Bahá'í Library Online
. . . .
.

Bahá'í Chronology: years 199-

 Enter the first part of a date or an entire date, with or without hyphens, in the form Year-Month-Day. Examples:
century:18 - - decade:184 - year:1848 month:1848-03 day:1848-03-03

or jump to:   1700s 1810s . . . 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s search tips, key

Search by keyword:

199-

date event locations tags firsts see also
1990 (In the year) The United Nations International Literacy Year. [VV108] United Nations; Literacy
1990 (In the year) The Bádi Foundation was established in Macao through an initial endowment in honour of Badi'u'llah Farid and Shidrokh Amirkia Bagha, who were outstanding examples of dedication, service and self-sacrifice for the well-being of humankind. The fundamental purpose animating the Bádi Foundation has always been to contribute, however modestly, to the spiritual and material progress of China. [Website]
  • Its projects include:
    • Early Childhood Education: The award winning Hidden Gems Programme, implemented by educational organizations across Asia, includes content in the areas of mathematics, science, and character development for children aged 3 to 6.
    • Junior Youth Program: Drawing on the talents of a group of youth volunteers and working in partnership with a number of local educational institutions, the Moral Empowerment through Language Programme seeks to release the potential of 12-15 year olds to contribute to the transformation of their communities.
    • School of the Nations offers education to over 600 students from kindergarten through high school in Macao. The school offers programmes characterized by academic rigor and an integrated approach to the moral and intellectual development of its students.
    • The Centre for Continuing Education at School of the Nations offers a range of educational programmes seeking to promote community well-being. Its aim is to provide quality, innovative learning opportunities to a growing number of people, of all ages and backgrounds.
  • Macau; China Social and Economic Development Organizations; Badi Foundation; Z****
    1990 (In the year) The National Spiritual Assembly of Taiwan opened a permanent Bahá'í Office of the Environment for Taiwan in Taipei. [BINS221:5] Taipei; Taiwan Environment
    1990 (In the year) An Association for Bahá'í Studies was established in Kenya. Kenya; Africa Bahai Studies, Associations for
    1990 (In the year) The Italian Association for Bahá'í Studies was established in Rome. [BINS232:5]
  • It lapsed in 1991 but was re-established in 1992.
  • Rome; Italy; Europe Bahai Studies, Associations for
    1990 (In the year) The first Adam Benke Project was organized by the Bahá'í European Youth Council in Bulgaria.
  • The first semi-public talks and lectures in Bulgaria were given in restaurants, where people are invited to private meetings.
  • Eleven people become Bahá'ís.
  • Bulgaria European Bahai Youth Council; Youth; Firsts, Other First Adam Benke Project; first semi-public talks and lectures in Bulgaria find ref
    1990 (In the year) The Purest Branch Project in Belize resulted in over a thousand people becoming Bahá'ís from the Garifuna population around Dangriga. Belize; Dangriga Teaching campaigns; mass conversion find ref
    1990 (In the year) The highest legal authority in Germany, the Federal Constitutional Court, overturned the decisions of a number of lower courts that had refused to register the by-laws of a Local Spiritual Assembly on the grounds that the authority granted to the National Spiritual Assembly in the document violated the legal principle requiring the autonomy of all legally incorporated associations.
  • The ruling affirmed Bahá'í community, by it’s right as a recognized religion, recognized by public knowledge and by the testimony of scholars of comparative religion, had the right to a legal identity. [AWH87]
  • Germany LSA; NSA; By-laws
    1990 (In the year) Amata Kabua, President of the Marshall Islands, visited the Bahá'í World Centre. [BW94–5:83] Marshall Islands; Oceania; BWC Amata Kabua; Presidents; Prominent visitors; Islands
    1990 (In the year) The National Spiritual Assembly of South Africa made a submission for the drafting of a new constitution.
  • The judge that received it, the President of the South African Law Commission, commented that this document stated the Bahá’ís were the only group whose ideas had a spiritual and moral basis for the constitution. [AWH87-8]
  • South Africa NSA; Constitutions
    1990 (In the year) The Asian Buddhist Conference for Peace was held in Mongolia.
  • A representative of the International Bahá'í Community was the only non-Buddhist speaker invited to address a public meeting held in conjunction with the conference. [AWH88] [VV101]
  • The paper that was delivered was entitled The Common Goal of Universal Peace in Buddhism and the Bahá'í Faith.
  • Mongolia Buddhism; Conferences, Peace; Bahai International Community; Interfaith dialogue
    1990 (In the year) Pope John Paul II made mention of the Bahá'ís at a reception held in his honour in Burundi. [AWH88] Burundi Pope John Paul II; Popes
    1990 (In the year) With the approval of the Universal House of Justice, the Bahá'í administrative institutions of the eastern and western parts of Germany were re-united. [BINS230:2] Germany East; West; united
    1990 (In the year) The Bahá'í International Community, through the Office of the Environment in collaboration with other environmental organizations, re-instituted the annual World Forestry Charter Gathering that had be founded in 1945 by Richard St. Barbe Baker. [AWH75] [VV106] Bahai International Community; Environment; Richard St Barbe Baker
    1990 (In the year) The Bahá'í International Community was invited to participate in the World Conference on Education for All in Thailand because of its involvement in the work of the Task Force for Literacy under the aegis of UNESCO. [AWH75] Thailand Bahai International Community; Education; Literacy; UNESCO
    1990 (In the year) A branch of the Bahá'í International Community's United Nations Office for the Pacific region was opened in Suva, Fiji. [AWH76; VV54] Suva; Fiji Bahai International Community
    1990 (In the year) For the first time a representative of the United Nations was able to officially meet with a representative of the proscribed Bahá'í community in Irán. The report to the United Nations Commission on Human Rights resulted in a resolution being adapted on Irán in a session held in Geneva. [AWH76] Iran; Geneva United Nations Commission on Human Rights first time a representative of United Nations able to officially meet with a representative of proscribed Bahá'í community in Irán
    1990 (In the year) The formation of the European Bahá'í Business Forum in France with members from 26 countries in Europe and elsewhere. [VV115]
  • Formed by a group of Bahá'ís active in business and management meeting in Chamonix, France, due to concern about the decline of ethics and values in business.
  • Forum created to promote the moral and spiritual wisdom and principles of the great religious traditions of the world (sources included Judaism, Hinduism, and Christianity as well as the 19th century revelation of Bahá'u'lláh) such as adherence to the principles of justice, respect, trustworthiness, integrity and unity.
  • Beginning as an informal network, its membership grew requiring the election of a Governing Board.
  • Members have attached importance to sharing their broad experience and to contributing to the improvement of management in emerging free-market economies of Central and Eastern Europe. [ebbf]
  • Chamonix; France; Europe European Bahai Business Forum (EBBF); Business; ebbf
    1990 (In the year) The US House of Representatives unanimously adopted a resolution calling for the emancipation of the Iránian Bahá'í community and outlined the steps to be taken by the US government towards this end. [AWH76; VV60] US House of Representatives
    1990 (In the year) The Council of Agriculture of the Executive Yuan (Senate) of Taiwan co-sponsored with the National Spiritual Assembly a Bahá'í educational programme on environmental protection. [BINS218:5]
  • This was the first formal joint effort between the Bahá'ís of Taiwan and the government authorities.
  • Taiwan Agriculture; Environment First formal joint effort between Bahá'ís and Taiwan government
    1990 Jan – Feb The Brazilian Society of Educators for Peace, conceived and initiated by Bahá'ís, is officially recognized by the Amazonas State Government. [BINS219:3] Brazil Bahai associations; Peace; Education
    1990 Jan The first local spiritual assembly comprised entirely of newly enrolled Bahá'ís of Ahmadiyyah background is formed in Chak No. 8P Katta, Pakistan. [BINS219:5] Katta; Pakistan LSA; Ahmadiyyah
    1990 24 Jan – 5 Feb The first All-Union Bahá'í Conference was held in Moscow with 250 people gathered from all over the Soviet Union and from 17 other countries. This was the first national Bahá'í conference held in the USSR in about 60 years. [BINS224:8; VV112] Moscow; Russia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, National; First conferences first national Bahá'í conference in the Soviet Union in six decades
    1990 26 Jan The Bahá'í Chair for World Peace was established at the University of Maryland's Centre for International Development and Conflict Management at the official signing of the Memorandum of Understanding. [AWH76; BINS217:7; VV108]
  • Professor Suheil Bushrui was appointed to the Chair in 1992.
  • For picture see VV108.
  • On the 12th of February the Universal House of Justice announced that the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and the University of Maryland had signed a memorandum of understanding to establish "The Bahá'í Chair for World Peace" in its Centre for International Development and Conflict Management.
  • In 1992 Professor Suheil Bushrú’í was named as the first scholar to hold the Chair. [AWH76; VV108]
  • See The American Bahá'í for information on the endowment to fund the Chair as well as the programs and activities. "As part of its threefold objective of research, education and publication, the Bahá’í Chair collaborates with academics and practitioners to provide inspiration and direction to students, faculty and leaders seeking solutions to the world’s great challenges."
  • Official website.
  • Maryland; United States Bahai Chair for World Peace; Suheil Bushrui;
    1990 22 Feb Jalál Kházeh, (b. 24 February, 1897, Tihran) Hand of the Cause of God, passed away in Toronto. He was buried in York Cemetery in Toronto. [BINS219:90]

    Note: VV123 says it was 20 February.

  • He was appointed a Hand of the Cause of God on the 6th of December, 1953 after the passing of Hand of the Cause of God Siegfried Schopflocher. [MoCxxiv]
  • See LoF164-167 for a short biography.
  • Find a grave.
  • Toronto; Canada Jalal Khazeh; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Appointments
    1990 Mar The Haifa District Town Planning Commission approved the plan submitted by the World Centre for the building projects on Mount Carmel. [AWH76] Mount Carmel; Haifa; Israel; BWC Arc project
    1990 21 Mar The first local spiritual assembly formed in Eastern Europe since the Second World War was elected in Cluj, Romania. [AWH73; BINS221:4] Cluj; Romania; Eastern Europe LSA; Firsts, Other first local spiritual assembly formed in Eastern Europe since the Second World War
    1990 24 Mar Mr. and Mrs. Abbas Katirai opened the Sakhalin Islands and became Knights of Bahá'u'lláh after 35 years of pioneering in Japan. This last goal was achieved 37 years after the Guardian had designated it as a goal of the Ten Year Crusade. [DM345; AWH73; VV112; Russia by Moojan Momen] Sakhalin Island; Russia; Japan Knights of Bahaullah
    1990 31 Mar 31 – 1 Apr The first Bahá'í International Chinese Symposium was held in San Francisco, California; it was attended by 362 Bahá'ís from eight countries. [BINS222:6] San Francisco; California; United States Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; Conferences, Other; First conferences; China
    1990 9 Apr The establishment of the Chair for Bahá'í Studies at the University of Indore (later renamed Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya). Dr. Vishnudatta Nagar was appointed to the position. [BINS222:8; VV108; BW'86-‘92pg454] Indore; India Chair in Bahai Studies; University of Indore; Universities
    1990 Ridván In its Ridván message the Universal House of Justice announced that in the previous two years almost two million people have become Bahá'ís. [AWH79] Worldwide Statistics; Growth
    1990 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Estonia was formed at Tallinn. [BINS223:3] Tallinn; Estonia First Local Spiritual Assemblies First local spiritual assembly in Estonia
    1990 Ridván The first indigenous local spiritual assembly of Amazonas State, Brazil, was formed among the Mura tribe in Beruri. [BINS223:71] Beruri; Amazonas State; Brazil Indigenous people; LSA; Firsts, Other First indigenous local spiritual assembly of Brazil
    1990 Ridván Maureen Nakekea and Marao Teem were elected to the National Spiritual Assembly of Kiribati, the first indigenous women to be elected to the institution. [BINS224:7] Kiribati; Oceania NSA; Indigenous people; Women; Islands; Firsts, Other first indigenous women elected to National Spiritual Assembly of Kiribati
    1990 Ridván For the first time, two Bush Negro women delegates attended the national convention of Surinam. [BINS226:6] Suriname Indigenous people; Conventions, National; Firsts, Other
    1990 Ridván The re-formation of the Spiritual Assembly of Moscow with Hand of the Cause 'Alí-Akbar Furútan in attendance. [VV111-2] Moscow; Russia Local Spiritual Assemblies; Re-formation
    1990 Ridván The launching of a subsidiary Two Year Plan for the Soviet Union and the Eastern Bloc countries. [Ridván Message 1992]. Goals were:
    1. attraction of numerous supporters
    2. great increase in the translation, publication and dissemination of Bahá'í literature
    3. the extension of the administrative order in the region by the erection of local and national spiritual assemblies [AWH71]
    Eastern Europe; Soviet Union; Russia Teaching Plans, National
    1990 May The US Senate unanimously adopted a concurrent resolution condemning Irán's continued repression of the Bahá'ís calling for their complete emancipation. This was the fourth congressional appeal. [VV60] United States; Iran United States Senate; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1990 18 - 20 May The first of seven European women's conferences sponsored by the Continental Board of Counsellors was held in Iskenderun, Turkey. [BINS230:1] Iskenderun; Turkey Conferences, Women; Conferences, Bahai; Counsellors
    1990 22 May The nations of Northern Yemen and Marxist Southern Yemen united to become the Republic of Yemen with Ali Abdullah Saleh, a former a conservative military leader, as President. Saleh had served as President of North Yemen for 12 years until then.
  • Ali Salim al-Beidh, a Soviet-trained southern army commander, was chosen as Vice President. Mr. Beidh, had ruled Southern Yemen when it was a Marxist state. A unification of the two countries' political and economic systems was to take place over 30 months. In that time, a unified parliament was formed and a unity constitution was agreed upon, however, tensions between North and South continued with sporadic fighting.
  • Yemen Yemen, Recent history
    1990 23 May The work started on the project to reinforce and extend the main terrace of the Shrine of the Báb. This was the initial step in the work to have the Terraces extend from the foot of the ridge of the mountain. [Ridván Message 1992, AWH83, 102] World Centre; Akka; Haifa; Israel; BWC Terraces; Arc project; Bab, Shrine of
    1990 Jun Nicolai Gejnze, from Bishkek and a crew member in one of three boats in which Bahá'ís made a trip down the Volga River in June and July 1990, enrolied, the first person from Kirgizia known to have become a Bahá'í. Bishkek; Kirgizia; Kyrgyz; Central Asia; Volga River; Russia Nicolai Gejnze the first person from Kirgizia known to have become a Bahá'í. find ref
    1990 4 Jun The 1st International Exposition on Education for Peace sponsored by the National Spiritual Assembly was held in Brasilia, Brazil. Twenty-three embassies and educational institutes participated. [AWH88, BINS226:1] Brasilia; Brazil Exhibitions; Education; Peace
    1990 9 Jun The first local spiritual assembly in Czechoslovakia was formed at Prague. [BINS226:1] Prague; Czechoslovakia LSA
    1990 10 Jun The Paraguay International Chinese Teaching Symposium, the first of its kind in South America, was held in Asuncion, attended by 80 people from 10 countries. [BINS226:4] Asuncion; Paraguay; South America Conferences, International; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences; China
    1990 Jul The first youth conference of Estonia was held in Kabli, near Parnu, attended by some 113 participants from all parts of Europe Kabli; Parnu; Estonia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth First youth conference of Estonia
    1990 3 Jul The National Spiritual Assembly of Guyana announced that the Bahá'ís constitute about five percent of the total population of the country. [BINS228:1]
  • In some towns over 20 percent of the people are Bahá'ís. [BINS228:1]
  • Guyana; South America Statistics
    1990 8 – 11 Jul The first summer school of Czechoslovakia was held in Jindrichuv Hradec, attended by 24 Bahá'ís from eight countries. [BINS230:2] Jindrichuv Hradec; Czechoslovakia Summer schools; First summer and winter schools
    1990 6 Aug The first local spiritual assembly in the Ukraine was formed in Kyiv. Kyiv; Ukraine First Local Spiritual Assemblies find ref
    1990 Sep The publication of Teaching Prominent People; Extracts from the Bahá'í Writings and Letters Written by or on Behalf of Shoghi Effendi and the Universal House of Justice based on material issued by the Research Department of the Universal House of Justice. BWC Teaching Prominent People; Z****
    1990 Sep Eighty leaders of thought from around the world gathered at Landegg Academy for the first International Dialogue on the Transition to a Global Society. The event was co-sponsored by the University of Maryland, the Vienna Academy for the Study of the Future and the Landegg Academy. [VV109]
  • For documentation on the proceedings see UNESCO Documents and Publications.
  • A second international dialogue took place in 1991 and a third in 1992. [VV109]
  • Landegg; Switzerland University of Maryland; Bahai Chair for World Peace; Vienna Academy; Landegg academy; Universities; Firsts, Other; Conferences, Other first international dialogue on the transition of the global society
    1990 1 - 2 Sep The European Bahá'í Business Forum was formed at a meeting in Chamonix, France, attended by people from eight countries. [BINS244:8; VV115]
  • For picture see VV115.
  • Chamonix; France European Bahai Business Forum (EBBF); Business
    1990 6 Sep The Bahá'í International Community opened a branch of its United Nations Office for the Pacific region in Suva, Fiji. [AWH76; BINS233:4–5; VV54] Suva; Fiji Bahai International Community; United Nations; Pacific
    1990 8 Sep The first local spiritual assembly on Sakhalin Island was formed in Yuzhno. [BINS232:5] Yuzhno; Sakhalin Island; Russia Local Spiritual Assemblies first local spiritual assembly
    1990 29 Sep The passing of Hand of the Cause of God H. Collis Featherstone in Katmandu, Nepal. He was born at Quorn, South Australia on May 5th, 1913. [BINS232:8, VV12, The Bahá'í Encyclopedia, Find a grave]
  • For his obituary see BW20p809-818.
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
  • See Bahá'í Recollections for an article complete with pictures by Narenda Pande about Mr. Featherstone's last days and funeral.
  • See LoF434-448 for a biography.
  • Find a grave.
  • Kathmandu; Nepal; Quorn; South Australia Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Collis Featherstone; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Third Contingent
    1990 Oct The publication of the last issue of the Bahá'í News by the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States after nearly 70 years of uninterrupted service. [CBN Feb1991pg15]
    • Issues 1 to 40 were published under the name Bahá'í News Letter. Subsequent issues, from #41 to #714, were entitled simply Bahá'í News.


    Bahá'í News Published December 1924 to October 1990
              Link (Will open in this window)            
             Dates        
    Pages
                  URL   (For cut 'n' paste)      
    "Bahá'í News" Issues 001-110
    Dec 1924 - Sep 1937
    969
    bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn01.pdf
    "Bahá'í News" Issues 111-210
    Oct 1937 - Aug 1948
    1186
    bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn02.pdf
    "Bahá'í News" Issues 211-280
    Sep 1948 - Jun 1954
    1072
    bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn03.pdf
    "Bahá'í News" Issues 281-345
    Jul 1954 - Nov 1959
    1088
    bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn04.pdf
    "Bahá'í News" Issues 346-400
    Dec 1959 - Jul 1964
    849
    bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn05.pdf
    "Bahá'í News" Issues 401-440
    Aug 1964 - Nov 1967
    716
    bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn06.pdf
    "Bahá'í News" Issues 441-490
    Dec 1967 - Jan 1972
    1008
    bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn07.pdf
    "Bahá'í News" Issues 491-525
    Feb 1972 - May 1975
    958
    bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn08.pdf
    "Bahá'í News" Issues 526-580
    Jun 1975 - Jul 1979
    1019
    bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn09.pdf
    "Bahá'í News" Issues 581-630
    Aug 1979 - Sep 1983
    958
    bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn10.pdf
    "Bahá'í News" Issues 631-670
    Oct 1983 - Jan 1987
    780
    bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn11.pdf
    "Bahá'í News" Issues 671-714
    Feb 1987 - Oct 1990
    847
    bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn12.pdf

    Subscribers in the United States received an insert entitled US Supplement from 1958 to 1967 and the name of the insert was changed to National Bahá'í Review from 1968 until the Bahá'í News discontinued publication in 1990.
    United States Bahai News; Newsletters; - Periodicals; Publications First international periodical publication in the Faith.
    1990 19 – 21 Oct The first summer school of Cape Verde was held in Tarrafal, attended by 30 people. [BINS247:8] Tarrafal; Cape Verde Summer schools; First summer and winter schools first summer school Cape Verde
    1990 19 – 21 Oct The first National Children's Conference of Nicaragua was held in Retiro, Aurora, Managua, attended by more than 40 children. [BINS243:8] Retiro; Aurora; Managua; Nicaragua Children; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Children; Conferences, National; First conferences first National Children's Conference of Nicaragua
    1990 11 Nov For the first time in 45 years, a Bahá'í meeting was held in a public building in Bulgaria. [BINS236:2] Bulgaria first time in 45 years, Bahá'í meeting in a public building
    1990 22 Nov – 6 Dec The First European Bahá'í Youth Encounter was held in the Canary Islands, attended by over 150 people from eight countries. [BINS239:1] Canary Islands; Europe Youth; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International first European Bahá'í Youth Encounter
    1990 26 Nov The number of the Auxiliary Board members was increased from 756 to 846. [AWH89] Auxiliary Board Members and assistants; Statistics; Appointed arm
    1990 30 Nov - 2 Dec The First National Teaching Conference of the Bahá'ís of Romania was held near Poiana Brasov, in the Carpathian mountains. [CBN Feb 91p14] Poiana Brasov; Romania Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, teaching; First conferences first National Teaching Conference of the Bahá'ís of Romania
    1990 Dec The first week-long residential Bahá'í study school of Guinea was held in Guéckédou. Gueckedou; Guinea Study schools; Firsts, Other first week-long residential Bahá'í study school of Guinea find ref
    1990 8 - 9 Dec The first All-Union Bahá'í Consultative Conference was held in Moscow attended by Bahá'ís from every part of the Soviet Union, members of three Continental Boards of Counsellors and representatives of all those National Spiritual Assemblies having responsibility for the work of the Faith in that area. [BINS 238:6] [CBN Mar91Vol3no8] [VV112] Moscow; Russia Conferences, Bahai; First conferences first All-Union Bahá'í Consultative Conference
    1991 (In the year) The first major public statement of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States, The Vision of Race Unity: America's Most challenging Issue, was published and disseminated widely throughout the country. United States Vision of Race Unity (statement); Race (general); Unity; Publications; Statements find ref
    1991 Jan The first local spiritual assembly in Slovakia was formed in Bratislava. Bratislava; Slovakia First Local Spiritual Assemblies first local spiritual assembly in Slovakia find ref
    1991 Jan Dr. Victor de Araujo, Bahá'í representative to the United Nations for 23 years and the first full-time representative, retired from his duties. He had represented the BIC at innumerable conferences and seminars throughout the world as well as at the UN headquarters in New York, often serving as chairman on the UN committees. [VV54]
  • Mr. Techeste Ahderom of Eritrea succeeded him. [VV54]
  • New York; United States Victor de Araujo; Bahai International Community; United States; Techeste Ahderom; Firsts, Other First full-time Bahá'í representative to UN
    1991 2 Jan The first local spiritual assembly in Bulgaria was formed in Plovdiv. [BINS239:2] Plovdiv; Bulgaria First Local Spiritual Assemblies first local spiritual assembly in Bulgaria
    1991 20 Jan The first World Religion Day to be held in Bophuthatswana took place in Mmabatho. [BINS 244:1] Mmabatho; Bophuthatswana; South Africa World Religion Day first World Religion Day
    1991 25 Jan The first local spiritual assembly in Latvia was formed in Riga. [BINS241:3] Riga; Latvia Local Spiritual Assemblies; First Local Spiritual Assemblies first local spiritual assembly in Latvia
    1991 25 Jan Mottahedeh Development Services was established by the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States as a non-profit agency to promote social and economic development to benefit individuals of any race, creed, or nationality. The agency name honours more than fifty years of dedicated service by Mildred and Rafi Mottahedeh, two pioneers in social and economic development.
  • Mottahedeh Development Services was organized as a charitable organization under US law. [MDS]
  • United States NSA USA; Social and economic development; Mildred Mottahedeh; Rafi Mottahedeh
    1991 26 - 27 Jan The first National Teaching Conference of Yugoslavia was held in Belgrade. [BINS243:3] Belgrade; Yugoslavia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, National
    1991 Feb The Faith became officially recognized as a "religious association" in Romania. [CBNJun91pg12] Romania Recognition
    1991 8 - 14 Feb The first Bahá'í Winter School of Romania was held in Felix, attended by 80 Bahá'ís. [BINS241:3] Felix; Romania First summer and winter schools
    1991 25 Feb In Iran, a secret government memorandum (known as the Golpaygani Memorandum) was drawn up by Iran's Supreme Revolutionary Cultural Council and signed by Iran's supreme leader, Ayatollah Khamenei, which provided a blueprint of the policies and actions to which the Bahá'í community of Iran was to be subjugated. The memorandum demanded a shift in Iran's stance towards Bahá'ís from overt persecution to a more covert policy aimed at depleting the Iranian Bahá'í community's economic and cultural resources. This was a change in the policy for the Islamic regime which had openly persecuted and killed Bahá'ís during its first decade in power and had accused them of being spies for various foreign powers. The document also called for “countering and destroying their [Bahá'ís] cultural roots abroad.” [Iran Press Watch 1407]
    Signed by Iranian Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei, the memorandum established a subtle government policy aimed at essentially grinding the community into nonexistence by:
  • forcing Bahá'í children to have a strong Islamic education,
  • pushing Bahá'í adults into the economic periphery and forcing them from all positions of power or influence, and
  • requiring that Bahá'í youth "be expelled from universities, either in the admission process or during the course of their studies, once it becomes known that they are Bahá'ís." [One Country; Iran Press Watch 1578]
  • The memorandum can be found here, here and here.
  • This document might have remained secret had it not been divulged to Reynaldo Galindo Pohl, the Salvadoran diplomat who served as the United Nations (UN) Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Iran between 1986 and 1995. Professor Pohl disclosed the document in 1993 during a session of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights (now replaced by the Human Rights Council). [BWNS575]
  • Iran; United States Golpaygani Memorandum; Ayatollah Khamenei; Ayatollahs; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; United Nations; Persecution, education; BWNS; Z****
    1991 12 Apr The Local Spiritual Assembly of Tashkent, Uzbekistan, was re-formed. Tashkent; Uzbekistan LSA; Re-form find ref
    1991 Ridván Number of National Assemblies - 155

    Number of Local Assemblies - more than 17,000

    Number of nationalities and tribes represented is estimated at 2,112 [B'91pg54 note 2]

    Number of localities - over 108,000. [CoB375]

    Number of languages - over 800 [B'91pg3]

    Worldwide Statistics; Growth
    1991 Ridván The Universal House of Justice announced that the law of Huqúqu'lláh would become universally applicable at Ridván 1992. [AWH91–2, 174, Ridván 1991] Worldwide Huququllah; Gradual implementation of laws; Universal House of Justice, Letters and messages
    1991 (In the year) The administration of the Bahá'í Faith in Zaire was devolved to a system of subordinate regional councils. Congo, Democratic Republic of (DRC) Regional Bahai Councils find ref
    1991 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Romania was formed with its seat in Bucharest. About 200 believers were present at the inaugural National Convention. [AWH86; BINS246:1; VV113] Bucharest; Romania NSA first National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Romania
    1991 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Czechoslovakia was formed with its seat in Prague. [AWH86; BINS246:3–4; VV113] Prague; Czechoslovakia NSA
    1991 Ridván 342 Local Spiritual Assemblies in Canada. [CBNJun91p6] Canada LSA
    1991 Ridván The Bahá'ís of East and West Germany were united at their 61st convention for the first time after the war. [VV113] Germany Conventions, National first united convention in Germany after war
    1991 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the West Leeward Islands was formed. [AWH86; BINS246:1; VV113] West Leeward Islands NSA
    1991 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Soviet Union was formed with its seat in Moscow. [AWH86; BINS246:1–3; VV113] Moscow NSA
    1991 May The first local spiritual assembly in Moldova was formed in Kishinev. Kishinev; Moldova LSA find ref
    1991 14 May The first local spiritual assembly in Armenia was formed at Yerevan. Yerevan; Armenia LSA find ref
    1991 16 Jun The first local spiritual assembly in Albania was formed at Tirana. Tirana; Albania LSA find ref
    1991 17 Jun The contracts were signed for the second phase of construction for the terraces to the Shrine of the Báb. Haifa; Mount Carmel Bab, Shrine of; Terraces
    1991 18 Jun The passing of Hand of the Cause of God, Knight of Bahá'u'lláh, John Aldham Robarts at Rawdon, Quebec. He was born in Waterloo, Ontario 2nd of November, 1901. [VV124]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
  • See BW20p801-809.
  • For his obituary see BINS250:10.
  • For picture see VV124.
  • For the story of how he came to learn of the Faith see SBR137.
  • See LoF473-495.
  • A 50-minute film entitledRetrospective, a Ciné Bahá’í production, was made as a tribute to the Hand of the Cause John A. Robarts on the occasion of his 40th anniversary as a member of the Bahá‘r' community.
  • Rawdon; Quebec Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Knights of Bahaullah; John Robarts; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1991 21 Jun The first local spiritual assembly in Kirgizia was formed in Bishkek. Bishkek; Kirgizia LSA
    1991 15 – 21 Jul The first summer school of Sikkim was held in Saramsa. [BINS257:6] Saramsa; Sikkim; India Summer schools; First summer and winter schools first summer school of Sikkim
    1991 15 – 21 Jul The first European Bahá'í Youth Conference of Romania was held in Neptune. [BINS253:9; VV74]
  • For picture see VV74.
  • Neptune; Romania; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International
    1990 Aug Hand of the Cause Dr 'Alí-Muhammad Varqá convened a conference for the Deputies of the Huqúqu'lláh at Landegg Academy. [VV125]
  • Photo.
  • Landegg; Switzerland Huququllah; Ali Muhammad Varqa; Conference
    1991 15 – 22 Aug The first summer school of Tajikistan took place in Varzoub Gorge. Varzoub Gorge; Tajikistan First summer and winter schools first summer school of Tajikistan find ref
    1991 Sep The ground was broken for the construction of the Centre for the Study of the Sacred Texts and for the Extension to the International Archives Building. [Ridván Message 1992] Haifa; BWC Centre for the Study of the Sacred Texts; International Bahai Archives; Arc project; Foundation stones and groundbreaking
    1991 2 Oct The first local spiritual assembly in Belarus was formed at Minsk. Minsk; Belarus LSA The first local spiritual assembly in Belarus is formed at Minsk. find ref
    1991 25 – 27 Oct The first National Teaching Conference of Bulgaria was held in Plovdiv. [BINS258:2–3] Plovdiv; Bulgaria Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, National
    1991 12 Nov The first Bahá'í meeting to be held in a public location in Mongolia took place in the theatre of the former Lenin Museum. Mongolia first Bahá'í meeting to be held in a public location in Mongolia find ref
    1991 14 Nov In a message from Hand of the Cause A.M. Varqá, the Office of the Trustee, the Institution of the Huqúqu'lláh, to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canada, the formation of the Board of Trustees of the Huqúqu'lláh was announced. Members were Mr. Husayn Banání, Dr. Mohsen Enayat, Dr. Gerald Hanks, Dr. Bill Hatcher, and Dr. Michael Rochester. [CBNJan92 p2] Canada Huququllah; Firsts, Other; Huququllah, Trustees of first formation of Board of Trustees of the Huqúqu'lláh
    1991 26 Nov The Office of Ḥuqúqu’lláh had been established in the Holy Land under the direction of the Chief Trustee of Ḥuqúqu’lláh, the Hand of the Cause of God ‘Alí-Muḥammad Varqá, in anticipation of the worldwide application of the Law of Ḥuqúqu’lláh the following Riḍván. Concurrent with this development were the steps being taken by Dr. Varqá to organize regional and national Boards of Trustees of Ḥuqúqu’lláh, following the example of the Board that had been already functioning in the United States. [Adapted from the Message of the Universal House of Justice dated 26 November, 1991.] BWC; Haifa Varqa, Ali-Muhammad; Varqa; Huququllah; Huququllah, Trustees of; Firsts, Other Establishment of the Office of Ḥuqúqu’lláh.
    1991 Dec The first Music Festival for Youth of Zaire was held. [BINS288:8] Zaire music first Music Festival for Youth of Zaire
    1991 Dec 20 A Bahá'í Monument for Peace was inaugurated in a ceremony held in Florianopolis, Brazil. [BINS266:1] Florianopolis; Brazil Bahai Monument for Peace
    1991 Dec 27 – 31 The first winter school of Hungary was held in Miskolc. [BINS266:2] Miskolc; Hungary First summer and winter schools first winter school of Hungary
    1991 Dec 31 The National Spiritual Assembly of Niger was given permission by the Ministry of the Interior to engage in Bahá'í activities. [BINS261:6] Niger Recognition
    1992 (In the year) Prime Minister Hamilton Green of Guyana made a formal state visit to the temple in Wilmette. [Bahá'í Newsreel Vol. 3 number 2; VV133] Guyana; Wilmette; United States Prime Ministers; Hamilton Green; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Prominent visitors
    1992 (In the year) The establishment of the Bahá'í Chair for Peace at the University of Maryland in the United States. The mission of the Bahá'í Chair for Peace, in part, was to develop alternatives to the violent resolution of conflict, promote global education and spiritual awareness, and reflect the beliefs of the Bahá'í world community in building a global society. Suheil Bushrui held the chair from 1992 until 2005. [BWNS282] Maryland; United States Bahai Chair for World Peace; University of Maryland
    1992 (In the year) Bahá'í literature was available in over 800 languages. [CoB372] Statistics; Translation
    1992 (In the year) The publication of the book entitled The Ministry of the Custodians 1957-1963: An Account of the Stewardship of the Hands of the Cause was published by the Bahá'í World Centre. [VV122] BWC Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Custodians; Ministry of the Custodians (book); Publications
    1992 (In the year) The publication of the statement entitled "Bahá'u'lláh”, prepared by the Office of Public Information at the Bahá'í World Centre. The statement was formally released at a press conference in Bombay, India by Hassan Sabri. [VV126] Mumbai (Bombay); India Office of Public Information; Hassan Sabri; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Life of (documents); Statements; Publications
    1992 (In the year) The establishment of the Townshend International School situated in the heart of Europe in Hluboká, South Bohemia, Czech Republic.
  • This private, non-affiliated, co-educational high school, accredited by the Ministry of Education with English as the teaching language, is a non-profit project and sponsors a number of students from its host country. [TIS Web Site]
  • Hluboka; South Bohemia; Czech Republic Townshend International School; Bahai schools
    1992 Jan The first teaching conference of Southern Yugoslavia was held, attended by 40 Bahá'ís representing 12 nationalities. [BINS264:8] Yugoslavia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, teaching; First conferences first teaching conference of Southern Yugoslavia
    1992 2 – 5 Jan The first European Conference on Bahá'í Activities in Universities was held in Brno, Czechoslovakia. [BINS263:2]
  • BINS290:2 gives a second report of this event, incorrectly implying it was held in January 1993.
  • Brno; Czechoslovakia; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; Conferences, Other; Universities first European Conference on Bahá'í Activities in Universities find ref
    1992 10 – 11 Jan The first teaching conference of Croatia and Slovenia was held in Kranj. [BINS263:1–2] Kranj; Croatia; Slovenia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, teaching; First conferences first teaching conference of Croatia and Slovenia
    1992 1 Feb The Local Spiritual Assembly of Zanzibar Island was formed. [BINS267:6]
  • This is the first administrative body on the island since the revolution of 12 January 1964. [BINS267:6]
  • Zanzibar LSA
    1992 3 – 6 Feb The Association of Bahá'í Publishers and Distributors was established at a Bahá'í Publishers' Conference in Oakham, England, with its headquarters in the Netherlands. [BINS273:4-5; VV71] Oakham; United Kingdom; Netherlands Publishing Trusts; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Other
    1992 7 Mar The first local spiritual assembly in Eastern Germany was formed in Erfurt. [BINS267:3] Erfurt; Germany LSA
    1992 18 Mar The martyrdom of Mr. Bahman Samandari in the Evin prison in Tehran. Mr. Samandari was executed with no advance notice and in the absence of due process. A 52 year-old businessman from a distinguished Bahá'í family, he was buried secretly on 20 March 1992 and his family was not notified until 5 April 1992. This was the first execution in three and one-half years. It belied the public position taken by the Iránian government that the Bahá'ís were not being persecuted for their religious beliefs. [AWH118-9, VV126] Tihran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Evin Prison
    1992 25 Mar William Benard Sears, (b.28 Mar 1911), Hand of the Cause of God, passed away in Tucson, Arizona. He was buried in East Lawn Palms Cemetery and Mortuary Tucson, Arizona. [BINS267; VV124]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
  • Find a grave.
  • See LoFp496-506 for a short biography.
  • He was the author of several books:
    • All Flags Flying, The NSA of South and West Africa, (1958)
    • A Cry from the Heart: The Bahá'ís of Iran, George Ronald, (1982)
    • God Love Laughter, George Ronald, (1960 and multiple re-prints)
    • The Prisoner and the Kings, General Publishing Company, (1971)
    • Release the Sun, Bahá'í Publishing Trust, (1957)
    • Thief in the Night or The Strange Case of the Missing Millennium, Talisman Books, (1961 and multiple re-prints
    • The Wine of Astonishment, George Ronald, (1963 and multiple re-prints)
    • The Flame; The Story of Lua, (with Robert Quigley), George Ronald, (1972) [BEL7.2354-79]
  • Tucson; Arizona; United States Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; William Sears; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Third Contingent
    1992 Apr – May Fifteen people became Bahá'ís in Barentsburg, Spitzbergen. [BINS271:4–5] Barentsburg; Spitzbergen
    1992 April The first Bahá'í Youth School of Romania was held in Curtea de Arges, attended by 60 Bahá'ís. [BINS269:5] Curtea de Arges; Romania first Bahá'í Youth School of Romania .
    1992 April With a world population 5.48 billion, the American Bahá'í population was 110,000 in more than 7000 communities. [From a press release by the American National Office dated the 28th of May, 1993] United States Statistics
    1992 4 – 5 Apr The first Children's Festival and Family Conference of Turkey was held in Cankaya, Ankara. [BINS269:5–6] Cankaya; Ankara; Turkey Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Children; Conferences, Other; First Conferences first Children's Festival and Family Conference of Turkey
    1992 Apr 20 The Six Year Plan was successfully completed.
  • For the major accomplishments of the Plan see AWH97–102, 187–8 and VV126.
  • The Faith was represented in every country. 1.5 million enrolled during the Plan. [Ridván Message 1992]
  • With more that 5 million people enrolled, Bahá'ís lived in 217 independent countries, territories and islands representing 2,112 tribes, minorities and ethnic groups. [Ridván Message 1992] [VV126]
  • Literature was translated into 802 languages and tribal tongues. [Ridván Message 1992] [VV126]
  • The proclamation of the Faith entered a new phase from the proclamation of 1967 in commemoration of Bahá'u'lláh's proclamation to the kings to the opportunities offered by the Iránian revolution in 1979 to the distribution of The Promise of World Peace.
  • The dedication of the House of Worship in New Delhi.
  • The emergence of the Faith from obscurity.
  • The increase in the number of projects of social and economic development.
  • The involvement of youth in the service to the Faith. The concept of the "year of service" was initiated.
  • The advances in the consolidation of the Bahá'í administrative as marked by the improvement in internal development and the collaborative efforts of its two arms.
  • The inauguration of the great building projects on Mount Carmel.
  • Six Year Plan (1986-1992); year of service
    1992 Ridván Holy Year commenced. [AWH40, 90, 95–6; BW92–3:20; VV127, 133]
  • For the purpose of the Holy Year see AWH96–7, 107–9 and BW92–3:20, 29–30.
  • For the significance of Holy Year see BW92–3:95–6, AWH107-109.
  • Holy Years
    1992 Ridván The announcement by the Universal House of Justice that the Law of Ḥuqúqu’lláh was to be in effect for the members of the entire world community. [Ridván Message, AWH106, 175, BW92–3:28, CBN Jan91 p2] BWC; Worldwide; Haifa Huququllah; Gradual implementation of laws; Laws; Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1992 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of the Baltic States ( Latvia and Lithuania and Estonia) was formed with its seat in Tallinn. [BINS270:2; BW92–3:119, CBN Jan92 p2, VV121]
  • For picture see BINS282:9.
  • Tallinn; Baltic States NSA; Regional Spiritual Assemblies First NSA Baltic States
    1992 Ridván The formation of a Regional Spiritual Assembly for Ukraine, Belarus and Moldova with the seat in Kiev. [CBN Jan92 p2, CBN Jan91 pg2, BW92–3:119; VV121] Ukraine; Belarus; Moldova; Kiev NSA; Regional Spiritual Assemblies
    1992 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Poland was formed with its seat in Warsaw. [CBN Jan92 p2, BINS270:2; BW92–3:119; VV121] Warsaw; Poland NSA
    1992 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Bulgaria was formed with its seat in Sofia. [CBN Jan92 p2, BINS270:1; BW92–3:119; VV121]
  • For picture see BINS279:9.
  • Sofia; Bulgaria NSA
    1992 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Congo Republic was reformed after 14 years suspension of the Bahá'í Faith. [CBN Jan92 p2, BINS270:5; BW92–3:119; VV121]
  • For picture see BINS275:7.
  • Congo NSA
    1992 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Niger was re-formed after a 14-year interruption. [CBN Jan92 p2, BINS270:5; BW92–3:119; VV121] Niger NSA
    1992 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Hungary was formed with its seat in Budapest. [BINS270:2–1; BW92–3:119; VV121] Budapest; Hungary NSA
    1992 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Albania was formed with its seat in Tirana. [CBN Jan92 p2, BINS270:3–4; BW92–3:119; VV121] Tirana; Albania NSA
    1992 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Greenland was formed with was seat in Nuuk. About 35 to 40 people attended the inaugural Convention. [BINS270:3; BW92–3:119; VV121, CBN Jan92 p2] Nuuk; Greenland NSA
    1992 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Azerbaijan was re-formed after half a century of prohibition and persecution. The seat was in Baku. [BINS270:4; BW92–3:119; VV121] Baku; Azerbaijan NSA
    1992 Ridván The re-formation of the National Assembly of Angola. [CBN Jan92 p2, BINS270:4; BW92–3:119, VV120-1] Angola NSA
    1992 Ridván The former Spiritual Assembly of the USSR with its seat in Moscow became the Regional Spiritual Assembly of Russia, Georgia and Armenia. [CBN Jan92 p2, CBN Jan91 pg2, BW92–3:119; VV121] Russia; Georgia; Armenia NSA; Regional Spiritual Assemblies
    1992 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of the Republics of Kazakhstan, Kirgizia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) was formed with its seat in Ashkhabad. [BINS270:4-5; BW92–3:119; BW94–5:29; CBN Jan92 p2, VV121] Kazakhstan; Kirgizia; Tajikistan; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan; Ashkhabad NSA; Regional Spiritual Assemblies
    1992 Ridván The government of Trinidad and Tobago issued a postage stamp in recognition of the Bahá'í Holy Year. [BW92–3:119; VV133]
  • For picture see BW92–3:121.
  • Trinidad and Tobago Stamps; Holy Years
    1992 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Mongolia was formed in Ulaan Baatar. [BINS269:4]
  • The local assembly was understood to have been formed in the spring of 1991 but this was found to have been a mistake.
  • Ulaan Baatar; Mongolia LSA first local spiritual assembly in Mongolia is formed in Ulaan Baatar
    1992 21 Apr After a three year teaching project in Guyana the Bahá'í population reached some 6% of the population. [Ridván Message 1992] Guyana Teaching; Statistics
    1992 The annotated English translation of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas was published. [KAIV; VV142]
  • Note: The date of copyright is 1992 but the book ws not available until Ridván 1993.
  • BWC Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Translation; Publications find ref
    1992 Apr 27 After a ten-year struggle, the Faith's legal Chinese name in Taiwan was changed from ‘Ta Tong Giao' (Religion of Great Harmony), used for 70 years, to the ‘Bahá'í Faith'. [BINS271:6] Taiwan Recognition
    1992 May The Bahá'í International Community issued a statement on Bahá'u'lláh at the request of the Universal House of Justice. [BW92–3:47]
  • For the text see BW92–3:47–94.
  • Bahaullah (statement); Bahaullah, Life of Statement on Bahá'u'lláh
    1992 May A series of postage stamps overprinted with ‘Bahá'í Holy Year' was released by the postal service in Guyana. [BW92–3:122] Guyana Stamps; Holy Years
    1992 27 – 30 May Three thousand Bahá'ís representing approximately 200 countries and territories, gathered at the Bahá'í World Centre to mark the Centenary of the Ascension of Bahá'u'lláh. [BINS271:1–2; BW92–3:96–8, 121]

    On the 27th of May...the gathering of one hundred thirteen Knights of Bahá'u'lláh along with 19 representatives of every National Spiritual Assembly (165) and 9 representatives of every territory without a National Spiritual Assembly (40-50) at Bahjí in commemoration of the ascension of Bahá'u'lláh (some 3,000 persons). A scroll bearing the Roll of Honour of the Knights of Bahá'u'lláh was deposited at the entrance door of the inner Sanctuary of the Most Holy Shrine. [AWH90 105] [VV128] [BW92-3p98] [BINS271:1]

  • See the Roll of Honour online at Knights of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • For pictures see VV127-8, BINS271:9-10, BW92–3:97.
  • BWC; Haifa Bahaullah, Ascension of; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Roll of Honour; Knights of Bahaullah; Holy days; Centenaries; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1992 28 May The original scroll bearing the Roll of Honour of the Knights of Bahá'u'lláh was placed by Hand of the Cause Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum in a chamber at the entrance door of the inner sanctuary of the Most Holy Shrine. [AWH90, 105; BINS271:1; BW92–3, 98; VV128]
  • For pictures see BINS271:9 and VV127, 128.
  • Bahji; BWC; Haifa Knights of Bahaullah; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Roll of Honour; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1992 28 May Ibsen Valls Pinheiro, President of the Federal Chamber of Deputies of Brazil, opened a special session of the Chamber called to observe the Centenary of the Ascension of Bahá'u'lláh, attended by 45 federal deputies. [BINS271:2; BW92–3:121]
  • For picture see BW92–3:122. Note: VV133 says this was 29 May.
  • Brazil Ibsen Valls Pinheiro; Bahaullah, Ascension of; Centenaries
    1992 May 29 The Commemoration of the Centenary of the Ascension of Bahá'u'lláh at Bahjí and the walk from the German Settlement to the Shrine of the Báb, the circumambulation of the Shrine and the walk to the Seat of the Universal House of Justice for the viewing of a projected portrait of Bahá'u'lláh, and a candle-lit programme of prayers and readings. The 3 a.m. observances circled the globe in some 71,000 localities with prayers and readings beginning in the Eastern Pacific Ocean time zone and going west. At 1PM in the Seat of the Universal House of Justice, there was a viewing of the passport photo of Bahá'u'lláh taken in 1868. [BINS271:1–2; BW92–3:96–7; VV129–30, SDSC367-368]
  • For the tribute to Bahá'u'lláh by the Universal House of Justice see BW92–3:31–6.
  • For pictures see BINS271:10 and VV129, 130.
  • World Centre; BWC Bahaullah, Shrine of; Bab, Shrine of; Centenaries; Bahaullah, Ascension of; Holy days
    1992 May 29 The Centenary of the Ascension of Bahá'u'lláh was commemorated at the Guardian's Resting Place in London. London; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Resting place of; Centenaries; Bahaullah, Ascension of find ref
    1992 May 29 The Chamber of Deputies of the government of Brazil paid homage to Bahá’u’lláh. [Bahá'í Newsreel Volume 3 Number 2] [UHJMessage 30Mar92]
  • The tribute to Bahá'u'lláh was paid at a plenary session of that body and following that session members joined Post Office officials in the formal launching of a commemorative postage stamp. [VV133]
  • Brazil Bahaullah, Passing of; Holy Years; Stamps
    1992 1 - 14 Jun Bahá'ís from many countries participated in the United Nations Conference on the Environment (UNCED), known as the Earth Summit, and the Global Forum for non-governmental organizations in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. [BINS272:1–3; BW92–3:124; VV110]
  • For a report of the Bahá'í involvement at the Earth Summit see BW92–3:177–89.
  • For the text of the statement of' the Bahá'í International Community read at the plenary session see BW92–3:191–2.
  • For pictures see BW92–3:179, 183, 186.
  • Rio de Janeiro; Brazil Earth Summit; United Nations Summits; United Nations conferences; United Nations; Environment
    1992 5 Jun The Bahá'í Vocational Institute for Rural Women, a non-profit education project based in Indore, India, was one of 74 individuals and institutions presented with the United Nations Environment Programme ‘Global 500' award in Rio de Janeiro. [BINS272:5; BW92–3:125; VV110]
  • For picture see BW92–3:183.
  • Rio de Janeiro; Brazil; Indore; India Bahai Vocational Institute for Rural Women; Women; Sustainable development; United Nations; Environment; Awards
    1992 18 Jun The passing of Counsellor Isobel Sabri, (b. 19 July, 1924) member of the International Teaching Centre in England. She was born in California in 1924. Letter from the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canada to all Local Spiritual Assemblies dated the 16th of October 1992. [VV124]
  • She was buried at the New Southgate Cemetery
  • Find a grave
  • See Bahaipedia for the message of condolence from the Universal House of Justice.
  • California; United States; United Kingdom Counsellors; Isobel Sabri; International Teaching Centre, Members of; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1992 19 - 22 Jun Graduation ceremonies were held for the thirty-eight members of the first graduating class of the Maxwell International Bahá'í School. More than seven hundred participated in the ceremonies. ["Maxwell Eagle" Sep/Oct 1992 Vol IV no. 1 page 1] British Columbia; Canada Maxwell International School; Bahai schools
    1992 9 Jul The National Post Office of Panama issued a commemorative envelope to mark the centenary of the Ascension of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW92–3:127]
  • For picture see BW92–3:127.
  • Panama Centenaries; Bahaullah, Ascension of; Stamps
    1992 27 Jul The National Spiritual Assembly of Tonga broadcasted the first of its weekly 30-minute television programmes. [BINS281:5] Tonga Television programmes
    1992 21 – 23 Aug The first National Summer School of Bulgaria was held in Stara Zagora, attended by 75 people. [BINS278:1–2] Stara Zagora; Bulgaria Summer schools; First summer and winter schools first National Summer School of Bulgaria.
    1992 23 – 29 Aug The first Bahá'í summer school to be held in Croatia took place in Pula, Istria, attended by a hundred Bahá'ís from nine countries. [BINS278:2; BINS287:10] Pula; Istria; Croatia First summer and winter schools first Bahá'í summer school to be held in Croatia
    1992 15 Sep Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum was officially invited to open the Exhibition of Bahá'í Manuscripts at the British Museum in London. [VV134] London; United Kingdom Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Exhibitions of Bahai manuscripts and relics; British Museum
    1992 17 Sep The Bahá'í Professional Society of Hong Kong was inaugurated. [BINS292:8; BW92–3:129] Hong Kong Bahai associations
    1992 25 - 27 Sep The first Bahá'í Youth Conference of Lithuania took places in Kaunas, attended by 32 Bahá'ís. [BINS281:1] Kaunas; Lithuania Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth First Bahá'í Youth Conference of Lithuania
    1992 30 Sep In its message to all National Spiritual Assemblies introducing the Three Year Plan (1993-1996) the Universal House of Justice reiterated the seven objectives that describe the interacting processes that must advance simultaneously over many decades. They were:
    1. Carrying the healing Message of Bahá'u'lláh to the generality of mankind;
    2. Greater involvement of the Faith in the life of human society;
    3. A worldwide increase in the translation, production, distribution and use of Bahá'í literature;
    4. Further acceleration in the process of the maturation of local and national Bahá'í communities;
    5. Greater attention to universal participation and the spiritual enrichment of individual believers;
    6. A wider extension of Bahá'í family life; and
    7. The pursuit of projects of social and economic development in well-established Bahá'í communities. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 30 September, 1992
    BWC Three Year Plan (1993-1996)
    1992 17 Oct The passing of Helen Hornby, compiler of Lights of Guidance (1) and Lights of Guidance (2). Helen Hornby; In Memoriam find reference
    1992 24 – 28 Oct The first Bahá'í Autumn School of Central Asia was held in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, attended by more than 200 Bahá'ís and many others. [BINS284:2] Bishkek; Kyrgyzstan; Central Asia Autumn schools; Firsts, Other
    1992 25 Oct – 11 Nov Prince Alfred von Lichtenstein toured ten cities in Japan delivering memorial lectures celebrating the centenary of the Ascension of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW92–3:132] Japan Prince Alfred von Lichtenstein; Centenaries; Bahaullah, Ascension of
    1992 22 – 23 Nov The Bahá'í Faith was mentioned in the media of Mozambique for the first time with three write-ups in Notices, the only newspaper in Maputo, and announcements on Radio Maputo and Radio Mozambique. [BINS292:7] Maputo; Mozambique Media
    1992 23 – 26 Nov The Second World Congress was held in New York City to commemorate the centenary of the passing of Bahá'u'lláh and the completion of the Six Year Plan. It was attended by some 28,000 Bahá'ís from some 180 countries. [BBD240] [VV136-141] [BW92-3p98-101, 136]
  • Nine auxiliary conferences were held in Buenos Aires, Sydney, New Delhi, Nairobi, Panama City, Bucharest, Moscow, Apia and Singapore. [BINS283:3-4]
  • For pictures see [BINS283:9-10], [BW92-3p100] and [VV136-141]
  • "New York will become a blessed spot from which the call to steadfastness in the Covenant and Testament of God will go forth to every part of the world." - 'Abdu'l-Bahá [AWH77-8 90-1 105-6]
  • On the 25th of November a concert was held in Carnegie Hall as a birthday tribute to Dizzy Gillespie called "Celebrating the Bahá'í Vision of World Peace". [VV141]
  • On the 26th of November Bahá'ís around the world were linked together by a live satellite broadcast serving the second Bahá'í World Congress, the nine auxiliary conferences and the Bahá'í World Centre and it was received by those with access to satellite dish antennas. [BINS283:1–5, 8; BINS286:10; BINS287:4]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice read on the satellite link see BW92–3:37–4.
  • For accounts of personal experiences by some of the attendees see In the Eyes of His Beloved Servants: The Second Bahá'í World Congress and Holy Year by J. Michael Kafes.
  • The film, 'Abdu'l-Bahá: Mission to America, made by Elizabeth Martin, was prepared for the World Congress program and also used in the Theme Pavilion. [HNWE45]
  • New York; United States; Buenos Aires; Argentina; Sydney; Australia; New Delhi; India; Nairobi; Kenya; Panama; Bucharest; Romania; Moscow; Russia; Apia; Samoa; Singapore World Congresses; Carnegie Hall; Centenaries; Bahaullah, Ascension of; Dizzy Gillespie; - Basic timeline, Expanded; film; 'Abdu'l-Baha: Mission to America; Elizabeth Martin
    1992 Dec The Universal House of Justice announced its decision to establish an Office for the Advancement of Women at the headquarters of the Bahá'í International Community in New York. Support for UN efforts to improve the status of women, which had been carried out for twenty years by the United Nations Office, continued uninterrupted under the auspices of this new office. At annual sessions of the UN Commission on the Status of Women, statements addressed appropriate topics on the agenda, such as partnership between women and men, the status of girl children, the participation of women in decision making, partnership for development, and the human rights of women. [VV29; 54; BIC Document #: 95-0228; BW92–3:136]
  • The Office for the Advancement of Women officially opened its doors on the 26th of May, 1993. [BINS296:2; BW93–4:83–9; VV29] For pictures see BW93–4:83, 86.
  • New York; United States Bahai International Community; Women; Office for the Advancement of Women
    1992 26 – 30 Dec The first National Bahá'í Winter School of Bulgaria is held in Lovech, attended by 130 Bahá'ís. [BINS286:1–2] Lovech; Bulgaria Winter schools; First summer and winter schools
    1993 (In the year) Vice President Ali Salim Al-Beidh quit Saleh’s government and returns to Aden in southern Yemen and said he would not return to the government until his grievances had been addressed. These included northern violence against his Yemeni Socialist Party, as well as the economic marginalization of the south. Negotiations to end the political deadlock dragged on into 1994. The government of Prime Minister Haydar Abu Bakr Al-Attas, the former PDRY Prime Minister, became ineffective due to political infighting. Yemen Yemen, Recent history
    1993 (In the year) More than 10,000 people became Bahá'ís in Bangladesh. [BINS318:8; BINS319:1] Bangladesh Mass conversion
    1993 (In the year) The opening of the Bádi School with an enrollment of 12 students by the Torrez family members in Las Cumbres Villa Zaita, Panamá City, Republic of Panama. They rented a small, dismantled house from the Panama Social Security Agency, remodeled it and closed the garage in order to use it as a classroom.
  • Over the years, two more buildings were added to expand the facility and enrollment capacity to 3200 square meters and 156 students. Badi's first high school graduation was scheduled for 2004, when Badi Tutorial University was scheduled to open its door. [Bádi School , Wiki Bahá'í Faith in Panama]
  • Panama Badi School; Bahai schools
    1993 (In the year) The establishment of the Labranza Training Institute to complement the work of all the socio-economic development projects owned and operated by the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Chile.
  • Located about 680 kms. south of Santiago, in the heart of the agricultural belt of the country, its main purpose was to serve the needs of the rural Mapuche population.
  • The operational costs were covered by a mix of contributions from individual Bahá'ís and Bahá'í institutions as well as the rental of its facilities for academic and vocational training to government agencies and Non Government Organizations (NGOs). Its staff were Bahá'í volunteers offering their services for determined periods of time.
  • The Bahá'í programs were focused on capacity building of the Mapuche population in order to allow for self-administration at the grass roots level, which included practical as well as spiritual content. It has often been used for government training programs in the areas of health, drug prevention, agriculture and rural education.
  • Chile Labranza Training Institute; Social and economic development; NSA
    1993 (In the year) EBBF was registered in Paris as an official non-profit association. Its statutes provided that membership was open to Bahá'ís and non-Bahá'ís alike. [ebbf] Paris; France European Bahai Business Forum (EBBF); Business
    1993 Jan Reynaldo Galindo Pohl, the United Nations' special representative in charge of monitoring the human rights situation in Iran, revealed a secret document written by Iran's Supreme Revolutionary Cultural Council providing evidence that the Iranian Government had formulated a plan to oppress and persecute the Bahá'í community both in Iran and abroad. [BW92–3:139; BW93–4:154] Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Human rights; Persecution; Human rights; United Nations
    1993 6 Jan The Universal House of Justice announced the appointment of the International Panel of Spanish Translations of Bahá'í Literature. The panel initially consisted of three competent and experienced believers: Mr. Nabil Perdu of Spain, Mr. Conrad Popp of Chile, and Mrs. Migdalia Diez of Puerto Rico. This group was made responsible for producing authorized Spanish versions of the Bahá’í Writings suitable for all the Spanish-speaking Bahá’ís of the world. [Message from the Universal House of Justice] BWC Spanish translation; Translation
    1993 6 Jan The passing of John Birks "Dizzy" Gillespie (b. 21 October 1917, Cheraw, South Carolina). He was buried next to his mother in Flushing Cemetery, New York. [VV141]
  • His autobiography was entitled “To Be, or Not...to Bop".
  • He had become a Bahá'í in 1968 at the age of 51.
  • See Bahá'í World 1994-95 pg251 for an article by Anne Boyles entitled "The Language of the Heart: Arts in the Bahá'í World Community" for mention of Dizzy Gillespie.
  • Find a grave
  • Englewood; New Jersey; United States Dizzy Gillespie; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1993 17 Jan The first World Religion Day commemoration to be held in Mozambique took place in Maputo. [BINS290:5; BW92–3:140] Maputo; Mozambique World Religion Day first...The first World Religion Day commemoration to be held in Mozambique
    1993 19 Jan The Bahá'í Chair for World Peace at the University of Maryland was inaugurated. It was situated in the College of Behavioral and Social Sciences. [BW92–3:140–1]

    The Bahá'í Chair for World Peace is an academic program that conducts and publishes research with a diverse group of scholars on global issues. The organization’s purpose is to study worldwide challenges and discuss solutions that could advance peace and promote tolerance.
    In addition to conducting academic research and releasing publications, the chair hosts events at the University of Maryland that are available to students, university staff and the general public.
    Although the chair was inspired by the spiritual teachings of the Bahá'í faith’s focus on humanity’s unity, the program emphasizes science-based analysis along with the values the Faith provides. [Unwind Magazine]

    Maryland; United States Bahai Chair for World Peace; University of Maryland
    1993 29 – 31 Jan The first Latin American Bahá'í Social and Economic Development Seminar took place in Santa Cruz, Bolivia. [BINS308:2; BW92–3:139] Santa Cruz; Bolivia; Latin America Conferences, Bahai; Social and economic development; First conferences First Latin American Bahá'í Social and Economic Development Seminar
    1993 31 Jan The opening of the Banani School with 65 students in Chisamba, Lusaka, Zambia. At the time of the school's inauguration on the 18th of May, 1996 there were 120 students, a library, a multimedia computer lab, a swimming pool, and a school bus. It was inaugurated by the William Mmutle Masetlha Foundation under the direction of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Zambia and named after Hand of the Cause Musa Banani. The Primary School was inaugurated on 22 August, 2001. Today the Banani International School is a private, not for profit residential school for 150 girls from Grades 6 through 12. [Website; Wikipedia; Bahaipedia] Chisamba; Lusaka; Zambia Banani School; School; Banani International School; Z****
    1993 16 Feb A stamp featuring the Seat of the Universal House of Justice was issued by the Philatelic Service of the Israel Postal Authority. [BW92–3:142]
  • For picture see BW92–3:143.
  • Israel Stamps; Universal House of Justice, Seat of
    1993 19 – 21 Feb The first Bahá'í Winter School of Slovenia and Croatia, the first Bahá'í school to be held in Slovenia, took place in Mozirje, Slovenia, attended by 20 adults and seven children. [BINS289:5–6] Mozirje; Slovenia; Croatia Winter schools; First summer and winter schools
    1993 20 Feb The first National Youth Conference of Hungary was held in Debrecen, attended by 60 youth. [BINS289:3] Debrecen; Hungary Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth First National Youth Conference of Hungary
    1993 22 Feb At the 49th session of the UN Commission on Human Rights, the United Nations in Geneva released a report providing evidence that the Iránian Government had established a secret plan approved by Irán's highest ranking officials including both President Hashemi Rafsanjani and Ayatollah Khomeini's successor, Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei, to oppress and persecute the Bahá'í community both in Irán and abroad. Galindo Pohl, special representative in charge of monitoring the human rights situation in Iran, highlights the contents of the secret document written by Iran's Supreme Revolutionary Cultural Council. [BW92–3:139; BW94–5:134] [from Bahá'í Community of Canada Department of Public Affairs press release dated 25 February, 1993] Iran; Geneva; Switzerland Persecution; Hashemi Rafsanjani; Ali Khamenei; Galindo Pohl; Human rights; United Nations; Iran Memorandum
    1993 Mar The English translation of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas was published. [BW92–3:44] [CBN vol 5 no 10 Mar93 pg1] [CoB310-13 UHJ Message 5Mar93] [VV142]
  • For the significance of its publication see BW92–3:45–6.
  • For its place in Bahá'í literature see BW92-3p45-6, p105-118.
  • This date also marks the first publication in the West of Questions and Answers, a document comprising exclusively of answers Bahá’u’lláh revealed in response to questions about the laws of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas. See Chronology 1910.
  • BWC Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Translation; Publications; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Questions and Answers; Zaynul-Muqarrabin; Z****
    1993 13 Mar Three Bahá'ís were assassinated at the Bahá'í Centre in Mdantsane, Ciskei, in a racially-motivated attack. [BW93–4:147–50] Mdantsane; Ciskei; South Africa Assassinations; Racism
    1993 21 Mar The presentation of the first Race Unity Award by the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canada. Canada NSA; Race unity; Race (general) first Race Unity Award
    1993 Apr The Bahá'í community of Hungary celebrated the 80th anniversary of the visit of 'Abdu'l-Bahá with a conference. In a park near the National Museum in Budapest a plaque was erected to commemorate the talk that 'Abdu'l-Baha gave at that site on the 14th of April, 1913. Some 350 Bahá'ís from 30 countries attended.
  • A tree was planted by Rúhíyyih Kh´num. [www.bahai.hu, SCSC369, 372]
  • At this time there were more than 200 believers in Hungary.
  • Budapest; Hungary Memorials; Abdul-Baha, Travels of
    1993 10 Apr The passing of Roger White, writer, editor and "poet laureate" of the Bahá'í community, in Richmond, British Columbia (b. in Toronto on 2 June 1929).
  • Served at the World Centre for some twenty years as a secretary and as manager of the publishing department when many important new volumes were published. Under the supervision of the Universal House of Justice, he was responsible for compiling and publishing volumes XIV to XIX of The Bahá'í World, as well as editing the invaluable compendium of volumes I to XII, published in 1981.
  • Published, at his own expense, a book of poetry called Summer Window for which he did the drawing on the front cover.
  • Another Song, Another Season (1979), The Witness of Pebbles (1981) and a tender and eloquent novel which presented a semi-fictionalized account of the early days of the Bahá'í Faith in Paris, A Sudden Music, was also published by George Ronald in 1983.
  • This was followed by a biographical tribute to the poet Emily Dickinson in the form of more than 100 poems: One Bird, One Cage, One Flight (Naturegraph, 1983).
  • A short, historical account of the martyrdom of 'Alí-Asghár of Yazd entitled The Shell and the Pearl was published by George Ronald in 1984.
  • Occasions of Grace (George Ronald, 1992) was published after he retired from service in Haifa in 1991 following a major heart surgery.
  • He returned to Canada and was diagnosed with terminal cancer shortly after.
  • His last two collected works of poetry were Notes Postmarked the Mountain of God (New Leaf, 1992) and The Language of There (New Leaf, 1992).
  • He also completed the text for Raghu Rai's photographic celebration of the Bahá'í House of Worship in New Delhi, Forever in Bloom. [Bahá'í Studies Review, Vol7, 1997]
  • See Bahá'í World 1994-95 pg249 for an article by Anne Boyles entitled "The Language of the Heart: Arts in the Bahá'í World Community" for mention of Roger White.
  • See The Journal of Bahá'í Studies Vol. 26 no 1-2, 2016 p91 "Reflections on the Art of My Poetry" by John Hatcher. It is based on a telephone interview with him shortly before his passing.
  • For obituary see BW92-93p276
  • Richmond; British Columbia; Canada Roger White; In Memoriam; John Hatcher; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Delhi; Lotus temple
    1993 10 – 12 Apr The first Bahá'í Congress of Catalunya took place in Barcelona. [BW92–3:146] Barcelona; Catalunya; Spain The first Bahá'í Congress of Catalunya
    1993 15 Apr The passing of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Stanley Bagley, (b.2 February, 1912). He had been a pioneer Belgium, France, Guadeloupe, Martinique, the United States as well as Sicily where he and his family received the Knighthood for their service. [BW93-94p319] United States Knights of Bahaullah; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1993 Ridván The Three Year Plan (1993-1996) was launched. [VV142]
  • For statistics about the Bahá'í Faith at the beginning of the Plan see BW92–3:311–14 and BW93–4:323–6.
  • Three Year Plan (1993-1996); Teaching Plans; statistics
    1993 Ridván The Local Spiritual Assembly of Tbilisi (Tiflis), Georgian Republic, was re-formed. [BINS298:8; BW93–4:82]
  • An assembly existed in the city in the 1930s. [BW93–4:82]
  • Tbilisi; Georgia LSA; Re-form The Local Spiritual Assembly of Tbilisi (Tiflis), Georgian Republic
    1993 Ridván The Local Spiritual Assembly of Leipzig, Germany, was re-formed 56 years after its dissolution during the time the Faith was banned. [BW93–4:82] Leipzig; Germany LSA; Re-form
    1993 Ridván The first person resident on Norfolk Island to become a Bahá'í enrolled. [BINS293:8] Norfolk Island First Bahais by country or area The first person resident on Norfolk Island to become a Bahá'í
    1993 29 Apr - 2 May The Seventh Bahá'í International Convention at the World Centre. Those elected to the Universal House of Justice were: Mr. Ali Nakhjavani, Mr. Glenford Mitchell, Mr. Adib Taherzadeh, Mr. Ian Semple, Mr. Peter Khan, Mr. Hushmand Fatheazam, Mr. Hooper Dunbar, Mr. Farzam Arbab and Mr. Douglas Martin. [BINS295, BW93-4p51-58]
  • Hugh Chance and David Ruhe announced their retirement. Mr. Chance had served since 1963 and Dr. Ruhe since 1968. [BINS295, BS93-4p57]
  • For a report of the Convention see BW93–4:51–8.
  • For pictures see BW93–4:52, 53, 54, 57.
  • Dr. Farzam Arbab, born in Iran, obtained his doctorate in physics at the University of California, Berkeley. He was the representative for the Rockefeller Foundation in Colombia (1974 to 1983) and the president of the FUNDAEC development foundation there. He was a member of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Colombia and a Continental Counsellor before being appointed to the International Teaching Centre.
  • Mr. Douglas Martin, born in Canada, held degrees in business administration and in history, and was an author and editor. He was a member of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canada, serving as its chief executive officer from 1965 to 1985 when he was appointed Director-General of the Office of Public Information at the Bahá'í World Centre. [BWNS208]
  • BWC Universal House of Justice, Election of; Elections; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Conventions, International; Ali Nakhjavani; Glenford Mitchell; Adib Taherzadeh; Ian Semple; Peter Khan; Hushmand Fatheazam; Hooper Dunbar; Farzam Arbab; Douglas Martin; Hugh Chance; David Ruhe; BWNS
    1993 23 May The following Counsellors were appointed to the International Teaching Centre for a five-year term: Mr. Kiser Barnes, Mr. Hartmut Grossmann, Mrs. Lauretta King, Mrs. Joan Lincoln, Mr. Shapoor Monadjem, Mr. Donald Rogers, Mr. Fred Schechter, Mrs. Kimiko Schwerin, Mrs. Joy Stevenson. Retiring members were: Mr. Mas'úd Khamsí and Mr. Peter Vuyiya. [From a message from the Universal House of Justice dated the 13th of May, 1993] BWC Universal House of Justice; Counsellors; International Teaching Centre, Members of; Kiser Barnes; Hartmut Grossmann; Lauretta King; Joan Lincoln; Shapoor Monadjem; Donald Rogers; Fred Schechter; Kimiko Schwerin; Joy Stevenson; Masud Khamsi; Peter Vuyiya
    1993 23 May The first general conference of Health for Humanitarian association of health professionals sponsored by the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States, was held in Evanston, Illinois. [BINS298:7; BW93–4:104] Evanston; Illinois; United States Health
    1993 Jun The bodies of Bahá'ís buried in the Bahá'í section of a Tihrán cemetery were exhumed and taken by lorry to unknown destinations. [BW93–4:153] Tihran; Iran Cemeteries and graves; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1993 10 – 25 Jun The Bahá'í International Community and Bahá'ís from 11 countries participated in the United Nations World Conference on Human Rights in Vienna and the parallel meetings for non-governmental organizations. [BINS298:1–2] Vienna; Austria United Nations conferences; Human Rights; Bahai International Community
    1993 12 Jun The Honourable Sir Julius Chan, KBE, Deputy Prime Minister of Papua New Guinea consulted with the Universal House of Justice on the future role of his country as an emerging nation and on the destiny of the Pacific region. [BINS297:9; BW93–4:78]
  • For pictures see BINS297:9 and BW93–4:78
  • Papua New Guinea; Haifa; Pacific region Julius Chan, Sir; Universal House of Justice; Prominent visitors
    1993 Jul A section of the Bahá'í cemetery in Tihrán was bulldozed to make way for the construction of an Islamic cultural centre. [BW93–4:140]
  • It was first thought that about two thousand Bahá'í graves were desecrated but later revealed that 15,000 graves were destroyed. [BW93–4:140; BW94–5:133]
  • Tihran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution
    1993 Jul The first Bahá'í Youth Symposium of the Marshall Islands was held in Majuro, attended by youth from six island groups. [BW93–4:124] Majuro; Marshall Islands
    1993 Jul 25 – 30 The first summer school of Albania was held in Gdem, attended by about 400 Bahá'ís. [BINS299:3] Gdem; Albania First summer and winter schools
    1993 Aug The first International Bahá'í Youth Conference of Belarus was held, attended by 164 people from 16 countries. [BINS299:8; BINS306:7; BW93–4:123] Belarus; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Youth First International Bahá'í Youth Conference of Belarus
    1993 26 Aug The Hungarian Bahá’í Community was registered by the Budapest Court. [www.bahai.hu] Budapest; Hungary Recognition
    1993 16 Sep The document Bahá’í Social and Economic Development: Prospects for the Future, prepared at the World Centre, was approved for publication by the Universal House of Justice for use by the Office of Social and Economic Development (OSED) in orienting and guiding the work in this area. Most central to this vision was the question of capacity building. That activities should start on a modest scale and only grow in complexity in keeping with available human resources was a concept that gradually came to influence development thought and practice. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 26 November, 2012] BWC; Haifa Social and economic development; Capacity building; Publications; Growth; Bahai Faith, Evolutionary nature of; Social action
    1993 (Fall) The estimated figures for the total number of individual tablets written by Bahá'u'lláh, 'Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi were as follows but it is known that many texts were lost, stolen, or destroyed, and many others are still held in private hands.
  • Bahá'u'lláh:
    • 7,160 tablets archived
    • 15,000 total estimated to have been written
    Shoghi Effendi translated about a thousand pages into English in his lifetime. Gleanings contains 166 extracts, Prayers and Meditations 184, but some tablets provided more than one extract, so the total number of tablets that the Guardian used was less than the sum of the extracts in the two books (350). Since this writing the Universal House of Justice has overseen production of The Kitáb-i-Aqdas: The Most Holy Book (1993), Summons of the Lord of Hosts (2002), Gems of Divine Mystery (2002), The Tabernacle of Unity (2006) and Days of Remembrance (2007), still a relatively small percentage of the total revelation — have been partially translated and published in English.
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá:
    • 15,549 tablets archived
    • 30,800 total estimated to have been written
  • Shoghi Effendi:
    • 16,370 letters archived
    • 30,100 total estimated to have been written
    ["Bahá'í Archives: Preserving and Safeguarding the Sacred Texts," in 'Andalíb magazine, 12.48 (Fall 1993) found at: Numbers of Tablets revealed: notes by Robert Stockman and Juan Cole]
  • Statistics; Bahaullah, Writings of; Abdulbaha, Writings of; Shoghi Effendi, Writings of
    1993 Oct The Australian Bahá'í community and the Arrente Aboriginal tribe co-sponsored an intercultural celebration of indigenous peoples, ‘Heart of Australia Calling' in Alice Springs to mark UN International Year for the World's Indigenous Peoples. [BW93–4:90] Alice Springs; Australia Indigenous people; Cultural diversity; United Nations
    1993 Oct The first European Bahá'í Medical Conference was held in De Poort, Netherlands, attended by people from 26 countries. [BW93–4:104–5] Groesbeek; Netherlands; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Health; Conferences, International; First conferences; Health; De Poort The first European Bahá'í Medical Conference
    1993 16 Oct The passing of Marzieh Nabíl Carpenter Gail, the second child and eldest daughter of the first Persian-American marriage in the Bahá'í Faith between Persian diplomat Ali-Kuli Khan and Boston debutante Florence Breed. (b. 1 April, 1908) [BW1993-1994p320-321, Find a grave]
  • See AY91 for ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s praise of her as a child and confirmation and promises for the future. He commented that she had átish (fire) and namak (salt). [AY93]
  • A translator (Arabic and Persian into English) and author. Poet Roger White would say of his friend: "She is the first lady of Bahá'í literature and I and many writers are indebted to her for leading the way."
  • Translations include: The Seven Valleys and the Four Valleys (1945) and The Secret of Divine Civilization (1957) with her father; Memorials of the Faithful (1971); Selections from the Writings of 'Abdu'l-Bahá (1976) with a Committee at the Bahá'í World Centre; My Memories of Bahá'u'lláh (1982).
  • Author of a dozen Bahá'í and non-Bahá'í books in addition to countless essays, articles, and short stories. Her remembrances of 'Abdu'l-Bahá are contained in The Sheltering Branch (1959), and those of His Exalted Sister in Khanum: The Greatest Holy Leaf (1981).
  • Many of her essays and pioneering stories are contained in Dawn Over Mount Hira (1976) and Other People, Other Places (1982). As well she wrote “Six Lessons in Islam” (1953), Summon Up Remembrance (1987), Arches of the Years (1991) and, “Bahá'í Glossary” (1955). [Bahá'í Studies Review, Vol 6, 1996]
  • See Obituary: Marzieh Nabil Carpenter Gail (1908-1993): Translator and Author, "Patron Saint" of Women Bahá'í Scholars by Constance M. Chen.
  • For a more complete list of her writings and translations see Bahai-library.
  • San Francisco; United States Marzieh Gail; Ali-Kuli Khan; Florence Breed; Bahai scholars; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; First lady of Bahai literature
    1993 24 Oct The establishment of the India Hindi Bahá'í Academy (The Rashtriya Bahá'í Uchcha Shiksha Sansthan) in Lucknow (Uttar Pradesh).
  • It was a national institute for higher learning of the Bahá'í Faith.
  • There were three courses of study, a three year Advanced Bahá'í Studies course, a two year, post-graduate, Specialised Course and short courses for 3-5 days. The study scheme employed correspondence courses and campus contact, a programme for personal clarifications for the learners’ difficulties. Two question papers were also sent to them in each semester.
  • The evaluation employed a two fold method: Viva voce examination based on the study materials and practical input in the field of service. Paper presentations, self reflection in the form of stories, songs, pictures, etc., and assignments in the active service of the Faith as well as making formal speeches all form a part of the final evaluation. [Bahá'í India website]
  • Lucknow; India Bahai study centers; Bahai studies
    1993 29 - 31 Oct The founding conference of the Association for Bahá'í Studies in Russia was held in St Petersburg. [BINS305:5] St Petersburg; Russia Bahai Studies, Associations for; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences
    1993 26 Nov The National Spiritual Assembly of the Marshall Islands signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the Majuro local government in which the operation of administration of five elementary schools was legally handed over to the National Spiritual Assembly.
  • President Amata Kabua was the first head of state to respond to the Peace Statement of the Universal House of Justice. [BINS307:4–5; BW93–4:101, CBN Vol 7 no 1 May/June 1994 p29]
  • Marshall Islands Education; Peace Statement
    1993 8 Dec In Iran, death sentences were pronounced against two Bahá'ís on the grounds of their membership in the Bahá'í community. [BW93–4:141–2] Iran capital punishment
    1993 24 – 26 Dec The first summer school of Angola was held in Luanda, attended by more than 20 Bahá'ís. [BINS309:1] Luanda; Angola Summer schools; First summer and winter schools The first summer school of Angola
    1994 (In the year) His Highness King Malietoa Tanumafili II of Samoa received The Kitáb-i-Aqdas from Tongan Bahá'ís Sohrab and Soheyla Bolouri. [BINS314:9] Samoa KitabiAqdas Find date
    1994 (In the year) The founding of the Cambodian Organization for Research, Development and Education (CORDE) in Cambodia.
  • History.
  • Their programs include:
  • Cambodia Cambodian Organization for Research, Development and Education; Social and Economic Development Organizations; Z****
    1994 Jan The first winter school of Mongolia was held in Songino, near Ulaan Baatar. [BINS310:6] Songino; Mongolia First summer and winter schools
    1994 Jan 30 The first worldwide fireside on the Internet, ‘Pioneering in Cyberspace the Bahá'í Faith and the Internet', was held, with a live audience in the Bahá'í Centre in New York City communicating electronically with people all over the United States and in two other countries. New York internet; fireside first worldwide fireside on the Internet, find ref
    1994 Feb 17 – 20 The first Bahá'í ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations) Forum was held in Bangkok. [BINS312:6] Bangkok; Thailand
    1994 Mar 13 The murder of four Bahá'is, three adults and one youth, at the Bahá'í Centre in Mdantsane, Ciskel. Killed were Dr. Shamam Bakhshandegi, Houshmand Anvari and Vincent and Rias Razavi. The perpetrators were granted amnesty for the killings in May 2002. [BW93-4p147-150, 16 May 2000, SCBC, press release] Mdantsane; Ciskei; South Africa Opposition; Murders; Amnesty (general)
    1994 Mar 24 The Dalai Lama visited the Bahá'í World Centre, the first time a head of a religion had visited the Shrine of the Báb. [BW93–4:78, CBN Vol 7 no 1 May/June 1994] World Centre; BWC Dalai Lama; Bab, Shrine of; Prominent visitors; Firsts, Other; Buddhism; Tibet; Interfaith dialogue first time a head of a religion visited the Shrine of the Báb
    1994 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Cambodia was formed with its seat in Phnom Penh. [BINS317:1; BW93–4:82; BW94–5:25, 30–1] Phnom Penh; Cambodia NSA first National Spiritual Assembly of Cambodia
    1994 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Mongolia was formed with its seat in Ulaan Baatar. [BINS317:1–2; BW93–4:82; BW94–5:25, 31–2] Ulaan Baatar; Mongolia NSA first National Spiritual Assembly of Mongolia
    1994 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Slovenia and Croatia was formed with its seat in Ljubljana, Slovenia. [BINS317:2; BW93–4:82; BW94–5:25, 3–6]
  • For picture see BINS320:9 and BW94–5:35.
  • Ljubljana; Slovenia; Croatia NSA first National Spiritual Assembly of Slovenia and Croatia
    1994 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Kazakhstan was formed with its seat in Astana. The 120 Bahá'ís gathered at the Convention were joined by Lauretta King, Counsellor member of the International Teaching Centre, who represented the Universal House of Justice for the occasion. [BINS317:2–3; BW93–4:82; BW94–5:25, 29–30]
  • For picture see BW94–5:28.
  • Astana; Kazakhstan Lauretta King; NSA first National Spiritual Assembly of Kazakhstan
    1994 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Tajikistan was formed with its seat in Dushanbe. Counsellor member of the International Teaching Centre, Shapoor Monadjem, represented the House of Justice at their Convention. [BINS317:3; BW93–4:82; BW94–5:26, 29–30] Dushanbe; Tajikistan NSA; Shapoor Monadjem first National Spiritual Assembly of Tajikistan
    1994 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Uzbekistan was formed with its seat in Tashkent. [BINS317:3–4; BW93–4:82; BW94–5:26, 29–30]
  • For picture see BINS328:9 and BW94–5:30.
  • Tashkent; Uzbekistan NSA first National Spiritual Assembly of Uzbekistan
    1994 Ridván Counsellor member of the International Teaching Centre Lauretta King represented the House of Justice at the first National Convention of the Bahá'ís of Kyrgyzstan, held 23-24 April in Bishkek. The 150 adults, youth, and children gathered for the historic event expressed their "deepest gratitude and devotion to the Blessed Beauty, Bahá'u'lláh." [BW94-95p29] Bishkek; Kyrgyzstan NSA; Conventions, National; First conventions; ITC first National Spiritual Assembly of Kyrgyzstan.
    1994 27 Apr Civil war (The War of Secession of 1994, May to early July) erupted in Yemen and ends in a victory for Saleh within three months. A major tank battle erupted in Amran, near San'a. Both sides accused the other of first aggression.
  • On 4 May, the southern air force bombed San'a and other areas in the north; the northern air force responded by bombing Aden.
  • President Saleh declared a 30-day state of emergency, and foreign nationals began evacuating the country.
  • Vice President al-Beidh was officially dismissed.
  • South Yemen fired Scud missiles into San'a, killing dozens of civilians.
  • Prime Minister Haidar Abu Bakr al-Attas was dismissed on May 10 after appealing for outside forces to help end the war.
  • Southern leaders seceded and declared the Democratic Republic of Yemen (DRY) on 21 May 1994. No international government recognized the DRY.
  • In mid-May, northern forces began a push toward Aden. The key city of Ataq, which allowed access to the country's oil fields. It was seized on May 24.
  • The United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 924 calling for an end to the fighting and a cease-fire. A cease-fire was called on 6 June, but lasted only six hours; concurrent talks to end the fighting in Cairo collapsed as well.
  • The north entered Aden on 4 July. Supporters of Ali Nasir Muhammad greatly assisted military operations against the secessionists and Aden was captured on 7 July 1994. Most resistance quickly collapsed and top southern military and political leaders fled into exile.
  • Almost all of the actual fighting in the 1994 civil war occurred in the southern part of the country, despite air and missile attacks against cities and major installations in the north. Southerners sought support from neighbouring states and may have received military assistance from Saudi Arabia and Oman, which felt threatened by a united Yemen. The United States repeatedly called for a cease-fire and a return to the negotiating table. Various attempts, including by a UN special envoy and Russia, were unsuccessful to effect a cease-fire.
  • President Saleh now had control over all of Yemen. A general amnesty was declared, except for 16 southern figures accused of misappropriation of official funds.
  • YSP (Yemen Socialist Party) leaders within Yemen reorganized following the civil war and elected a new politburo in July 1994. However, much of its influence had been destroyed in the war.
  • Yemen Yemen, Recent history
    1995 May The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of Canada presented a paper entitled A Bahá’í Perspective on the Future of Canadian Foreign Policy to the Special Joint Parliamentary Committee reviewing Canadian Foreign Policy. [A Bahá’í Perspective on the Future of Canadian Foreign Policy] Canada Foreign Policy; NSA Canada; Statements
    1994 May 19 The first National Bahá'í Conference of Armenia was held in Yerevan. [BINS318:5–6] Yerevan; Armenia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, National
    1994 May An accord between northern and southern leaders of Yemen was signed in Amman but this could not stop the civil war. During these tensions, both the northern and southern armies–which had never integrated–gathered on their respective frontiers. Yemen Yemen, Recent history
    1994 May 22 The first Bahá'í Children and Youth Conference of Martinique was held in Fort-de-France, attended by 22 people. [BINS318:4–5] Fort-de-France; Martinique Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth First Bahá'í Children and Youth Conference of Martinique
    1994 Jun The first National Youth School of Mongolia was held in Darkhan, attended by 34 youth. [BINS321:4] Darkhan; Mongolia first National Youth School of Mongolia
    1994 Jun 11 – 12 The first Bahá'í conference to be held in the Republic of Georgia took place in Tbilisi, attended by over a hundred people from countries. [BINS319:5] Tbilisi; Georgia first Bahá'í conference to be held in the Republic of Georgia
    1994 Jun 13 The Prime Minister of Israel, Yitzhak Rabin, visited the Bahá'í World Centre to view the Terraces Project. [BW94–5:77] Israel; Haifa; BWC Yitzzhak Rabin; Prime Ministers; Prominent visitors
    1994 Jul 6 – 10 The first Children's Bahá'í Summer School of Pakistan was held in Abbottabad, attended by 13 children. [BINS324:5] Abbottabad; Pakistan Summer schools first Children's Bahá'í Summer School of Pakistan
    1994 Jul 20 – 25 The European Bahá'í Youth Council sponsored five regional ‘Shaping Europe' conferences, in Berlin, Bucharest, St Petersburg, Barcelona and Wolverhampton, United Kingdom. [BINS323:3–5; BW94–5:177–8, 189] Berlin; Germany; Bucharest; Romania; St Petersburg; Russia; Barcelona; Portugal; Wolverhampton; United Kingdom; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Youth
    1994 Jul 22 – 23 His Excellency France Albert René, President of the Republic of Seychelles, consulted with the Universal House of Justice. [BINS322:9; BW94–5:76–7] Seychelles Prominent visitors
    1994 Jul 28 The World Forestry Charter Gatherings, established by Richard St. Barbe Baker in 1945, were re-instituted by the Bahá'í International Community's Office of the Environment at a luncheon at St James's Palace, London. [AWH75; BW94–5:112–13, 142–3; OC6,2:1; VV106]
  • For pictures see BW94–5:143 and OC6,2:1, 12.
  • London; United Kingdom Environment; Richard St Barbe Baker
    1994 (Summer) A Maoris teaching team visited British Columbia. The visit was reciprocated by The Journey of Teech-ma, the First Nations Travel Teaching Trip to the South Pacific. See entry for 24 March, 1997. [SDSC370] British Columbia; Canada; Australia; New Zealand First Nations; Maoris; Indigenous people; Travel teaching
    1994 Aug 4 Shimon Peres, Israel's Minister of Foreign Affairs, made an official visit to the Bahá'í World Centre. [BW94–5:77] Israel; Haifa; BWC Shimon Peres
    1994 Sep 5 – 13 The Bahá'í International Community attended the United Nations International Conference on Population of Development and the parallel Non-Governmental Organizations' Forum in Cairo. [BINS328:1] Cairo; Egypt BIC; United Nations
    1994 Sep 9 – 11 The first National Youth Conference of Liberia was held, attended by 75 youth. [BW94–5:188–9]
  • For picture see BW94–5:189.
  • Liberia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; First conferences First National Youth Conference of Liberia
    1994 25 Sep The murder of Mr Esfandiar Bassari in Umtata, Transkei. He and his wife, Forough Bassari, were shot in an attack by gunmen. They had moved from Canada. Mr. Bassari was a hydro-geologist working with the Department of Agriculture and Forestry. [From a press release from the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of South Africa dated 26 September, 1994] Umtata; Transkei Esfandiar Bassari; Forough Bassari
    1994 Oct The Bahá'í Health Association for Central and Eastern Europe and the European Bahá'í Dental Association were formed at the second Bahá'í Health Conference held at De Poort, Netherlands. [BW94–5:116] Groesbeek; Netherlands Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Health; Conferences, International; Health
    1994 1 Oct President Ali Abdallah Saleh was elected by Parliament to a 5-year term. However, he remained in office until 2012. Yemen Yemen, Recent history
    1994 19 Oct The publication of In the Eyes of His Beloved Servants: The Second Bahá'í World Congress and Holy Year by J. Michael Kafes. This book captured the firsthand experiences of Bahá'ís from all around the world who participated in the Bahá'í World Congress at the Jacob Javits Convention Center in November 1992, as well as experiences Bahá'ís had during the Baha'i Holy Year. [from the book] New York; United States World congresses; Holy years
    1994 Dec 7 – 9 The first World Press Exhibition was held by the Information and Public Relations Committees of the National Spiritual Assembly of El Salvador to mark the International Day of Peace. [BINS335:2] El Salvador Exhibitions; Peace
    1995 (In the year) The Association for Latin American Bahá'í Writers and Authors was formed at the fifth Latin American Seminar for External Affairs in Cali, Colombia. [BINS336:2] Cali; Colombia Association for Latin American Bahai Writers and Authors; External Affairs Find date
    1995 Jan The first National Teaching Conference of Cambodia was held in Phnom Penh, attended by more than 50 Bahá'ís. [BINS334:2] Phnom Penh; Cambodia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, National; First conferences first National Teaching Conference of Cambodia
    1995 Jan The first meeting of the Association of Bahá'í Doctors and Health Professionals in India took place. [BW94–5:116] India Health
    1995 Jan By decision of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United State, the Wilmette Institute was established as an agency of the National Assembly.

    "The Wilmette Institute is a center of Bahá’í learning. Its programs aim to facilitate study and dialogue on the teachings and principles of the Faith to help individuals and communities apply learning and advance human civilization."

  • In 1998, the Wilmette Institute moved to a largely online study approach in order to provide educational classes to a broader student body. [Wilmette Institute]
  • Chicago; United States Wilmette Institute
    1995 23 Jan To respond to the increased attention given to the issues of social and economic development following the Earth Summit in Rio in 1992, the Universal House of Justice asked the Bahá'í International Community's Office of Public Information to prepare a statement on the concept of global prosperity in the context of the Bahá'í teachings. The statement is entitled The Prosperity of Humankind. [Mess86-01p417-8] BWC Prosperity of Humankind (statement); Social and economic development; Social action; Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Statements; Publications; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1995 Feb Jacinto Peynado, Vice President of the Dominican Republic, visited the Bahá'í World Centre. [BW94–5:77] Dominican Republic; BWC Jacinto Peynado
    1995 Mar 3 – 12 The Bahá'í International Community and Bahá'ís from many countries participated in the United Nations World Summit for Social Development and the parallel Forum ‘95 for non-governmental organizations in Copenhagen. [BINS337:1–2]
  • For a report of the Bahá'í involvement in the Summit see BW94–5:37–6.
  • For the text of The Prosperity of Humankind the Bahá'í International Community statement released at the Summit, see BW94–5 273–96.
  • For pictures see BW94–5:39, 43, 45.
  • Copenhagen; Denmark United Nations Summits; Bahai International Community; Social and economic development; Prosperity of Humankind (statement); BIC statements; Statements; Publications
    1995 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Georgia was formed with its seat in Tbilisi. [BINS341:1] Tbilisi; Georgia NSA
    1995 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Armenia was formed [BINS343:3] Armenia NSA
    1995 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Belarus was formed. [BINS341:2] Belarus NSA
    1995 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Eritrea was formed. [BINS341:2] Eritrea NSA
    1995 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Sicily was formed. [BINS341:1–2] Sicily NSA
    1995 May 14 The Universal House of justice representative Mr ‘Alí Nakhjavání began his tour of major Bahá'í communities to discuss the significance of the Arc projects on Mount Carmel. BWC Ali Nakhjavani; Arc project find ref
    1995 May 30 – Jun 1 The first International Medical/Surgical Conference of Tirana was held under the auspices of Health for Humanity and the University of Tirana, attended by more than 400 Albanian physicians. [BINS343:2–3] Tirana; Albania Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Health; Conferences, International; Health
    1995 Jun 8 – 11 The first European Bahá'í Conference on Law and International Order was held at De Poort Conference Centre, Netherlands. [BINS345:4] Groesbeek; Netherlands; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; Conferences, Law; Laws; First conferences; De Poort first European Bahá'í Conference on Law and International Order
    1995 Jul The first Bahá'í summer school of Lithuania was held in Ukmerge, attended by 20 people. [BINS346:1] Ukmerge; Lithuania First summer and winter schools
    1995 Jul 26 The inaugural meeting of the Association for Bahá'í Studies of Ghana was held in Accra. [BINS348:3] Accra; Ghana Bahai Studies, Associations for
    1995 Aug More than 7,000 people became Bahá'ís in Haiti in two weeks. [BINS348:3] Haiti Mass conversion
    1995 30 Aug – 8 Sep The Bahá'í International Community and some 400 Bahá'í women and men from more than 50 countries around the world participated in the Fourth United Nations International Conference on Women and the parallel Non-Governmental Organization Forum, held in the resort city of Huairou some 50 kilometers north of Beijing, from 30 August to 8 September. [One Country Vol 7 Issue 2] Beijing; China BIC; United Nations; Women
    1995 Sep The arrest and imprisonment of Mr. Zabihullah Mahrami in Yazd because of his adherence to the Bahá'í. He was given a life sentence. [Planet Bahá'í] Yazd; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1995 Oct The publication of Turning Point For All Nations by the Bahá'í International Community, United Nations Office, in New York in commemoration of the 50th anniversary of the United Nations. It was a call for world leaders to define a role for the UN. [Turning Point for all Nations, en français] New York; United States Turning Point For All Nations (statement); Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Statements; Publications; United Nations
    1995 20 Oct The first local spiritual assembly in the Komi Republic was formed at Syktyvkar. [BINS357:8] Syktyvkar; Komi LSA First local assembly formed in the Komi Republic.
    1995 Oct – Dec More than a million people visited the Bahá'í House of Worship in India in this period. [BINS357:5] New Delhi; India Mashriqul-Adhkar, Delhi; Lotus temple; Statistics
    1995 26 Dec Start of the Institute Process

    In its message of 26 December 1995 to the Conference of the Continental Boards of Counsellors the Universal House of Justice announced that it will send separate messages concerning the upcoming the Four Year Plan to different parts of the world and will call for the establishment of Training Institutes as an agency of the National Spiritual Assemblies. The Training Institutes will be charged with developing human resources. The Counsellors and the Auxiliary Board members will be intimately involved in the establishment and operation of these institutes. The two arms of the Administrative Order will collaborate in the overseeing of the budget and planning program content, developing curricula and delivering courses. Should there be a board of directors then Auxiliary Board Members may serve on these bodies.

    BWC; Haifa Training Institutes; Teaching Plans; Four Year Plan (1995-1999); Counsellors; Counsellors conferences; - Institute process; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1995 Dec 28 – 30 The first teaching conference of Lithuania was held in Vilnius, attended by Bahá'ís from five countries. [BINS355:1] Vilnius; Lithuania Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, teaching; First conferences first teaching conference of Lithuania
    1995 31 Dec In a message from the Universal House of Justice addressed – To the Bahá’ís of the World dated 31 December, 1995 the Four Year Plan was announced. BWC Teaching Plans; Four Year Plan (1995-1999); - Institute process
    1996 15 Jan A Chair for Bahá'í Studies was inaugurated at the University of Lucknow. [BINS354:3] Lucknow; India Chair in Bahai Studies; Universities; Firsts, Other First Chair for Bahá'í Studies in Lucknow.
    1996 Feb By this date, approximately 1,250 people had enrolled in the Bahá'í Faith in Guinea-Bissau as a result of the Luz Local Teaching Project and the William Sears project. [BINS356:8] Guinea Bissau Teaching campaigns
    1996 9 - 11 Feb The first National Bahá'í Winter School of Belarus was held near Minsk. [BINS358:3] Minsk; Belarus Winter schools; First summer and winter schools first National Bahá'í Winter School of Belarus
    1996 3 Mar The establishment of the Ocean of Light School in Tonga. [OoL Website, BWNS195] Tonga Bahai schools; BWNS
    1996 23 – 24 Mar The first National Women's Seminar of Bulgaria was held in Sofia, organized by the European Task Force for Women. [BINS365:8] Sofia; Bulgaria Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women; Women; First conferences The first National Women's Seminar of Bulgaria
    1996 20 Apr The Three Year Plan is successfully completed.
    1996 Ridván The Four Year Plan (1996-2000) was launched.
  • See message addressed To the Conference of the Continental Boards of Counsellors dated 26 December 1995 concerning the Four Year Plan.
  • See message to the Bahá'ís of the World dated 31 December 1995 announcing the new Plan.
  • The Universal House of Justice sent a Ridván message and Four Year Plan instructions to the Bahá'ís of the World and separate messages to eight regions.
  • Riḍván 153 – To the Bahá’ís of the World
  • Riḍván 153 – To the Followers of Bahá’u’lláh in North America: Alaska, Canada, Greenland and the United States
  • Riḍván 153 – To the Followers of Bahá’u’lláh in Australia, the Cook Islands, the Eastern Caroline Islands, the Fiji Islands, French Polynesia, the Hawaiian Islands, Indonesia, Japan, Kiribati, Korea, the Mariana Islands, the Marshall Islands, New Caledonia and the Loyalty Islands, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Samoa, the Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, and the Western Caroline Islands
  • Riḍván 153 – To the Followers of Bahá’u’lláh in Africa
  • Riḍván 153 – To the Followers of Bahá’u’lláh in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Sri Lanka
  • Riḍván 153 – To the Followers of Bahá’u’lláh in Cambodia, Hong Kong, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Macau, Malaysia, Mongolia, Myanmar, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam
  • Riḍván 153 – To the Followers of Bahá’u’lláh in Western and Central Asia
  • Riḍván 153 – To the Followers of Bahá’u’lláh in Europe
  • Riḍván 153 – To the Followers of Bahá’u’lláh in Latin America and the Caribbean
  • See The Significance of the Four Year Plan by Andrew Alexander.

  • BWC Four Year Plan (1996-2000); Teaching Plans
    1996 Ridván The Universal House of Justice made further clarifications on the subject of Training Institutes in the message addressed to the Bahá'ís of the World as well as in the regional messages. It placed the establishment and development of training institutes in the context of the far-reaching changes that would characterize the progress of the Faith in this period of Bahá’í history.
    "What the friends throughout the world are now being asked to do is to commit themselves, their material resources, their abilities and their time to the development of a network of training institutes on a scale never before attempted. These centers of Bahá’í learning will have as their goal one very practical outcome, namely, the raising up of large numbers of believers who are trained to foster and facilitate the process of entry by troops with efficiency and love." [Message from the Universal House of Justice Ridván 153, Training Institutes and Systematic Growth (Feb 2000), Mess86-01p489-490 para27-para30]
  • Also see [Extracts from Messages re training institutes]
  • BWC Training Institutes; - Institute process
    1996 Ridván National Spiritual Assemblies of Burundi and Rwanda were not able to re-elected this year due to political instability in the region. The number of National Spiritual Assemblies remained at 174. [Riḍván 153 – To the Bahá’ís of the World] Burundi; Rwanda NSA; statistics
    1996 Ridván The terraces below the Shrine of the Báb were completed and opened to pilgrims. World Centre; BWC Bab, Shrine of; Terraces; Arc project find ref
    1996 Ridván (and after) The International Financial Collaboration programme was established by the Universal House of Justice to allow those national communities which are materially well endowed to assist other communities. Around 40 National Assemblies will be donors.
  • The programme is "... used to meet a variety of needs: the acquisition of land and buildings for national and local Baha'i Centres and for future Temple sites; the construction and renovation of Bahá'í properties, including the repair of buildings that suffered storm or earthquake damage; and the purchase of such items as an electricity generator, an office computer, and a motorcycle." They add further: "[b]eyond that, the bonds of unity between geographically distant national communities have been strengthened and the worldwide solidarity of the believers enhanced." [Letter from the Universal House of Justice to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United Kingdom dated 17 July 2011 quoted in the UK BAHA'I NEWS EMAIL SERVICE dated 11 August 2011]
  • BWC Funds; Property; Purchases and exchanges; NSA; Universal House of Justice; Restoration; International Collaboration Fund Find reference and more information
    1996 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of São Tomé and Príncipe formed. [BINS363:1]
    • For picture see BINS366:9.
    Sao Tome; Principe NSA
    1996 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Moldova was formed. [BINS363:1–2]
  • The National Convention was attended by Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Annemarie Kruger. At that time she was a pioneer in Bulgaria and was in a very advanced age. [Candle 9]
  • See Candle9 28 July, 2008 for a history of the Faith.
  • Moldova NSA
    1996 30 May - 14 Jun The Bahá'í International Community and 150 Bahá'ís from many countries participated in the Second United Nations Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II) and the parallel Non-Governmental Organization Forum in Istanbul. [BINS365:5] Istanbul; Turkey BIC; United Nations; Migration
    1997 (In the year) In 1997 One Country launched its website that contained all the English issues of the newsletter published over the previous three years. [One Country Vol 23 Issue3, BW’86-92p539] One Country (magazine); Newsletters; Internet; Bahai International Community
    1997 (In the year) The Tahirih Justice Center was founded to address the acute need for legal services of immigrant and refugee women who have fled to the U.S. to seek protection from human rights abuses.
  • The Center's founder, Ms. Layli Miller, created the Center after she was besieged by requests for legal assistance following her involvement in a high-profile case that set national precedent and revolutionized asylum law in the United States. The case was that of Fauziya Kassindja, a 17 year-old woman who fled Togo in fear of a forced polygamous marriage and a tribal practice known as female genital mutilation. After arriving in the U.S. and spending more than seventeen months in detention, Ms. Kassindja was granted asylum on June 13th, 1996 by the United States Board of Immigration Appeals in a decision that opened the door to gender-based persecution as a grounds for asylum. [Tahirih Justice Center]
  • For more on the Tahirih Justice Center see article in the Religion News Service.
  • United States Tahirih Justice Center; Human rights; Women; Refugees; Migration; Layli Miller-Muro
    1997 24 Mar - 16 May The nine member First Nations Travel Teaching Trip to the South Pacific, called "The Journey of Teech-ma" consisted of Canadian Bahá'ís from Kwakiutl, Nuu-Cha-Nuth, the Ojibway First Nations, a Yupik Bahá'í from Alaska and three non-Native Canadian friends. They shared their culture and their Faith with the Maori, other New Zealanders, the Aborigines and other Australians as well as the ne-Vanuatu peoples. See entry for 1994 (Summer). [SDSC370] New Zealand; Australia; Vanuatu; Canada First Nations; Travel Teaching; Pacific; Maoris; Aboriginal people; Indigenous people
    1997 Ridván The re-formation of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Rwanda brought the total number of national spiritual assemblies to 175. [BW97-98p32] Kigali; Rwanda NSA; Re-formation; statistics
    1997 Ridván The Universal House of Justice announced in its Ridván Message that nearly 200 Training Institutes had been established in the previous twelve months. [Mess86-01p580] BWC Training Institutes; Statistics; - Institute process
    1997 Ridván The Universal House of Justice restricted the formation of Local Spiritual Assemblies to the first day of Riḍván. This measure had the effect anticipated; there was a decrease in the number of these institutions but the fall was not drastic. [Message from the Universal House of Justice Ridván 2000] Worldwide Ridvan; Elections; Administration; Local Spiritual Assemblies; LSA, formation of; Growth; Statistics; Bahai Faith, Evolutionary nature of; Maturity
    1997 27 Apr In the second parliamentary election in Yemen the GPC won a majority of the seats, Iṣlāḥ finished second, and the YSP (Yemen Socialist Party) virtually committed political suicide by boycotting the elections. Given its sizable majority, the GPC chose to rule alone, thereby making Iṣlāḥ the major opposition party in parliament. In late 1994 the plural executive had been abolished and President Ṣāliḥ reelected to a five-year term by parliament. Yemen Yemen, Recent history
    1997 30 May In its message of 30 May 1997 the Universal House of Justice announced that they have authorized the formation of "State Bahá'í Councils" or "Regional Teaching and Administrative Committees" to be called "Regional Bahá'í Councils. Their intention was to provide a balance between centralization and decentralization. This structure had been in place in some countries, notably India, for some years prior to this time. See 23 May, 1986. [TP87-90]
    For a synopsis of the letter see The Establishment of Regional Bahá'í Councils in Certain Countries, Their Characteristics and Functions.
    The distinguishing effects of the establishment of Regional Bahá’í Councils were the following:
  • It provided for a level of autonomous decision making on both teaching and administrative matters, as distinct from merely executive action, below the National Assembly and above the Local Assemblies.
  • It involved the members of Local Spiritual Assemblies of the area in the choice of the members of the Council, thus reinforcing the bond between it and the local believers while, at the same time, bringing into public service capable believers who were known to the friends in their own region.
  • It established direct consultative relationships between the Continental Counselors and the Regional Bahá’í Councils.
  • It offered the possibility of forming a Regional Bahá’í Council in an ethnically distinct region which covered parts of two or more countries. In such a situation the Council was designated to work directly under one of the National Assemblies involved, providing copies of its reports and minutes to the other National Assembly.
  • The greater degree of decentralization involved in the devolution of authority upon Regional Bahá’í Councils required a corresponding increase in the capacity of the National Spiritual Assembly itself to keep fully informed of what was proceeding in all parts of the territory over which it had ultimate jurisdiction.
  • BWC; Haifa State Bahai Councils; Regional Bahai Councils; National Spiritual Assemblies; Local Spiritual Assemblies; Administration
    1997 4 Jul Masha'llah Enayati, a 63-year-old man, died in custody while in prison in Isfahan after being severely beaten. [One Country Jul-Sep 1998 Vol 10 Issue 2] Isfahan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1997 6 Jul Shahram Reza'i, a conscript in the army, was shot in the head by his superior officer at a military base near Rasht, Iran. The officer, who said the bullets were fired in error, was released a few days after a court excused him from paying the blood money normally required in such cases because the dead soldier was a Bahá'í. [One Country Jul-Sep 1998 Vol 10 Issue 2] Rasht; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Court cases
    1997 1 Oct The release of the film Crossing Frontiers: Portrait of a World Citizen - Amatu'l-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum by Badiyan Distribution. This video, on the life of the Hand of the Cause of God Amatu'l-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum, explored the frontiers she crossed in her travels to over 185 countries promoting the essential teachings of the Bahá'í Faith. In the course of her travels she gave countless lectures, met many leading dignitaries, and was interviewed on radio, television and by the press throughout the world, continually promoting the teachings of the Bahá'í Faith. [9 Star Media] Riverside; California Ruhiyyih Khanum; film; Z****
    1997 24-26 Oct The International Environment Forum was launched at the first International Bahá'í Environment Conference in de Poort, Netherlands, with participants from nine countries, who were joined electronically by people from 21 countries participating in the e-mail version of the conference.
  • A BAHÁ'Í PERSPECTIVE ON THE ENVIRONMENT AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT was presented by Michael Richards of the Overseas Development Institute in London.
  • At the conference, the objectives, activities and structure of the Forum were agreed and statutes adopted, and a governing board of five people was elected.
  • It is a Bahá'í-inspired non-governmental organization that linked together Bahá'ís and others interested in the fields of environment and sustainable development. Development of the Forum had been encouraged and guided by the Bahá'í International Community, although it had no formal link with the Bahá'í administration.
  • Groesbeek; Netherlands International Environment Forum; Bahai International Community; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; First conferences; Environment; De Poort first International Bahá'í Environment Conference iefworld.org/conf1.htm
    1998 31 Jan The Spiritual Assembly of Budapest set up a marble plaque in the garden of the National Museum at the site where Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhiyyih Khánum planted a tree during her visit in 1993 to commemorate 'Abdu'l-Bahá's visit in 1913. The ceremony opened the National Spritual Assembly's campaign marking the eighty-fifth anniversary of the Bahá'í Faith in Hungary. [BW1997-98 p 103-104] Budapest; Hungary Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Trees; Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1998 Feb The Bahá’í Open University resumed activities after the seizure of much of their assets four months earlier by the Iranian government. Iran Bahai Institute for Higher Education (BIHE); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Education; Persecution
    1998 25 March The passing of former Universal House of Justice member (1963-1993) Mr. Hugh E Chance (b. 28 December, 1911 in Winfield, Kansas d. 25 March,1998 in Tisdale KS.). [BW97-98p271-272]
  • Mr Chance had been a member of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States from 1961 to 1963.
  • Kansapedia.
  • He was the co-author of "A Crown of Beauty" with Eunice Braun which was published by George Ronald in 1982.
  • Tisdale; Kansas; United States Hugh Chance; In Memoriam
    1998 Apr The publication of the booklet Training Institutes by the Universal House of Justice. [TP323342] BWC Training Institutes; - Institute process; Publications
    1998 Ridván The Universal House of Justice announced in its Ridvan Message the "ten of thousands of individuals have over the last two years completed at least one institute course." [Mess86-01p612] BWC - Institute process; Training Institutes; Growth; Statistics
    1998 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly was re-established in Liberia with its seat in Monrovia. [Ridán Message 1998] Monrovia; Liberia NSA
    1998 Ridván Three new National Spiritual Assemblies were elected, in Sabah, Sarawak, and Slovakia and the National Spiritual Assembly in Liberia was re-established bringing the number of National Assemblies to 179. [Ridán Message 1998] Sabah; Sarawak; Slovakia NSA; statistics; Z****
    1998 21 Jul Mr. Ruhu'llah Rawhani, a 52-year-old medical supplies salesman was hanged in Mashhad solely for religious reasons. Later that morning, Mr. Rawhani's family was summoned to collect his body and required, despite their protests, to complete the burial within one hour, under the supervision of Government intelligence agents.
  • In 1984, Mr. Rawhani was arrested and imprisoned for more than a year. According to an account given by Mr. Rawhani's relatives in the Australian Bahá'í News, Mr. Rawhani was tortured during his first imprisonment. He was arrested a second time about four years previous. The charge was apparently related to his work in the conduct of purely religious activities, such as prayer meetings and children's classes. He was released after 24 hours.
  • Mr. Rawhani was arrested for a third time in September 1997 and placed in solitary confinement in Mashhad. He had been accused of "converting" a woman from Islam to the Bahá'í Faith. The woman, however, denied that she had converted; she explained that her mother was a Bahá'í and that she herself had been raised as a Bahá'í. She was not arrested.
  • The killing of Mr. Rawhani was the first government execution of a Bahá'í in Iran in six years, and was coupled with the widespread arrest of some 32 Bahá'í educators in fourteen different cities throughout Iran in late September and early October. From the Daily Telegraph, August 2nd 1998. [One Country Jul-Sep 1998 Vol 10 Issue 2, One Country Oct-Dec 1998 Vol 10 Issue 3, Archives of Bahá'í Persecution in Iran]
  • See the message from the Universal House of Justice dated 29 September, 1998.
  • Mashhad; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; persecution, Persecution, Education
    1998 29 Jul The passing of actor and writer O. Z. Whitehead at the age of 87 in Dublin. (b. in New York City on 18 March 1911).
  • His most acclaimed performance and best remembered role remained that of Al in John Ford's classic 1940 film version of John Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath.
  • After the World Congress in 1963 he pioneered to the Irish Republic where, among other services to the Faith, he served on the National Spiritual Assembly.
  • He published three volumes of pen portraits, Some Early Bahá'ís of the West (1976), Some Bahá'ís to Remember (1983), and Portraits of Some Bahá'í Women (1996).
  • He is remembered as a champion of the Arts. [Bahá'í Studies Review Vol8, 1998]
  • Dublin; Ireland O. Z. Whitehead; Pioneers; NSA; Biographies (general)
    1998 29 Sep Starting this date until October 2nd, in Iran, government raids on 500 private homes and the arrest of some 30 faculty members in efforts to close the Bahá’í Institute for Higher Education, a decentralized university that aimed to give Bahá’í students access to the education they have been otherwise denied.
  • The Institute offered Bachelor's degrees in ten subject areas: applied chemistry, biology, dental science, pharmacological science, civil engineering, computer science, psychology, law, literature and accounting. Within these subject areas, which were administered by five "departments," the Institute was able to offer more than 200 distinct courses each term.
  • In the beginning, courses were based on correspondence lessons developed by Indiana University, which was one of the first institutions in the West to recognize the Bahá'í Institute for Higher Education. Later on, course offerings were developed internally.
  • Teaching was done principally via correspondence, or, for specialized scientific and technical courses and in other special cases, in small-group classes that were usually held in private homes. Over time, however, the Institute was able to establish a few laboratories, operated in privately owned commercial buildings in and around Teheran, for computer science, physics, dental science, pharmacology, applied chemistry and language study. The operations of these laboratories were kept prudently quiet, with students cautioned not to come and go in large groups that might give the authorities a reason to object.
  • Among other significant human rights conventions, Iran is a party to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, which was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 16 December 1966. Parties to this Covenant "recognize the right of everyone to education" and more specifically that "higher education shall be made equally accessible to all, on the basis of capacity, by every appropriate means." [“The New York Times” article dated 29 October, 1998, One Country Oct-Dec 1998 Vol 10 Issue 3]
  • Iran Bahai Institute for Higher Education (BIHE); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Education; Persecution; Human Rights; Education; Persecution, Education
    1998 6 - 8 Nov The 2nd International Conference of the Environment Forum was held in the Netherlands with wide electronic participation on the themes of sustainable consumption and the Earth Charter. The first theme of the conference, sustainable consumption, was introduced by a keynote address on "Sustainable Consumption and True Prosperity" by Arthur Dahl. [IEF 2nd Annual Conference ] Netherlands Arthur Dahl; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Environment; Conferences, International; Environment; International Environment Forum
    1998 23 Nov The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States announced the results of the elections for their first Regional Councils. Four were elected in the regions corresponding to those mentioned in The Tablets of the Divine Plan. [Results of the First Regional Bahá'í Council Election] United States Regional Bahai Councils; Tablets of the Divine Plan
    1999 (in the year) The founding of the Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity (ISGP) as a non-profit organization to work in collaboration with the Bahá’í International Community and dedicated to building capacity in individuals, groups and institutions to contribute to prevalent discourses concerned with the betterment of society. One of the purposes of the Institute was to explore, with others, the complementary roles that science and religion – as co-evolving systems of knowledge and practice – must play in the advancement of civilization. Principles, concepts and approaches that are relevant to the advancement of civilization are to be explored through a process of study, reflection and consultation. [ISPG Web site; BahaiKipedia; BWNS1266] New York; United States Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity (ISGP); Bahai International Community; Science; Social discourse; Z****
    1999 ...and beyond Based on initial experiences, the Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity learned that many people – including many university students and young professionals were interested in exploring the concepts the Institute was working with, and were interested in developing the capacity to contribute to contemporary discourses through a framework that drew on insights from both science and religion. Therefore, the Institute initiated another line of action focused on raising capacity in university students and young adults to contribute to the discourse on science, religion and development, as well as to other discourses related to the betterment of society. The Institute now conducts a series of undergraduate and graduate seminars in a growing number of countries for this purpose.
  • Seminars for Undergraduate Students
  • Seminars for University Graduates
  • Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity (ISGP); Z****
    1999 (in the year) Mona Foundation was founded in 1999. The Foundation supports grassroots educational initiatives that provide education to all children, increase opportunities for women and girls, and emphasize service to the community. The goal is to alleviate global poverty and support community led transformation such that no child ever goes to bed hungry, is lost to preventable diseases, or is deprived of the gift of education for lack of resources. The core belief is that the keys to alleviating poverty are universal education, gender equality, and community building.
  • The headquarters is located in Washington, DC with chapters in Los Angeles, Seattle, Portland and San Diego. There is a sister organization in Vancouver, Canada. [Website]
  • Los Angeles; Seattle; Portland; San Diego; Vancouver Mona Foundation; Social and Economic Development Organizations; Z****
    1999 19 Jan The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Russia formally received its re-registration documents under the new law on religious organizations that was passed by the Russian Parliament in the fall of 1997.
  • Formal recognition as a “centralized religious organization” entitled the community to full rights to teach and proclaim the Faith, publish and import literature, rent and own property, invite foreign nationals etc. [From “European Bulletin” Issue 60 February 1999]
  • Russia NSA; Russian Parliament
    1999 19 Apr The Islamic Revolutionary Court in Isfahan sentenced Sina Hakiman (10 yrs), Farzad Khajeh Sharifabadi (7 yrs), Havivullhh Ferdosian Najafabadi (7 yrs) and Ziaullah Mirzapanah (3yrs) for crimes against national security. All four were among the thirty-six who were arrested in late September and in early October, 1998 in a concerted government crackdown against Bahá’í education in fourteen cities in Iran.
  • It was reported that over 500 homes were raided in an attempt to crack down on the Bahá’í Open University. Files, equipment and other property used by the University were seized. From report by Human Rights Watch Academic Freedom Committee.
  • Isfahan; Iran Bahai Institute for Higher Education (BIHE); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Education; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases; Human Rights; Education; persecution, find ref
    1999 Ridván National Spiritual Assembly of Latvia was formed. [BW99-00p44-45, Ridván Message 156] Riga; Latvia NSA
    1999 Ridván National Spiritual Assembly of Lithuania was formed. [BW99-00p44-45, Ridván Message 156] Lithuania NSA
    1999 Ridván National Spiritual Assembly of Macedonia was formed. [Ridván Message 156] Macedonia NSA
    1999 Ridván The Universal House of Justice announced in its Ridván Message that ....."(t)he further creation of national and regional training institutes, now numbering 344, has pressed this development forward, with the result that, apart from North America and Iran where numerous courses have been given, some 70,000 individuals have already completed at least one institute course." [Mess86-01p668]

    Further, in its message of 26 November 1999 it stated that "An impressive network of training institutes on a scale but dimly imagined at the start of the Plan has been established throughout the world. These nascent centres of learning have made significant strides in developing formal programmes and in putting into place effective systems for the delivery of courses. Reports indicate that the number of believers benefiting directly from training courses has climbed to nearly 100,000." [Message 26 November, 1999]

    BWC Training Institutes; - Institute process; statistics
    1999 5 May Firuz Kazemzadeh, Secretary for External Affairs for the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States, was appointed by President Clinton as a member of the United States Commission on International Religious Freedom. White House Press Release United States Firuz Kazemzadeh; NSA; United States government; United States Commissions; Religious freedom; Human rights find ref
    1999 June The dedication of the first academic chair in Bahá'í studies in Israel at Hebrew University of Jerusalem with the appointment of Prof. Moshe Sharon. The position was made possible because of an anonymous donation. [Jerusalem Post, June 7, 1999, BWNS84] Jerusalem; Israel Chair in Bahai Studies; Hebrew University of Jerusalem; Universities; Moshe Sharon; Firsts, Other; Donations; BWNS First academic chair in Bahá'í studies in Israel at Hebrew University of Jerusalem
    1999 21 Jun The passing of Meherangiz Munsiff in London (b. 23 November, 1923 Bombay, India) Born into a Bahá'í family she travelled in India with Martha Root at the age of 14 years. She was appointed Knight of Bahá'u'lláh for the French Cameroons. In addition she visited more than 150 countries to teach and assist in the development of Bahá'í communities and was know as a lecturer and an activist among the international humanitarian community. [BW99-00p308-309] London; United Kingdom Meherangiz Munsiff; First Bahais by country or area first to pioneer to the French Cameroons
    1999 15 - 18 Aug A conference was held Sidcot, Avon, United Kingdom, hosted jointly by the International Environmental Forum with the Bahá'í Agency for Social and Economic Development - UK. It brought together 44 participants from 13 countries on 5 continents, as well as internet connection with an additional 70 "electronic" conference participants in 29 countries, for a total of 114 participants from 38 countries, including 8 in Africa. [International Environment Forum web site]
  • See the website for a list of papers presented.
  • Sidcot; Avon; United Kingdom Social and economic development; Bahai Agency for Social and Economic Development; Conferences, Bahai
    1999 24 Aug Message from the Department of the Secretariat to the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States on behalf of the Universal House of Justice regarding the funding and deputization of Training Institutes. [Mess86-01p689-692, 24 August, 1999] BWC Training Institutes; Deputization; Funds
    1999 Sep September 1999 President Ṣāliḥ was again returned to office, this time in the country’s first direct presidential elections and for a term lengthened to seven years. He had run virtually unopposed, as the YSP candidate was unable to secure the minimum number of votes necessary in the GPC-dominated parliament to stand in the election. Yemen Yemen, Recent history
    1999 Sep The murder of Abdullah Mogharrabi in Dushanbe, Tajikistan. It was determined that he was killed for his religious beliefs. [One Country Jan-Mar 2002 Vol13 Issue 4] Dushanbe; Tajikistan Persecution, Tajikistan; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1999 9 Nov The announcement by the Universal House of Justice of the creation of the Office of Correspondence at the World Centre to improve communication between the World Centre and the Bahá'í World by assisting the Secretariat of the House of Justice in responding to routine requests and inquiries made to the World Center and also to handle a broader range of such correspondence, over its own signature, following policies laid down for this purpose. [Universal House of Justice 9 November, 1999] BWC; Haifa Office of Correspondence
    1999 28 Dec In a message from the Universal House of Justice dated the 28 December, 1999 some laws of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas which had not yet been universally applied were put into effect. Those were the laws which directly foster the devotional life of the individual and of the community which pertained to obligatory prayer, fasting and recitation of the Greatest Name ninety-five times a day.
    • Those laws of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas which were not yet universally applicable were delineated in the message dated 8 February, 2001.
    BWC Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Laws; Gradual implementation of laws; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Obligatory prayer; Greatest Name; Fasting; Universal House of Justice, Letters and messages
    Home Site Map Forum Links Copyright About Contact
    .
    . .