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Bahá'í Chronology: years 194-

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194-

date event locations tags firsts
1940 (In the decade) By the mid-1940s Corporal Thomas Bereford Macauley became a Bahá’í in Nigeria, the first Bahá’í in the country. Nigeria First Bahais by country or area first Bahá’í in Nigeria
1940 (in the decade) The first Bahá’ís to reside in the Belgian Congo (Zaire) were Mr Rajah Ali Vahdat and Mme Marthe Molitor. Belgian Congo First travel teachers and pioneers first resident Bahá’ís in Belgian Congo
1940 (in the decade) The first Egyptian Bahá’í summer school was held in the mid-1940s. Egypt Summer schools; First summer and winter schools first Egyptian Bahá’í summer school
1940 (in the decade) Bahá’ís in Argentina faced opposition throughout the decade with both the police and nationalists intimidating them. Argentina Persecution, Argentina; Persecution, Other; Persecution
1940 (In the year) Eleanor Smith Adler, a new Bahá’í from Los Angeles, settled in La Paz, the first pioneer to Bolivia. La Paz; Bolivia Eleanor Smith Adler first pioneer to Bolivia
1940 (In the year) Marcia Atwater, from the United States, arrived in Santiago, Chile, as the first long-term pioneer. Santiago; Chile Marcia Atwater; First travel teachers and pioneers first long-term pioneer
1940 (In the year) Narayenrao Rangnath Shethji, a Bahá’í from India surnamed Vakíl, visited Nepal, the first Bahá’í to do so. Nepal Narayenrao Rangnath Shethji first Bahá’í to visit Nepal
1940 (In the year) The publication of I, Mary Magdalen by Juliet Thompson. It was a novel with a semi-autobiographical account of her contact with 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [Collins7.2554] [key] New York; United States Juliet Thompson; I, Mary Magdalen
1940 (In the year) A Bahá’í centre was opened in Havana, Cuba, and an organized group was formed. Havana; Cuba Bahai centres
1940 (In the year) The Canadian Department of National Defence exempted Bahá’ís from combatant military duty. Canada Exemption; Recognition (legal); Armed forces; Military
1940 (In the year) The first local spiritual assembly in Brazil was established in Bahia, with the assistance of Leonora Holsapple Armstrong.
  • The second Local Spiritual Assembly was formed in Rio de Janeiro and, in 1946 the third, in São Paulo. [Biographical Profile] [key]
  • Bahia; Brazil; Rio de Janeiro; Brazil; São Paulo; Brazil Leonora Holsapple Armstrong; Local Spiritual Assembly, formation first LSA in Brazil
    1940 (In the year) ʿAbd-al-Mīṯāq Mīṯāqīya, ( ‘Abdu’l-Missagh Missaghiyeh) a well-known Bahá'í of Tehran, built a hospital and donated it to the Bahá'í community. The hospital rapidly developed to employ highly respected physicians, and to obtain advanced equipment. It became known as one of the best medical centres in Tehran.
  • In the early 1970s a nursing school, affiliated with the hospital, was inaugurated and the hospital itself opened medical clinics in Boir Aḥmad [BW16p264; BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati] [key]
  • Tihran; Iran Abd-al-Mitaq Mitaqiya; Abdul-Missagh Missaghiyeh
    1940 (In the year) An institution for Bahá'í orphans was founded which served the community for many years. [BW9p251]
  • On a more general level, an achievement of the Bahá'í communities in Iran was the establishment of modern public baths in most of the major populated towns and villages throughout the country to replace the unhygienic traditional baths. Some of the baths were built and donated to the community by individual Bahá'ís and some were established through the collective financial participation of the members of the community. [BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati] [key]
  • Iran Orphanages; Property; Endowments; Public baths (bathhouses)
    1940 (In the year) Ruth and Ellsworth Blackwell were the first Bahá’í pioneers to move to Haiti, where they spent more than half of the next thirty-five years. The book, White and Negro Alike. Stories of Baha'i Pioneers Ellsworth and Ruth Blackwell tells the story of the victories and the challenges they experienced in Haiti and in periods when they returned to Chicago between 1940 and 1975. It was written by Audrey Mike and published by Our Life Words.
  • See the story of Ellsworth Blackwell, NSA member, ABM, pioneer to Madagascar and to Zaire (DRC) where he passed away in 1978. [Bahaipedia] [key]
  • Haiti; Madagascar; Zaire Ellsworth Blackwell; Ruth Blackwell first pioneers to settle in Haiti
    1940 13 Jan María Teressa Martín de López (Irizarry), from Puerto Rico, became a Bahá’í in the Dominican Republic while on a visit. She was the first Puerto Rican Bahá’í and the first person to become a Bahá’í in the Dominican Republic.
  • For the story of her life see BW8:631–42.
  • Dominican Republic First Bahais by country or area first Puerto Rican Bahá’í; first declaration Dominican Republic
    1940 9 Feb The monuments of Navváb and the Purest Branch were dedicated at a ceremony in Haifa. [ZK293]
  • For details of the ceremony, see ZK293–6.
  • Marble* for the Monument Gardens came from Chiampo, Italy as did marble for the Archives Building, the Resting Place of Shoghi Effendi, the Seat of the Universal House of Justice, the Terraces Project, and the Houses of Worship in India and Samoa. [BWNS1223]

    *Edward Keith-Roach OBE (Born 1885 Gloucester, England— died 1954) was the British Colonial administrator during the British mandate on Palestine, who also served as the governor of Jerusalem from 1926 to 1945 (excluding a period in the 1930s when he was governor of the Galilee). He was nicknamed “Páshá of Jerusalem". He approved exemption from duties and established a policy that was continued by Israel that allowed materials for the BWC to enter duty free, such as the marble for the buildings on the Arc. [Shoghi Effendi, Uncompiled Published Letters]

  • Mount Carmel; BWC; Chiampo; Italy Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Mirza Mihdi (Purest Branch); Monument Gardens; Marble; BWNS; Shoghi Effendi, Life Of; Edward Keith-Roach
    1940 1 Mar May Bolles Maxwell (b. 14 January 1940 in Englewood, NJ) passed away in Buenos Aires. [BBD153; TG49]

    Shoghi Effendi called her "the spiritual mother of Canada" and Montreal the "mother city of Canada". [OBCC35]

  • Shoghi Effendi awarded her the honour of a ‘martyr’s death’ and designated her as a Disciple of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [BW8:631; MA38]
  • She was the first Bahá'í on European soil and the "mother" of both the French and the Canadian Bahá'í communities. [PP149]
  • For her "In Memoriam" and tribute written by Marion Holley see BW8p631-642.
  • Hooper Dunbar quoted Shoghi Effendi in his cable to the friends in Iran announcing her passing:
      May Maxwell, the severed teacher firebrand of the love of God and spreader of the fragrances of God Mrs Maxwell, forsook her native land and hastened to the most distant countries out of love for her Master and yearning to sound the call to the Cause of her Lord and her inspiration, until she ascended to the highest summit attaining the rank of martyrdom in the capital of the Argentine. The furthermost boundary the countenances of paradise invoke blessings upon her in the glorious apex saying, may she enjoy with healthy relish the cup that is full and brimming over with the wine of the love of God for the like of this should the travaillers travail. Inform all the friends of the announcement of this mighty victory. [A talk] given by Mr Dunbar 28:08]
  • Shoghi Effendi asked her husband, Sutherland Maxwell, to design her tomb, which was to be a ‘historic centre’ for ‘pioneer Bahá’í activity’. [BW8:642]
  • For an account of the erection of the monument to her see PSBW83–6.
  • Haik Kevorkian's family had come to Argentina from Syria in 1937. When Mrs Maxwell arrived he contacted her by phone just before her fatal heart attack. After her passing, he devoted himself to caring for her grave. [KoB225] [key]
  • Buenos Aires; Argentina May Maxwell (Bolles); Births and deaths; Names and titles; Sutherland Maxwell; Architecture; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; First Bahais by country or area First Bahá'í on European soil.
    1940 Mar Emeric and Rosemary Sala of St. Lambert, Quebec arrived in Venezuela, the first pioneers to that country. During their eleven month stay in Caracas they made an eight-day trip by car over the Andes to visit a pioneer in Bogota, Columbia. [TG76-82] [key] Venezuela Emeric Sala; Rosemary Sala first pioneers to Venezuela
    1940 Apr The first local spiritual assembly of Argentina was established in Buenos Aires. Buenos Aires; Argentina Local Spiritual Assembly first LSA in Argentina
    1940 13 May American Baha'i John Stearns sailed from Los Angeles to Guayaquil, Ecuador to take up his pioneer post. He took up residence in Quito and became the first established pioneer in Ecuador. [Heroes of God: History of the Bahá'í Faith in Ecuador, 1940-1979 p.vii; p1] [key] Guayaquil; Ecuador Pioneer; John Stearns first established pioneer to Ecuador.
    1940 14 or 15 May Shoghi Effendi determined to go to England; he and Rúhíyyih Khánum left Haifa for Italy via aquaplane en route to London. [PP 178]
  • For the difficulties and dangers of this journey that took them from Haifa to Heraklion on Crete and then on to Reggio and then a further 700km to Rome and another 500km to Genoa see PP178–80.
  • After the passing of his wife, Mr. Maxwell had been invited by Shoghi Effendi to come and live in Haifa. On the same day that Shoghi Effendi and Rúhíyyih Khánum left the Holy Land, Sutherland Maxwell left Montreal to meet up with them in Europe. A few days after their arrival in Italy, Rúhíyyih Khánum travelled to Genoa to meet her father who had arrived on the Italian vessel, the S.S. Rex, that had departed New York. [PP178] [key]
  • Haifa; Genoa; Italy; London; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; World War II; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1940 25 May After having obtained a visa for Britain in Rome, Shoghi Effendi and Rúhíyyih Khánum left for England. They entered France at Menton and then travelled to Marseilles and eventually to St. Malo. A few days later the Italians enter the war against the Allies. [PP179] [key] Rome; Italy; Menton; Marseilles; France; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; World War II
    1940 2 Jun Shoghi Effendi, Rúhíyyih Khánum and Sutherland Maxwell left St Malo, France, for England and arrived the next morning In Southhampton. The following day St. Malo was occupied by the Nazis. Shoghi Effendi seemed acutely aware of the danger to himself and to the Faith should he fall into the hands of the Nazis because the Cause had already been banned in Germany and his inveterate enemy, the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, was allied with them. [PP 179–80]
  • Their passage from St Malo to Southhampton took place on the same day as the history troop evacuation from Dunkirk was in full swing when every available vessel was involved in moving troops from France to England.
  • St Malo; France Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; World War II
    1940 30 Jun George Townshend preached a sermon in St Patrick’s Cathedral, Dublin, proclaiming the Bahá’í Faith to the congregation. [GT171] [key] Dublin; Ireland George Townshend; Christianity; Interfaith dialogue
    1940 Jul Gerrard Sluter, a German with Canadian citizenship and previously a pioneer in Guatemala, arrived in Colombia, the first Bahá’í to settle in the country.
  • He later became a Covenant-breaker and caused much difficulty to the Bahá’ís in many South American countries.
  • Colombia Gerrard Sluter; Covenant-breakers first Bahá’í to settle in Colombia
    1940 28 Jul Shoghi Effendi, Rúhíyyih Khánum and Sutherland Maxwell left England for South Africa aboard the SS Capetown Castle. It was Mr Maxwell's close friendship with the Canadian High Commissioner in London, Vincent Massey, that helped them secure the sea passage. [PP180]
  • They departed Southhampton just three days before the German High Command issued an order to the Luftwaffe to establish air superiority along the British Channel coast in preparation for the invasion of England. This resulted in the bombing and strafing of all civilian shipping out of British Channel ports.
  • Risking U-Boat attacks the ship took them to Durban where they found that all flights to Khartoum had been booked by the military.
  • They left Mr. Maxwell in Durban to await a flight to Khartoum while Shoghi Effendi and Rúhíyyih Khánum tried to make their way to Khartoum overland. The trip across Africa took them to Stanleyville, Congo; Juba in the Sudan; down the Nile to Khartoum and back to Palestine through Cairo. [PP180–1, TG159]
      They arrived in Kisangani then Stanleyville a few weeks later (July 28, 1940), stayed for a week at the Stanley Hotel and made an excursion in the virgin forest. On the way to Juba, the Guardian also stayed in the village of Nia-Nia. [bahai.org]
  • United Kingdom; Africa; South Africa; Congo; Sudan; Egypt Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum, Journeys of; Sutherland Maxwell; World War II; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1940 Aug Daoud Toeg, then resident in Baghdad, made a trip to the district of Sulaymáníyyih in Kurdistán to try to determine where Bahá'u'lláh took refuge during His time there 1854 10 April - 1856 19 March. He photographed four possible sites. The story of his trip was published by Newsletter of the Haifa Spiritual Assembly and reprinted in Bahá'í News No 145 p11 and 12.
  • Also see BW16:528 for a brief account of the trip. iiiii
  • Sar-Galu; Sulaymaniyyih; Kurdistan Bahaullah, Life of; Daoud Toeg; Caves
    1940 1 Aug The first four people to become Bahá’ís in Costa Rica accepted the Faith after Gayle Woolson and Amelia Ford from the United States arrived in Puerto Limón on 29 March 1940.
  • The first to enrol was Raul Contreras, followed by his cousin Guido Contreras, and by José Joaquin Ulloa and then Felipe Madrigal.
  • Costa Rica; Central America First Bahais by country or area first four Bahá’ís in Costa Rica
    1940 Sep William Sears, Hand of the Cause of God, became a Bahá’í in Salt Lake City, Utah. Salt Lake City; Utah; United States William Sears; Hands of the Cause
    1940 20 Oct Ralph Laltoo, the first Trinidadian to become a Bahá’í, accepted the Faith in Halifax, Nova Scotia. Halifax; Nova Scotia First Bahais by country or area first Bahá'í from Trinidad
    1940 Dec Luis Carlo Nieto became the first Bahá’í in Colombia.
  • He soon left the Faith and Aura Sanchez, who became a Bahá’í in 1941, is considered the first Colombian believer.
  • Colombia First Bahais by country or area first Bahá’í in Colombia
    1940 Dec Eduardo Gonzales, a university student, accepted the Faith and became the first native Bahá’í of Ecuador. He was accepted as a Bahá'í on the occasion of his 21st birthday on the 15th of October 1943. Eduardo (Les) Gonzalez performed outstanding service for the Cause both as an itinerant teacher abroad and pioneer to Spain and Venezuela. Sadly, in later years he became a Covenant-breaker and had to be ex-communicated.
  • He was not formally registered until his twenty–first birthday on 15 October 1941. . [Heroes of God: History of the Bahá'í Faith in Ecuador, 1940-1979 p4; 8; 24] [key]
  • Ecuador Eduardo Gonzales; First believers by background; Indigenous people first native Bahá’í of Ecuador
    1940 Dec Gerald and Vivian MacBeans, a Jamaican couple, and their niece, Miss May Johnson, became the first people to accept the Faith in Haiti. Haiti First Bahais by country or area first Bahá'ís in Haiti
    1940 27 Dec Shoghi Effendi and Rúhíyyih Khánum returned Haifa. [PP181] [key] Haifa Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1940 27 Dec Elizabeth Cheney, the ‘spiritual mother of Paraguay’, arrived in Paraguay, the first pioneer to the country. Paraguay Elizabeth Cheney; Names and titles; First travel teachers and pioneers first pioneer to Paraguay
    1941 (In the year) The publication of The Epistle to the Son of the Wolf. [ESW; Collins1.25]
  • It was a Tablet addressed to Shaykh Muhammad-Taqiy-i-Najafi, a prominent Muslim cleric who had persecuted the Bahá’ís. It was revealed around 1891 at the Mansion of Bahjí and translated by Shoghi Effendi.
  • BWC Lawh-i-Ibn-i-Dhib (Epistle to the Son of the Wolf); Aqa Najafi (Son of the Wolf); Shoghi Effendi, Translations by; Translation; Publications; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Writings of; Shoghi Effendi, Works of
    1941 (In the year) Shoghi Effendi congratulated the Spiritual Assembly of San Jose upon formation. [Divine Springtime — Louise Coswell Recalls p59] San Jose; Costa Rica Local Spiritual Assembly, formation first local spiritual assembly in Central America
    1941 (In the year) Shaykh Kázim was martyred in Bunáb, Ádharbáyján. [BW18:389] [key] Bunab; Adharbayjan Persecution, Adharbayjan; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1941 (In the year) Aura Sanchez became a Bahá’í in Colombia, considered the first Bahá’í of the country. Colombia First Bahais by country or area first Bahá’í in Colombia
    1941 (In the year) John Ferraby, Hand of the Cause of God, heard about the Bahá’í Faith from Victor Cofman, a non-Bahá’í. John Ferraby
    1941 'Abdu'l-Jalíl Bey Sa'ad translated The Dawn-Breakers into Arabic. His translation was published but because of the war it had to be referred to the Publicity Section of the Egyptian government for approval. From that department it was passed to the high Muslim authorities who determined that it was against the Muslim faith and so should be condemned. The entire publication run was gathered for destruction and upon hearing this 'Abdu'l-Jalíl interviewed all the officers concerned and not only secured the release of the books but obtained official permissions to distribute them in Egypt and abroad. [BW-598-599] [key] Egypt Dawn-Breakers (book); Nabil-i-Azam; Abdul-Jalil Bey Saad; Translation; Publications; Arabic language; Opposition
    1941 Jan Nine Bahá’ís were arrested in Sangsar, Khurásán, Iran, and banished to other towns for closing their shops on Bahá’í holy days. BW18:389] [key] Sangsar; Khurasan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; Holy days
    1941 11 Feb The passing of Margaret Stevenson, the first New Zealand Bahá’í (b. 30 November 1865, in Onehunga) in Auckland. She was buried in Hillsborough Cemetery.
          She initially heard of the Bahá’í Faith through reading an article in "The Christian Commonwealth" sent to her by her sister, Amy, who was studying music in London. Margaret, though, later admitted that she “did not think any more about it”. However, in 1913 Miss Dorothea Spinney, a professional actress who performed in many parts of the world, arrived in Auckland from California and stayed at the Stevenson home in Devonport. During that visit there were many opportunities for Miss Spinney to tell the Stevenson family about the Bahá’í Cause.
          After embracing the new Faith, Margaret began to speak to others of her new found beliefs – a courageous act for a middle-class woman in the then conservative society where following a new religion was considered odd. As New Zealand’s only Bahá’í, she held on steadfastly to her faith for many years. Finally, after the visit of the first Bahá’í travelling teachers to New Zealand in December 1922, a handful of individuals from Margaret’s social circle also became Bahá’ís. A class was established at her home in Parnell to study the Teachings in more depth and was held there regularly for 10 years. In January 1923 the first Bahá’í Nineteen Day Feast was held at her home. Margaret held various administrative roles within the Bahá’í community and remained an active and dedicated Bahá’í until her passing. [from a post by Tricia Hague-Barrett in Facebook page "Women of Bahá"] [key]
    Margaret Stevenson; Dorothea Spinney; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1941 17 Feb John Henry Hyde Dunn, passed away in Sydney. [BW9:595; SBR166]
  • Shortly after his passing Shoghi Effendi appointed him to the rank of Hand of the Cause of God. (26 April, 1952) [MoCxxii]
  • For the story of his life see SBR153–68.
  • For his obituary see BW9:593–7.
  • For a biography see The Bahá'í Encyclopedia Project
  • Photo of his grave. [BW9p72]
  • See Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • Sydney; Australia Hyde Dunn; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi
    1941 28 Mar The publication of The Promised Day is Come. It was, in effect, a survey of the world in relation to the Bahá’í Faith during its first century. [AY305; PG215-217]
  • Available at the Bahá'í Reference Library.
  • America Promised Day is Come (letter); Bahai history; History (general); Peace; World peace (general); Tablets to kings and rulers; Historical overviews by Central Figures or BWC
    1941 8 Apr The passing of Urbain Joseph Ledoux (b. August 13, 1874 in Ste Hélène de Bagot, Quebec). He was buried in Saint Joseph's Cemetery Biddeford, Maine.
  • He is believed to be the third French-Canadian to become a Bahá'í outside of Canada. [OCBB94]
  • He gave an address to the National Convention at the Hotel McAlpine on the 28th of April, 1919 entitled The Oneness of the World of Humanity. [SoW Vol 10 May 17, 1919 No 4 p58] "This talk 'sounded so French-Canadian' that later francophone believers could still be moved to tears in reading its text." [OCBB94]
  • He received widespread publicity for his opening of bread lines in New York (The Stepping Stone) in 1919, and for “auctions” of the jobless to employers in New York and Boston during the Depression of 1921. He was received by President Warren Harding shortly after arriving in Washington, D.C. in September 1921. Ledoux spent a little over three months in Washington, D.C. 1921-22 campaigning for a public works program funded by a tax on companies that made excessive war profits during World War I. His tactics included setting up a hotel housing the unemployed on Pennsylvania Avenue, an auction of the jobless, speaking before the unemployment conference, calling for the arrest of international arms conference delegates. He walked around the city carrying a white umbrella, a lighted lantern and a Bible or a copy of the Sermon on the Mount saying he was like Diogenes searching for an honest man.
  • Urbain Ledoux is shown in Boston in 1921 auctioning off an unemployed man. He conducted these auctions in New York and Boston in order to garner publicity for the plight of the unemployed and to find work for the jobless. He called himself “Mr. Zero” because he said he didn’t want any publicity for himself.
  • “Mr. Zero” returned to Washington in 1932 with the Bonus Expeditionary Force, leading an unauthorized march on the White House July 16, 1932 that resulted in his arrest along with two others. The march frightened President Herbert Hoover who set in motion the eviction of the bonus marchers from the city — a move that backfired on Hoover and helped to cement his reputation as someone uncaring about the plight of the nation’s unemployed. Photos. [Wikipedia]
  • Find a grave.
  • His obituary in the New York Times April 10th 1941.
  • He is reported to have "rescued" 85 year-old Sarah Farmer in Portsmouth where she was being held in a sanatorium against her will. [Boston Post 4 August 1916]
  • See a story from Ephemeral New York.
  • There is a short description of Urbain LeDoux in He Loved and Served: The Story of Curtis Kelsey p 33-34.
  • New York; United States Urbain Ledoux (Mr. Zero); In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Social and economic development; Bread lines; Charity and relief work
    1941 13 May The first Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of St. Paul, Minnesota was elected. [A Saint Paul Bahá’í Community History: The Early Years] [key] Saint Paul; MN Local Spiritual Assembly, election The first Spiritual Assembly of the Baha’is of St. Paul, Minnesota
    1941 18 May Yvonne Cuellar, a French woman, became a Bahá’í in Bolivia.
  • Although Marina del Prado was the first to become a Bahá’í, on 2 February 1941, she did not remain active, so Yvonne Cuellar is recognized as the first Bahá’í in Bolivia. She was called by Shoghi Effendi ‘Mother of Bolivia’.
  • For the story of her life see BW19:619–22.
  • Bolivia First Bahais by country or area first Bahá’í in Bolivia
    1941 Jun Eve Nicklin arrived in Peru from Jamestown, NY, the United States and became the first resident pioneer to settle in Lima. FMH
  • Hand of the Caus Ruhíyyih Khánum, in the movie, The Green Light Expedition, called her the "Mother of Peru". [FMH264] [key]
  • Peru Eve Nicklin first resident pioneer in Lima
    1941 20 Jun The passing of Howard Colby Ives (b. 11 Oct 1867, Brooklyn, New York, d. Pulaski County, Arkansas, USA). He was buried in Pinecrest Memorial Park and Garden Mausoleum, Alexander, Saline County, Arkansas. [BW9p608-613; Find a grave]
  • He and his wife Mabel spent nearly the last twenty years of his life as itinerant teachers. (Often teamed up with the Obers and the McKays) For example they came to Toronto in November of 1938 and stayed for about 10 months. During that time Mabel gave more than 150 lectures in Toronto and about 70 in Hamilton, Toronto's expansion goal. Howard, who was had had heart problems and who was rapidly losing for sight and hearing at the time, complemented her abilities by doing personal deepening with receptive souls. [TMLF62-67, SEBW139-154]

    Some of his works were:

    • The Ocean of His Utterances Unpublished study course in the Revelation of Bahá'u'lláh using the books of Bahá'u'lláh, Abdu'l‑Baha, and Shoghi Effendi, compiled and with commentary by Ives. Not yet formatted.
    • Portals to Freedom (1937) A collection of anecdotes and history of Abdu'l-Baha's travels to the United States, as told by one observer. [Collins7.1313 to 7.1320]
    • The Song Celestial (1938) A mystical book about Mr. Ives' search for God, in which a seeker asks God various questions, and God responds. [Collins7.1321-1322]
  • Also see Mother's Stories: Recollections of Abdu'l-Baha by Muriel Ives Barrow Newhall (Daughter of Howard and Mabel Ives)
  • Little Rock; AR; Brooklyn; NY; Toronto Howard Colby Ives; In Memoriam; Mabel Rice-Wray Ives
    1941 6 Aug The passing of Elizabeth Roemer Greenleaf (b. 1863) in Eliot Maine. She was buried at the Rosehill Cemetery and Mausoleum. [BW9p608]
  • She and her husband became active in the Chicago Bahá’í community after completing Kheiralla's class on the 5th of October, 1897.
  • She had a dream in which Kheiralla was represented as a white ram behaving destructively. After he returned from pilgrimage and began sowing seeds of discontent she and her husband were able to understand the meaning of the dream. [FMH50]
  • She served as secretary of the Chicago Bahá’í women’s organization in 1905. After the passing of her husband she began to travel extensively to lecture about the Bahá’í Faith. She also moved to various cities that needed Bahá’ís, remaining there until the community was strong enough for her to move again. In 1924 she was elected to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada for one year. She went on pilgrimage in 1926, meeting Shoghi Effendi. He eulogized her as a “veteran and outstanding teacher” and described her qualities of “deep knowledge of the teachings, profound human sympathy, a heart which mirrored the Master’s love, and a winning sweetness and friendliness.” [The Greenleafs: An Eternal Reunion by Emeric Sala published in Bahá'í News, 510, pages 8-9, 23 1973-09] [key]
  • Eliot; Maine; United States Elizabeth Greenleaf; In Memoriam
    1941 16 Sep In Iran, Ridá Sháh abdicated and Muhammad-Ridá Sháh ascended to the throne. His rule was to last until 1979. [BBR482]
  • Ridá Sháh was overthrown by the British and Russians. [BBRSM173]
  • His reign can be described in three phases:
            The first phase, from 1941 through 1955, was a period characterized by physical danger, during which Bahá'ís were scapegoated in the interactions among the government, the clerics and the people, and experienced several bloody incidents, the culmination of which was the 1955 anti-Bahá'í campaign and its aftermaths.

            The second phase, from the late 1950s to around 1977, marked almost two decades of relative respite from physical attacks, during which Bahá'ís enjoyed more security than before, without ever being officially recognized as a religious community and while their existence as Bahá'ís was essentially ignored or denied.

            The last two years of the reign of the Shah comprised the third phase, the revival of a bloody period. [Towards a History of Iran’s Bahá'í Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani] [key]

  • Iran Mohammed Reza Shah Pahlavi; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; History (general); Iran, General history; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1941 15 Oct The first Bahá'í group was formed in Quito. [Heroes of God: History of the Bahá'í Faith in Ecuador, 1940-1979 p5] [key] Quito,Ecuado first Baha'i group in Quito
    1941 18 Oct Four members of a Bahá’í family were killed and several other family members were severely beaten in an attack on their home by an armed mob in Panbih-Chúlih, near Sárí, Iran. [BW18:389] [key] Panbih-Chulih; Sari; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Persecution, Mobs
    1941 2 Nov Shoghi Effendi sent two cables the the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada. The first was to announce that Thrayyá Afnán, the daughter of 'Abdul-Bahá's fifth daughter, Tubá Khnum, had married Faydí Afnan, a known Covenant-breaker and son of Siyyid 'Alí who had supported Mírzá Muhammad-'Alí.
  • The second concerned the family of Ruhi Afnán, Shoghi Effendi's younger cousin. He had also married into a family of Covenant-breakers and had failed to get the Guardian's approval for his second trip to North America and for a trip to England. Shoghi Effendi had concealed Ruhi's activities for some time prior. [BN No 149 December, 1941 p1-3]
  • In a message to Canada dated 21 May 1953 Shoghi Effendi warned of the nefarious activities of Ruhi Afnan, someone who had been corresponding with Ahmad Sohrab, had had contact with the Covenant-breakers, along with his family had sold some property that had been purchased by Bahá'u'lláh, was now claiming to be an exponent of the Faith and was misrepresenting the Teachings. [CBN No 43 August, 1953 p1] iiiii
  • see his biography at Bahaipedia.
  • BWC Covenant-breakers; Thrayya Afnan; Ruhi Afnan
    1941 31 Nov Some members of the National Spiritual Assembly filed suit against Sohrab to try to stop him from using the name Bahá'í. He had opened a Bahá'í bookshop in New York in 1939. This suit was filed in the Supreme Court of New York County. The judge granted a motion to dismiss, stating that "the plaintiffs have no right to a monopoly of the name of a religion. The defendants, who purport to be members of the same religion, have an equal right to use the name of the religion..." The judge mentioned that the complaint could be further amended and the NSA appealed but the Appellate Court affirmed the decision of the lower court.
          The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada distributed a mimeographed statement concerning the New History Society entitled The Basis of the Bahá’í Community, which explained the purpose and outcome of the lawsuit entered against the founders of the New History Society to prevent their misuse of the name "Bahá’í” on which the National Spiritual Assembly had obtained a trademark patent. [The Basis of the Bahá'í Community: A Statement Concerning the New History Society]
  • Also see United States National Spiritual Assembly vs. Mirza Ahmad Sohrab.
  • During the second World War the New History Society put forth an alleged passage from 'Abdu'l-Bahá which would justify citizens in refusing to obey their governments when drafted into the military forces. The National Spiritual Assembly was obliged to explain the true Bahá'í position to the federal authorities as set forth by the Guardian.
  • New York; United States Covenant-breakers; New History Society; Ahmad Sohrab; The Basis of the Bahai Community
    1941 Dec The excommunication of Shoghi Effendi's sister, Mehrangíz Rabbáni with this message.

    "Sister Mehrangis [Mehrangiz] followed example Ruhi's sister. Justice demands announce believers her expulsion."(UD149)

  • The reason for her being declared a Covenant-breaker was that she followed the example of Ruhi's sister by marrying to one of his cousins (Feyzi) without the Guardian's consent. Mehrangiz married to Hassan Afnan, the son of Furughiyyih Khanum, a daughter of Bahá'u'lláh by his third wife Gawhar. [BN No 149 December 1941 p1] [key]
  • BWC Covenant-breakers; Mehrangiz Rabbani
    1942 (In the year) The House of the Báb in Shíráz was attacked and damaged by fire. [BBD108; BW18p389] [key] Shiraz; Iran Bab, House of (Shiraz); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution
    1942 – early The publication in Iran of The Political Confessions or Memoirs of Prince Dolgoruki (or, simply, Dolgorukov's Memoirs). The book contends that the Bábí Faith was simply an element in a plot to destabilize Iran and Islam. [22 February, 2009 Iran Press Watch]
  • See Religious Contentions in Modern Iran, 1881-1941 by Dr Mina Yazdani where she posits that "The process of Othering the Bahá'ís had at least three components; 1) religious, carried on by the traditionalist theologians; 2) institutional and formal, sanctioned by the state; and 3) political, the result of a joint and gradual process in which Azalīs, former Bahá'ís and reformist theologians all played a role. This process reached its culmination with the widespread publication of The Confessions of Dolgoruki which resulted in a fundamental paradigm shift in the anti-Bahá'í discourse. With the widespread impression of Bahá'ís as spies of foreign powers, what up to that point constituted a sporadic theme in some anti-Bahá'í polemics now became the dominant narrative of them all, including those authored by traditionalist clerics. Consequently, as Iran entered the 1940s, the process that would transform Islamic piety to political ideology was well under way."
  • In its preface, Dolgorukov's Memoirs purported to be a translation of the memoirs of Prince Dimitri Ivanovich Dolgorukov (Russian Minister in Iran from 1845-54), first published in the official organ of the Soviet Communist Party. According to the book, whose Russian “original” has never been found, Prince Dolgorukov had travelled to Iran during the 1830s, entered the ranks of the ‘ulama, and instigated the Bábí-Bahá’í uprising. The book totally contradicted the well-documented life of Prince Dolgorukov, and made obvious chronological and historical mistakes in its allegations about the lives of the Báb and Bahá’u’lláh. Nevertheless, it was reprinted many times, and created a master narrative that others subsequently deployed. With its political tone, the book, on the one hand, heralded the ascendancy of politics over religion in the mindset of Iran’s Shi’a clergy, and on the other, demonstrated the vast popularity that conspiracy theories enjoyed in Iran. [Iran Press Watch 1407] iiiii
  • Iran Conspiracy theories; Criticism and apologetics; Prince Dolgorukov; Persecution, Iran; Persecution
    1942 (The early 20th Century) Bahá'í Scholarship

    The publication in 1865 of the Comte de Gobineau’s (1816-1882),Les Religions et Les Philosophies dans l'Asie Centrale created an interest in Europe. A scholar that was inspired by Gobineau was E.G.Browne. He travelled to Iran and also visited Bahá’u’lláh in Akka in the latter days of His life. He translated two histories of the new religion and published two other books as well as a number of articles. He also made an important collection of manuscripts that he gave to Cambridge University Library. Bahá'ís have criticized Browne's work for being too sympathetic to Azal, Baha'u'llah's half-brother and implacable enemy. One of the books that Cobineau for Les Religions... was Násikhu't-Taváríkh (the 'history to abrogate all previous historiies') by Lisánu'l-Mulk. This book had been condemned by Bahá'u'lláh as a falsification of history one which even an infidel would not have had the effrontery to produce. [SUR36-37]      

    A.L.M. Nicolas (1864-1939) was a French consular official in Iran who researched and wrote a biography of the Báb as well as translating three of the Báb's major works into French.

         Just as the Báb was the centre of the scholarly interests of Gobineau, Browne and Nicolas, some Russian scholars who were more interested in Bahá'u'lláh. Baron Viktor Rosen (1849-1908), the director of the Oriental Department of the University of St. Petersburg was assisted by Aleksandr Tumanski (1861-1920). He spent a great deal of time with the Bahá'í community of Ashkhabad and with Mirza Abu'l-Fadl Gulpaygani. Although he did not write as much as Browne or Nicolas, what he did write was derived from a very deep and thorough investigation. [L&E43-83]

      See An Officer and an Orientalist: Alexander Grigorevich Tumanskii and His Contribution to Russian Historiography on and Policy towards the Babi-Baha’i Religion by Soli Shahvar, Bahá'í Studies Review 20 (1), 3-19

         There was much interest in scholarship in the early days of the Faith because almost all of the most important disciples of the Báb were Islamic religious scholars, as were many of the leading converts to the Bahá'í Faith in later years. The most important of these was the above mentioned Mirza Abu'l-Fadl Gulpaygani (1844-1914). He was learned in the Zoroastrian and Jewish scriptures and spent some time in the Christian West at the request of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá prior to His visit.

         During the 1930s to 1960s, a second generation of Iranian Bahá'í scholars, such as Fadil Mazandarani (1881-1957), 'Abdul-Hamid Ishraq-Khavari (1902-1972), and 'Azizu'llah Sulaymani (1901-1985) systematized Bahá'í theology and law, developed aids for scholars such as dictionaries of Bahá'í terminology, and wrote histories and biographies. This was of course a more traditional style of scholarship than is current in the West, but it continues to be useful to all present scholars.

         The above-described initial flurry of interest in the Bábí and Bahá'í religions in the West was not sustained and from the 1920s to the 1970s, there were no Western scholars who were as deeply engaged as the above-named ones and only a handful of studies that can be said to have done much to advance knowledge. From the 1970s onward, there gradually emerged a new stream of scholars who can be said to be a fusion of the above two groups, the Western and the Bahá'í scholars. This new generation of scholars mostly began as Bahá'ís, although some have subsequently left the religion. They use Western academic methodology and most operate from within Western universities but they have access to insider information and resources. Apart from these individuals, the Bahá'í Faith has been very little studied by Western scholars of religion.

         A word must also be said about what passes for scholarship on the Bahá'í Faith in Iran and to a lesser extent in the rest of the Middle East. Bahá'ís have been persecuted in many Middle Eastern countries and rejected by Islamic leaders, and one form of this discrimination has involved the manipulation of information. For most of the last 100 years, deliberately distorted or falsified information and documents have been created mostly by some within the Islamic religious establishment and then distributed as though these were facts about the Bahá'í Faith. Since the Bahá'ís have had no ability to respond to this material in the Middle East, these distortions have gradually become accepted in the Middle East as the truth. One example is the forged memoirs of Count Dolgorukov, the Russian ambassador to Iran in the 1840s to 1850s. This and other contradictions were so clearly spurious that even some Iranian scholars debunked them when they were first published in the 1940s. But despite this, they are often regularly cited by Middle Eastern writers up to the present day as though they are a reliable source for the history of the religion.

         Since the Islamic Revolution of 1979, this manufacturing of disinformation and forged material has increased greatly with programs in the media, articles, and books appearing on a frequent basis, especially in the government-run media. The result is that there is almost nothing published in the Middle East that has reliable information about the Bahá'í Faith in it. A little of this sort of scholarship has also appeared in the West; some Christian missionaries, notably Reverend William McElwee Miller(1892-1993)(Also see WOB83) have written anti-Bahá'í material and ex-Bahá'ís have published academic work that is calculated to make the Bahá'í community resemble a cult as portrayed in the anti-cult campaigns that were carried out in the Western media in the 1980s. [The above was copied from the website Patheos and has been edited for brevity. It was contributed by Dr. Natalie Mobini]

  • See as well the publication of Der Bahā'ismus, Weltreligion der Zukunft?: Geschichte, Lehre und Organisation in Kritischer Anfrage (Bahá'ísm-Religion of the Future? History, Doctrine and Organization: A Critical Inquiry) by Francesco Ficicchia under the auspices of the Central Office of the Protestant Church for Questions of Ideology in Germany. [key]
  • Bahai studies; Scholarship; Orientalism; Babism; Comte de Gobineau; Edward Granville Browne; A.L.M. Nicolas; Baron Rosen; Alexander Tumansky; Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Mirza Asadullah Fadil-i-Mazandarani; Abdul-Hamid Ishraq-Khavari; Azizullah Sulaymani; Reverend William McElwee Miller; Francesco Ficicchia; Baron Viktor Rosen
    1942 (In the year) Dr Malcolm King, a Jamaican who had become a Bahá'í in the United States, introduced the Faith to his homeland. [SDSCp425 note 2]
  • He held meetings at 190 Orange Street in Kingston. By 1943, the people he had taught founded a spiritual assembly in Kingston. [The Gleaner] [key]
  • Jamaica First Bahais by country or area first Jamaican Baha'i
    1942 (In the year) In the village of Daidanaw eleven Bahá'ís were slain. Records, books and documents that had been transferred to Daidanaw from the headquarters in Mandalay and Rangoon were lost when the headquarters building was destroyed by fire. [BW11p33] [key] Daidanaw; Mandalay; Yangon (Rangoon); Myanmar (Burma) Persecution, Myanmar (Burma); Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution
    1942 (In the year) The publication of Selected Writings of Bahá'u'lláh: Author of the Bahá'í Dispensation by the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada. It was published by the Bahá'í Publishing Committee in Wilmette. 43p. Publications; Gleanings from the Writings of Bahaullah
    1942 1 Jan Shoghi Effendi announced the expulsion of his sister Mehrangiz. [Baha'i News #150 January 1942 p1] [key] BWC Covenant-breakers
    1942 16 Jan The passing of Carole Lombard Gable (b. 6 October 1908 in Ft Wayne, IN) near Las Vegas. She was buried at the Forst Lawn Memorial Park in Glendale, California. She was a second generation Bahá'í, her mother, Elizabeth Peters, had been brought into the Faith my Mrs Orol Platt. Carole, at the age of 14, wrote to 'Abdu'l-Bahá to ask for His permission to pursue a career in Hollywood. His Tablet came, praying for her success. She accepted the Faith in Los Angeles in about April of 1938. Her closest Bahá’í friend was the well-known teacher, Mrs. Beulah Storrs Lewis.
  • She became an icon of cinema, the American Film Institute named her one of the greatest American female screen legends.
  • She died in a plane crash while on a bond-selling tour. [Bahá'í Chronicles; Bahá'í Teachings; Bahá'í Arts Connection; BW9p635-637]
  • Images.
  • Her biography was entitled Carole Lombard: A Bio-Bibliography by Robert D. Matzen.
  • See documentary videos on You Tube, Carole Lombard (Part 1) and Carole Lombard (Part 2).
  • Ft Wayne, IN; Las Vegas, NV; United States Carole Lombard
    1942 13 Feb Ustád Habíbu’lláh Mu‘ammarí was martyred in Nayríz, Iran. [BW18:389] [key] Nayriz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1942 (In the year) The publication of The Bahá'í Temple: House of Worship of a World Faith Commemorating Completion of Exterior Ornamentation 1942, by the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada. Chicago; Il Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Dedications; Publications
    1942 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Cuba was established in Havana. [One Country Issue 1 Vol 17 Apr-Jun 2008]
  • A loose organization had been formed in 1940.
  • Havana; Cuba Local Spiritual Assembly, formation first LSA in Cuba
    1942 Ridván The first local assembly in El Salvador was established in San Salvador. San Salvador LSA first LSA in El Salvador
    1942 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Haiti was established in Port-au-Prince. Port-au-Prince Local Spiritual Assembly first Local Spiritual Assembly in Haiti
    1942 25 May ‘Abdu’l-Jalíl Bey Sa‘ad passed away and was named a Hand of the Cause of God posthumously. [BW9:597]
  • For his obituary see BW9:597–9.
  • On the day of his passing Shoghi Effendi announced his appointment to the rank of Hand of the Cause of God. [MoCxxii] [key]
  • Abdul-Jalil Bey Saad; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; In Memoriam
    1942 Jun The Spiritual Assembly of San José, Costa Rica, was legally registered with the government, the first local assembly to be incorporated in Latin America. [BW11:46] [key] San Jose; Costa Rica Local Spiritual Assembly firstLocal Spiritual Assembly incorporated in Latin America
    1942 9 Jun - 15 Feb 1943 John Stearns began sponsoring a radio program in Quito under the auspices of his small business, "Kandy Kitchen", which presented classical music and readings from the Bahá'í Writings. These broadcasts came over short wave (32.05 meter, 9355 Kc) Monday evenings at 8:00 PM Eastern Standard Time. The broadcasts could be heard all over South America and occasionally in Spain.
    The Bahá'í Radio Hour, "Words and Music" was broadcasted every Sunday from 3:00 PM to 4:00 PM and a program called "Bahá'í Echo" three times a week Monday, Wednesday and Friday from 9:15 to 9:30 PM. [Heroes of God: History of the Bahá'í Faith in Ecuador, 1940-1979 p5] [key]
    Quito; Ecuador Baha'i Radio; John Sterns
    1942 25 Jun The passing of 'Abdu'l-Jalíl Bey Sa'ad who was, for many years, the president of the National Spiritual Assembly and a judge in the Civil Courts in Egypt. Through his sustained effort the Declaration of Trust was recognized as valid and legalized in 1934.
  • He made an important contribution in translating into Arabic. Among his accomplishments were The Dawn-Breakers, Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era, Laws of Personal Status and Rules of Procedure.
  • In 1941 he employed the Declaration of Trust as an instrument to induce the Ministry of Civil Defence to grant permission to build the Hazíratu'l-Quds in Cairo. While supervising this project in the intense heat he fell ill and died suddenly after an operation.
  • Shoghi Effendi appointed him to the rank of Hand of the Cause of God on the day of his passing. [MoC597-599] [key]
  • Egypt Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Abdul Jalil Bey Saad; Declaration of Trust and By-Laws; Haziratul-Quds; Dawn-Breakers (book); Esslemont; Arabic language; Translation
    1942 Aug Lidia Zamenhof was killed in the gas chambers at Treblinka. [HDBF516]
  • For her obituary see BW10:533–8.
  • See also Lidia by Wendy Heller, GR, Oxford, 1985 and Lidia Zamenhof, a cosmopolitan woman and victim of the Holocaust.
  • See JPost.com 8Feb2022 for a full history of the language and of the Zamenof family. iiiii
  • Treblinka; Poland Lidia Zamenhof; World War II; Persecution, Poland; Esperanto
    1942 26 Oct Marion Lord Maxwell (‘Miss Mac’) became a Bahá’í, the first Jamaican to accept the Faith. [BW17:429]
  • For the story of her life see BW17:429–30.
  • Jamaica Marion Lord Maxwell first Bahá'í in Jamaica
    1942 16 Nov Manuel Bergés Chupani, of Sánchez, Dominican Republic, became a Bahá’í, perhaps the first native Dominican person to accept the Faith. Dominican Republic First Bahais by country or area first native Bahá'í in Dominican Republic
    1942 18 Dec The Assembly of Egypt, after obtaining government permission to maintain a Bahá’í cemetery, arranged for the transfer of the remains of Abu’l-Fadl and of Lua Moore Getsinger from their respective graves. The members of the National Spiritual Assembly, together with its committee who carried out the transfer, accompanied by representatives of all Bahá’í communities of Egypt, conducted a service at the Bahá’í cemetery during the reinterment. See BW9p82; 83; 87 for photos.

    After Abdu'l-Fadl passed away in early 1914 the American believers, in gratitude for the contribution he had made to the American Bahá'í community, collected a sum of money for the construction of a suitable monument for his grave. The work was interrupted with the Ascension of the Master and the money collected was reverted the National Fund. That money was now sent to the National Spiritual Assembly of Egypt. [BW9p89] [key]

    Cairo; Egypt Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Apostles of Bahaullah; Lua Getsinger; Cemeteries and graves; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1942 Late in the year Shoghi Effendi asked Sutherland Maxwell to design the superstructure of the Shrine of the Báb. [BBD210; DH140; GBF103–5] [key] Haifa; Mount Carmel Sutherland Maxwell; Bab, Shrine of; Architecture; Architects; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1943 (In the Year) The founding of the publishing house George Ronald by David Hofman using his stage name. Its first title was The Renewal of Civilization, a book he wrote as an introduction to the Baháʼí Faith. Later publications were Bahá'u'lláh, the Prince of Peace: A Portrait, Commentary on the Will and Testament of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, and George Townshend, A Life.

    They published intermittently until 1947 when consultations began with Shoghi Effendi and the National Spiritual Assembly of the British Isles when it became a full-time business. They published on a variety of subjects until about the mid 1960’s when they concentrated on Bahá’í themes. [Bahaipedia]

  • A list of publications can be found on Bahaipedia. Please note that the list covers two pages.
  • Oxford; United Kingdom Publishing
    1943 (In the year) The first Bahá’í group was formed in Bogotá, Colombia, with the celebration of a Unity Feast. Bogota; Colombia Unity Feast first Bahá’í group in Bogotá, Colombia
    1943 (In the year) The first Local Spiritual Assembly was formed in Jamaica. [BWNS233] [key] Jamaica Local Spiritual Assembly; BWNS first Local Spiritual Assembly in Jamaica
    1943 (In the year) The publication of A Commentary on the Will and Testament of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá written by David Hofman by a new publisher, George Ronald. They went on to publish books on business ethics, comparative religion, studies of sacred texts, Islam, poetry, music, novels, biography and philosophy as well as a number of other subjects. George Ronald is primarily a publisher of books related to the history, teachings, doctrines and personalities of the Bahá’í Faith. See the reference for a list of Bahá'í books published up to 2013. [George Ronald A Bibliographic History by Jan Jasion]
  • A current catalogue can be found at their website.
  • see George Ronald: Publishing Authentic, Accurate & Inspiring Baha’i Books Since 1943 by Sonjel Vreeland.
  • United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Will and Testament of; George Ronald; Firsts, Other; Publishing; Publishing Trusts; Publications; David Hofman first book published by George Ronald.
    1943 - 1944 Fereidoon Adamiyyat, one of the most influential and widely acknowledged Iranian historians of the 20th century, argued in his Book, Amir Kabir and Iran, considered perhaps the most influential scholarly work of history published prior to the Islamic Revolution, that British intelligence officers were behind a plot which led to the creation of the Bábí Faith. He falsely claimed that Arthur Conolly, a British intelligence officer who was executed in Bukhara in 1842, had in his Journey to the North of India through Russia, Persia and Afghanistan admitted that Mulla Husayn Bushrui, the first follower of the Báb, was an agent working for him. Adamiyyat further concluded that without the aid of foreign powers such a religious sect could not have survived for so long, thus giving further credence to the conspiracy theories of his time and culture. Although He subsequently came to accept that Conolley had never made such a claim and removed the allegations in later editions of his book, the influence of his initial claim proved to be lasting among Iranians.

    Note:Amir Kabir was the 19th century Iranian Qajar minister who ordered the execution of many members of the early Bahá'í movement. [Iran Press Watch 1407] [key]

    Iran; United Kingdom Conspiracy theories; Criticism and apologetics; Arthur Conolly; Fereidoon Adamiyyat
    1943 (In the year) Margot Vandenbroeck-Levy (Galler) became a Bahá’í in Chicago, the first native Luxembourger to accept the Faith.
  • She returned to Luxembourg in 1948.
  • Chicago; Luxembourg Margot Vandenbroeck-Levy First Bahá'í of Luxembourg
    1943 (In the year) The publication of Bahá'í World Faith: Selected Writings of Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá by the Bahá'í Publishing Committee in Wilmette and edited by Horace Holley. [BN No 347 Jan 1960 p1] It was intended to replace the earlier compilation Bahá'í Scriptures with newer translations. Neither is considered authoritative because they were not prepared by the Bahá'í World Centre.
  • A list of translations that have been superseded can be found at this Bahá'í9 Wiki page.
  • A special centennial edition with a red leather cover inscribed with 1844-1944 in gold lettering was published as a souvenir of the Centennial celebration held in Chicago. It had a run of only 500 copies.
  • Subsequent editions were published by the Bahá'í Publishing Trust in 1956, 1966, 1969, 1971, 1976. [Collinsp21; 4.75-477]
  • The use of the phrase "Bahá'í World Faith" has been replaced by the more fitting "Bahá'í Faith". See the letter from the Universal House of Justice to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the British Isles dated 5 February 1967. [LG109#374] [key]
  • Bahai World Faith (book); Publications
    1943 (In the year) In 1943 Raphael Lemkin published ​Axis Rule in Occupied Europe: Laws of Occupation, Analysis of Government, Proposals for Redress (Foundations of the Laws of War) in which he first used the term “genocide,”by combining “genos” (race, people) and “cide” (to kill). He defined genocide as follows: ​
      “Generally speaking, genocide does not necessarily mean the immediate destruction of a nation, except when accomplished by mass killings of all members of a nation. It is intended rather to signify a coordinated plan of different actions aiming at the destruction of essential foundations of the life of national groups, with the aim of annihilating the groups themselves. The objectives of such a plan would be the disintegration of the political and social institutions, of culture, language, national feelings, religion, and the economic existence of national groups, and the destruction of the personal security, liberty, health, dignity, and even the lives of the individuals belonging to such groups.”

    This study was an elaboration of ideas he first proposed in 1933 in his address to the Fifth International Conference for the Unification of Penal Law (1933), which argued that attacks on racial, religious and ethnic groups should be considered international crimes. Important for the prosecution of the Nazis, it helped to establish the framework for all subsequent efforts to punish crimes against humanity.

    When Lemkin proposed a treaty against genocide to the United Nations in 1945, he defined it as follows:

      “The crime of genocide should be recognized therein as a conspiracy to exterminate national, religious or racial groups. The overt acts of such a conspiracy may consist of attacks against life, liberty or property of members of such groups merely because of their affiliation with such groups. The formulation of the crime may be as follows: “Whoever, while participating in a conspiracy to destroy a national, racial or religious group, undertakes an attack against life, liberty or property of members of such groups is guilty of the crime of genocide.”
    Genocide; United Nations
    1943 8 Jan The exterior ornamentation of the Wilmette Temple was completed. [BW10:181; UD155–6]
  • The cost of the building was $1.3 million. [UD165] [key]
  • Wilmette; United States Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship)
    1943 5 Apr Sir Ronald Storrs visited the House of the Báb in Shiraz. [BW 11:461] [key] Shiraz; Iran Ronald Storrs; Bab, House of (Shiraz)
    1943 2 May The passing of Narayanrao Rangnath (Shethji) Vakil (b. Navsari, 1866) in Poona. He was the first person from the Hindu community to identify himself with the Bahá'í activities in India and the first chairman of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of India and Burma. He learned of the Faith through Mírzá Mahram Isfáhání in about 1908. [BW9p637-641]
  • For the story of his life see PH17–25.
  • Mumbai (Bombay); Pune (Poona); India In Memoriam; Narayanrao Rangnath Vakil; Mahram Isfahani first Hindu Bahá'í;
    1943 23 May Melba M. King (née Call) became a Bahá’í in Albuquerque, New Mexico, the first full-blooded Eskimo, a Yup’ik, to accept the Faith. [BW18:687–8] [key] Albuquerque; New Mexico Melba M King first full-blooded Eskimo Bahá'í
    1943 30 May The dedication of the Memorial to May Ellis Maxwell, Quilmes Cemetery, Buenos Aires, Argentina. [Bahá'í News July 1943 No 169 page 3, 564/1186] [key] Buenos Aires; Argentina May Maxwell (Bolles); Cemeteries and graves
    1943 18 Jun The passing of Mabel Rice-Wray Ives (Rizwanea) (b. in St. Louis, MI in 1878) in Oklahoma, OK. She was buried in Memorial Park Cemetery. [BW9p616; Find a grave]

    She first heard of the Faith at the age of 21 in 1899 under miraculous circumstances. [Mable Ives & The Mysterious Trolley Car Ride]

    In 1903 she married Theron Canfield Rice-Wray and had three children. They lived in California from 1909 to 1914 where her marriage ended and she returned to the East.

    In 1919 she met Howard Colby Ives and they married in 1920 and she became known to many who loved her as "Rizwanea". For nearly twenty years they traveled and taught the Faith often teaming with Grace and Harlan Ober as well as Doris and Willard McKay in both business and the teaching work. It was their entire life. They traveled through the New England states, through Pennsylvania, Ohio, Illinois, New York and many many more in Canada as well-always teaching, always leaving an established Assembly behind them." For example they came to Toronto in November of 1938 and stayed for about 10 months. During that time Mabel gave more than 150 lectures in Toronto and about 70 in Hamilton, Toronto's expansion goal. Howard, who was had had heart problems and who was rapidly losing for sight and hearing at the time, complemented her abilities by doing personal deepening with receptive souls. [TMLF62-67, SEBW139-154]

    See the story of how Mabel resolved the situation when she could no longer tolerate the itinerate lifestyle in the story When Mable Ives Could Endure No More, She Prayed .

    See the tribute paid to her in the Canadian Bahá'í News No 202 November 1966 p4.

    St. Louis,MI; Oklahoma,OK Mabel Rice-Wray Ives; In Memoriam
    1943 16 Aug The passing of Sydney Sprague (b. Oshkosh WI in 1875) in Los Angeles. He was buried in Inglewood Cemetery. His grave is beside that of Tom Collins, husband of Amelia Collins, and lies just across the road from the grave of Thornton Chase, "First Bahá'í of America." [BW9p633-635]
  • During a pilgrimage in late 1904 'Abdu'l-Bahá suggested he visit the Bahá'ís of the East. He toured India and Burma from December 1904 until the summer of 1905 becoming the first Western Bahá'í of go to the far Orient fulfilling Bahá'u'lláh's prophecy the "The East and West shall embrace as lovers". [YBIB6] iiiii
  • See YBIB55-60 For the story of Kai Khosroe, the Zoroastrian Bahá'í from Bombay who gave his life while nursing Sprague in Lahore when he was deathly ill with typhoid fever.
  • In 1908 he became a resident of Tehran, first teaching in the Bahá'í school and, when he returned the following year, he became principal.
  • He married a niece of 'Abdul'-Bahá and became a brother-in-law of Ameen Fareed. When Fareed was expelled from the Faith in 1914 Sprague and his wife as well as his father-in-law followed. Fareed's father was Mírzá Asadu'lláh-i-Isfahání, the emissary who had taken the remains of the Báb from Iran to the Holy Land [Efforts to preserve the remains of the Bab]. Sprague applied to be reinstated in 1931 (or 1937) and was finally accepted in 1941, two years before his passing. [BW9p633-635]
    • He married Farahangiz Khanum on the 20th of July, 1910, a day selected by 'Abdu'l-Bahá so that Stanwood Cobb could attend. The Bahá'í wedding was performed by 'Abdu'l-Bahá and the legal ceremony was conducted by a mullá four days later. [BN Vol 1 No 12 October 1910 p 7]
  • He made a teaching trip to South America and died soon after his return to the United States. [AB409]
  • He was the author of The Story of the Bahai Movement published in London in 1907 and A Year with the Bahá'ís of India and Burma in May of 1908. [YBIBxi] iiiii
  • Los Angeles; United States; India; Myanmar (Burma); Lahore; Pakistan Sydney Sprague; Covenant-breakers; Ameen Fareed (Amin Farid); Mirza Asadullah-i-Isfahani; Kai Khosroe; Travel teaching; In Memoriam first Western Bahá'í to visit the Bahá'í communities on the Indian sub-continent. first Occidental Bahá'í for whom an Oriental Bahá'í had sacrificed his life.
    1943 4 Sep The first local spiritual assembly in Alaska was established at Anchorage. Anchorage; Alaska; United States Local Spiritual Assembly first Local Spiritual Assembly in Alaska
    1943 22 Dec The passing of Disciple of Àbdu'l-Bahá Alma Knobloch (b. 1864 Bautzen; Germany d. 23 December 1943 Cabin John MD). She was interred in the family plot in Prospect Hill Cemetery in Washington, DC.
  • Her association with the Faith began in 1903. She first heard about it from her sister Pauline who taught both Alma and Pocahontas Pope, her seamstress, who became the first African American believer in the Washington area. [AWD24, 67]
  • At the request of 'Abdu'l-Bahá she went to Germany too help Dr Fisher departing in July of 1907 and settled in Stuttgart. Assemblies were formed in Stuttgart, Esslingen, Zuffenhausen, Leipzig, and Gera. She stayed in Germany for 13 years.
  • During this time, in 1908, Alma and Fanny went on a pilgrimage to meet 'Abdu'l-Bahá and they developed a lasting friendship with the women of the Holy Family.
  • She elected to remain in Germany when the war broke out in 1914 and gave up her American citizenship so that she would be free to travel around the country in the service of the Faith.
  • She returned to the United States after the tragic death of her brother-in-law, Joseph Hannen. [Find a grave; BW9p641-643] (Note: The picture in Bahá'í World is not Alma but rather that of her sister, Fanny.)
  • See her biography Alma Sedonia Knobloch by Jennifer Redson Wiebers.
  • Washington, DC In Memoriam; Alma Knobloch
    1944 (In the year) In Iran a Central Women’s Progress Committee was formed to organize women’s activities throughout the country. Some of the fundamental tasks accomplished by this committee and its supportive bodies in various localities included holding the first convention of Anjoman-e Tarraqī-e Neswān (Society for the Advancement of Women) in 1947 in Tehran following which local and regional conferences, educational gatherings, and regular classes for illiterate women were conducted. As a result of continued effort and educational training, particularly during the Four Year Plan (1946-1950) the Bahá'í Persian women were enabled to acquire sufficient self-confidence and social recognition to fill elective and appointive offices in the community. [BW11p563; BW12p65; BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati] [key] Iran Central Womens Progress Committee; Society for the Advancement of Women; Women; Social and economic development
    1944 (In the year) Gerardo Vega, of Costa Rica, was the first Latin-American native to pioneer when he began work in Panama. [BN No 171 November 1944 p4-5] [key] Costa Rica; Panama Pioneer; Gerardo Vega Gerardo Vega, of Costa Rica, was the first Latin-American native to pioneer when he began work in Panama.
    1944 (In the year) Hand of the Cause Collis Featherstone and his wife, Madge, were introduced to the Bahá’í Faith by Bertha and Joe Dobbins in Adelaide, Australia. They became Bahá’ís later in the year. Adelaide; Australia Collis Featherstone; Madge Featherstone; Bertha Dobbins; Joe Dobbins
    1944 (In the year) A Bahá’í committee in Tihrán identified the House of Bahá’u’lláh in the city and purchased it. Tihran; Iran House of Bahaullah (Tihran); Purchases and exchanges
    1944 (In the year) The National Spiritual Assembly of Australia was incorporated. Australia National Spiritual Assembly, Incorporation
    1944 (In the year) The first Bahá’ís arrived in the Mariana Islands.
  • Joseph F. Peter and Joseph Tierno, United States servicemen, were based on Saipan, 1944–5.
  • Saipan Joseph F. Peter; Joseph Tierno first Bahá’ís in Mariana Islands
    1944 (In the Year) The publication of The Divine Art of Living: Selections from the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh, the Báb, and 'Abdu'l-Bahá by the Chicago Publishing Committee. It was compiled by Mabel Hyde Paine. The book saw four revisions and up until 2006 and is still being reprinted. [Collins4.114 - 4.117]
  • In 1977 the study guide, Seven Round Table Discussions Based on The Divine Art of Living by Marian Crist Lippitt was published by the Bahá'í Publishing Trust in Wilmette, IL. [Collins7.1407 - 7.1410]
  • The book was transcribed by Mary Francis Baral and published by the Bahá'í Service for the Blind in Los Angeles in 1962. [Collins8.55]
  • The title was borrowed from a previous compilation by Mary M. Rabb that appeared in the Star of the West and then published bound in leather. It was also serialized in World Order in the early 1940's.
  • Chichago, IL Divine Art of Living (book); Mabel Hyde Paine; Marian Crist Lippitt; Mary Francis Baral
    1944 (In the year) As early as 1944 Mr. Rajab–Ali Vahdat, an agronomist of Iranian origin was the first Bahá'í to settle in what is now called the Democratic Republic of the Congo in the company of his wife of Belgian nationality. They settled in the city of Kabongo, then in the city of Kamina in what is now Upper Katanga. [bahai.org] [key] Kabongo,DRC; Kamina,DRC Rajab–Ali Vahdat first pioneer to settle in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
    1944 Jan A Memorial to Keith Ransom-Kehler was erected in Isfahan to commemorate her work in Iran. She was the second American Bahá'í to die in Iran while serving the Cause. See picture. [BN No 169 Jul 1944 p8[key] Isfahan; Iran Keith Ransom-Kehler; In Memoriam
    1944 22 Jan Prior to mailing the manuscript to Horace Holley, Shoghi Effendi made the last corrections of the last installment of God Passes By. At that time the book had the working title of "Prospect and Retrospect". This marked the culmination of approximately two years of almost continuous work. [PP222] [key] BWC God Passes By (book)
    1944 21 Mar On the occasion of the Centenary of the Declaration of the Báb, the Guardian provided two gifts to the Bahá'í world. To the Western believers it was God Passes By, and to the friends in the East, The Tablet of Naw-Rúz 101. Both dealt with the history of the Cause in the course of the century, a history of persecution and oppression, a history of suffering and victory, a history of joy and love, a history of the growth of the Cause of God, of its rise and of its descent into a wave-tossed sea of happenings, of its evolution from an embryonic state to its triumphant march towards its culminating point determining the destiny of man.

    The Tablet of Naw-Rúz 101 has been named Lawh-i-Qarn (Tablet of the Centennial). It was unveiled in a solemn pilgrimage ceremony at the House of the Báb in the presence of the 91 delegates exactly one hundred years after the visit of Mullá Husayn.

    A partial English translation of this Persian document can be found in Tablet of the Centennial by Shoghi Effendi translated by Khazeh Fananapazir. This paper also makes reference to the article below.

    Dr Àlí Muhammad Varqa's article, Le Style persan du Gardien, was presented at the Association for Bahá'í Studies 9th Annual Conference in Ottawa in 1984 and can be found in the book of the proceedings of that conference, The Vision of Shoghi Effendi p209. In his paper he quotes from a number of Tablets to describe the style of Shoghi Effendi's writing in Persian, one of them is the Tablet of the Centennial.

    On 28 November 2023 the Universal House of Justice, in a message to the Bahá'ís of the world, provided a review of the previous 100 years of the Formative Age.

    Shiraz; Iran Lawh-i-Qarn (Tablet of the Centennial); Shoghi Effendi, Writings of; Centenaries; Historical overviews by Central Figures or BWC
    1944 Apr The first Bahá’í shortwave radio broadcast was beamed from New York towards South America. [BW9:44–5]
  • VV76 says this was 1943.
  • New York; United States Bahai radio; Firsts, Other first Bahá’í shortwave radio broadcast
    1944 20 Apr The end of the first Seven Year Plan. Some of the accomplishments of the plan were:
  • Local Spiritual Assemblies were established in every province of Canada, in every state in the United States and in 14 republics in Latin America.
  • Seven National Spiritual Assemblies were established during this approximate period.
  • The exterior of the House of Worship in Wilmette was completed.
  • In North America, 136 LSAs, 197 groups and 1,300 localities were established. [The Spiritual Conquest of the Planet (Supplement) p2]
  • Seven Year Plan
    1944 Ridván The Bahá'ís of the British Isles launched a Six Year Plan, the British Six Year Plan (1944-1950). [Ruhi 8.2 p46]
  • The homefront goals were to:
    • To raise to nineteen the number of Local Spiritual Assemblies
    • To double the membership of the community
    • To settle pioneers in Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland and Eire
  • United Kingdom Teaching Plans; Teaching Plans, British Six Year Plan
    1944 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Jamaica was established in Kingston. Kingston Local Spiritual Assembly first Local Spiritual Assembly in Jamaica
    1944 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Puerto Rico was established in San Juan. San Juan Local Spiritual Assembly first Local Spiritual Assembly in Puerto Rico
    1944 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Colombia was established in Bogotá. Bogota Local Spiritual Assembly first Local Spiritual Assembly in Colombia
    1944 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Honduras was established in Tegucigalpa. Tegucigalpa Local Spiritual Assembly first Local Spiritual Assembly in Honduras
    1944 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Peru was established in Lima. [Heroes of God: History of the Bahá'í Faith in Ecuador, 1940-1979 p10] [key] Lima Local Spiritual Assembly first Local Spiritual Assembly in Peru
    1944 Ridván The thirty-sixth National Convention was held in Wilmette and hosted representatives of the Bahá'í communities of Central and South America.

    Those elected to serve the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada were: George O. Latimer (Chairman), Allen B. McDaniel (Vice), Horace Holley (Secretary), Louis G. Gregory (Recording Secretary), Roy C. Wilhelm (Treasurer), Dorothy Baker. Amelia E. Collins, Philip G. Sprague, Leroy Ioas. The Assembly appointed Siegfried Schopflocher to serve as the Treasurer of the Canadian Bahá’í Fund. [BN No 169 July 1944 p2; BN No285 Nov 1954 p3-4]

  • Prior to 1944 delegates to the National Convention were chosen from local communities by proportional representation. [BN No 16 March 1927 p1 refers] After this point delegates no longer represented Local Assemblies but were chosen on a provincial (or state) basis. [MA70-71; OBCC157, 174n2]
  • In 1944 there were 35 delegates to the National Convention. iiiii
  • North America; United States; Canada Conventions, National; George Latimer; Allen McDaniel; Horace Holley; Louis Gregory; Roy Wilhelm; Dorothy Baker; Amelia Collins; Philip Sprague; Leroy Ioas; Siegfried Schopflocher
    1944 May The British at their national convention, decided to ask the Guardian for their own Six Year Plan. [UDXVI]
  • He responded immediately by setting them the task of forming 19 assemblies spread over England, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland and Eire. [UD173]
  • Shoghi Effendi described this as ‘their first collective enterprise’. [UDXVI, 173–4]
  • See also BBRSM158, 185.
  • United Kingdom; Ireland Conventions, National; Teaching Plans, National; Firsts, Other; LSA first British collective enterprise
    1944 May The first All-American Bahá’í Convention was held. Those elected to the National Spiritual Assembly were: George 0. Latimer, (Chair), Allen McDaniel, (Vice), Horace Holley, (Sec'y), Louis Gregory, (Recording Sec'y), Roy Wilhelm, (Treas), Dorothy Baker, Amelia Collins, Philip Sprague, and Leroy Ioas. [BW No 169 September 1944 p6]
  • For the first time the delegates had been selected at state and provincial conventions by votes from all believers rather than by communities with local assemblies. [BW9:44; PP390]
  • Hilda Yen Male (Hilda Yen) asked to attend the 1944 Baháʼí Annual convention as an observer. She was moved by the spontaneous gestures of welcome and care shown between individuals society normally kept apart as the material demonstration of the ideals of a worldwide unity across all humanity. She requested to enroll as a Baháʼí. She then asked to address the convention as a Baháʼí: "Fellow Baha'is, this is more than a pleasure. It is a miracle that I am participating with you in discussing such important matters. I contacted two denominations and a parliament of religions before I met Julia Goldman, Baha'i, who sowed this seed in my heart. While convalescent from a flying crash, my life was given me for service to God. Julia took me under her wing. I saw God vaguely; then more clearly, through the Baha'i Faith. Then came the battle of Hongkong(sic) where all shared in a common danger and hunger - forced to live the oneness of mankind. At length I secured a priority to fly to America and how do I rejoice to be in this free country! Conferring with Americans I have found this country the best to execute the message of peace. I have been blessed in meeting other Baha'is. I have been deeply impressed by the love and affection among Baha'is. China is well prepared by its sages for the Baha'i Faith. …" [BW No 169 September 1944 p6] [key]
  • North America; United States Conventions, National; Conventions, District; First conventions; Hilda Yen first All-American Bahá’í Convention
    1944 2 May The German government held a public trial of some of the jailed Bahá'í leaders in Darmstadt. Dr. Hermann Grossmann was allowed to testify as a witness for the defense about the non-political nature of the Bahá'í Faith and the attitude of the trial had been pre-ordained. The government found the Bahá'ís guilty, levied large fines and banned all Bahá'í institutions ordering that they be immediately disbanded. [Bahá'í Teachings; German Bahá'í website archives] [key] Darmstadt; Germany Persecution, Germany; Hermann Grossmann
    1944 12 May Bahá’ís were persecuted at Ábádih, Iran. The Bahá’í centre was attacked by a mob of four thousand, the building was looted and destroyed and several Bahá’ís badly beaten. [BW18p389]
  • For Western accounts see BBR479.
  • Abadih; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution; Persecution, Mobs; Haziratul-Quds
    1944 19–25 May An international celebration of the Centenary of the founding of the Faith was held at the House of Worship in Wilmette.
  • For a description of this event see BW10:158–61.
  • For the programme see BW10:162–70.
  • For a list of the countries participating in the conference see BW10:168.
  • Wilmette; United States Centenaries; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette
    1944 22 May Centenary of the Declaration of the Báb.

  • For a survey of the growth and development of the Bahá’í Faith in the hundred years since its inception see BW10:142–9.
  • Celebrations were held in many parts of the world:
  • Britain [BW10:188–201]
      Sir Ronald Storrs delivered an address at the opening of the Bahá'í Centenary Exhibition in London. These are extracts from that speech: “My first glimpse of ‘Abbás Effendi was in the summer of 1909, when I drove round the Bay of Acre in an Arab cab, visited him in the barracks and marveled at his serenity and cheerfulness after 42 years of exile and imprisonment. I kept touch with him through my confidential agent, Husayn Bey Ruhi, son of a Tabriz martyr. [BW10p189-195]
  • India [BW10:202–8]
  • Egypt [BW10:208–17]
  • Iraq [BW10:217–22]
  • Australia [BW 10:222–8]
  • Latin America [BW10:228–33]
  • The end of the celebrations marking this occasion signal the end of the First Epoch of the Formative Age. [BBD79; CF5; PP390]
  • See the publication The Bahá’í Centenary 1844-1944.
  • Worldwide Centenaries; Bab, Declaration of; Formative Age; Ages and Epochs
    1944 22–23 May The Centenary of the Declaration of the Báb was celebrated at the House of the Báb in Shíráz. [BW10:181]
  • Ninety delegates to the national convention and members of the National Spiritual Assembly of Iran assembled discreetly for the occasion.
  • For details of this event and the caution with which the arrangements for it were made see BW10:181–3.
  • The Guardian sent the Persian Bahá’ís a lengthy letter detailing how the observance and the week-long festivities to follow are to be made. [BW10:183]
  • For details of the events see BW10:183–8.
  • Shiraz; Iran Bab, Declaration of; Bab, House of (Shiraz); Conventions, National; NSA; Centenaries
    1944 22–23 May The Centenary of the Declaration of the Báb was commemorated in the Holy Land. [BW10:150]
  • For a description of this event by Rúhíyyih Khánum see BW10:150–7.
  • For press accounts see BW10:156–7.
  • Haifa Centenaries; Bab, Declaration of
    1944 23 May Shoghi Effendi unveiled the model of the Shrine of the Báb at the centenary celebration of the Declaration of the Báb in Haifa. [BBD210; BW10:154, 157; DH140; GBF104; PP239–40; UD166]
  • BW10:157 suggests this was 24 May.
  • BWC; Mount Carmel; Haifa Bab, Shrine of; Bab, Declaration of; Centenaries; Models; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Works of
    1944 8 Aug Three Bahá’ís were murdered in Sháhrúd, Iran, after three weeks of anti-Bahá’í agitation. Many Bahá’í houses were attacked and looted. [BW18:389]
  • The murderers confessed, were put on trial and were acquitted. [BW18:389, Towards a History of Iran’s Baha’i Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani.] [key]
  • Shahrud; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Human rights; Court cases
    1944 after Aug Following the murder of Bahá’ís at Sháhrúd, Iran, and the widespread publicity on the outcome of the trial, there was an upsurge in persecution of Bahá’ís throughout Iran. [BW18p389]
  • At Ábádih Bahá’ís were beaten and their houses were sacked. [BW18:389]
  • The Bahá’í centre at Bandar Jaz was attacked. [BW18:389]
  • Two Bahá’ís were knifed at Bandar Sháh. The attackers were set free and attacked a further three Bahá’ís, leaving one an invalid. [BW18:390]
  • Bahá’ís, including women and children, were attacked and beaten at Bushrúyih, their homes and shops looted and burned and the Bahá’í cemetery desecrated. [BW18:390]
  • Bahá’í houses were attacked and looted at Fárán, Káshán and Ná’in. [BW13:390]
  • Bahá’í houses were set on fire in Gulpáygán and Zábul. [BW18:390]
  • Bahá’ís were driven from town in Bujnúrd, Gunábád and Tabas. [BW18:390]
  • The Bahá’í cemetery at Mahmúdábád was desecrated.
  • Bahá’ís were beaten at Miyán-du-áb, Rafsanján, Sangsar and Sírján. [BW18:390]
  • Bahá’ís were stoned at Qasr-i-Shírín. [BW18:390] [key]
  • Iran; Abadih; Bandar Jaz; Bandar Shah; Bushrui; Faran; Kashan; Nain; Gulpaygan; Zabul; Bujnurd; Gunabad; Tabas; Mahmudabad; Miyan-du-ab; Rafsanjan; Sangsar; Sirjan; Qasr-i-Shirin Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1944 Nov The Local Spiritual Assembly of Bogotá, Colombia, was disbanded.
  • It was not reformed until April 1946.
  • Bogota; Colombia Local Spiritual Assembly
    1944 Nov Shoghi Effendi sent the cable below to the Bahá'í world: "Monib Shahid, grandson of both `Abdu'l-Bahá and the King of Martyrs, married according to the Moslem rites the daughter of a political exile who is nephew of the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem. This treacherous act of alliance with enemies of the Faith merits condemnation of entire Bahá'í world." [Bahá'í News, December, 1944 No. 172] [key] Haifa Covenant-breakers; Munib Shahid
    1944 The passing of John Stearns, pioneer to Quito while in Lima, Peru for medical treatment. He was buried in the British Cemetary. [BW10p539-540; Heroes of God: History of the Bahá'í Faith in Ecuador, 1940-1979 p11] [key] Lima; Peru In Memoriam; John Stearns
    1944 Nov (mid) The publication of God Passes By, a survey of the history of the first century of the Bábí and Bahá’í Faiths by Shoghi Effendi. [BBRSM137; CB308; PG217-218; GPBXI; Collins5.62]
  • Shoghi Effendi intended the book to be a gift to the Bahá’ís of the West on the occasion of the hundredth anniversary of the Declaration of the Báb but conditions in the United States delayed its publication. [GT79–80; PP224]
  • For information on how Shoghi Effendi wrote the book, "the only true book we have from his pen", see GBF95–6 and PP222–4.
  • Shoghi Effendi also wrote a shorter version of the same theme as God Passes By in Persian. [PP420]
  • See A User's Guide to God Passes By on Bahá'í Blog.
  • See Shoghi Effendi: The Range and Power of His Pen by ‘Ali Nakhjavani p113 for information on the writing of God Passes By.
  • BWC Shoghi Effendi, Life of; God Passes By (book); Shoghi Effendi, Writings of; Gifts; Publications; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Works of; Historical overviews by Central Figures or BWC
    1945 (In the year) The Persian Bahá'í community published several periodicals. One of the most popular, aiming at the educational and intellectual training of Bahai youth, was named Āhang-e badīʿ. It was established in Iran in 1945 as a publication of the Tehran Bahá'í Youth Committee and then became a national magazine which gained the support of 1,200 subscribers in the early 1950s. Suspended for five years (1955-60) due to intensified restrictions by the government, Āhang-e badīʿ was published for more than three decades until it was stopped by the onset of the Islamic régime. [BW12p292; BW16p263; BW12p570; BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati] [key] Iran Ahang-e badi
    1945 (In the year) Bahá’ís throughout Iran were dismissed from National Teacher Training Colleges by the National Board of Education. [BW18p390] [key] Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Education; Persecution
    1945 (In the year) The World Forestry Charter Gathering was founded in Britain by Richard St Barbe Baker. [VV106; WH75] [key] United Kingdom Richard St. Barbe Baker; Environment
    1945 (In the year) See BBRSM166–7 for a chart showing the distribution of the Bahá’í Assemblies and localities in this year. Worldwide Statistics
    1945 (In the year) Marzieh Gail and her father, 'Ali Kuli Khan made a provisional translation of the Long Healing Prayer that was hand-typed and distributed informally among the friends. [The Long Healing Prayer of Bahá'u'lláh: The Metaphysics of Unity 12.56]
  • See Long Healing Prayer: an early provisional translation by Bahá'u'lláh translated by Ali Kuli Khan and Marzieh Gail.
  • Healing Prayer, Long; Marzieh Gail; Ali Kuli Khan
    1945 13 Mar The murder of Siyyid Mustafá Rúmí (b. Baghdad 1846 d. Mandalay Region, Myammar). He became a Baha'i in 1875 through the teaching of Jamal Effendi. He was nearly 99 years old at the time of his death. [Find a grave]
  • He was born of a noble family from Iraq who had settled in Madras, India where he encounter Jamal Effendi. Together they journeyed to Burma in 1878 and he married and settle in Rangoon. In 1899 he and some others carried the marble casket made by the Bahá'ís of Mandalay to the Holy Land for the Holy Remains of the Báb. After the loss of his wife and his business interests in 1910 he was free to devote his full time to the Faith. He was instrumental in establishing a new centre in Daidanaw in the township of Kungyangoon.
  • Among his many services for the Faith he translated the Writing to Urdu and to Burmese.
  • Shoghi Effendi in a cable dated 10 November, 1945, written on his behalf, described the condition of the Burmese Bahá'ís at the end of World War II. The cable stated:
      . . . the Burmese Bahá'ís . . . have lost almost everything, including Bahá'í institutions destroyed and, above all, their wonderful pioneer-teacher, Siyyid Mustafa Roumi, was cruelly murdered by Burmese villagers together with a number of other Bahá'ís. But they have gathered in their ruined village, and with the utmost faith and devotion are seeking to rebuild their Baha' institutions; they have already started their school and elected their Assembly. Such evidences of the deep attachment of Bahá'ís to their religion are, indeed, inspiring! . . .
  • The Guardian announced his elevation to the rank of Hand of the Cause of God on the 14th of July, 1945 and made a donation for the construction of his tomb. [MoCxxi, BW10p517-520i]
  • For his obituary see BW10:517–20.
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s tribute see BW10:519–20 and DND216-217.
  • Picture of his resting place.
  • See Lights of Fortitude p123-128,
  • See Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • See his biography, Siyyid Mustafa Rumi: Hand of the Cause of God, Apostle of Bahá’u’lláh by Iran Furutan-Ali Muhajir.
  • Myanmar (Burma); Daidanaw; Thingagyun In Memoriam; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Siyyid Mustafa Rumi; Jamal Effendi
    1945 Ridván The election for the National Spiritual Assembly was held by postal ballot. The tellers completed their work in the Temple Foundation Hall. Those selected as members of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada were: Horace Holley, Dorothy Baker, Philip Sprague, George Latimer, Amelia Collins, Louis Gregory, Leroy Ioas, Allen McDaniel, Roy C. Wilhelm. [BN No175 Jun 1945 p3]

    The inability, under restrictions imposed by the war, to hold Convention sessions this year challenged the National Spiritual Assembly to maintain the important functions of the annual meeting through other means. Steps were therefore taken to provide for Voting by mail, with a committee of tellers to serve in the customary way, to conduct a public meeting or Bahá’í Congress in Foundation Hall during the Riḍván Period, and to provide the delegates with subjects for written suggestions and views. [BN No 174 April-May 145 p2]

  • For the first time in the history of this Assembly, a postal by-election was held to fill a vacancy caused by the fact that Mr Wilhelm could no longer attend meetings. Elsie Austin was elected as of the 16th of March and attended one meeting before dissolution. [BN No 182 April 1946 p1] [key]
  • Wilmette; United States Conventions, National; National Spiritual Assembly, election of; Horace Holley; Dorothy Baker; Philip Sprague; George Latimer; Amelia Collins; Louis Gregory; Leroy Ioas; Allen McDaniel; Roy Wilhelm
    1945 (Ridván) The first local spiritual assembly in Ecuador was established in Guayaquil. The founding members were: Eduardo Gonzalez Lopez, Luis Guillermo Molina DeFranc, Emilio Minervini, Jorge Sarco, Jorge Jalón Fer, Juan Luis Aguirre Tarpeau, Mme. Marie Constantine Claudet de Thomas, Else Jorgensen, and Lauro Sánchez. [Heroes of God: History of the Bahá'í Faith in Ecuador, 1940-1979 p17, 84] [key] Guayaquil; Ecuador Local Spiritual Assembly firstLocal Spiritual Assembly in Ecuador
    1945 (Ridván) The first local spiritual assembly in the Dominican Republic was established in Santo Domingo.
  • There were nine indigenous believers in the city.
  • Santo Domingo Local Spiritual Assembly first Local Spiritual Assembly in Dominican Republic
    1945 (Ridván) The first local spiritual assembly of Bolivia was established in La Paz. La Paz Local Spiritual Assembly first Local Spiritual Assembly in Bolivia
    1945 (Ridván) The first local spiritual assembly of Venezuela was established in Caracas. Caracas Local Spiritual Assembly first Local Spiritual Assembly in Venezuela
    1945 15 Apr Shoghi Effendi sent the following cable to the Bahá'í world: "My faithless brother Husayn, after long period of dishonourable conduct, has abandoned the Master's home to consort with his sister and other Covenant-breakers". [Bahá'í News, No. 174, p.2; This Decisive Hour #141] [key] Haifa Covenant-breakers; Husayn Ali Rabbani
    1945 25 Apr The United Nations convened in San Francisco.
  • For the Bahá’í response see BW17:81.
  • San Francisco United Nations
    1945 8 May The war in Europe ended.
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s response see MA80–1, PP185 and UD175.
  • For the war’s effect on the Bahá’í community worldwide see BW17:80.
  • See CF36 for Shoghi Effendi’s opinion of the significance of the role of the United States in the war.
  • Europe World War II; War (general); History (general)
    1945 Jun The 20 Bahá’ís in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, were a sufficient number for the local spiritual assembly to gain legal recognition for the Bahá’í Faith as a religion.
  • It was registered as a cultural, religious and social organization on 5 August 1946.
  • Port-au-Prince; Haiti Local Spiritual Assembly
    1945 Aug Marguerite Wellby Preston, an English Bahá’í married to a Kenyan tea grower, settled in Sotik, Kenya, becoming the first Bahá’í in the country. [UD484]
  • Until the 1950s she was the only Bahá’í in East Africa. [UD484] [key]
  • Sotik; Kenya Marguerite Preston first Bahá’í in Kenya
    1945 1 Aug Initially founded as a hostel for Bahá'í children with sixteen children, what was the New Era High School and Senior Secondary had grown to become a leading international co-educational institution with many hundreds of students.
  • Founded as a separate institution in 1987, the New Era Development Institute had its beginnings as a service project for students in the 1970s and 1980s when the school set up programmes to assist the poor and underdeveloped villages in the region. [New Era High School and Senior Secondary website, Wikipedia, BBD171; BBRSM153]
  • For the history of the school see BW16:320–6.
  • Panchgani; Maharashtra; India New Era High School; Bahai schools; New Era Development Institute; Social and economic development
    1945 14 Aug The German Bahá’ís, 80 per cent of whom lived in the American sector of occupied Germany, obtained permission to re-organize. [BBRSM185]
  • A US soldier stationed in occupied post-war Germany, John Eichenauer, helped during the first days of the reconvening of the community. The American Bahá'ís sent money, food and literature, and aided them in rebuilding the administrative structures. [BWNS390]
  • Brief mention of this event is made in this film on Vimeo.
  • Germany Persecution, Germany; Persecution, Other; Persecution; World War II; BWNS; John Eichenauer
    1945 2 Sep The war in Japan ended. Japan World War II; War (general); History (general)
    1945 20 Oct Emeric and Rosemary Sala of St. Lambert, Quebec departed on a four month tour of Central and South America. They visited 19 republics and Mr Sala gave seventy-nine talks. They visited many pioneers and paid homage at the grave of May Maxwell at Quilmes, about one hour from Buenos Aires. [TG93-101] [key] Central America; Latin America; St Lambert; Quebec; Canada Emeric Sala; Rosemary Sala
    1945 24 Oct The United Nations was formally established.
  • For the relationship of the Bahá’í Faith to the United Nations see BW16:327–52.
  • See SDC64-65 for 'Abdu'l-Bahá's prophetic statement, written in 1875, "True civilization will unfurl its banner...".
  • The temporary headquarters for the United Nations was established in Lake Success, NY in a warehouse formerly occupied by the Sperry Gyroscope Company. (1946-1952).
  • See the United Nations Charter.
  • San Francisco; California; United States United Nations; Secret of Divine Civilization (book); Collective security; Prophecies; World War II; War (general); Peace; History (general)
    1945 Dec 15 The passing of Emogene Hoagg (Henrietta Emogene Martin Hoagg) [BW10p520] [key] In Memoriam; Emogene Hoagg
    1946 (In the year) Between 1946 and 1951, Johanne Sorensen (later Hoeg), the first Danish Bahá’í, sent letters and Bahá’í literature to 93 towns, villages, settlements, and radio stations throughout Greenland.
  • Hendrik Olsen, the first Bahá’í indigenous to Greenland, enrolled in 1965 after receiving a Bahá’í book from Miss Sorensen in 1946 and maintaining a 17-year correspondence with her.
  • Greenland Johanne Sorensen; Hendrik Olsen first Danish Bahá’í; first indigenous Bahá’í in Greenland
    1946 - 1963 The end of the First Epoch and the beginning of The Second Epoch of the Formative Age. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 5 February 1986; Mess63-86 p710-716]
  • See the attachment for the above-referenced message entitled The Epochs of the Formative Age prepared by the Research Department of the Universal House of Justice.
  • It began with the launching of the second Seven Year Plan and the adoption of similar plans by other national communities throughout the Bahá'i world and ended with the conclusion of the Ten Year Crusade and the election of the Universal House of Justice. [Mess86-01p815] [key]
  • Ages and Epochs; Formative Age
    1946 (In the year) In the second Seven Year Plan from 1946 to 1952, the American Bahá'í community was given the responsibility of working for the establishment of bahá'í communities in several european countries. A European Teaching Committee, which was responsible to the North American National Spiritual Assembly, was set up in Geneva in 1946. Its task was to coordinate the pioneer activities in ten European goal countries; Denmark, Norway, Sweden, The Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Italy, Spain and Portugal. [SBBR14p239]
  • The Committee was chaired by Edna True. [SBBR14p241]
  • Of the pioneers that arrived during this period, Dagmar Dole (stayed 1947 to 1951)) and Eleanor Hollibaugh (stayed May 1947 to October 1948 and March 1950 to October 1950) had the most influence on the growth of the community. [SBBR14p239-243]
  • As of 1946 Geresina Campani of Florence was the only known Bahá’í in Italy. In her letter, published in part in Bahá'í News she wrote of the hardship due to the devastation caused by the Allied bombing. [SYH232] [key]
  • Denmark; Norway; Sweden; Netherlands; Belgium; Luxembourg; Geneva; Switzerland; Italy; Spain; Portugal European Teaching Committee; Edna True; Geresina Campani
    1946 (In the year) The restoration of the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Tihrán was completed. Tihran; Iran House of Bahaullah (Tihran); Restoration
    1946 (In the year) The first issue of the News Exchange was published by the International Bahá'í Bureau in Geneva. The last issue was published in December of 1956. It was published in English, French and German. [CBN No 89 June 1957 p5] [key] Geneva; Switzerland Bahai International Community; News Exchange; Anne Lynch; International Bahai Bureau
    1946 (In the year) The publication of Abdul Baha's Questioned Will and Testament. The book contains the report of Dr C Ainsworth Mitchell, the handwriting expert for the British Museum. Beverly Hills; California Ruth White; Covenant-breakers; Abdul Bahas Questioned Will and Testament
    1946 (In the year) The first Bahá’í summer school in Argentina was held in Ezeiza. [BW11:45] [key] Ezeiza; Argentina Summer schools; First summer and winter schools first Bahá’í summer school in Argentina
    1946 (In the year) An Egyptian Bahá’í, a Dr Ahmad, moved to Edinburgh in order to study medicine and to fulfill one of the goals of the Six Year Plan, He invited travel teacher to speak in Edinburgh and was soon joined by Jean Court from Canada. He returned to Egypt prior to the formation of the local spiritual assembly two years later. [from The Bahá’í Community in Edinburgh, 1946-1950 by Ismail Valesco in SBBH Vol 14 p275] [key] Edinburgh; Scotland Dr Ahman; Jean Court
    1946 Jan-Feb Canadian Elizabeth Greenleaf went on pilgrimage in Haifa. [SETPE1p114] [key] Haifa Elizabeth Greenleaf; Pilgrims
    1946 20 - 25 Jan The first teaching conference in Latin America was held in Panama City on the instructions of Shoghi Effendi.
  • Twenty–five delegates from ten South American countries attended. [BW10p707, Historical Background of the Panama Temple by Ruth Pringle] [key]
  • Panama; Latin America Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching first teaching conference in Latin America
    1946 11 Apr Shoghi Effendi instructed Sutherland Maxwell to set plans in motion for the first stages of the building of the superstructure of the Shrine of the Báb. [GBF104–5] [key] BWC; Mount Carmel; Haifa Sutherland Maxwell; Bab, Shrine of; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1946 Ridván India and Burma launched a Four and One-Half Year Plan, Indian 4½ Year Plan. (1946-1951) [Ruhi 8.2 p46; BW11p32; DND141-143; The Spiritual Conquest of the Planet (Supplement) p2]
  • The goals were:
      - To increase the number of Local Assemblies from 21 to 63
      - To give special attention to areas marked by sharp cultural and political divisions
    As the plan unfolded, the National Assembly added the following additional goals:
      - To publish the Esslemont book - ‘Bahá’u’lláh and the New Era’ in eighteen new languages
      - To acquire a National Hazíratu’l-Quds in New Delhi
      - To carry the Bahá’í message to Sri Lanka, Indonesia and Thailand
  • India; Pakistan; Myanmar (Burma) Teaching Plans; Teaching Plans, National; India, Pakistan and Burma Four and a Half Year Teaching Plan
    1946 Ridván The Second Seven Year Plan of the United States and Canada (1946-1953) was launched. [BBR180; BBRSM158, 185; MA87-89, MA89]
  • For details of the plan see BW16:81–2.
      Objectives:
    • Consolidate victories won;
    • Complete interior ornamentation;
    • Form 3 NSAs in Canada, Central and South America;
    • Support spread of Faith into Europe;
    • Supplemental goals to support Africa. [The Spiritual Conquest of the Planet (Supplement)p2]
  • This marked the end of the First Epoch and the beginning of the Second Epoch of the Formative Age. [CB316; CF5–6]
  • The Second Epoch was marked by the global spread of the Faith and concluded with the election of the Universal House of Justice.
  • United States; Canada Second Seven Year Plan, US and CA (1946-1953); Teaching Plans; Teaching Plans, National; Formative Age; Ages and Epochs
    1946 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Brazil was established in Rio de Janeiro. Rio de Janeiro Local Spiritual Assembly first Local Spiritual Assembly in Brazil
    1946 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Germany and Austria was re-established. [BN No 187 September 1946 p8-9]
  • It was elected for the first time since 1937. Those elected were: Fred Kohler, Dr Adelheid Jäger, De Hermann Grossmann, Martha Brauns-Forel, Erwin Knorr, Paul Golfer, Edith Horn, Martel Weiss, Hede Schubert. [The German Baha'i Community under National Socialism p18]
  • Three American servicemen, Bruce Davison, John Eichenauer, and Capt Henry Jarvis rendered service to the stricken community.
  • It would appear that there was no Austrian representation at this National Convention nor at the National Convention the following year. [BW11p30]
  • See The German Baha'i Community under National Socialism p21-26 for the persecution of the Bahá'í community before and during the war.
  • Germany; Austria National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1946 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Panama was established Panama City. Panama Local Spiritual Assembly first Local Spiritual Assembly in Panama
    1946 Jun Rita Marshall, the first person native to St Vincent in the Caribbean to become a Bahá’í, accepted the Faith while in Halifax, Nova Scotia.
  • Her husband, Ernest Marshall, became a Bahá’í in November 1946.
  • St Vincent; Halifax; Nova Scotia; Canada First Bahais by country or area first Bahá'í of St Vincent
    1946 21 Jun The Commission on the Status of Women (CSW) is the principal global intergovernmental body exclusively dedicated to the promotion of gender equality and the empowerment of women. It was established as a functional commission of the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) on this day in 1946. UN Document E/90] [key] New York; NY United Nations; Commission on the Status of Women
    1946 (In the year 1946 or 1947) While visiting in Famagusta (Gazimağusa) Rúḥíyyih Khánum is quoted as saying: “Shoghi Effendi was working very intensely in Haifa and people were knocking on his door all the time to ask questions; because of that, during his unofficial travels to rest (holidays), he was traveling around quietly (incognito), and without contacting the believers. We came to Cyprus together for two or three weeks in one of the years 1946 or 1947 – if I look (in my diary) I can find the year. We went to Nicosia, and then we got a car and went to Famagusta, Larnaca and then again Nicosia. I can’t remember whether we went to Limassol. Afterwards we went to St. Hilarion. There weren’t good hotels in the Troodos area then, and because of that we stayed in a small house for a while. This is all I can say about this visit.” [Notes of the Visit to Famagusta of Amatu'l-Bahá Rúḥíyyih Khánum in the home of Erol & Şafak Olkar Notes taken by: Erol Olkar. The English translation of the original Turkish language handwritten manuscript of Erol Olkar was by Deniz Oraç.] [key] Famagusta; Gazimağusa; Nicosia; Larnaca; St Hilarion; Cyprus Shoghi Effendi, travels of; Amatul-Baha Ruḥiyyih Khanum, Journeys of
    1946 20 Jul The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States enquired of the Guardian whether the existence of the United Nations in its present form changed the attitude of the Baha'is toward military duties which might require the taking of human life. The Guardian's reply, written by his secretary, was:

      ...the Bahá'ís should continue to apply, under all circumstances, for exemption from any military duty that necessitates the taking of life. There is no justification for any change of attitude on our part at the present time.

    The Universal House of Justice amplified this later statement:

      There is no objection in a Bahá'í enlisting voluntarily in the armed forces of a country in order to obtain a training in some trade or profession, provided that he can do so without making himself liable to undertake combatant service. [BW17:384–5]
    [key]
    United States Armed forces; Military; Weapons; War (general)
    1946 22 Jul The passing of John David Bosch (named "Núraní by 'Abdu'l-Bahá) at his home near Geyserville, California (b. August 1, 1855 at Neu-St Johann, Canton Gall, Switzerland) He had become a Bahá'í in 1905. His teachers being Mrs Beckwith, Mrs Goodall, Mrs Cooper and Thornton Chase. He was buried in the Olive Hill Cemetery, Geyserville. [BW11p488]
  • He and Louise Stapfer married on the 19th of January 1914 in San Francisco. 'Abdu'l-Bahá sent a Tablet. [WmSh21]
  • He, along with George Latimer and Leroy Ioas, were appointed by the National Spiritual Assembly to find a location to establish a "Western Green Acre". John donated his 35 acre estate.
  • For a pen portrait and biography of John and Louise Bosch see Other People Other Places by Marzieh Gail pages 182-194 or Bahá'í News page 705.
  • For pictures of John and Louise Bosch see the Bosch Bahá'í School site.
  • For Shoghi Effendi's tribute to him see MA106. See When the Moon Set Over Haifa by Angelina Diliberto Allen pages 11-52 for an account of the Bosch's time in Haifa during the passing of 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • Geyserville; California; United States In Memoriam; John Bosch; Louise Bosch
    1946 5 Aug The Bahá’í Faith was registered as a cultural, religious and social organization in Haiti. Haiti Recognition (legal)
    1946 11 Aug The passing of Orcella Rexford (b. Louise Cutts-Powell, 12 Jun 1887 in Tracey, Minnesota) in Los Angeles. She was buried near the grave of Thornton Chase in the Inglewood Park Cemetery. [BW11p495-498; Find a grave]
  • Orcella first heard of the Bahá'í Faith from Mrs. Myrta Sandoz of Cleveland, Ohio, and was later confirmed by Dr. Edward Getsinger in Boston, Mass. She became a believer in 1918-1919. [BW11p495]
  • For a brief biography see Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • For a more extensive biography see Bahaipedia.
  • See her article, Alaska, Our New Frontier. [BW9p918-922] [key]
  • Los Angeles; United States Orcella Rexford; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Cemeteries and graves; Thornton Chase
    1946 14 Sep The first native Ecuadorian woman to accept the Faith was Judith Franco. [Heroes of God: History of the Bahá'í Faith in Ecuador, 1940-1979 p21] [key] Quito; Ecuador Judith Franco first Ecuadorian woman to accept the Faith
    1946 Oct 11 The Bahá'ís of Iran launched a Forty-five Month Plan, the Persian 45 Month Plan ( 11 October 1946 to 9 July 1950, The Centenary of the Martyrdom of the Báb). Every province had specific assignments. [BBRSM158; CB316] The objectives of the plan included;

    1. Consolidation of all local Bahá'í communities.

    2. Reestablishment of 62 dissolved Assemblies. (93 LSAs formed)

    3. Formation of 22 groups. (37 established)

    4. Creation of 13 new centres. (24 localities established)

    5. Development of Assemblies from groups in three adjoining countries, namely in Kabul, Afghanistan, Mecca, Arabia and Bahrein Island, Persian Gulf.

    6. The formation of groups in four localities on the Arabian Peninsula.

    7. The sending pioneers to India and 'Iráq to assist in the formation of new groups.

    The Bahá'ís of Tehran were called upon to send out 50 families into the pioneer field. (160 arose) Every individual Bahá'í was included in the operation of the Plan-as a volunteer, by deputizing a pioneer, by contributing funds, by circuit teaching or by providing hospitality to students whose parents had become pioneers. [BW4p34-35; BW11p34-36]

  • Concurrent with the Forty-Five Month Plan the Bahá'ís of Iran made a concerted effort to remove Bahá'í women from the traditional shackles of a lack of education and an inability to participate in public affairs. Women's conferences were held, educational opportunities were created, equality of opportunity, right and privilege was declared to be an essential. [BW11p36].
  • Iran; India; Pakistan; Myanmar (Burma) Teaching Plans; Teaching Plans, National; Social and economic development; Women
    1946 Oct The Persian Women's Four Year Plan (1946-1950) was launched. Some goals were to:
      -Hold literacy classes for girls and adult women
      -Hold regional conventions semi-annually for Bahá’í women
      -Hold a national convention annually with the participation of representatives of regional committees
      -Issue a periodical covering topics of both Bahá’í and general history, science, literature, health, hygiene, housekeeping and care of children
    Iran Teaching Plans
    1946 22 Nov Amelia Collins was appointed a Hand of the Cause of God by Shoghi Effendi. [PP258; PSBW878]
  • He dId not make this appointment public until 24 December 1951 when he announced the first contingent of the Hands. [MoCxxiii] [key]
  • Amelia Collins; Hands of the Cause; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands of the Cause, First Contingent
    1946 13 Dec The passing of Muhammad Taqí Isfahání. He had been born in Persia and was horrified by the behaviour of Mullá Muhammad Báqir (The Wolf) and Imám-Jum'íh who had killed the two brothers Muhammad Husayn and Muhammad Hasan so he left for Egypt and encountered many believers on his way. He passed through Akka and met both Bahá'u'lláh and 'Abdu'-Bahá.
  • His name is closely associated with the early progress of the Faith in Egypt. His house was the centre of activity and was were both Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl and Lua Getsinger spent their last days. He received 'Abdu'l-Bahá during His visit to Egypt. He was the chief member of the Publishing Committee and helped to translate many books into Arabic such as the Iqán and Some Answered Questions.
  • The Guardian announced his elevation to the rank of Hand of the Cause of God two days after his passing and donated a sum of money to be used for his tomb. He is buried in the Bahá'í Cemetery. [MoCxxii, BW11p500-502] [key]
  • Egypt Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Hands of the Cause, Activities; In Memoriam; Muhamman Taqi Isfahani; Lua Getsinger; Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Translation
    1946 23 Dec Virginia Orbison, from the United States, left Brazil for a pioneer post in Madrid.
  • The airplane she traveled in was named ‘O bandeirante’ (‘The Pioneer’).
  • Madrid Virginia Orbison
    1947 (In the year) The first Chilean Teaching Conference was held in Santiago. Santiago; Chile Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Teaching; First conferences first Teaching Conference in Chile
    1947 (In the year) Gladys Anderson Weeden arrived at the World Centre to assist Shoghi Effendi, and took responsibility for liaising with government and other officials. [BW18:694]
  • She married Ben Weeden on 20 March 1948 in Jerusalem; he assisted with building projects at the World Centre. [BW15:478; BW18:694] [key]
  • BWC Gladys Anderson Weeden; Ben Weeden
    1947 (In the year) The Hazíratu’l-Quds of Tihrán was completed. [BW11:588] [key] Tihran; Iran Haziratul-Quds
    1947 (In the year) The Australian-New Zealand teaching plan, the Australian Six Year Plan (1947–53), comprising internal goals only, was launched. [BBRSM158; LGANZ97; The Spiritual Conquest of the Planet (Supplement) p2]

    The homefront goals were:
      - To establish two new Spiritual Assemblies in Australia
      - To establish nineteen groups in Australasia

    Australia; New Zealand Teaching Plans; Australia-New Zealand Six Year Plan
    1947 (In the year) The first summer school in Chile took place in Loncoche on property donated by Mrs Fabienne Guillon. Loncoche; Chile Fabienne Guillon first summer school in Chile
    1947 1 Feb Reflecting the unity in diversity highly valued by the Bahá'í community, Amin Banani, Mildred Mottahedeh, Hilda Yen, and Matthew Bullock presented the statement "A Bahá'í Declaration of Human Obligations and Rights" to the UN, which ended by quoting a well-known passage by Baha'u'llah: "The earth is but one country, and mankind its citizens."
  • In 1947 as was "The Bahá'í Statement of the Rights of Women". [PP304]
  • Amin Banani was an influential scholar; Mildred Mottahedeh was a member of the International Bahá'í Council from 1961-63 and later a representative of the BIC for many years (1948-1967); Hilda Yen was a leading figure in Chinese-American society who worked as a diplomat for many years; and Matthew Bullock was a Knight of Baha'u'llah for the Dutch West Indies, on this day was also a Knight for the Netherlands Antilles, and later a representative of the BIC. [BWNS1172]
  • For background information on the initiative to become involved with the United Nations see PP303-304.
  • New York; United States United Nations; Matthew Bullock; Bahai International Community; Firsts, Other; BWNS; Amin Banani; Mildred Mottahedeh; Hilda Yen the first delegation of the Baha'i International Community to the United Nations
    1947 7 Feb Honor Kempton arrived in Luxembourg, the first pioneer to the country. Luxembourg Honor Kempton first pioneer to Luxembourg
    1947 20 Feb Ugo and Angeline Giachery moved from New York to Rome. [BN No 192 Feb 1947 p1]
  • The first native believer under this new Seven Year Plan, had declared himself. He is Signor Augusto Salvetti of Italy. Signor Salvetti heard of the Faith from a Persian believer while he was a prisoner of war in India. After returning to his native Italy he corresponded with the International Bureau and the office of the European Teaching Committee in Geneva. Since he was living in one of our "goal" countries, Mrs. Graeffe put him in touch with our pioneers, Mr and Mrs Giachery. [BN No195 May 1947 p1] [key]
  • Italy Ugo Giachery; Angeline Giachery; Pioneer; Augusto Salvetti
    1947 Apr The Tokyo Spiritual Assembly, suspended during the war, was re-established. Tokyo Local Spiritual Assembly
    1947 Ridván The Bahá'ís of Iraq launched a Three Year Plan (1947-1950). [Ruhi 8.2 p46; BBRSM158]

    The goals were:
       -To increase the number of Bahá’í centres
       -To complete the construction of the National Hazíratu’l-Quds
       -To raise contributions to support the National Fund
       -To establish ten new Local Assemblies
       -To encourage Bahá’í communities in the south of the country

    Iraq Teaching Plans; Teaching Plans, National
    1947 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Australia and New Zealand launched a Six Year Plan (1947-1953). [Ruhi 8.2 p46] [key] Australia; New Zealand Teaching Plans; Teaching Plans, National
    1947 Ridván The first Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Quito was established. Those elected were: Hascle Coxnbleth, Chaixman, Eithel Santos, Recording Secretary, Hans Levy, Vice-chairman, Eloy Maran, Treasurer, Hans Dory, Secretary, Nelson Sanchez, Librarian, Rosario Vera B., Jose Elias Cedeño, ama Lais Alcivar Z. [Heroes of God: History of the Bahá'í Faith in Ecuador, 1940-1979 p.33] [key] Quito; Ecuador first local spiritual assembly of Quito
    1947 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of India and Burma added the newly formed nation of Pakistan to their unit. As the state of Pakistan was created on the 14th of August 1947 it can be assumed that the National Spiritual Assembly of India, Pakistan and Burma was created after this date. In a letter from the Guardian 24 October 1947 he mentions all three nations as one unit. [MSEIp289] ] [key] India; Myanmar (Burma) National Spiritual Assembly, formation; India and Burma
    1947 May Clarence Iverson visited the Bahamas, the first recorded visit to the islands by a Bahá’í. Bahamas First Bahais by country or area; Islands first recorded visit to Bahamas
    1947 18 May The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada was accredited by the United Nations as a non-governmental organization with observer status. [BW12:597; PP303; BIC site History 18 May 1947] [key] New York; United States National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada; United Nations; NGO; BIC; Bahai International Community
    1947 18 Jun The International Bahá'í Bureau contributed to the preparatory work of the Human Rights Commission for the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. [BIC History 18 Jun 1947] [key] New York, NY UN; Bahai International Community; BIC
    1947 20 Jun George Townshend sent a letter of resignation from the Church of Ireland to the Bishop of Killaloe, naming 30 September for the effective date. [GT195] [key] Ireland George Townshend
    1947 4 Jul ‘Abbás Sháhídzádih was martyred in Sháhí, Mázandarán, Iran and a fellow Bahá'í, Habib Allah Hushmand, was murdered in Sarvistan. [BW18:390, Towards a History of Iran’s Bahá'í Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani.] [key] Shahi; Mazandaran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1947 5 Jul Manuel Garcia Vasquez became a Bahá’í in Spain, the first believer in the country. Spain First Bahais by country or area first Bahá'í in Spain
    1947 9 Jul Shoghi Effendi, as Head of the Bahá’í Faith resident in the Bahá’í World Centre, received a letter from the chairman of the United Nations Special Committee on Palestine requesting a statement on the relationship the Bahá’í Faith had to Palestine and the Bahá’í attitude to any future changes in the status of the country. [BW11:43, Text]
  • Shoghi Effendi replied on 14 July setting out the non-political character of the Bahá’í Faith and explaining that Palestine is both the administrative and the spiritual headquarters of the religion. In his reply, Shoghi Effendi made it clear that “Our aim is the establishment of universal peace in the world and our desire to see justice prevail in every domain of human society, including the domain of politics.” The Guardian also pointed out his concern that “the fact be recognized by whoever exercises sovereignty over Haifa and ‘Akká, that within this area exists the spiritual and administrative center of a world Faith, and that the independence of that Faith, its right to manage its international affairs from this source, the rights of Bahá’ís from any and every country of the globe to visit it as pilgrims (enjoying the same privilege in this respect as Jews, Muslims and Christians do in regard to visiting Jerusalem) be acknowledged and permanently safeguarded.” [BW11:42-44; BW12 p596-597]
  • He also included a statement of the history, aims and significance of the Bahá’í Faith, later published by the American National Spiritual Assembly in pamphlet form. [BW11:44; PP351]
  • For the text of this latter statement see Guidance for Today and Tomorrow p1–10.
  • Previous to this, on May 9, 1947, the Guardian had written through his secretary to explain why he was encouraging Bahá’í association with United Nations: “He feels that the friends should bear in mind that the primary reason that he is encouraging Bahá’í association with the United Nations is to give the Cause due publicity as an agency working for and firmly believing in the unification of the human family and permanent peace, and not because he believes that we are at present in a position to shape or influence directly the course of human affairs! Also, he believes this association will afford the believers an opportunity of contacting prominent and progressive-minded people from different countries and calling the Faith and its principles to their attention. We should associate ourselves in every way with all movements of UN which are in accordance with our principles and objectives; but we should not seek to take the initiative or . . . focus a glare of publicity and public attention on a very wide scale upon ourselves which might prove very detrimental to our own interests. He considered, for instance, the ‘Bahá’í Declaration of Human Obligations and Rights’ appropriate and believes this type of action to be wise and suitable.” [BW12 p597-598] [key]
  • BWC; Haifa; Palestine; Israel United Nations; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Writings of; Statements; Publications; Shoghi Effendi, Works of; Politics; Peace
    1947 Sep Léa Nys became a Bahá’í in Belgium, the first Belgian to accept the Faith after World War Two.
  • She is considered the first Belgian Bahá’í. She served in the first National Spiritual Assembly of Belgium elected in 1962 and served until 1965. [Bahaipedia]
  • See her “In Memoriam”.
  • Belgium First Bahais by country or area first Belgian Bahá'í
    1947 13 Sep The passing of Haji Mahmúd Qassabchí. In 1933 Qassabchí had suffered a severe attack of paralysis which he narrowly survived and as a result of which he could hardly move or speak for the rest of his life. He was buried at Salman Pak, about thirty miles southeast of Baghdad. [BW11p502-503]
  • He had become a Bahá'í in 1911 after reading accounts of the travels of 'Abdu'l-Bahá in the Star of the West. Prior to that he had made the acquaintance of Músá Banání and had been impressed with the young man's honesty. With regard to his service to the Faith, after WWI he undertook the restoration of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdad. A few years later he played a leading part in the purchase and the establishment of the Hazíratu'l-Quds of Baghdad and he participated in no small measure to the erection of the Hazíratu'l-Quds in the village of Avasiq, the first built in Iraq.
  • His most imperishable service was the construction of three rooms at the rear of the Shrine of the Báb that were temporarily used as the International Bahá'í Archives before the construction of its permanent seat. [BW11p502-503] [key]
  • Baghdad; Avashiq; Iraq Haji Mahmud Qassabchi; In Memoriam; House of Bahaullah (Baghdad); Bab, Shrine of; Musa Banani; Restoration first Hazíratu'l-Quds in Iraq in the village of Avashiq
    1947 30 Sep George Townshend, at the age of 71 years, resigned his position with the Church of Ireland. [GT195]
  • He was the first ordained priest of a Christian Protestant church to renounce his Orders and to become a fully accredited member of the Bahá’í community. [GT183]
  • For the story of his resignation and transition to a lay life see GT199–200, 202.
  • Ireland George Townshend first ordained priest of a Protestant church to renounce his Orders and become Bahá'í
    1947 17 Nov The first two Danes to accept the Faith, May Marit Vestby and Palle Benemann Bischoff became Bahá’ís. Denmark May Marit Vestby; Palle Benemann Bischoff first two Danish Bahá’ís
    1947 12 Dec The first pioneer to Portugal, Valeria Lamb Nicols, arrived from a pioneer post in Denmark. Portugal First Bahais by country or area first pioneer to Portugal
    1947 31 Dec Suzette Hipp became a Bahá’í in Luxembourg, the second Luxembourger to accept the Faith and the first to do so in Luxembourg. Luxembourg First Bahais by country or area first to become Bahá'í in Luxembourg
    1948 (In the year) Starting in 1948 the Bahá'í women of Iran published a monthly magazine called Tarāna-ye omīd. Its purpose was to educate and entertain Bahá'í families with special attention to women’s affairs. After some years of suspension it reappeared in 1973 and continued to publish until 1979. [BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati] [key] Iran Taranaye omid; publications
    1948 (In the year) The first Bahá’í school in Haiti was inaugurated in Carrefour, a suburb of Port-au-Prince. Haiti Bahai schools; Firsts, Other first Bahá’í school in Haiti
    1948 (In the year) In the German Democratic Republic all Bahá'í activities were banned. In 1991, for the first time in 53 years, the Bahá'ís in eastern Germany elected delegates to the National Assembly. After 55 years, the Spiritual Assembly was re-formed in Leipzig. [German Bahá'í website] [key] Germany Persecution, Germany
    1948 (In the year) Douglas P. Hillhouse, a Captain in the United States military, was stationed on St Thomas until 1951, the first Bahá’í to reside on the island. St Thomas Douglas Hillhouse first Bahá’í to reside on St Thomas
    1948 - 1951 The Bahá’í Centre in Yazd, Iran, was attacked by a mob incited by Shaykh Khalisízádih. He was a man consumed with hatred toward religious minorities, most ferociously against the Bahá'ís in and around Yazd. He had some twenty hooligans on salary to harass, intimate and assault the local Bahá'ís. He had the tacit support of some local government officials who had been ordered by Prime Minister Haj 'Alí Razmara to ignore any complaints from Bahá'ís. [BW18p390; SCF105] [key] Yazd; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution; Persecution, Mobs; Haziratul-Quds
    1948 (In the year) The first publication of The Pattern of Bahá'í Life in London by the Bahá'í Publishing Trust. Reprints were subsequently done in 1953, 1963 and 1983. [Collins4.189-4.190]
  • It was a selection of passages dealing with Bahá'í moral teaching and personal qualities, arranged under categories of purity, kindliness and radiance.
  • It was fully revised in 1990 on behalf of the Universal House of Justice by the National Spiritual Assembly of India. [Details] [key]
  • London; United Kingdom Pattern of Bahai Life (compilation); Compilations
    1948 (In the year) Albert Bennett White was the first Bahá’í of Māori descent. He was the son of an English immigrant trader, and a Ngāti Awa woman of high rank. [The Newsroom 6 July 2022]

    One of his daughters, Dame Robin White, is a New Zealand painter and printmaker, recognized as a key figure in the regionalist movement of 20th-century New Zealand art. Her art is the subject of a book called Robin White: Something is Happening Here by Dr Sarah Farrar, Dr Nina Tonga and Jill Trevelyan.

    Whangārei, New Zealand Albert Bennett White; Dame Robin White Albert Bennett White was the first Bahá’í of Māori descent
    1948 (In the year) The Bahá’í Temple in ‘Ishqábád (now Ashgabat, Turkmenistan) was damaged by an earthquake. The strength of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár saved it from the devastating earthquake which demolished all dwellings. It was the only building of stature which, although damaged, withstood the earthquake's completely destructive effects [BBD 122; BW14:480; YSxvii] [key] Ishqabad; Turkmenistan Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Earthquakes; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship)
    1948 (In the year) The Bahá’í centre in Tihrán was attacked by a mob incited by Áyatu’lláh Káshání. [BW18p390] [key] Tihran; Iran Ayatullah Kashani; Ayatollahs; Haziratul-Quds; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution; Persecution, Mobs
    1948 (In the year) A Bahá’í was killed after an attack on his home at Chálih-Zamín, Iran. [BW18p390] [key] Chalih-Zamin; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1948 (In the year) Pauline Campbell arrived in Bermuda, where her husband was stationed at the United States Air Force Base. She was the only Bahá’í in Bermuda until 1951. Bermuda First travel teachers and pioneers first Bahá’í resident in Bermuda
    1948 (In the year) The owners of a house near the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh fled and the house became government property. [DH226]
  • Shoghi Effendi restored the house and made it a pilgrim house. [DH226]
  • He acquired the title in about 1956 as part of the exchange of the Ein Gev properties. [DH226]
  • See The Limited Times 11Nov22 for a history of the Ein Gev properties.
  • Bahji Bahaullah, Shrine of; House of Bahaullah (Bahji); Pilgrim Houses; Pilgrim house, Bahji; Restoration
    1948 (In the year) War broke out in Palestine.
  • See DH118 for the effect on the Bahá’ís.
  • Palestine War (general); History (general)
    1948 11 Jan Habíbu’lláh Húshmand was martyred in Sarvistán, Iran. [BW18:390] [key] Sarvistan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1948 20 Mar The marriage of Gladys Andersen to Ben Weeden took place in Jerusalem under the auspices of the Spiritual Assembly of Amman. They made efforts to have their marriage recognized at the American Consulate and at the offices of the British Mandate but were unable to do so considering the shifting situation. After the end of the British Mandate they took the matter up with the new state of Israel and it was handled expeditiously thus obtaining full recognition of the Faith and its right to perform marriages. [SETPE1p341] [key] Israel; Amman; Jordan Weddings; Recognition (legal) First Bahá'í marriage to be registered in the new state of Israel. First wedding of Western Bahá'ís by Eastern Bahá'ís.
    1948 18 Apr The name ‘Bahá’í International Community’ was first used to refer to the eight existing National Spiritual Assemblies recognized collectively as a non-governmental organization. Those Assemblies were those of North America; the British Isles; Germany and Austria; Egypt and Sfidan; ‘Iráq; Iran (Persia); India, Pakistan and Burma; and Australia and New Zealand. Subsequently to these eight bodies were added the National Spiritual Assemblies of the Bahá’ís of Canada, of Central America and of South America. Each National Spiritual Assembly in its application established the National Assembly of the United States as its representative in relation to the United Nations. [BBRSM149; BW11:43; BW12:597; BIC History 18 April 1948]
  • The Bahá’í International Community evolved to become an international non-governmental organization with affiliates in over 180 countries and territories, which together represent over 5-6 million members of the Bahá’í Faith. As an international NGO, the Office interacts and cooperates with the United Nations, its specialized agencies, with governments, as well as with inter-governmental and non-governmental organizations. The BIC seeks to promote and apply principles — derived from the teachings of the Bahá’í Faith — which contribute to the resolution of current day challenges facing humanity and the development of a united, peaceful, just, and sustainable civilization. The work of the BIC focuses on the promotion of a universal standard for human rights, the advancement of women, and the promotion of just and equitable means of global prosperity.
  • Mildred Mottahedeh was appointed to serve as the accredited Bahá’í International Observer, a post she held as a volunteer for almost 20 years. [BW12:601]
  • The following is a list of UN agencies with whom the BIC has representation: United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF), United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and World Health Organization (WHO).
  • In the Ridván Message of 2001, the Universal House of Justice wrote:
      On many occasions during this one-year endeavour, the external affairs of the Faith were especially visible. Consider, for example, the instances of Bahá’í representatives' having participated prominently in the millennial events that took place in May, August and September at the urging of the Secretary-General of the United Nations. The implications of so close and conspicuous an involvement of the Bahá’í International Community with the processes of the Lesser Peace will require the passage of time to be properly understood. (emphasis added)
  • New York; United States BIC; NGO; Bahai International Community (general); Mildred Mottahedeh; UNICEF; UNIFEM; UNEP; Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC); World Health Organization (WHO); Firsts, Other; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Life of The name ‘Bahá’í International Community’ is first used
    1948 Apr Contracts were placed in Italy for the rose Baveno granite columns for the Shrine of the Báb. [BBD210; DH140]
  • The first shipment of stone reaches Haifa on 23 November 1948.
  • For details of securing the contract and cutting the stone see SE68–83.
  • Italy Bab, Shrine of; Granite
    1948 19 Apr The Havana Bahá’ís incorporated as an ‘assembly’, meaning ‘group’.
  • It was incorporated as a local spiritual assembly in 1949.
  • Havana Local Spiritual Assembly; Local Spiritual Assembly, incorporation
    1948 Ridván The formation of the Local Spiritual Assembly of Amsterdam, the first in the Netherlands. [BQYM204; BW11p654]
  • See BQYM205 for a picture of the Assembly members.
  • Amsterdam; Netherlands Local Spiritual Assembly first local spiritual assembly in the Netherlands
    1948 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Egypt and Sudan launched a Five Year Plan (1948-1953). [Ruhi 8.2 p46, BBRSM158; The Spiritual Conquest of the Planet (Supplement) p2]

    Some goals were:
      - To raise to nine the number of Local Spiritual Assemblies
      - To raise to thirty-three the number of localities where Bahá’ís reside
      - To send pioneers to Tunisia, Algeria and Libya
      - To acquire property for a Bahá’í school
      - To issue a Bahá’í magazine
      - To consolidate the community in Ethiopia

    Egypt; Sudan Teaching Plans; Teaching Plans, National
    1948 Ridván The Germano-Austrian teaching plan, the German Five Year Plan(1948–53), comprising of internal goals only, was launched. [BBRSM158; The Spiritual Conquest of the Planet (Supplement) p2]

    Some goals were:
      - To double the number of Local Spiritual Assemblies from fourteen to twenty-eight, increasing the Bahá’í membership in each community
      - To raise the number of localities in Germany and Austria where Bahá’ís reside
      - To deepen the understanding of the friends in the operation of the Administrative Order
      - To encourage deeper study of the teachings
      - To construct the National Hazíratu’l-Quds in Frankfurt
      - To enrich Bahá’í literature with two publications by March 1949, fifteen by March 1950, six by March 1951 and nine by 1952

    Germany; Austria Teaching Plans; Germano-Austrian Five Year Plan
    1948 Ridván The newly formed National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canada launched a Five Year Plan (1948-1953). [Ruhi 8.2 p46; BBRSM158; Letter from Shoghi Effendi dated 14 April. 1948]

    Some objectives were;
      - To incorporate the National Spiritual Assembly
      - To establish national endowments
      - To increase to thirty the number of Local Spiritual Assemblies
      - To increase to one hundred the number of localities where Bahá’ís reside
      - To form a group in Newfoundland
      - To form a group in Greenland
      - To enroll (Eskimos) Inuit and (Native Indians) First Nations in the Faith

    Canada Teaching Plans; Teaching Plans, National
    1948 Ridván When the state of Pakistan was formed it was incorporated into the National Spiritual Assembly of India and Burma. The name of the new assembly was known as the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of India, Pakistan and Burma.
  • This assembly until Pakistan formed an independent Assembly in 1957.
  • India; Pakistan; Burma National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1948 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Belgium was established in Brussels. [BW11p727] [key] Brussels; Belgium Local Spiritual Assembly first Local Spiritual Assembly in Belgium
    1948 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Afghanistan was established in Kabul. Kabul; Afghanistan Local Spiritual Assembly firstLocal Spiritual Assembly in Afghanistan
    1948 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Ireland was established in Dublin. Dublin; Ireland Local Spiritual Assembly first Local Spiritual Assembly in Ireland
    1948 Ridván The first All-Native Bahá’í Assembly was established on the Omaha Reservation in Macy, Nebraska. [BW13:837; CF72]
  • See BW11:536 for a picture.
  • For the role of Amelia Collins in establishing this Assembly see PSBW88.
  • Macy; NE; United States Amelia Collins; Local Spiritual Assembly first All-Native Local Spiritual Assembly Macy, Nebraska
    1948 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Sweden was established in Stockholm. [BW11:689]
  • For picture see BW11p689.
  • Stockholm Local Spiritual Assembly first Local Spiritual Assembly in Sweden
    1948 Ridván The Local Spiritual Assembly of Budapest reformed. The Assembly was forced to dissolve again near the end of 1950 under the new regime. Most Bahá'ís fled the country during or after the Revolution in 1956. [www.bahai.hu]. [key] Budapest; Hungary Local Spiritual Assembly; Local Spiritual Assembly, re-formed
    1948 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Spain was established in Madrid. Madrid Local Spiritual Assembly first Local Spiritual Assembly in Spain
    1948 Ridván The first Bahá'í institution in Italy, the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Rome was elected.
  • See picture.
  • Rome; Italy Local Spiritual Assembly first Local Spiritual Assembly in Italy
    1948 Ridvan The formation of the first Local Spiritual Assembly in Cardiff. See CG9 for a picture. Cardiff; Wales; United Kingdom Local Spiritual Assembly the first Local Spiritual Assembly in Cardiff
    1948 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly was elected in the United States. Those elected were: Dorothy Baker (Chair), Paul Haney (Vice·Chalr), Horace Holley (Secretary), Philip Sprague (Treasurer), Elsie Austin, Kenneth Christian, Edna True, Amelia Collins, and George Latimer. [USBN No. 207 May, 1948 p 4] [key] United States National Spiritual Assembly of the United States; Dorothy Baker; Paul Haney; Horace Holley; Philip Sprague; Elsie Austin; Kenneth Christian; Edna True; Amelia Collins; George Latimer first National Spiritual Assembly of the United States
    1948 21 - 22 Apr The 2nd Battle of Haifa: A Jewish offensive to gain control of the strategic port of Haifa. Prior to the 30-hour battle, the Arab population of Haifa was estimated to be 65,000 compared to 70,000 Palestinian Jews. At the end of the operation, the Arab population was reduced to about 4,000 people. [Battle of Haifa] [key] Haifa War (general); History (general)
    1948 Ridván The first Local Spiritual Assembly was established in Oslo. [BQYM201] [key] Oslo; Norway Local Spiritual Assembly first the first Local Spiritual Assembly in Norway.
    1948 Ridván The first local assembly was established in Bern, Switzerland. [BQYM201 Bern; Switzerland Local Spiritual Assembly first Local Spiritual Assembly in Bern, Switzerland.
    1948 Ridván The first local assembly was established in Geneva, Switzerland. [BQYM201] [key] Geneva; Switzerland Local Spiritual Assembly first Local Spiritual Assembly in Geneva, Switzerland.
    1948 Ridván The first Local Spiritual Assembly was established in Edinburgh, Scotland [SBBH Vol 14 p275] [key] Edinburgh; Scotland Local Spiritual Assembly, formation The first Local Spiritual Assembly in Edinburgh
    1948 24 - 25 Apr The National Spiritual Assembly of the Dominion of Canada was established. [BBRSM:186; BW13:856; MBW143; PP397]
  • See BW11:160, 184 for pictures.
  • The first National Convention was held in the Maxwell's home (in 'Abdu'l-Bahá's home as will be the election of the Universal House of Justice some 15 years hence.) with 13/19 delegates from all the provinces attending. (Six were unable to attend due to a flood.) Those elected to the first National Spiritual Assembly were: Laura Davis, Rowland Estall, Lloyd Gardner, Doris Richardson, John Robarts, Emeric Sala, Rosemary Sala, Siegfried Schopflocher, and Ross Woodman. [TG110, OBCC269]
  • For a picture of the first Canadian National Spiritual Assembly see OBCC148.
  • Canada National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Conventions, National; Laura Davis; Rowland Estall; Lloyd Gardner; Doris Richardson; John Robarts; Emeric Sala; Rosemary Sala; Siegfried Schopflocher; Ross Woodman first NSA Canada
    1948 14 May The British Mandate in Palestine ended and the state of Israel was proclaimed.

    The notion of a Jewish state evolved during the nineteenth century and in the aftermath of the French Revolution, which generated the idea of nation states and nationhood in the modern sense. The first plans came from non-Jewish sources. Napoleon Bonaparte suggested the settlement of European Jews in the Suez region to safeguard a canal project he had envisaged. Lord Palmerstone, British Foreign Secretary from 1830-1841, seeking to halt French advances in the East, planned the establishment of a British-backed Jewish client-state in Palestine to stop their advance and block Muhammad Ali´s progress. Plans of this kind set up by the Powers for safeguarding their own interests were quite numerous. When the Germans were constructing the Berlin-Baghdad Railway in the years before its completion in 1940, plans were made to settle Jews in Asia Minor alongside the rails or bestow an Ottoman Pashaliq (Territorial administrative division) upon the territory occupied by them.

    After the French Revolution the Jews of Central and Western Europe now felt that they were citizens of their respective countries. Orthodox Jews refused the idea of a Jewish state believing that only when the Messiah came that such a state could be founded.

    But then anti-Semitism was on the rise in Europe from the early and mid 1800s with such beliefs as Social Darwinism, Eugenics, Scientific Racism, Racial Hierarchy: the Nazi Racial Theories and the lingering concepts of colonialism and imperialism. The horrors of the Holocaust played a significant role in discrediting and rejecting these racial and biological ideologies that were not based on sound scientific findings.

    Jews had started to immigrate into Palestine after the first anti-Jewish pogroms in Russia in 1881 and more especially after the establishment of the World Zionist Organization in 1897, it was of a different, a political nature. The Jewish immigrants came now with the explicit aim to establish a state of their own and to the exclusion of the Arab inhabitants of the land.

    "The Jewish Colonial Projects in Palestine" refer to the efforts by Jewish individuals and organizations to establish settlements and communities in the region of Palestine, primarily during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. These efforts were part of the broader Zionist movement which aimed to establish a Jewish homeland in what was then part of the Ottoman Empire and later became the British Mandate of Palestine. These projects played a significant role in the eventual establishment of the State of Israel in 1948.

    First Aliyah (1882-1903): The First Aliyah was a wave of Jewish immigration to Palestine that began in the early 1880s. During this period, many Jewish immigrants from Eastern Europe and Russia settled in agricultural communities, known as "moshavot," in various parts of Palestine. They aimed to establish self-sustaining agricultural settlements and escape persecution in their home countries.

    Baron Edmond de Rothschild's Support: Baron Edmond de Rothschild, a wealthy European financier, provided financial support to many Jewish settlers in Palestine. His contributions were crucial for the development of Jewish agricultural communities and wineries in the region.

    Second Aliyah (1904-1914): The Second Aliyah brought another wave of Jewish immigrants to Palestine. Many of these immigrants were inspired by socialist and labour-oriented ideologies. They established kibbutzim and collective communities, which emphasized communal living and shared resources.

    Jewish National Fund (JNF): The JNF, founded in 1901, played a pivotal role in acquiring and developing land in Palestine for Jewish settlement. It purchased and reclaimed land, planted forests, and financed infrastructure projects.

    Balfour Declaration (1917): During World War I, the British government issued the Balfour Declaration, expressing support for the establishment of a "national home for the Jewish people" in Palestine. This declaration laid the foundation for future Zionist aspirations.

    British Mandate Period (1920-1948): After World War I, the League of Nations granted Britain the mandate to govern Palestine. During this period, Jewish immigration and settlement continued, despite tensions with the Arab population. The Arab-Jewish conflict over land and political control intensified.

    Haganah and Israel Defense Forces: Jewish settlers organized defense forces, such as the Haganah, in the 1920s to protect their communities. They provided defence for Jewish communities and countered Arab attacks, facilitated the illegal immigration of Jewish refugees to Palestine, coordinated the various Jewish paramilitary groups and were involved in the acquiring and stockpiling of weapons and military equipment. These groups later evolved into the Israel Defense Forces (IDF).

    1948 Arab–Israeli War (1947-1949)

    With the British Mandate coming to an end, the United Nations approved the partition plan for Palestine, leading to the declaration of the State of Israel on the 14th of May 1948. The following day a military coalition of Arab states, including Egypt, Jordan, Syria, and Iraq, invaded Israel to prevent its establishment. They took control of the areas designated for Arabs and attacked the Jewish forces and settlements. As a result of the war Israel got all the lands mandated to them by the UN and 60% of the territory meant for the Arabs as well as the area that had been meant for an "international zone". Israel had retained its independence and had expanded its territory.

    This period is known as "Nakba" ("catastrophe" in Arabic). Some historians estimate that around 720,000 out of the 900,000 Palestinian Arabs that had lived in the land that was to become Israel were expelled. Another estimate says the 400 Palestinian villages were destroyed, civilians were massacred and around a million men, women, and children were expelled from their homes at gunpoint. [The Ethnic Cleansing of Palestine by Ilan Pappe; Colonialism, Nationalism and Jewish Immigration to Palestine: Abdu´l-Bahá’s Viewpoints Regarding the Middle East by Kamran Ekbal p24; Palestinian Expulsion and Flight]

    Further details on the conflicts, Causes, Key Events of the War, as well as Outcomes and Consequences can be found here.

    The UNRWA (United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East) is a UN agency established in 1949 that supports the relief and human development of Palestinian refugees. It's mandate encompasses Palestinians displaced by the 1948 Palestine War and subsequent conflicts, as well as their descendants, including legally adopted children. As of 2023, more than 5.9 million Palestinians are registered with UNRWA as refugees. [UNRWA] [key]

    Palestine; Israel British history; History (general); ethnic divisions Creation of the state of Israel declared
    1948 22 – 26 May The first Bahá’í European Conference was held in Geneva. [BW11:51]
  • Among those who attended were Edna True, the chairperson of the European Teaching Committee, Mildred Mottahedeh, and Laura Clifford Dreyfus Barney. [BQYM201-204]
  • For details of the conference see BW11:51–2.
  • Geneva; Switzerland; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International first Bahá’í European Conference
    1948 18 Jun The Bahá’í International Community took part in its first United Nations conference, on human rights. [BW11:43; BIC History 18 June 1948] [key] Geneva Bahai International Community; BIC; United Nations; Human rights first United Nations conference, on human rights
    1948 Dec Amjad Ali arriveed in East Pakistan, from Chapra in Bihar, northern India, the first pioneer in the country. Bangladesh; Asia First Bahais by country or area first pioneer to East Pakistan
    1948 9 Dec The General Assembly of the United Nations adopted the Resolution entitled Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide.
  • It was largely through the one-man campaign of a Polish jurist, Raphael Lemkin, someone who had lost family members in the Nazi holocaust, and who had invented the term "genocide", that the Resolution was adopted. [In Search of a Better World by Payam Akhavan p91-92]
  • The attitude at the time could be summed up in the words "Never again!" however the world would have to wait another 50 years before the International Criminal Court would be established to provide any real meaning to this Resolution.
  • See IBM and the Holocaust: The Strategic Alliance Between Nazi Germany and America's Most Powerful Corporation by Edwin Black. It is the stunning story of IBM's strategic alliance with Nazi Germany -- beginning in 1933 in the first weeks that Hitler came to power and continuing well into World War II. As the Third Reich embarked upon its plan of conquest and genocide, IBM and its subsidiaries helped create enabling technologies, step-by-step, from the identification and cataloging programs of the 1930s to the selections of the 1940s. A book review.
  • Genocide; United Nations; Justice; Law, International; World War II; War (general); History (general)
    1948 9 Dec The crime of genocide was defined in international law in the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide. The Genocide Convention was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 9 December 1948. The Convention entered into force on 12 January 1951. By April 2022, 153 nations have ratified the Genocide Convention and over 80 nations have provisions for the punishment of genocide in domestic criminal law.

    Every year on 9 December, the United Nations marks the adoption of the Genocide Convention, which is also the International Day of Commemoration and Dignity of the Victims of the Crime of Genocide and of the Prevention of this Crime. [Ratification of the Genocide Convention]

    The crime of genocide has three elements: 1. Acts of genocide committed with, 2. intent to destroy, in whole or in part, 3. a national, ethnic, racial or religious group. For more detailed information see Genocide Watch. On that site Dr Gregory Stanton lists the ten states of genocide: Classification, Symolization, Discrimination, Dehumanization, Organization, Polarization, Preparation, Persecution, Extermination and Denial. [Ten Stages]. iiiii

    Paris; France Persecution; Genocide; United Nations
    1948 10 Dec The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) was a milestone document in the history of human rights. Drafted by representatives with different legal and cultural backgrounds from all regions of the world, the Declaration was proclaimed by the United Nations General Assembly in Paris on 10 December 1948 (General Assembly resolution 217 A) as a common standard of achievements for all peoples and all nations. It set out, for the first time, fundamental human rights to be universally protected and it has been translated into over 500 languages. [United Nations]

    Article 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights recognized freedom of religion as a central value of the post-World War II international legal order. The right was cemented in Article 18 of the 1966 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.

  • The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR); also here.
  • PDF in English.
  • The history of the document.
  • The Drafters.
  • See a presentation prepared by Tony Michel February of 2020.
  • Paris Universal Declaration of Human Rights first universal document to set out basic human rights.
    1948 19 Dec Shoghi Effendi sent a further cable regarding his brother: "Faithless brother Hussein, already abased through dishonorable conduct over period (of) years followed by association with Covenant-breakers (in) Holy Land and efforts (to) undermine Guardian's position, recently further demeaned himself through marriage under obscure circumstances with lowborn Christian girl (in) Europe". [Bahá'í News, No. 229, p.1; Bahá'í News, No. 236, p.4; CoB 362; BN No 229 March 1956 p1] [key] Haifa Husayn Ali Rabbani; Covenant-breakers
    1949 (In the year) The pamphlet written by by George Townshend to all Christians under the title The Old Churches and the New World Faith was sent out to 10,000 “responsible people” in the British Isles on the occasion of his resignation from the church. [UD470] [key] Ireland; United Kingdom George Townshend; Christianity; Interfaith dialogue; Proclamation
    1949 (In the year) Construction began on the superstructure of the Shrine of the Báb. [BBD210]
  • The architect, Sutherland Maxwell, fell desperately ill during the winter of 1949-1950. " He reached a point where he seemed to have no conscious mind left, could not recognize me, his only and idolized child, at all, and had no more control over himself than if he were six months old." [PP155]
  • He was taken to Switzerland where he rapidly recovered. By 1951 his health was so frail he returned to his native Montreal. [PP156] [key]
  • BWC; Mount Carmel Bab, Shrine of; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1949 (In the year) A Bahá’í in Kamshatti, near Calcutta, was martyred by a religious fanatic. [BW11:34] [key] Kolkata (Calcutta); India Persecution, India; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1949 (In the year) Agnes Harrison (née Parent), an Athabascan, became a Bahá’í in Alaska, the first Native Alaskan to accept the Faith in the country. Alaska; United States First Bahais by country or area first Native Alaskan
    1949 (In the year) The Misaghieh Hospital was gifted to the Bahá'í community in 1949 by a Bahá'í named Abdolmisagh Misaghieh and was managed by the Bahá'í community.

    After the Islamic Revolution, the Mostazafan Foundation – in English, the Foundation for the Oppressed – confiscated properties belonging to members of the Bahá'í community. The Misaghieh Hospital was among these properties. After its confiscation, the hospital’s name was changed to Shahid Mostafa Khomeini Hospital. [Iran Wire] [key]

    Tihran; Iran Misaghieh Hospital; Abdolmisagh Misaghieh
    1949 21 Jan Shoghi Effendi had a private interview with Prime Minister Ben Gurion of Israel. [GBF136; PP174–5, 289] [key] Israel Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Ben Gurion; Prime Ministers; Prominent visitors
    1949 4 Feb There was an attempt on the life of the Shah during a ceremony commemorating the founding of Tehran University. The enemies of the Faith took advantage of the instability to launch attacks against the Bahá'ís throughout Iran. [SCF107] [key] Tihran; Iran Shah; Persecution, Iran
    1949 4 - 9 Apr Bahá’í delegation to the United Nations International Conference of Non-Governmental Organizations consisted of Amin Banani, Mildred R. Mottahedeh, Hilda Yen and Matthew Bullock. [BIC History 1949} Lake Success, NY BIC; Bahai International Community; Amin Banani; Mildred Mottahedeh; Hilda Yen; Matthew Bullock.
    1949 15 Apr Dr M. E. Lukmani, a homeopathic physician from India, arrived in Colombo, the first Bahá’í to settle in Ceylon (Sri Lanka). Colombo M. E. Lukmani first Bahá’í to settle in Ceylon
    1949 20 Apr The first local spiritual assembly in Portugal was established in Lisbon. Lisbon Local Spiritual Assembly first Local Spiritual Assembly in Portugal
    1949 21 Apr The first local spiritual assembly of Denmark was established in Copenhagen.
  • During the years 1948 to 1951 thirty-eight people became Bahá'ís. [SBBR14p243] [key]
  • Copenhagen Local Spiritual Assembly first Local Spiritual Assembly in Denmark
    1949 24 Apr The passing of Montfort Mills.
  • He had been a believer since 1906 and by 1909 he had made two pilgrimages to 'Akká as well as a third in early 1921.
  • In 1922 he and Roy Wilhelm were invited to Haifa to discuss the possibility of calling for the formation of the Universal House of Justice.
  • He was the first chairman of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada when it first formed in 1922 and was elected to that body seven times between 1922 and 1937 and was responsible for the final draft of the Declaration of Trust and By-Laws adopted in 1927.
  • One of his most outstanding achievements was his role in the case of the appeal for possession of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád. He made two trips to Baghdad and had audiences with King Feisal. During one of these trips he was brutally assaulted and suffered the effects for many years.
  • He met with Professor E. G. Browne and, after hearing Mr. Mills explanation of the evolution of the Faith and of the Covenant, Mr. Browne realized he had been veiled by conflicting claims and disturbances following the martyrdom of the Báb and expressed a desire to translate later Bahá'í works but died before this contribution could be made. [BW11p509-511] [key]
  • United States; Baghdad; Iraq House of Bahaullah (Baghdad); In Memoriam; Edward Granville Browne; Births and deaths; Covenant-breakers
    1949 30 Apr An Act to incorporate the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of Canada was passed. The act established the name, named the officers as directors, stated the location of the headquarters, defined the objectives, gave it the right to manage the affairs of the Bahá'ís, to make by-laws and to hold property. It was used as a model for registration/incorporation in other states.

  • The pdf for the Act can be found here.
  • The National Spiritual Assembly members at that time were John Aldham Robarts, of the city of Toronto, province of Ontario, manager; Emeric Sala, of the city of St. Lambert, province of Quebec, manufacturer; Dame Laura Romney Davis, wife of Victor Davis of the city of Toronto, province of Ontario; Siegfried Schopflocher, of the city of Montreal, province of Quebec, manufacturer; Rowland Ardouin Estall, of the city of Montreal, province of Quebec, insurance broker; Ross Greig Woodman, of the city of Toronto, province of Ontario, lecturer; Lloyd George Gardner, of the city of Toronto, province of Ontario, wholesaler; and Dame Doris Cecilia Richardson, wife of J. P. Richardson, of the city of Toronto, province of Ontario; and Dame Rosemary Scott Sala, wife of the said Emeric Sala, of the city of St. Lambert, province Corporate of Quebec.
  • See Shoghi Effendi's letter of 19 June, 1949 for his comments.
  • Canada National Spiritual Assembly, Incorporation; National Spiritual Assembly; Firsts, Other; Recognition (legal) first national spiritual assembly to be formally incorporated.
    1949 Summer Green Acre did not open for summer school this year or the next as an austerity measure so that funds could be directed to the completion of the Wilmette Temple. [SYH236] [key] Green Acre Green Acre
    1949 5 – 7 Aug The second European Teaching Conference was held in Brussels. [BW11:52] [key] Brussels; Belgium; Europe Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; Conferences
    1949 16 Aug The passing of Lilian Vaughan McNeill (b.1 December, 1879). In May, 1931 she and her husband, Brigadier General Angus McNeill had taken a lease on the abandoned property at Mazra'ih where they lived until her passing. They had restored the house and property respecting the fact that Bahá'u'lláh and His family had lived there from June 1877 until September, 1879. In 1981 the staff at the Bahá'í World Centre discovered her simple grave in the Commonwealth Cemetery in Haifa and, with the permission of her family, erected a befitting and dignified memorial. She had been a childhood friend of Marie Alexandra Victoria (Queen Marie of Romania). During her latter years at Mazra'ih she wrote a series of short stories, some of which were published in the local English-language newspaper. [BW19p779-782]
  • Brigadier General Angus McNeill died in Cyprus in June 1950, nearly one year after Lilian's passing, and was buried on 21 June 1950 in Wayne's Keep, the Commonwealth War Graves Cemetery now located in the buffer zone, under the control of the United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP). Anita Graves, archivist for the Cypriot community, discovered he grave in 1994. [from a message from Anita Graves dated November, 2019] iiiii
  • Mazraih; Akka; Cyprus In Memoriam; Lilian Barron McNeill; Angus McNeill; House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); Cemeteries and graves; Queen Marie of Romania; Anita Graves
    1949 9 Nov The Bahá'í International Community, in a letter addressed to Mr Trygve Lie, the Secretary-General of the United Nation, informed the United Nations of the spiritual nature of the Bahá'í Faith. [BW12p598-600]
  • Also included was a prayer card.
  • See as well Bahá'í Relationship with United Nations.
  • New York, NY; United States Bahai International Community
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