bahais by country or area; Bahai royalty first indigenous Samoan Bahá’í
    1955 (In the year) Labíb Isfahání arrived in Abidjan, French West Africa, from Dakar, the first Bahá’í to settle in what is now the Ivory Coast. Abidjan; French West Africa Habib Isfahani; First Bahais by country or area first Bahá’í to settle in Ivory Coast
    1955 (In the year) The first person to become a Bahá’í in Spanish Sahara, ‘Abdu’l-Salam Salím Al-Sbintí, enrolled. Spanish Sahara (Western Sahara) First Bahais by country or area first Bahá’í in Spanish Sahara
    1955 (In the year) Twenty–two African Bahá’ís were expelled from the Belgian Congo. Belgian Congo Persecution, Belgian Congo; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1955 (In the year) The first person to become a Bahá’í in Grenada, John Protain, a waiter at the Santa Maria Hotel, enrolled. Grenada John Protain first Bahá’í in Grenada
    1955 Jan Dorothy Senne became the first Bahá'í in South Africa. [BWNS270] South Africa Dorothy Senne; BWNS First Bahá'í in South Africa.
    1955 c. Jan The first Tswana Bahá’í, Stanlake Kukama, enrolled in Mafikeng. Mafikeng; South Africa First believers by background first Tswana Bahá’í
    1955 18–22 Jan Five Bahá’ís were arrested and beaten in Hisár, Khurásán, Iran; four of these are dragged around the town; Bahá’í houses were attacked, looted and set on fire. [BW18:390] Hisar; Khurasan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution
    1955 Feb The first local person to become a Bahá’í in Mauritius, Mr Yam-Lim, a Chinese Catholic, enrolld. Mauritius First Bahais by country or area first local Bahá’í in Mauritius
    1955 4 Feb Bahá’í women in Hisár, Khurásán, Iran, were assaulted. [BW18:390] Hisar; Khurasan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1955 8–15 Feb The first people to become Bahá’ís in Réunion, Paul and Françoise Tayllamin (8 Feb) and Jean Donat and Julien Araye (15 Feb), enrolled. Reunion; France First Bahais by country or area first Bahá’ís in Réunion
    1955 Mar The first person to become a Bahá’í in the Solomon Islands, William Gina, a 43-year-old Solomon Islander from the Western Solomon Islands, enrolled. Solomon Islands; Oceania First Bahais by country or area first Bahá’í in Solomon Islands
    1955 Mar Kamálí Sarvístání arrived on Socotra Island and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:456] Socotra Island Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1955 4 Mar The first Tongan to become a Bahá’í in Tonga, Tevita Ngalo’afe, enrolled. Tonga First believers by background; First Bahais by country or area first Tongan Bahá’í in Tonga
    1955 14 Mar The first person to become a Bahá’í in Guam, Charles T. Mackey, a United States civil service employee, enrolled. Guam First Bahais by country or area first Bahá’í in Guam
    1955 Apr Shoghi Effendi announced the acquisition of 36,000 square metres of land for the first Mashriqu’l-Adhkár of the Holy Land. [DH175; MBW78–9]
  • The entire sum for the purchase was donated by Amelia Collins. [MBW79]
  • BWC; Haifa Mashriqul-Adhkar, Haifa; Purchases and exchanges; Amelia Collins; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre first Mashriqu’l-Adhkár of the Holy Land
    1955 Apr The first person to become a Bahá’í in the Bahamas, Molly Newbold, enrolled.
  • As she did not remain a Bahá’í, Arnold Wells, a tinsmith who became a Bahá’í on 20 April, is regarded as the first Bahá’í. Christine Thompson, who owned a small fruit and vegetable shop, and Frank Ferguson, who owned a gas station, also enrolled on 20 April.
  • Bahamas First Bahais by country or area; Islands first Bahá’í in Bahamas
    1955 Apr Shoghi Effendi announced that the Bahá’í Faith was represented in 236 countries, in 3,200 locations, by over 40 ethnic groups. Bahá’í literature was translated into 176 languages. [MBW76–8] Worldwide Statistics; Growth; Ten Year Crusade
    1955 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Zanzibar was formed. Zanzibar LSA first LSA in Zanzibar
    1955 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Réunion was formed. Reunion; France LSA first LSA in Réunion
    1955 Ridván The first five local assemblies in Bechuanaland (Botswana) were formed in Seqonoka, Maseru, Mafeteng, Maphohloane and Sephapos’ Gate. Seqonoka; Maseru; Mafeteng; Maphohloane and Sephapos Gate; Lesotho LSA first five LSAs in what is now Lesotho
    1955 Ridván The first four local spiritual assemblies in The Gambia were formed in Bathurst (Banjul), Serrekunda, Lamin and Brikama. Bathurst (Banjul); Serrekunda; Lamin and Brikama; Gambia, The LSA first four LSAs in The Gambia
    1955 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) was formed in Salisbury (Harare). [CG21] Salisbury (Harare); Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) LSA first LSA in Rhodesia (Zimbabwe)
    1955 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly of French Togoland (Togo) formed at Lomé. Lome; French Togoland (Togo); Togo LSA first LSA in French Togoland (Togo)
    1955 Ridván The first local spiritual in Mozambique was established in Lourenço Marques. [BW13:290] Lourenco Marques; Mozambique LSA first LSA in Mozambique
    1955 Ridván The first native Mozambican Bahá’í, Festas Chambeni, took the Bahá’í Faith to Angola. [BW13:290] Angola Festas Chambeni first native Mozambican Bahá’í
    1955 Ridván The first Local Spiritual Assembly in Italian Somalia was formed in Mogadishu. Mogadishu; Italian Somaliland LSA first LSA in Italian Somaliland
    1955 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Madagascar was formed in Tananarive (Antananarivo). Tananarive (Antananarivo); Madagascar LSA first LSA in Madagascar
    1955 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in the Seychelles was formed in Victoria. Victoria; Seychelles LSA first LSA in Seychelles
    1955 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in the Bahamas was formed in Nassau. Nassau; Bahamas LSA first LSA in Bahamas
    1955 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Vietnam was formed at Saigon-Cholon (Cholon is the Chinese section of Saigon).
  • This body was also the first local assembly to be formed in Indochina.
  • Saigon-Cholon; Vietnam LSA first LSA in Vietnam
    1955 23 Apr Ramadán began. Shaykh Muhammad-Taqí known as "Falsafí" made an inflammatory speech against the Bahá’ís from a mosque in Tihrán. [BW18:390]
  • This is broadcast on national radio and stirred up the people against the Bahá’ís. [BW18:390]
  • Beatings, killings, looting and raping go on for several weeks, usually incited by the local ‘ulamá. [BW18:390–1; MC16–17; ZK215–6]<
  • The House of the Báb in Shíráz was attacked and damaged by a mob led by Siyyid Núru’d-Dín, a mujtahid.
  • Tihran; Shiraz; Iran Bab, House of (Shiraz); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Mobs; Persecution
    1955 May-Jul Persecutions against the Bahá’ís continued throughout Iran. BW18:391]
  • Many Bahá’ís were beaten, including women and children.
  • Bahá’í houses and shops were looted and burned.
  • Bahá’ís employed in government service were dismissed.
  • Bodies of dead Bahá’ís were disinterred and mutilated.
  • Young Bahá’í women were abducted and forced to marry Muslims.
  • Several Bahá’í women were publicly stripped and/or raped.
  • Crops and orchards belonging to Bahá’ís were looted and destroyed.
  • Bahá’í children were expelled from schools.
  • The House of the Báb in Shíráz was damaged.
  • Shiraz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution; Bab, House of (Shiraz)
    1955 2 May The police locked the doors of the National Bahá’í Centre in Tihrán thus preventing the holding of the final day of the National Bahá’í Convention. [BW18:390] Tihran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Conventions, National; Haziratul-Quds
    1955 4 May Sylvia Ioas was appointed to the International Bahá’í Council as its ninth member. [BW19:612; GBF110; MBW86; PP253] Haifa Sylvia Ioas; International Bahai Council
    1955 7 May The Iranian army occupied the National Bahá’í Centre in Tihrán. [BW18:390] Tihran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Haziratul-Quds
    1955 8 May Bahá’ís were beaten at Dámghán, Khurásán, Iran. [BW18:390] Damghan; Khurasan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1955 8 May The Bahá’í centre at Rasht, Iran, was attacked and taken over. [BW18:390] Rasht; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Haziratul-Quds
    1955 9 May Bahá’í houses were attacked and looted at Shíráz, Iran. [BW18:390] Shiraz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1955 9 May The Bahá’í centre at Ahváz, Iran, was taken over. [BW18:390] Ahvaz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Haziratul-Quds
    1955 16 May The Bahá’í centre at Isfahán, Iran, was taken over. [BW18:390] Isfahan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Haziratul-Quds
    1955 17 May The Iranian Minister of the Interior announced in parliament that the Government had issued orders for the suppression of the ‘Bahá’í sect’ and the liquidation of the Bahá’í centres. [BBRSM174; BW18:391] Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Haziratul-Quds
    1955 22 May The dome of the National Bahá’í Centre in Tihrán was demolished with the personal participation of several high-ranking army officers. The publication of the pictures of this episode encouraged a widespread outburst of persecution of Bahá’ís throughout Iran. [BW18:391]
  • After the coup in 1953 the Shah was indebted to the clergy for their support and so they were given a greater latitude to persecute the Bahá'ís. In an attempt to show his gratitude the Shah sent a high ranking officer to ask if they had any special requests and they called for the Bahá'í Centre in Tehran to be destroyed. The army occupied the Centre and high-ranking officers and clerics jointly demolished the dome. [Towards a History of Iran’s Bahá'í Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani.]
  • For pictures see BW13:293–4.
  • Photo.
  • Tihran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Haziratul-Quds
    1955 23 May The Bahá’í International Community submitted its Proposals for Charter Revision to the United Nations for the Conference for Revision of the UN Charter. [BW13:788, 795–802] New York; United States Bahai International Community; United Nations Charter; United Nations
    1955 24 May The Bahá’í centre at Karaj, Iran, was taken over. [BW18:391] Karaj; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Haziratul-Quds
    1955 27 May The Bahá’í centre at Máhfurúzak, Iran, was demolished. [BW18:391] Mahfuruzak; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution; Haziratul-Quds
    1955 30 May Bahá’ís were attacked and wounded and their houses attacked at Ábádih, Iran. [BW18:391] Abadih; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1955 1 Jun The House of Bahá’u’lláh in Tákur, Mázandarán, Iran, was taken over. [BW18:391] Takur; Mazandaran; Iran House of Bahaullah (Takur); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1955 2 Jun The first pioneer to settle in Laos, Dr Heshmat Ta’eed, arrived in the country from Thailand. Laos First travel teachers and pioneers first pioneer to Laos
    1955 4 Jun Frank Wyss of Australia arrived on Cocos and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:450] Cocos Knights of Bahaullah
    1955 28 Jul Seven Bahá’ís were stabbed and beaten to death by a mob in Hurmuzak, Iran. [BW18:391, Towards a History of Iran’s Baha’i Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani.]
  • Several other Bahá’ís, including women, were beaten and injured; Bahá’í houses and property were damaged. [BW18:391]
  • See also M. Labíb, The Seven Martyrs of Hurmuzak.
  • See entry for 26 September, 2016.
  • Hurmuzak; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Mobs; Persecution; Seven martyrs of Hurmuzak; Seven martyrs
    1955 Aug Appeals were made by National Spiritual Assemblies around the world through the Bahá’í International Community to the UN Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjöld to ask the Iranian government to halt the attacks on the Bahá’ís. [BW13:789–91; BW16:329; MBW88–9; PP304, 311]
  • The intervention of the Secretary-General of the UN, along with the efforts of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States, brought an end to the physical persecution of the Bahá’ís, although their human rights are still denied. [BW13:790; BW16:329]
  • This marked the first time the Faith was able to defend itself with its newly born administrative agencies. An “Aid the Persecuted Fund” was established.
  • Historian Mohamad Tavakoli-Targhi noted that the 1955 anti-Bahá'í campaign was both the apogee and the point of separation of the state-clergy co-operation. The Shah succumbing to international pressure to provide human rights, withdrew support. The result was that the period from the late fifties until 1977-1978 was a period of relative safety. [Towards a History of Iran’s Bahá'í Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani.]
  • New York; United States; Iran Bahai International Community; Dag Hammarskjöld; United Nations, Secretary-Generals; United Nations; NSA; Human rights; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1955 5 Aug In a letter written on behalf of Shoghi Effendi to the National Spiritual Assembly of the British Isles he requested that Bahá'ís withdraw from Churches, Synagogues, Freemasonry and other secret societies. A number of letters had been written before and were written after on the same subject. [LoGno.1387; LoGno.1388 (1956); LoGno.1389 (1956); LoGno.1390 (1956); LoGno.1391 (1951)]
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá had previously permitted such membership in the Masons. [ABL127]
  • Church Membership; Secret Societies; Masons; Masonry; Z****
    1955 23 Aug Shoghi Effendi announced plans to begin construction on the House of Worship in Kampala, Uganda. [MBW90; PP312; BW13p713; CG42-43] Kampala; Uganda Mashriqul-Adhkar, Kampala; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1955 Sep-Oct Bahá’ís in Iran continued to be dismissed from their employment. Bahá’í students were expelled from Shíráz University. [BW18:391] Shiraz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Education; Persecution; Haziratul-Quds
    1955 Sep Travelling by foot, Udai Narain Singh arrived in Tibet from Gangtok, Sikkim, and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh, his second such distinction.
  • He was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh in spring 1956. [BW13:456]
  • Tibet; Sikkim; India Udai Narain Singh; Knights of Bahaullah
    1955 Sep Fowzieh Sobhi arrived in British Somaliland from Egypt, the first Bahá’í to reside in the country. British Somaliland Fowzieh Sobhi first pioneer to British Somaliland
    1955 23 - 25 Sep International Teaching Conference was held in Nikko, Japan. [Japan Will Turn Ablaze p87, 97] Nikko; Japan Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching; First conferences first conference held in Japan
    1955 Oct Daniel Haumont arrived in the Loyalty Islands and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:453] Loyalty Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1955 12 Nov Hand of the Cause of God Valíyu’lláh Varqá passed away in Stuttgart.
  • For his obituary see BW13:831–834.
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
  • Stuttgart; Germany Varqa, Valiyullah; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Varqa
    1955 15 Nov Shoghi Effendi announced that thirty of the fifty-two pillars, each over seven metres high, had been raised and that half of the nine hundred tons of stone ordered from Italy had been safely delivered at the Port of Haifa. He also said that a contract for over $15,000 had been placed with the tile factory in Utrecht for over 7,000 green tiles to cover the 500 square metres of the roof. [MBW95]
    He announced as well:
  • the purchase of a plot of land adjacent to the resting-place of the Greatest Holy Leaf for $100,000,
  • the purchase of the dilapidated house situated south of the Mansion at Bahjí in which 'Abdu'l-Bahá used to receive friends, among them the first party of Western pilgrims after Bahá'u'lláh's passing,
  • a plot of land situated in the neighbourhood of the Shrine of the Báb,
  • and that the formalities had been completed in the purchase of the site of the future Mashriqu'lAdhkár on Mt. Carmel. [MBW78-79, 95]
  • The transfer of the deeds for the above plots of land were being transferred to the name of the Israel branches of the United States, The British, the Persian the Canadian and the Australian Baháa'í National Spiritual Assemblies. [MBW95]
  • BWC International Bahai Archives; Bahji; Shrine of the Bab; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Abdul-Baha, Tea House of; Arc; Z****
    1955 15 Nov ‘Alí Muhammad Varqá was appointed a Hand of the Cause to succeed his father. [GBF111; MBW91] Varqa, Ali-Muhammad; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Varqa
    1955 Dec The first Samoan woman to become a Bahá’í, Mrs Lotoa Refiti (later Lotoa Rock), enrolled. [Koala News, No. 22, February 1956] Samoa Lotoa Refiti (later Lotoa Rock) first Samoan woman Bahá'í
    1956 (In the year) The publication of Religion for Mankind by Horace Holley. There were subsequent publications by George Ronald in 1966, 1969, and 1976 and the Bahá'í Publishing Trust in Wilmette rand a printing in 1967. It was transcribed into braille in 1970. [BEL7.1222-7.1226; 8.100]
  • "A collection of cogent essays on several aspects of the Bahá'í social programme and the dynamic of community and administrative life. [BEL7.1222]
  • Horace Holley; Publications
    c. 1956 Shoghi Effendi acquired the title to the Pilgrim House at Bahjí from the Israeli government as part of the exchange for the Bahá’í properties at Ein Gev. [BBD177; DH226] Bahji; BWC; Haifa Pilgrim House at Bahji; Pilgrim Houses
    1956 (In the year) The first indigenous person to become a Bahá’í in Dutch Guiana (Suriname), George van Axel Dongen, enrolled. Dutch Guiana (Suriname) George van Axel Dongen first indigenous Bahá’í in Dutch Guiana (Suriname)
    1956 (In the year) The first Tlinget to become a Bahá’í in Alaska, Joyce Anderson Combs, enrolled. Alaska; United States First Bahais by country or area first Tlinget Bahá’í in Alaska
    1956 (In the year) The first people to become Bahá’ís in Cape Verde enrolled. Cape Verde First Bahais by country or area; Islands first Bahá’ís in Cape Verde
    1956 (In the year) The first indigenous person to become a Bahá’í in New Guinea, Apelis Mazakmat, a school teacher and member of the local government council, enrolled. New Guinea Apelis Mazakmat first indigenous Bahá’í in New Guinea
    1956 (In the year) Kedarnath Pradhan, from neighbouring Sikkim, arrived in Nepal, the first pioneer to the country. [Bahá'í Faith In Nepal by Prof. Anil Sarwal] Nepal; Sikkim; India First travel teachers and pioneers first pioneer to Nepal
    1956 (In the year) A Roman Catholic priest lodged a complaint against the Bahá’ís of Morocco with the Moroccan Security Service. Morocco Persecution, Morocco
    1956 c. The first person in Tibet to become a Bahá’í, Chiten Tashi, a young businessman from the village of Chombethan, enrolled. Tibet First Bahais by country or area first Bahá'í in Tibet
    1956 Jan The first Bahá’í pioneer in what is now the Central African Republic, Samson Nkeng, arrived in Bangui from the British Cameroons1 Central African Republic Samson Nkeng; pioneer first pioneer in Central African Republic
    1956 12 Feb The first four people to become Bahá’ís in Hong Kong, Nari Sherwani, Ng Ying Kay, Chan Lie Kun and Chan Lie Fun, enrolled. [PH75] Hong Kong First Bahais by country or area first four Bahá’ís in Hong Kong
    1956 25 Feb Husayn Uskuli, (b. 1875) long-time pioneer to Shanghai from ‘Ishqábád, passed away in Shanghai at the age of 82 and was buried in the Kiangwan Cemetery in Shanghai. [PH29, BW13p871-873]
  • He had heard about the Faith at the age of 18 from Mírzá Haydar-'Alí. After his marriage he moved to 'Ishqábád where he was very active in the community. After his move to Shanghai his home was the centre of activity and hospitality for all those passing through. He was the only foreign-born Bahá'í to remain in China after the regime change. The xenophobic attitude of the government precluded any meaningful contact with the local citizenry.
  • He was survived by four daughters and a son.
  • Ishqabad; Turkmenistan; Shanghai; China Husayn Uskuli; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1956 Apr Shoghi Effendi announced that the remaining 22 pillars of the International Bahá'í Archives had been erected and that the last half of the 900 tons of marble from Italy had been delivered. Forty-four tons of glazed green tiles from Utrecht had been placed in position. [MBW108]
    He also announced that:
  • the dilapidated house located near the Mansion had been restored,
  • Negotiations were underway with the Development Authority of the State of Israel for the acquisition of two plots to the north and south of the Shrine.
  • the destruction of a row of sheds near the Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh,
  • that an expropriation order had been published in the Israel Official Gazette related to the buildings enclosed within the Haram-i-Aqdas regarding the occupancy of these buildings of the Covenant-breakers. [MBW108-109]
  • BWC; Bahji International Bahai Archives; Haram-i-Aqdas; Covenant-breakers; Abdul-Baha, Tea House of; Z****
    1956 Apr Shoghi Effendi announced that the Bahá’í Faith was established in 247 countries, in 3,700 localities and that there were more than 900 local spiritual assemblies, of which 168 were incorporated. Bahá’í literature had been translated into 190 languages. [MBW92–3] statistics
    1956 Apr Shoghi Effendi announced the extension to Egyptian Bahá’í women of the right to be elected to the national spiritual assembly and to participate in the national convention. [MBW96–7] Egypt NSA
    1956 7 Apr The first indigenous person to become a Bahá’í in Micronesia, 22-year-old Joe Erie Ilengelkei from Palau, Caroline Islands, enrolled. Palau; Caroline Islands Joe Erie Ilengelkei first indigenous Bahá’í in Micronesia
    1956 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of South and West Africa was formed with its seat in Johannesburg, South Africa. [BW13:284]
  • Its area of jurisdiction was the Union of South Africa, Basutoland, Zululand, Swaziland, Bechuanaland, South West Africa, Angola, Northern Rhodesia, Southern Rhodesia, Nyasaland, Mozambique, Madagascar, Réunion Island, Mauritius and St Helena Island.
  • Johannesburg; South Africa NSA first Regional Spiritual Assembly of South and West Africa
    1956 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of Central and East Africa was formed with its seat in Kampala, Uganda. [BW13:284]
  • Its area of jurisdiction was Uganda, Tanganyika, Kenya, Belgian Congo, Ruanda-Urundi, French Equatorial Africa, Zanzibar, Comoro Islands and Seychelles Islands.
  • Kampala; Uganda NSA first Regional Spiritual Assembly of Central and East Africa
    1956 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of North West Africa was formed with its seat in Tunis, Tunisia. [BW13:284]
  • Its area of jurisdiction was Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco (International Zone), Spanish Morocco, French Morocco, Rio de Oro, Spanish Sahara, French West Africa, Gambia, Portuguese Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Gold Coast, Ashanti Protectorate, British Togoland, French Togoland, Nigeria, British Cameroons, French Cameroons, Spanish Guinea, St Thomas Island, Cape Verde Islands, Canary Islands and Madeira.
  • Tunis; Tunisia NSA first Regional Spiritual Assembly of North West Africa
    1956 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly was formed in Morocco (International Zone). Morocco LSA first LSA Morocco
    1956 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of North East Africa was formed. [BW13:284]
  • Its area of jurisdiction was Egypt, Libya, Sudan, Eritrea, French Somaliland, Italian Somaliland, Ethiopia and Socotra Island.
  • NSA first Regional Spiritual Assembly of North East Africa
    1956 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Taiwan was formed in T’ainan. [The Taiwan Bahá'í Chronicle by Barbara R. Sims p15] Tainan; Taiwan LSA first Local Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Tainan, Taiwan
    1956 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Bermuda was formed. Bermuda LSA first LSA Bermuda
    1956 Ridván The first local spiritual assemblies in Korea were formed at Seoul and at Kwangju. Seoul; Kwangju; Korea LSA first LSAs Korea
    1956 Ridván With the enrolment of the first Micronesian Bahá’í, the first local spiritual assembly of Guam was formed. Guam LSA first LSA Guam
    1956 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly of Hong Kong was formed. Hong Kong LSA first LSA Hong Kong
    1956 Ridván The local spiritual assembly of Addis Ababa incorporated, the first one in Africa to do so. [BW13:287] Addis Ababa LSA first LSA to incorporate in Africa
    1956 Ridván Formation of the first Local Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Guam. Guam LSA first Local Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Guam. find reference
    1956 May Mary Zabolotny (later Mrs Ken McCulloch), of Ukrainian background, arrived on Anticosti Island, Canada, and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:449] Anticosti Island; Canada Knights of Bahaullah; Mary Zabolotny McCulloch; Islands
    1956 20 May Louisa Mathew Gregory, whose wedding to Hand of the Cause of God Louis Gregory in 1912 was the first interracial western Bahá’í marriage, passed away in Eliot, Maine. [BW13:878]
  • For her obituary see BW13:376–8.
  • Eliot; Maine; United States Louisa Mathew Gregory; Louis Gregory; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Firsts, Other first interracial western Bahá’í marriage
    1956 11 - 12 Nov First All-Taiwan Teaching Conference was held in Tainan, Taiwan. The conference was attended by then Auxiliary Board Member Agnes Alexander from Japan. She would visit Taiwan two more times, in 1958 and 1962-as a Hand of the Cause. [The Taiwan Bahá'í Chronicle by Barbara R. Sims p17] Tainan; Taiwan Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Teaching; First conferences; Agnes Alexander first Teaching Conference held in Taiwan find reference
    1956 Dec It was announced that Mr Ugo Giachery, Mr Navidi, Mr John Ferraby, Mrs Mildred Mottahedeh and Mr Amin Banani had been appointed to an International Committee to represent the Bahá'í International Community in relation to the United Nations in matters connect with the persecution of the Bahá'ís of Persia. [CBN No 83 December, 1956 p2] BWC BIC; Ugo Giachery; Aziz Navidi; John Ferraby; Mildred Mottahedeh; Amin Banani
    1956 9 Dec The passing of Juliet Thompson (b. Washington, DC 1873 - d. December 9th, 1956 New York). [BW13:862-864]
  • For her memorial service at the House of Worship see Bahá'í News p475, 493.
  • After learning of the Bahá'í Faith in Washington DC near 1898 she traveled to Paris at the invitation of Laura Dreyfus-Barney's mother. Later in 1901 in Paris she met Thomas Breakwell, who gave her Arthur de Gobineau's description in French of the Execution of the Báb which confirmed her faith. In Paris she took classes on the religion from Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl. [Wiki]
  • She published her book I, Mary Magdalene in 1940. It is available at bahai-library.com/. The Diary of Juliet Thompson was published by Kalimat Press in 1983 from her 1947 typescript.
  • The restoration of Juliet's grave took place on December 5, 2010. After a 54 year delay, the new gravestone, commissioned by the NSA, was unveiled in the Beechwood Cemetery in New Rochelle, New York, engraved with this moving tribute from Shoghi Effendi:

    "Deplore loss of much-loved, greatly admired Juliet Thompson, outstanding, exemplary handmaid of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. Over half-century record of manifold, meritorious services, embracing the concluding years of Heroic and opening decades of Formative Ages of Bahá'í Dispensation, won her enviable position in the glorious company of triumphant disciples of the beloved Master in the Abha Kingdom. Advise hold memorial gathering in Mashriqu'l-Adhkar to pay befitting tribute to the imperishable memory of one so wholly consecrated to the Faith of Bahá'u'lláh, and fired with such consuming devotion to the Center of His Covenant."

    [December 6, 1956] (Shoghi Effendi, Citadel of Faith, p. 170)

  • New Rochelle; New York Juliet Thompson; In Memoriam
    1956 20 Dec The publication in the Official Gazette of the government of Israel of the issue of an expropriation order against the Covenant-Breakers in possession of the holy Shrines at Bahji. This order was immediately appealed by the Covenant-Breakers to the Supreme Court. BWC; Haifa Bahji; Covenant-breakers find reference
    1957 (In the year) The first indigenous person to become a Bahá’í in the Dutch West Indies, Rhoma Matthew enrolled. Dutch West Indies (Lesser Antilles); Lesser Antilles First believers by background first indigenous Bahá’í in the Dutch West Indies
    1957 (In the year) The first member of the Newari ethnic group of Nepal to become a Bahá’í, Rishi Prasad Joshi, enrolled. Nepal First believers by background first Newari Bahá'í of Nepal
    1957 (In the year) Charles Winfield Small, a native of Barbados and the first to become a Bahá’í in the Bahamas, returned to Barbados, the first Bahá’í to settle in the country. Barbados; Central America First Bahais by country or area first Bahá’í in the Bahamas; first Bahá’í to settle in Barbados
    1957 (In the year) The Berbers in Algeria were first contacted by the Bahá’ís and a number of Berber families enrolled. Algeria First believers by background; Berbers first Berber Bahá'ís
    1957 (In the year) Bahá’í activity in Czechoslovakia was banned by the authorities, several members of the Prague community were arrested and Vuk Echtner was imprisoned for two years. Prague; Czechoslovakia Persecution, Czechoslovakia; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1957 (In the year) Nagoya, Japan, became the only spiritual assembly to be made up entirely of Japanese believers. Nagoya; Japan LSA first LSA all Japanese
    1957 c. The first local person to become a Bahá’í in Cambodia, Mr Lim Incchin, a young Chinese, enrolled. [Servants of the Glory page23]
  • The country was first settled by two pioneers one of whom was a Professor Avaregan. [Servants of the Glory page21]
  • Cambodia Lim Incchin; Professor Avaregan; Z**** first Bahá’í in Cambodia
    1957 3 Feb Enoch Olinga arrived in the Holy Land, the first black African Bahá’í to go on pilgrimage. Haifa Enoch Olinga; First pilgrims; Pilgrims first black African Bahá’í on pilgrimage.
    1957 25 Mar Hand of the Cause of God George Townshend passed away in Dublin, Ireland. (b.14 June, 1896) [BBD226, BW02-03p169]
  • For his obituary see BW13:841–846.
  • See also David Hofman's biography, George Townshend.
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
  • His pamphlet entitled The Old Churches and the New World Faith was his statement upon severing his relationship with his colleagues in the Anglican Church. [CBN No 89 June 1957 p1]
  • Dublin; Ireland Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; George Townshend; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, First Contingent
    1957 27 Mar Agnes Alexander was appointed a Hand of the Cause of God on the passing of Hand of the Cause of God George Townshend. [GBF112; MBW174; PP255] Agnes Alexander; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; George Townshend
    1957 c. Apr - 1958 Apr The first Tuareg to become a Bahá’í enrolled in Rabat, Morocco. Rabat; Morocco First believers by background first Tuareg Bahá’í
    1957 Apr Shoghi Effendi announced that the Faith had been established in 251 countries, that there were more than a thousand local spiritual assemblies, that Bahá’ís lived in more than 4,200 localities, and that every territory mentioned in the Tablets of the Divine Plan had been opened to the Faith. Bahá’í literature had been translated into 230 languages. [MBW105–6] Statistics
    1957 Apr Shoghi Effendi announced that the Treasury Department of Israel had issued an expropriation order for the remaining property held by Covenant-breakers at Bahjí, mainly the dilapidated building north of the mansion. [MBW109] Akka Bahji; Covenant-breakers
    1957 21 Apr The first Local Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Apia, Western Samoa was formed. The members were: Lilian Ala'i, Ghodsieh Ala'i, Nemat Ala'i, To'alima Sa'ialala, Lotoa Rock, Emanuel Rock, William I Laing, Sa'ialala Tamasese, and Suhayl A Ala'i. [CBN No99 April, 1958 p5] Apia; Samoa LSA; Lilian Ala'i; Ghodsieh Ala'i; Nemat Ala'i; To'alima Sa'ialala; Lotoa Rock; Emanuel Rock; William I Laing; Sa'ialala Tamasese; Suhayl A Ala'i
    1957 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of the Benelux Countries was formed with its seat in Brussels, Belgium. [BW13:274]
  • Its area of jurisdiction was Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg.
  • Brussels; Belgium; Netherlands; Luxembourg; Benelux NSA first NSA Benelux Countries
    1957 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly for the Iberian Peninsula was formed with its seat in Madrid, Spain. [BW13:274] Madrid; Spain NSA first NSA Iberian Peninsula
    1957 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of Mexico and the Republics of Central America was formed at Panama City, Panama. [BW13:257] Panama; Mexico; Central America NSA first NSA Mexico and the Republics of Central America
    1957 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Paraguay and Bolivia was formed at Buenos Aires, Argentina. [BW13:257] Buenos Aires; Argentina NSA first NSA Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Paraguay and Bolivia
    1957 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of Brazil, Peru, Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela was formed at Lima, Peru. [BW13:257] Lima; Peru NSA first NSA Brazil, Peru, Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela
    1957 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of the Greater Antilles was formed with its seat in Kingston, Jamaica. [BW13:257] Kingston; Jamaica NSA first NSA Greater Antilles
    1957 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of North East Asia was formed with its seat in Tokyo, Japan. [BW13:304]
  • Its area of jurisdiction was Japan, Korea, Formosa, Macau, Hong Kong, Hainan Island and Sakhalin Island.
  • Tokyo; Japan NSA; North East Asia first NSA North East Asia
    1957 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of South East Asia was formed with its seat in Djakarta. [BW13:302]
  • Its area of jurisdiction was Borneo, Indo-China, Indonesia, Malaya, Sarawak, Siam, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Philippines, Dutch New Guinea, Mentawai Islands, Cocos Islands, Portuguese Timor and Brunei.
  • Djakarta NSA first NSA South East Asia
    1957 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Pakistan was formed. Pakistan NSA first NSA Pakistan
    1957 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of New Zealand was formed. New Zealand NSA first NSA New Zealand
    1957 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Alaska was formed and incorporated immediately upon formation.
  • This was the first time a political entity (i.e. the United States) was subdivided to form a national spiritual assembly. [BW13:270]
  • Alaska; United States NSA; Incorporation first NSA Alaska; first time a political entity subdivided to form NSA
    1957 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Laos had already been formed in Vientiane. Vientiane; Laos LSA first LSA Laos
    1957 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Brunei had already been formed. [BW 13:302] Brunei LSA first LSA Brunei
    1957 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Cape Verde was formed in Praia. Praia; Cape Verde LSA first LSA Cape Verde
    1957 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Nyasaland was formed at Lilongwe. Lilongwe; Nyasaland LSA first LSA Nyasaland
    1957 Ridván In his last Ridván message Shoghi Effendi announced that the exterior of International Bahá’í Archives had been completed and that the roof was in place. [VBHP38; DH169; GBF63–4; PP264–6]
      It had cost approximately a quarter of a million dollars and was, like the Shrine of the Báb, ordered in Italy, entirely carved and completed there, and shipped to Haifa for erection; not only was each separate stone numbered, but charts showing where each on went facilitated its being place in its proper position." [PP265]
  • Ugo Giachery supervised the work in Italy and Leroy Ioas in Haifa. Because the landscaping had been completed prior to the completion of the construction, it had to be built from the rear with only a space of about 5 metres on three sides to work in. [PP265]
  • For details of its construction and photographs see BW13:403–33.
  • BWC; Mount Carmel; Haifa International Bahai Archives; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1957 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of Scandinavia and Finland was formed with its seat in Stockholm, Sweden. [BW13:274] Stockholm; Sweden NSA first NSA Scandinavia and Finland
    1957 Ridván The formation of the first Local Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canberra, the last capital city in Australia to form. Canberra; Australia LSA first Local Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canberra find reference
    1957 May Pouva Murday of Mauritius arrived in the Chagos Archipelago and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. Chagos Archipelago Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1957 7 May Shoghi Effendi sent a fragment of the plaster from the room of the Báb in the Fortress of Máh-Kú to Australia to be set in the foundations of the Mashriqu’l-Adhkár. [LANZ134; SBR172] Sydney; Australia Mashriqul-Adhkar, Sydney; Fortress of Mah-Ku; Gifts; Relics; Boxes containing dust, earth or plaster; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1957 31 May The judgement of the Supreme Court of Israel against the Covenant-Breakers appeal, resulted in their removal from the properties in Bahjí. Bahji; BWC; Haifa Bahji; Covenant-breakers find reference
    1957 Jun The Covenant-breakers completely abandoned Bahjí. [CB367–9; DH215; MBW120–2; PP233–4] Akka Bahji; Covenant-breakers
    1957 4 Jun Shoghi Effendi added protection of the Cause to the duties of the Hands of the Cause. [BBRSM127; CB380; MBW122–3] BWC; Haifa Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Institution; Protection; Appointed arm
    1957 8 – 21 Jun Hokkaido Island was opened to the Faith by Rouhollah Mumtazi and Gekie Nakajima with the enrolment of new believers Kinkichi Shimatani and Yoshiro Sasaki of Sapporo, Japan. Hokkaido Island; Japan first Bahá'í on Hokkaido Island
    1957 9 Jun The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States designated the second Sunday in June as Race Unity Day. The purpose of Race Unity Day is to promote racial harmony and understanding and to focus attention on racial prejudice, which Bahá’ís believe is the most challenging moral issue facing our nation. Since then, communities throughout the country have held celebrations, open to the public, every year on the second Sunday in June. [Race Unity Day by Christopher Buck published in Religious Celebrations, pages 727-732] United States Race Unity Day; Z****
    1957 Jul Margaret Bates and her daughter Jean Frankel of the United States arrived in the Nicobar Islands and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:454; PH63] Andaman and Nicobar Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1957 6 Sep Shoghi Effendi announced ‘the complete evacuation of the remnant of Covenant-breakers and the transfer of all their belongings from the precincts of the Most Holy Shrine’. [MBW124]
  • See VSE166 for Audrey Robarts' observation of the Covenant-breakers at Bahjí during her pilgrimage in 1955.
  • Akka; BWC; Haifa Bahji; Covenant-breakers; Bahaullah, Shrine of
    1957 28 - 30 Sep First Bahá'í Summer School held in Taiwan. [The Taiwan Bahá'í Chronicle by Barbara R. Sims p21] Taiwan Summer schools; First summer and winter schools first Bahá'í Summer School held in Taiwan find reference
    1957 Oct The third contingent of Hands of the Cause of God was appointed: Enoch Olinga, William Sears, John Robarts, Hasan Balyuzi, John Ferraby, Collis Featherstone, Rahmatu’lláh Muhájir and Abu’l-Qásim Faizí. [GBF111; MBW127; PP254, 442; SS47]
  • See TG160 for the story of how Enoch Olinga reacted to the news of being appointed a Hand of the Cause of God.
  • Haifa Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands of the Cause, Contingents; Hands of the Cause, Third Contingent; Enoch Olinga; William Sears; John Robarts; Hasan Balyuzi; John Ferraby; Collis Featherstone; Rahmatullah Muhajir; Abul-Qasim Faizi
    1957 Oct Shoghi Effendi designated the Hands of the Cause the ‘Chief Stewards of Bahá’u’lláh’s embryonic World commonwealth’. [MBW127] BWC Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Institution; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Appointed arm; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1957 Oct Shoghi Effendi called for the convocation of a series of Intercontinental Conferences to be held successively in Kampala, Uganda; Sydney, Australia; Chicago, United States; Frankfurt, Germany; and Djakarta, Indonesia. [BW13:311–12; MBW125] BWC; Kampala; Uganda; Sydney; Australia; Chicago; United States; Frankfurt; Germany; Djakarta; Indonesia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade
    1957 Oct Shoghi Effendi announced the appointment of a second Auxiliary Board responsible for the protection of the Faith. [MBW127–128; PP442] BWC Auxiliary Board Members and assistants; Appointed arm
    1957 4 Nov Passing of Shoghi Effendi

    Shoghi Effendi passed away in London of coronary thrombosis after a bout of Asian influenza. [CB377; PP446 BW13:207-225]

  • He was in London to purchase some furniture to complete the interior of the International Archives Building. [PP445]
  • For a tribute to Shoghi Effendi written by Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum see BW13:58–226.]
  • See also Rabbání, The Guardian Of The Bahá’í Faith and The Priceless Pearl.
  • London; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; International Bahai Archives; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Appointed arm; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Covenant (general)
    1957 9 Nov The funeral of Shoghi Effendi took place in the Great Northern Cemetery, London. [BW13:222; PP448]
  • See BW13:222 for details of the funeral service.
  • See BW13:222–5 and PP449–50 for a description of the funeral.
  • For an a account of the funeral see AY314-319.
  • London; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Passing of
    1957 10 Nov The Hands of the Cause met in London. [TG157]
  • See SDSC191-195 and SDSC430 note 8 for excerpts from the transcript of the talk recorded in shorthand by Rose M Wade and given by Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum to the gathered Hands and other friends.
  • London; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum
    1957 15 Nov Hands of the Cause Rúhíyyih Khánum, Mason Remey, Amelia Collins and Leroy Ioas, accompanied by Hand of the Cause Ugo Giachery, entered the apartment of Shoghi Effendi and sealed with tape and wax the safe where his important documents were kept as well as the drawers to his desk. [BW13:341]
  • The keys to the safe were placed in an envelope, which was sealed and signed by the five Hands and then placed in the safe of Leroy Ioas. BW13:341]
  • Haifa Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Charles Mason Remey; Amelia Collins; Leroy Ioas; Ugo Giachery
    1957 18–25 Nov The first conclave of the Hands of the Cause of God convened at Bahjí. Twenty-three Hands were present. [BBRSM128; DH215; MoC8–11, TG158]
  • This was the first meeting of the Hands of the Cause as a group.
  • For a personal account of the Conclave by Hand of the Cause Zikrullah Khadem. see ZK119.
  • For the nature of the six Conclaves see MoC9–10, 12.
  • Akka; BWC; Haifa Bahji; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Hands of the Cause, Conclaves; Zikrullah Khadem
    1957 18 Nov The Hands of the Cause conducted a memorial meeting for Shoghi Effendi in the Haram-i-Aqdas. [BW13:341; MoC35] Akka Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Haram-i-Aqdas; Bahji
    1957 19 Nov Nine Hands of the Cause were chosen by Rúhíyyih Khánum to examine Shoghi Effendi’s apartment. [BW 13:341]
  • They were the five members of the International Bahá’í Council (Rúhíyyih Khánum, Mason Remey, Amelia Collins, Ugo Giachery and Leroy Ioas), an Afnán (Hasan Balyuzi), a representative of the Hands of the Western Hemisphere (Horace Holley), a representative of the Hands of the African continent (Músá Banání) and the Trustee of the Huqúqu’lláh (‘Alí Muhammad Varqá). [BW13:341]
  • After seeing that the seals were intact, the Hands examined the contents of Shoghi Effendi’s safe and desk. [BW13:341]
  • The nine Hands signed a document testifying that no Will or Testament of any nature executed by Shoghi Effendi had been found. This was reported to the entire body of Hands assembled in the Mansion of Bahjí. [BW13:341]
  • See CB378–9 for an explanation of why Shoghi Effendi left no Will.
  • Haifa; Bahji Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; International Bahai Council; Charles Mason Remey; Amelia Collins; Ugo Giachery; Leroy Ioas; Hasan Balyuzi; Horace Holley; Musa Banani; Varqa, Ali-Muhammad
    1957 25 Nov A proclamation was issued stating that Shoghi Effendi left no heir and made no appointment of another Guardian. [BW13:341–5; MC25–30]
  • See LOG310 for an explanation of the various meanings of the word ‘Guardianship’.
  • See CB388–9 for a discussion of the continuation of the institution of the Guardianship.
  • Haifa; BWC Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Covenant (general); Hands of the Cause, Activities; Guardianship; Custodians; Appointed arm; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1957 25 Nov Nine Hands were chosen to serve as Custodians of the Faith residing in the Holy Land. [BBD57; BW13:342; DH215]
  • The Hands residing in the Holy Land were established as a legal body under the title ‘The Custodians of the Bahá’í World Faith’.
  • The Hands chosen as first Custodians are Rúhíyyih Khánum, Mason Remey, Amelia Collins, Leroy Ioas, Hasan Balyuzi, ‘Alí Akbar Furútan, Jalál Kházeh, Paul Haney and Adelbert Mühlschlegel. [BW13:345–6; MC40–1]
  • Haifa; BWC Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Hands of the Cause, Institution; Custodians; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Charles Mason Remey; Amelia Collins; Leroy Ioas; Hasan Balyuzi; Ali Akbar Furutan; Jalal Khazeh; Paul Haney; Adelbert Muhlschlegel; Appointed arm
    1957 Nov-1963 Apr Interregnum

    The six year ministry of the Hands of the Cause residing in the Holy Land, or ‘Custodians’. [BW16:90; WG45–6]

  • This period is known as the ‘interregnum’. [BBD 120]
  • See BW14:467 for a summary of the work of the Hands of the Cause during this period.
  • The International Bahá’í Council continued to perform its duties at the World Centre under the direction of the Custodians. [BBD118]
  • See also The Ministry of The Custodians 1957–1963.
  • Haifa; BWC Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Custodians; Interregnum; Ministry of The Custodians (book); International Bahai Council; Universal House of Justice; Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Appointed arm; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Covenant (general)
    1957 Dec The first summer school in Malaysia was held at Malacca. Malacca; Malaysia First summer and winter schools; Summer schools first summer school in Malaysia
    1957 2 Dec On the advice of their lawyer, Dr Abraham Weinshall, the Custodians ask each National and Regional Assembly to send a letter recognizing them as the supreme body in the Cause. [MC40–1] Haifa NSA
    1957 2 Dec The titles to the Shrine of the Báb, the Mansion of Bahjí, and all other buildings and lands which the Covenant-Breakers had owned were transferred to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States. BWC; Mount Carmel; Haifa; Bahji Covenant-breakers; Ownership find reference
    1957 25 Dec The Hands of the Cause announced the destruction of the long, two-storey house previously occupied by Covenant-breakers which was located near the garden wall of the Mansion of Bahá’u’lláh and of which Shoghi Effendi had acquired legal possession shortly before his passing. [MC11, 51]
  • The rubble was used to complete the terraces begun by Shoghi Effendi north of the mansion and forcompleting the northern gardens planned by him.
  • Bahji; BWC; Haifa Bahji; Covenant-breakers
    1957 26 Dec The passing of Mirzā Asad-Allāh, known as Fāżel Māzandarāni (b. Bábol, Persia 1881).
  • He became a Bahá'í in Tehran in 1909. He travelled to Egypt in 1919-1911 where he met with 'Abdu'l-Bahá and was send to India and Burma to promote the Faith.
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá sent him to North America for the period 1920-1921. He arrived in North America with Manúchihr Khán in time to speak at the National Convention. His purpose was to assist and stimulate the Bahá'í communities. He departed for the Holy Land on the 9th of July, 1921. [AB443; SBR88]
  • Mírzá Asadu'lláh Fádil-i-Mázandarání visited North America again in 1923-1925 at the request of Shoghi Effendi. [Fádl Mázandarání, Mírzá Asadu'lláh by Moojan Momen]
  • See Jináb-i-Fádil Mazandarání in the United States by Fadl Mazandarani (published as Jinab-i-Fadil Mazandarani) compiled by Omeed Rameshni for transcripts of his talks.
  • In about 1924 Shoghi Effendi wrote to the Central Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Persia, asking them to gather materials towards the compilation of a general history of the Bahá'í faith. Initially this work was handed to a committee and Fāżel served as the liaison between this committee and the Assembly, of which he was himself a member at the time. However, after the committee failed to make significant progress, Fāżel took on the responsibility to compile this work himself. His work, Ẓohur-al-Ḥaqq (variously also called Tāriḵ-e Ẓohur-al-Ḥaqq and Ketāb-e Ẓohur-al-Ḥaqq) is said to be the most comprehensive history of the first century of the Bahá'í faith yet written. It records the full biographies of the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh, and ʿAbdu'l-Baháʾ, the Faith’s leading disciples and learned members, poets, martyrs, and other prominent personalities. It covers the history of the persecutions of the Bahá'ís; discusses the internal crises of the faith and, more significantly, contains excerpts from the holy writings and includes documentation and a considerable number of pictures. It was compiled in nine volumes: volumes 1-3 completed in May of 1932, the fourth in February, 1936, and the final volume in 1943. For various reasons it has not been translated into English. [Ẓohur-al-Ḥaqq]
  • Other works of Fāżel include his dictionary of commonly used proper terms and titles in Bahá'í literature, Asrār al-āṯār, which was published in five volumes (1967-72) of more than 1,600 pages.
  • Fāżel’s other major work, Amr wa ḵalq, contains hundreds of selections from the Bahá'í holy writings grouped under topics related to philosophical, theological, religious, and administrative matters. The work was published in Iran (1954-74) in four volumes.
  • Babol; Iran Mirza Asadullah Fadil-i-Mazandarani; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Bahai studies; Bahai history; Zuhur al-Haqq (Zuhurul-Haqq); Translation
    1958 (In the year) The first local spiritual assembly of Nepal was formed in Kathmandu.
  • Prof. Anil Sarwal says it was 1960-1961
  • The first Local Spiritual Assembly was established in the capital city Kathmandu in 1961. [Yellow Place]
  • Kathmandu; Nepal LSA first LSA Nepal
    1958 (In the year) The first Aleut to become a Bahá’í, Vassa Lekanoff, enrolled in Unalaska. Unalaska; Alaska; United States First Bahais by country or area first Aleut Bahá’í
    1958 1 Jan The passing of Lillian Stevens, a founding member of the first Torquay Spiritual Assembly in 1938. Torquay Lillian Stevens; In Memoriam find reference
    1958 23–28 Jan The first Intercontinental Conference held at the mid-point of the Crusade convened in Kampala, Uganda. [BW13:317]
  • Hand of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum, who had been designated by the Guardian as his representative, attended, accompanied by Dr Lutfu’lláh Hakím.
  • For the message of the Custodians to the conference see MC56–60.
  • For a report of the conference see BW13:317.
  • Kampala; Uganda; Africa Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Lutfullah Hakim; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade; First conferences first Intercontinental Conference at the mid-point of Crusade in Kampala
    1958 26 Jan The foundation stone of the first Mashriqu’l-Adhkár of Africa was laid by Hands of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum and Músá Banání. [BW13:317]
  • The Guardian had sent special gifts to be presented during the laying of the foundation stone. These included a Persian carpet from the Holy Shrine at Bahji, some plaster from the prison of Máh-Kú and a silver box containing the earth from Bahá'u'lláh's Shrine. These last two items were placed beneath the foundation stone by Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum and Hand of the Cause Músá Banání. [CG44]
  • Kampala; Uganda Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Kampala; Foundation stones and groundbreaking; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Musa Banani first Mashriqu’l-Adhkár of Africa
    1958 21–24 Mar The second Intercontinental Conference was held at the mid-point of the Crusade convenes in Sydney, Australia. [BW13:319]<
  • Hand of the Cause Charles Mason Remey, who had been designated by the Guardian as his representative and who was the architect of the Mother Temple of Australasia, attended, accompanied by four other Hands of the Cause. [BW13:317]
  • For the message of the Custodians to the conference see MC72–5.
  • For a report of the conference see BW13:319–21.
  • Sydney; Australia; Australasia Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Charles Mason Remey; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Sydney; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Architecture; Architects
    1958 22 Mar The foundation stone of the first Mashriqu’l-Adhkár of the Antipodes was laid by Hands of the Cause Charles Mason Remey and Clara Dunn. [BW13:321] Sydney; Australia Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Sydney; Charles Mason Remey; Clara Dunn; Foundation stones and groundbreaking first Mashriqu’l-Adhkár of the Antipodes
    1958 20 Apr Mírzá Ahmad (Esphahani) Sohrab, the Covenant-breaker who rebelled against Shoghi Effendi, died. [MC90]
  • For the story of his defection from the Faith see CB343–7.
  • He was buried in the Saint Paul Episcopal Church Cemetery, Glen Cove, Nassau County, New York.iiiii
  • Glen Cove; Nassau County; New York; United States Ahmad Sohrab; Covenant-breakers; New History Society
    1958 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in the Kingdom of Tonga was formed at Nuku’alofa. Nukualofa; Tonga LSA first LSA Kingdom of Tonga
    1958 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly of Macau was formed. Macau LSA first LSA Macau
    1958 Ridván The formation of the first local spiritual assembly of Taipei. [The Taiwan Bahá'í Chronicle by Barbara R. Sims p25] Teipei; Taiwan LSA The formation of the first local spiritual assembly of Taipei, Taiwan
    1958 26 Apr The National Spiritual Assembly of France is formed.
    • For the message of the Custodians to the French National Convention see MC86–9.
    France NSA first NSA France
    1958 May The first local spiritual assembly in Papua New Guinea was formed in Madina Village, in New Ireland.
  • This was the first all-indigenous local spiritual assembly in the South Pacific.
  • Madina Village; New Ireland LSA first LSA Papua New Guinea; first all-indigenous LSA in South Pacific
    1958 2–4 May The third Intercontinental Conference was held at the mid-point of the Crusade convened in Wilmette, Illinois. [BW13:323]
  • Hand of the Cause Dr Ugo Giachery, who had been designated by the Guardian as his representative, attended, accompanied by four other Hands of the Cause. [BW13:323]
  • For the message of the Custodians to the conference see MC90–8.
  • For a report of the conference see BW13:323–5.
  • Wilmette; Illinois; United States; America Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Ugo Giachery; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade
    1958 12 Jun The Custodians released the ‘Statement regarding the Guardianship’, explaining that Shoghi Effendi had left no heir, that only he could appoint a second Guardian and that the Bahá’ís must dismiss all hopeful expectation that a Will appointing a second Guardian will be found. [MC100-2] Haifa Guardianship
    1958 26 Jun Paul Adams, from Reading, England, having obtained permission to accompany Svalbard’s chief hunter on a fishing tour in the summer and to spend the winter with him in Sassen Fjord, arrived in Spitzbergen and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:456]
  • See also Adams, Arctic Island Hunter published by George Ronald in 1961. iiiii
  • Spitzbergen Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1958 25–29 Jul The fourth Intercontinental Conference was held at the mid-point of the Crusade and convenesdin Frankfurt, Germany. [BW13:327]
  • Amelia Collins, who had been designated by the Guardian as his representative, attended, accompanied by ten other Hands of the Cause. [BW13:327]
  • For the message of the Custodians to the conference see MC102–6.
  • For a report of the conference see BW13:327–9.
  • Frankfurt; Germany; Europe Amelia Collins; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade
    1958 14 Sep A week before the fifth Intercontinental conference is due to convene in Djakarta, Indonesia, the government withdrew the permit to hold the conference. [BW13:331]
  • For the story of why the permit was revoked see DM83–5.
  • The cancellation of the conference in Djakarta began a period of severe repression of the Faith in Indonesia which eventually led to the Faith being banned in 1962. [DM85, 88]
  • Indonesia Persecution, Indonesia; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade
    1958 21 Sep Hand of the Cause Leroy Ioas arrived in Indonesia and was plunged into negotiations regarding the holding of the conference.
  • He met with local Bahá’ís and anointed them with attar of roses as they passed to the room to view the portrait of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:331–2]
  • Indonesia Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Leroy Ioas
    1958 23 Sep Chartered planes took the conference delegates to Singapore. Singapore
    1958 27 – 29 Sep The fifth Intercontinental Conference was held at the mid-point of the Crusade and convened in Singapore. [BW13:331]
  • Hand of the Cause Leroy Ioas, who had been designated by the Guardian as his representative, attended, accompanied by eight other Hands of the Cause. [BW13:331–2]
  • For the message of the Custodians to the conference see MC111–6.
  • For a report of the conference see BW13:331–2.
  • Singapore; Asia Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Leroy Ioas; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade
    1958 1 Nov The monument marking Shoghi Effendi’s resting place was completed. [MC117]
  • Dust from the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh was placed in the foundations. [MC117] li>For a description of the resting place see BBD194–5 and MC135–6.
  • The monument was paid for from a Memorial Fund established after Shoghi Effendi’s passing. Money in excess of the amount required was spent on the teaching work and on the construction of the Temples. [MC132]
  • Marble for the monument came from Chiampo, Italy as for the Archives Building, the Shine of the Báb, the Seat of the Universal House of Justice, The Terraces project, the Monument Gardens and the Houses of Worship in India and Samoa. [BWNS1223]
  • London; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Resting place of; Bahaullah, Shrine of; BWNS
    1958 21–28 Nov The Second Conclave of the Hands of the Cause convened at Bahjí. [BW13:347–8; MoC118]
  • It was attended by 25 of the 27 Hands of the Cause. [BW13:347; MoC118]
  • The Hands of the Cause called for the election of the Universal House of Justice at the time of the Most Great Jubilee in 1963. [BBRSM129; BW13:351; MoC122]
  • Akka Hands of the Cause, Conclaves; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Most Great Jubilee; Centenaries
    1959 (In the year) The establishment of a Bahá'í Publishing Trust in Iran.

    Since 1899, Bahá'í sacred texts had been hectographed and mimeographed by Mīrzā ʿAlī-Akbar Rūḥānī (known as Moḥebb-al-Solṭān) and others. Although the restrictive laws of the country prohibited the Bahá'ís from printing their literature by letterpress, through the establishment of the Trust, Bahá'í literature was regularly and systematically published in typewritten or calligraphic form until 1979 when the Trust was closed under the Islamic régime. Between 1959 and 1979, several hundred titles were produced and distributed. The trust was also responsible for the publication of circulars, newsletters, pamphlets, and magazines. In 1975 alone, it produced 181,390 copies of books and pamphlets totaling 31 million pages. In the early 1970s an audiovisual center was established in Iran which made rapid growth during the few years of its existence. In the mid-1970s the centre produced 27 cassette programs containing prayers, songs, and speeches amounting to 40,000 copies. They also produced 28 reels of film. [BW12p292; BW16p263; BW12p570; BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati]

    Iran Publishing Trusts; Mirza Ali-Akbar Ruhani; Mohebb-al-Soltan; Z****
    1959 (In the year) The first contacts with the Aboriginal people were made in Kampong Jus in Malacca by Saurajen, as reported at a special meeting held with Hand of the Cause of God, Dr. Muhajir in Malacca on 29 December 1957. [Jewel Among Nations, Splendour Publications, Author A. Manisegaran. Pages 221-222] Kampung Jus; Malacca; Malaysia Rahmatullah Muhajir; Saurajen; Aboriginal people; Firsts, Other first contact with aboriginal population of Malayan peninsula
    1959 (In the year) The mansion at Mazra‘ih was renovated. [MC219] Akka; BWC; Haifa House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); Restoration; World Centre; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens
    1959 (In the year) The first Inuit in Alaska to become a Bahá’í, William Wiloya, enrolled in Nome. Nome; Alaska; United States First Bahais by country or area; First believers by background; Inuit first Inuit Bahá’í Alaska
    1959 (In the year) Bahá’í communities in the United States began the observation of World Peace Day to call attention to the need for world peace. [BBD175]
  • This was replaced in 1985 by the observance of the UN International Day of Peace, which occurs on the third Tuesday in September. [BBD175]
  • United States World Peace Day; United Nations; International Day of Peace; Peace; World peace (general)
    1959 (In the year) The House of ‘Abbúd was renovated and restored. [MC219] Akka; BWC; Haifa House of Abbud; Restoration; World Centre; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens
    1959 1 Feb The ‘first Dependency of the Mashriqu’l-Adhkár in Wilmette’, the Bahá’í Home for the Aged, opened. [BW13:747]
  • For the history of its building see BW13:743–8.
  • For pictures see BW13:742, 744–7.
  • Wilmette; United States Bahai home for the aged; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Dependencies of first Dependency the Mashriqu’l-Adhkár Wilmette’
    1959 Mar A number of Bahá’ís, members of the local spiritual assembly, were arrested in Ankara, Turkey. [MC306]
  • The incident received wide coverage in the press and the Bahá’ís were eventually released from prison. [MC306]
  • A court case was subsequently brought against the Bahá’ís by the public prosecutor, who claimed that the Faith is a ‘Tarighat’, a sect forbidden by the law of the land, and lengthy litigation followed. [MC306–7]
  • Ankara; Turkey Persecution, Turkey; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; LSA; Court cases
    1959 10 Apr Representatives of the Bahá’í International Community presented to the President of the Human Rights Commission, Ambassador Gunewardene of Ceylon, a statement endorsing the Genocide Convention. [BW13:791–4] New York; United States Human Rights; United Nations; Genocide; Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Statements
    1959 Ridván Separate national spiritual assemblies were formed for Germany and Austria. [BBRSM186]
  • For the letter of the Custodians to the national convention of Austria see MC158–60.
  • Austria NSA first NSA Austria
    1959 Ridván Separate National Spiritual Assemblies were formed for India and Burma.
  • For the letter of the Custodians to the national convention of Burma see MC155–7.
  • Myanmar (Burma); India NSA India; NSA Burma; Custodians first NSA Burma
    1959 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Turkey was formed.
  • For the letter of the Custodians to the national convention see MC148–51.
  • Turkey NSA first NSA Turkey
    1959 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of the South Pacific Islands was formed with its seat in Suva, Fiji.
  • Its area of jurisdiction comprised of ten island groups: Samoa, Fiji, New Caledonia, New Hebrides, Loyalty Islands, Gilbert and Ellice Islands, Marshall Islands, Cook Islands, Solomon Islands, and Tonga. [BW13:308]
  • For the letter of the Custodians to the national convention see MC151–5.
  • Suva; Fiji NSA first NSA South Pacific Islands
    1959 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Grenada was formed in St George’s Parish. St Georges; Grenada LSA first LSA Grenada
    1959 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Cambodia was formed in Phnom Penh. Phnom Penh; Cambodia LSA first LSA Cambodia
    1959 Ridván The Custodians announced that the number of national and regional spiritual assemblies had risen to 31, the Faith was established in 255 countries, Bahá’ís lived in over 5,200 localities and had formed nearly 1,275 local spiritual assemblies, and Bahá’í literature had been translated into 261 languages. [MC137–8] Worldwide Custodians; Statistics; Growth; Ten Year Crusade
    1959 Ridván The Custodians announced that the resting place of the remains of the father of Bahá’u’lláh had been identified. [MC144] Haifa Bahaullah, family of
    1959 2 Jun The first Greek woman to become a Bahá’í, Ketty Antoniou, enrolled in Greece. Greece Ketty Antoniou first Greek Bahá'í woman
    1959 14 Jun The Hands of the Cause announced that the remains of the cousin of the Báb had been identified and had been transferred to a cemetery. [MC161] Haifa Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities
    1959 18 Aug Cheong Siu Choi (John Z. T. Chang), the Chinese headmaster of the Leng Nam Middle School and a highly respected leader in Macau, arrived with his family on Hainan Island and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:452]
  • PH75 says this was August 1958.
  • Hainan Island Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1959 19 Oct The Hands of the Cause announced that the remains of the father of Bahá’u’lláh, Mírzá Buzurg, had been reinterred in the Bahá’í burial ground in the vicinity of the Most Great House in Baghdád. [MC165] Baghdad; Iraq House of Bahaullah (Baghdad); Mirza Buzurg
    1959 23 Oct - 1 Nov The third Conclave of the Hands of the Cause of God was convened at Bahjí. [BW13:351; MC161–2]
  • For the agenda of the meeting see MC163–4.
  • Charles Mason Remey unsuccessfully attempted to convince his fellow Hands that the Guardianship should continue. [BBRSM130; MC217]
  • Akka Bahji; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Charles Mason Remey; Guardianship; Covenant-breakers
    1959 4 Nov The Hands of the Cause issued a message from their third Conclave. [MC166–70]
  • The date for the election of the Universal House of Justice was fixed at Ridván 1963. [MC166]
  • They called for the election at Ridván 1961 of 21 national spiritual assemblies in Latin America. [MC167–8]
  • They called for the election at Ridván 1962 of 11 national spiritual assemblies in Europe. [MC168]
  • They called for the election at Ridván 1961 of the International Bahá’í Council by postal ballot of the members of the national and regional spiritual assemblies constituted at Ridván 1960. [MC168]
  • The name of Hand of the Cause Charles Mason Remey was missing from the list of signatories to this letter. [MC170]
  • Akka Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Universal House of Justice, Election of; International Bahai Council; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers
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