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Bahá'í Chronology: years 18-

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1804 - 1813 Russo-Persian War resulted in a Russian victory. The Battle of Aslan Duz on 31 October 1812 was the turning point in the war, which led to the complete destruction of the Persian army, thus leaving Fath Ali Shah with no other option but to sign the Treaty of Gulistan on 24 October 1813. Numerically, Persian forces had a considerable advantage during the war, a ratio of 5 to 1 over their Russian adversaries, however, the Persian forces were technologically backwards and poorly trained - a problem that the Persian government failed to recognize. With the Treaty of Gulistan Persia ceded what is now Georgia, Dagestan, parts of northern Armenia, and most of what now comprises modern Azerbaijan to Russia. Gulistan; Aslan Duz; Iran; Russia Russo-Persian War; Treaty of Gulistan; War (general); History (general); Iran, General history
c. 1806 Birth of Mírzá Muhammad Taqí Khán-i-Farahání, later Prime Minister of Persia, in Hizávih. Hizavih; Iran Mirza Muhammad Taqi Khan-i-Farahani; Prime Ministers of Iran; Prime Ministers; Births and deaths
1808 5 Jan Birth of Muhammad Mírzá (later Sháh), son of Crown Prince `Abbás Mírzá and grandson of Fath-`Alí Sháh. Iran Muhammad Shah; Abbas Mirza; Fath-Ali Shah; Shahs; Qajar dynasty; Births and deaths
c. 1812 Birth of Mullá Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Zanjání, Hujjat. Iran Hujjat; Births and deaths
c. 1813 Birth of Muhammad Husayn-i-Bushrú'í (Mullá Husayn). Bushrui; Iran Mulla Husayn; Births and deaths; Letters of the Living
1817 (In the year) Shaykh Ahmad traveled to Persia and visits Shíráz and Tihrán. He was in Tihrán when Bahá'u'lláh is born. [DB13] Shiraz; Tihran; Iran Shaykh Ahmad-i-Ahsai; Shaykhism; Bahaullah, Birth of; Bahaullah, Life of
c. 1817 Birth of Hand of the Cause Mullá Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardikání (Hájí Amín), in Ardikán, near Yazd. Ardikan; Yazd; Iran Haji Amin (Abul-Hasan-i-Ardikani); Births and deaths
1817 (In the year) The birth of Fátimih Umm-Salamih, Táhirih (the Pure One), Qurratu'l-'Ayn (Solace of the Eyes), Zarrín-Táj (Crown of Gold). [BBD220; GPB7, 73, 75; DB81note2]
  • In BBRSM16 her name was given as Fátimih Bigum Baragháni and birth year is 1814.
  • Qazvin; Iran Tahirih; Births and deaths; Letters of the Living
    1817 12 Nov Birth of Mírzá Husayn `Alíy-i-Núrí (Bahá'u'lláh).
  • He was of royal Persian blood, a descendant of Zoroaster and the Sásáníyán kings of Persia through Yazdigird III, the last king of that dynasty. Through His mother He was a descendant of Abraham through Katurah and Jesse. [BW8:874; GPB94; RB1:305]
  • He was born in Tihrán. His father was Mírzá `Abbás whose ancestral home is Tákur in the province of Núr. His father was also known as Mírzá Buzurg in royal circles. [BKG13; RB1:7]
  • His mother was Khadíjih Khánum. [BBD127; BBRSM57–8]
  • He was born at dawn. [LOG353; DB12]
  • For biblical reference see LOG378.
  • RB1:304 for extracts from Shoghi Effendi re: His station.
  • BBD39, GPB157–8 for a condensed history.
  • See GPB93-99 for the significance of Bahá'u'lláh's station.
  • Tihran; Nur; Iran Bahaullah, Birth of; Bahaullah, Life of; Twin Holy days; Holy days; Mirza Buzurg; Khadijih Khanum; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Births and deaths; Zoroaster; Abraham BIC Statement on Bahá'u'lláh; Bahá'u'lláh: The Word Made Flesh
    1818 May Birth of Mullá Zaynu'l-`Ábidín (Zaynu'l-Muqarrabín), Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Najafábád. Najafabad; Iran Zaynul-Muqarrabin (Mulla Zaynul-Abidin); Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths
    1819 (In the year) Death of Shaykh `Alí, son of Shaykh Ahmad. Shaykh Ahmad considered this loss as a sacrifice for `the Alí whose advent we all await'. [MH24] Iran Shaykh Ali; Shaykh Ahmad-i-Ahsai; Births and deaths; Sacrifice; Shaykhism
    1819–1831 `Abdu'lláh Páshá became the governor of `Akká in 1819. In 1832 when the Egyptians took `Akká he surrendered and was taken to Egypt. He was freed in 1840 when the area reverted to Turkish rule. [BBD5] Akka; Israel; Egypt Abdullah Pasha; Governors; History (general)
    1819 20 Oct Birth of Siyyid `Alí-Muhammad (The Báb), before dawn, in Shíráz. [B32; GH13; DB14, 72]
  • The Primal Point (Nuqtiy-i-Úlá). [BBD185]
  • The Promised One of Islam, the Qá'im. [BBD188]
  • Siyyid-i-dhikr (Lord of Remembrance). [BBD212]
  • His mother was Fátimih-Bagum. [Bab33, 46; KBWB20; RB2:382]
    • In the latter years of her life while she was living in Iraq, Bahá'u'lláh instructed two of His devoted followers, Hájí Siyyid Javád-i-Karbilá'í and the wife of Hájí 'Abdu'l-Majíd-i-Shírází, to acquaint her in the principles of the Faith and she became aware of the bountiful gifts which God had conferred upon her. [DB191]
  • His father was Mírzá Muhammad Ridá. [BW4:234–5; LOG351; SE206; TN4]
  • He was a direct heir of the House of Háshim and descended thus from Muhammad and through Him from Abraham. [BW8:874]
  • Designations of the Báb include `Abdu'dh-dhikr (Servant of the Remembrance), Bábu'lláh (the Gate of God) and Hadrat-i-A`lá (His Holiness the Most Exalted One). [BBD1, 30, 93]
  • For biblical reference see LOG378. See RB1:304 for extracts from Shoghi Effendi re: His station.
  • See BBD39, GPB157–8 for a condensed history.
  • See Bab32 and TN4 for discussion of the date of His father's death
  • See DB28–30. See DB75 for the extent of His schooling. See DB75 n1 for his education.
  • Shiraz; Iran Bab, Birth of; Bab, Life of; Bab, Family of; Fatimih Bagum; Zajra Bagum; Mirza Muhammad Rida; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bab, Basic timeline; Holy days; Twin Holy days; Births and deaths
    1820 (In the year) Birth of Khadíjih Bagum (daughter of Mírzá `Alí, a merchant of Shíráz), first wife of the Báb, in Shíráz. Shiraz; Iran Khadijih Bagum; Bab, Family of; Births and deaths First wife of the Báb
    1820 (In the year) Birth of Ásíyih Khánum (Navváb), first wife of Bahá'u'lláh, in Yálrúd. The only daughter of Mírzá Ismá'íl. Yalrud; Iran Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Births and deaths First wife of Bahá'u'lláh
    1821 (In the year) `Abdu'lláh Páshá built the Mansion at Bahjí. [BBD5, 42] Akka Abdullah Pasha; House of Bahaullah (Bahji); Bahji
    1822 (In the year) Birth of Mírzá-`Alíy-i-Bárfurúshí (Quddús), the 18th Letter of the Living. Barfurush; Iran Quddus; Letters of the Living; Births and deaths
    c. 1823 Bahá'u'lláh's father dreamed that his son was swimming in a sea with multitudes of fish clinging to the strands of His hair. He related this dream to a soothsayer, who prophesied that Bahá'u'lláh will achieve supremacy over the world. [DB199–20] Iran Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Family of; Mirza Buzurg; Dreams; Fishes; Sea; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    c. 1825 Birth of Áqá Husayn-i-Isfahání (Mishkín-Qalam), Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh and well-known calligrapher, in Shíráz. Shiraz; Iran Mishkin-Qalam; Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths
    1826 27 Jun Passing of Shaykh Ahmad-i-Ahsá'í, the leader of the Shaykhís, in Haddíyyih near Medina near the tomb of Muhammad, at approximately 75 years. He was buried in the cemetery of Baqí` in Medina. [B2,; M16; H20]
  • At his passing Siyyid Kázim-i-Rashtí became his designated successor. [BBD12; DB9-11]
  • BBD12 says it was 1828 and he was 81 years old
  • See MH20 for three chief articles of faith of the Shaykhís.
  • See BBRSM8 for a brief account of his life. Says he lived from 1753 to 1826.
  • See DB1-18 for a brief history of his life.
  • DB18 says he died in 1268 A.H. (4 August, 1826 to 25 July, 1827)
  • See MH22 for a picture.
  • KA239n171 says Shaykh Aḥmad-i-Ahsá’í lived from 1753 to 1831. He was the founder of the Shaykhí School and the first of the “twin luminaries that heralded the advent of the Faith of the Báb”.
  • See Sheikh Ahmad al-Ahsai by Moojan Momen for a brief history of Shaykh Aḥmad-i-Ahsá’í and the Shaykhí School and his continuing influence today.
  • See Ahsá'í, Shaykh Ahmad by Denis MacEoin.
  • See BBRSM8-13 for a history of Shaykhism.
  • See GPB92 for his predictions regarding the Twin Manifestations.
  • Haddiyyih; Medina; Saudi Arabia Shaykh Ahmad-i-Ahsai; Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti; Shaykhism; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1828 (In the year) Passing of Mírzá Muhammad Ridá, the father of the Báb.
  • The Báb was placed in the care of His maternal uncle, Hájí Mírzá Siyyid `Alí, Khál-i-A`zam (the Most Great Uncle). He was a leading merchant of Shíráz and was the first, after the Letters of the Living, to embrace the new Cause in that city. He was one of the Seven Martyrs of Tihrán. [BBD14]
  • In the household was an Ethiopian servant named Mubarak who nurtured and tutored Him throughout His later childhood and adolescence. “the Bab, in fact, places Mubarak on the same plane as his father.” [The Ethiopian King by Nader Saiedi translated by Omid Ghaemmaghami Baha’i Studies Review, Volume 17 p181-186] This servant was not, in fact, the Hají Mubarak who later accompanied Him to Mecca.
  • According to Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl-i-Gulpáygání, the Báb was still an infant and had not yet been weaned when His father passed away. [DB72]
  • Shiraz; Iran Mirza Muhammad Rida; Haji Mirza Siyyid Ali; Bab, Family of; Bab, Uncles of; Uncles; Bab, Life of; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Bab, Basic timeline
    1828 10 Feb Defeat of the Persians at the hands of the Russians. The Russo-Persian War of 1826–28 was the last major military conflict between the Russian Empire and Iran. The war ended following the occupation of Tabriz and had even more disastrous results for Persia than the 1804-1813 war. The ensuing Treaty of Turkmenchay, signed on 10 February 1828 in Torkamanchay, Iran, stripped Persia of its last remaining territories in the Caucasus, which comprised all of modern Armenia, the southern remainder of modern Azerbaijan, and modern Igdir in Turkey. Through the Gulistan and Turkmenchay treaties Persia had lost all of its territories in the Caucasus to Russia making them the unquestioned dominant power in the region. [BBRSM55] Tabriz; Turkmenchay; Iran Russo-Persian War; Wars; History (general); Iran, General history
    1829 29 Mar Birth of Áqá Muhammad-i-Qá'iní (Nabíl-i-Akbar), Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Naw-Firist, near Bírjand. Naw-Firist; Birjand; Iran Nabil-i-Akbar (Aqa Muhammed-i-Qaini); Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths
    c. 1830 Marriage of Táhirih to her cousin Mullá Muhammad, the son of Mullá Taqí. [TB25] Iran Weddings; Tahirih; Mulla Muhammad; Mulla Taqi
    1830 Jan c. Birth of Hájí Mírzá Muhammad Taqí Afnán (Vakílu'd-Dawlih), maternal uncle of the Báb, who supervised and largely paid for the building of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in `Ishqábád. Ishqabad; Turkmenistan Haji Muhammad-Taqi Afnan (Vakilud-Dawlih); Afnan; Bab, Family of; Vakilud-Dawlih; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Births and deaths
    c. 1831 Birth of Mírzá Yahyá (Subh-i-Azal), half brother of Bahá'u'lláh. Mazandaran; Iran Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Births and deaths; Bahaullah, Family of
    1831 – 1840 Egyptian occupation of `Akká. [BBR202; DH128]
  • 'Abdu'lláh Páshá was the governor of 'Akká from 1919 to 1831. In 1832 when the Egyptians took the city he surrendered and was taken to Egypt. He was freed in 1840 when the area reverted to Turkish rule. [BBD5]
  • Akka; Israel; Egypt; Turkey History (general); Abdullah Pasha
    1831 (In the year) At the age of 12 Mulla Husayn finished his studies in Bushíhr and went to Mashhad, the most prestigious centre of religious study in Iran. In 1830-1 he relocated to Karbala to study under Siyyid Kázim. Mashhad is where the remains of the Eighth Imám, 'Alí Ibn Musa'r-Ridá are enshrined in the holiest Shi'ih site in Iran. [MH7-8; MH113] Karbala; Iraq; Mashhad; Bushihr; Iran Mulla Husayn; Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti
    1831 17 Jul Birth of Násiri'd-Dín Mírzá, later Sháh. Iran Nasirid-Din Shah; Qajar dynasty; Births and deaths
    1831 29 Jul Birth of Nabíl-i-A`zam, Muhammad-i-Zarandí, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh. [“Nabil-e Aʿẓam Zarandi, Mollā Moḥammad,” by Vahid Rafati, Encyclopædia Iranica] Zarand; Iran Nabil-i-Azam; Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths
    1832 (In the year) The first of the American missionaries went to Persia to explore the possibility of establishing a base for the activities of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. The work of many others who succeeded him continued until 1934 when the government imposed regulations that drastically restricted the nature of their educational work in Iran. Although the missionaries were successful in educational and medical work they failed in their main objective, which was to evangelize not only Persia, but all of Asia. However, their schools, colleges and hospitals had contributed to the diffusion of western ideals and the standard of education. They established an educational system from the primary to the college level in a country that had no secular education system. [American Missionaries in Iran, 1834-1934 by Mansoori, Ahmad Iran first American missionaries in Persia
    1834 9 Sep The end of the reign of Fath-`Alí Sháh and the accession of his grandson, Muhammad Sháh. [B7; BBD83, 164; BBR153, 482]
  • Fifty–three sons and 46 daughters survived Fath-`Alí Sháh. [B7]
  • After his accession Muhammad Sháh executed the Grand Vizier, the Qá'im Máqám, the man who had raised him to the throne. He then installed his tutor, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí, to the position (1835). During his first year in office Hájí Mírzá Áqásí succeeded in removing most of the supporters of the previous prime minister from power, filling their positions with his own appointees from Máh-Kú. Among those removed from power was Mírzá Buzurg Núrí, Bahá'u'lláh's father. [B10–11]
  • See BBD164 for picture.
  • See B11–122 for the relationship between the Sháh and his new Grand Vizier, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí.
  • For details on the life of Hájí Mírzá Áqásí see BBD19.
  • For an example of Hájí Mírzá Áqásí's machinations against Bahá'u'lláh and others see DB120-122.
  • Iran Fath-Ali Shah; Muhammad Shah; Shahs; Grand Viziers; Prime Ministers of Iran; Prime Ministers; Haji Mirza Aqasi; Iran, General history
    1835 (In the year) Birth of Mírzá Áqá Ján-i-Kashání (Khadimu'lláh), Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh and His amanuensis. Mirza Aqa Jan; Amanuensis; Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths
    1835 (In the year) Birth of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Husayn, Mahbúbu'sh-Shuhadá' (`Beloved of Martyrs'), in Isfahán. Isfahan; Iran Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Births and deaths
    1835 Oct Marriage of Mírzá Husayn-`Alí (Bahá'u'lláh) to Ásíyih Khánum. [BKG23; RB1:382]
  • She was the daughter of a nobleman Mirza Isma’il-l-Vazie from Yalrud. [CoB117, BKG23, RoB1p382, BPP44, SoG6]
  • Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Wives of; Weddings; Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1835 - 1836 Siyyid 'Ali Muhammad (the Báb) moved to Bushihr to manage his uncles’ business interests in that city. He stayed there for five or six years. [HotD19, DB77note1, B39-41] Bushihr; Iran Bab, Life of; Business; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1835 Nov c. Hájí Mírzá Áqásí, the former tutor of the Shah became the Prime Minister of Persia. His inexperience in administration and finance combined with entrenched corruption, incompetence and a soaring budget deficit in the government nearly bankrupted the country making it ripe for revolution. Iran Prime Ministers of Iran; Prime Ministers; Haji Mirza Aqasi
    1837 (In the year) Birth of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Hasan, Sultánu'sh-Shuhadá' (`King of Martyrs'), in Isfahán. Isfahan; Iran Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Births and deaths
    c. 1837 Birth of Mírzá Muhammad Mustafáy-i-Baghdádí, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Iraq. Iraq Mirza Muhammad Mustafay-i-Baghdadi; Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths
    1838 (In the year) Manúchihr Khán was appointed Governor of Isfahán. [BBR167] Isfahan; Iran Manuchihr Khan; Governors
    1839 (In the year) Passing of Mírzá Buzurg. His body was taken to Najaf, Iraq where he was interred. [BBD49; BKG17; BNE23–4]
  • In 1957 the remains of Mírzá Buzurg were located and transferred. [MBW175]
  • Najaf; Iraq Mirza Buzurg; Bahaullah, Family of; Bahaullah, Life of; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Cemeteries and graves; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1839 (In the year) Defeat of Persia at the hands of the British. [BBRSM55] Iran War (general); Britain; History (general); Iran, General history
    1839 As the eldest son, after the passing of Mírzá Buzurg, Bahá'u'lláh assumed His place as the head of the family. According to the custom He was expected to succeed to His father's position in the Ministry but He refused.

    One of His first acts as the head of the family was to free the slaves who were engaged in serving the household. All took the liberty to leave but Isfandíyár and one woman elected to remain in service. [SoW Vol IX, April 28, 1918 p38-39, CH41]

    Iran Isfandiyar; Slavery; Mirza Buzurg; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1840 (In the year) The British fleet took `Akká from the Egyptians. [BBR202] Akka; Israel; Egypt; United Kingdom History (general)
    1841 (In the year) Siyyid `Alí Muhammad (the Báb) went Karbalá where He attended the lectures of Siyyid Kázim-i-Rashtí, Shaykh Ahmad's successor. From Karbalá He went to Najaf before returning to Shíráz. [DB26-30; B42–4; MH25; RB3:254; SBBH15]
  • The followers of Shaykh Ahmad number about 100,000 in Iraq alone. [MH25, HotD25]
  • BBRSM13 says the Báb went to Najaf and Karbalá in 1839/40.
  • Najaf; Karbala; Iraq Bab, Life of; Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti; Shaykh Ahmad-i-Ahsai; Shaykhism; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1842 (In the year) Birth of Hájí Ákhúnd (Mullá `Alí-Akbar Shahmírzádí), who was named a Hand of the Cause by Bahá'u'lláh. Iran Haji Akhund (Mulla Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi); Hands of the Cause; Births and deaths; Births and deaths
    1842 Aug The marriage of Siyyid `Alí Muhammad (the Báb) in Shíráz to Khadíjih-Bagum (b. 1821) the daughter of Mirzá 'Ali, a merchant of Shiraz. She had been a childhood friend and sometimes playmate. Their family homes were adjacent. [B46; BBD28, 127; BKG402; RB2:382; DoH107; DB76note3]
  • See B80 for a reproduction of the marriage certificate.
  • Shiraz; Iran Bab, Life of; Bab, Family of; Weddings; Khadijih Bagum; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1843 (In the year) Birth of Ahmad, son of the Báb. He passed away shortly after he was born. [Bab46-47; DB76note4; 77; KBWB6-9]
  • DB74 for a picture of his resting-place. Also see BKWB7 for possible sites of his place of burial.
  • Shiraz; Iran Ahmad (son of the Bab); Bab, Life of; Bab, Family of; Cemeteries and graves; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1843 10 Jan The Báb dreamed that He drank a few drops of blood from the wounds of the martyred Imám Husayn. After this dream He felt that the Spirit of God had taken possession of His soul. At this moment He received intimation that He was to be a Manifestation of God. [GPB92; BBRSM14; DB253, HotD23-24]
  • Khadíjih Bagum apparently recognized her Husband as the promised Qá'im `sometime before the Báb declared His mission after having seen Him wrapt in prayer during the night. He bade her to keep this knowledge concealed. He entrusted her with a special prayer to be used before she went to sleep, the reading of which would remove her difficulties and lighten the burden of her woes.[DB191–2; HotD27; KBWB9-14]
  • Shiraz; Iran Bab, Life of; Dreams; Blood; Imam Husayn; Khadijih Bagum; Remover of Difficulties (prayer) first person to understand The Báb's station.
    1843 10 Jan The sacking of the holy city of Karbalá at the hands of the Turks. Thousands of its citizens were killed even those who had taken refuge in the Shrines of Imám Husayn or 'Abbás. [BBRSM55, HotD10, DB36-37] Karbala; Iraq Ottoman Empire; War (general); History (general)
    1843 31 Dec Passing of Siyyid Kázim-i-Rashtí, the disciple and self-proclaimed successor of Shaykh Ahmad, in Karbalá. Because Siyyid Kázim designated no successor, within a short period of time the Shaykhí school was split into several factions. The two largest were grouped around Siyyid `Alí Muhammad and Hájí Mullá Muhammad Karím Khán Kirmání. The first faction moved away from the outward practice of Islám towards a development of inner realities and ultimately a new revelation. The second emphasized the continuing role of the Prophets and the Imáms and sought acceptance from the Shí'í majority which had formerly excommunicated Shaykh Ahmad and Siyyid Kázim. [BBD126–7; MH26; SBBH1; TB6, Sayyid Kazim Rashti by Moojan Momen]
  • The latter, Hájí Mullá Muhammad Karím Khán Kirmání, became an enemy of the Báb. [SDH165]
  • BBRSM9 for a brief account of his life and the Shaykhí school under his leadership.
  • See MH28 for a picture.
  • See DB43–5, MH46–7 for an account of a warning of his passing in a shepard's dream.
  • Bahá'u'lláh condemned him in both the Kitáb-i-Íqán (p.184-186) and the Lawh-i-Qiná.
  • See DB24-25, 40-42 for Siyyid Kázim's exhortations to his followers predicting the manifestation of both the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh.
  • Karbala; Iraq Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti; Shaykh Ahmad-i-Ahsai; Shaykhism; Siyyid Ali Muhammad; Haji Mulla Muhammad Karim Khan Kirmani; Shiism; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1844 (In the year) Birth of Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl-i-Gulpáygání, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Gulpáygán. Gulpaygan; Iran Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths
    1844 (In the year) Edict of Toleration: The relaxation of the order for the exclusion of the Jews from the Holy Land. GPB iv Luke 21:24 Israel Edict of Toleration; Jews; Judaism; History (general)
    1844 10 Jan The arrival of Táhirih in Karbilá. She had learned of the views of Shaykh Ahmad and Siyyid Kázim and had corresponded with the latter from whom she received her name, Qurratu'l-Ayn, meaning "Solace of the Eyes". Against the wishes of her family she had left her home to join the circle of his students but arrived in Karbilá ten days after his passing. Convinced that the Promised One would soon appear she stayed on in that city as Siyyid Kázim's disciples were departing in their search. To one of them, her brother-in-law, Mírzá Muhammad-i-Alíy-i-Qazvíní, she gave a sealed letter and told him to deliver it to the One Sought. This he did and the Báb recognized her as one of the Letters of the Living. [B25-26; DB81note2]
  • She had had a dream in which a youth, a Siyyid wearing a black cloak and a green turban, appeared to her in the heavens, who with upraised hands was reciting certain verses, one of which she noted down in her book. Later on, when she had a copy of the Báb's Súrih of Joseph, she discovered that same verse which she had heard in her dream. [DB81note2]
  • Karbala; Iraq Tahirih; Shaykh Ahmad-i-Ahsai; Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti; Mirza Muhammad-i-Aliy-i-Qazvini; Letters of the Living
    1844 22 Jan Mullá Husayn returned to Karbilá after a journey of two years in Persia. He had been on a mission in Isfahán and Mashhad where he had successfully defended the views of his master, Siyyid Kázim, before the leading clerics of those cities. [MH49]
  • Mulla Husayn, as the leading representative of the Siyyid's disciples, received mourners for three days in Karbilá. [DB47]
  • After a period of mourning and 40 days of prayer and fasting, Mulla Husayn in the company of his brother and his nephew, set out for Najaf where he visited the shrine and then proceeded to Persia following the last wishes of Siyyid Kázim that his followers quit Karbalá and search for the Promised One. The party went to Búshihr and then on to Shíráz. [MH50–55, HotD28; DB51]
  • See SI dust-jacket for a photo of the Shrine of Imam 'Ali.
  • Karbala; Isfahan; Mashhad; Najaf; Bushihr; Shiraz; Iraq; Iran Mulla Husayn; Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti
    1844 7 Feb Birth of Shaykh Kázim-i-Samandarí, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Qazvín. Qazvin; Iran Shaykh Kazim-i-Samandari; Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths
    1844 22 May Declaration of the Báb's Mission

    Two hours and eleven minutes after sunset Siyyid `Alí-Muhammad made His declaration to Mullá Husayn-i-Bushrú'í. [DB52-65]

    “I am, I am, I am, the promised One! I am the One whose name you have for a thousand years invoked, at whose mention you have risen, whose advent you have longed to witness, and the hour of whose Revelation you have prayed God to hasten. Verily I say, it is incumbent upon the peoples of both the East and the West to obey My word and to pledge allegiance to My person.” [DB315-316]

  • See SI231 for information on the anticipated return of the Hidden Imam. See BBR2pg42-3 and DB57 for a list of signs by which the Promised One would be known.
  • See BW5p600-4 for a brief biography of William Miller the founder of the Adventist sect who, after intense study of the Bible, had predicted the return of Christ on March 21, 1844. See BW5p604 for mention of other Christians who made similar predictions.
  • See DB383 and BBR2pg25 for information on Mulla Husayn-i-Bushru’i. See CoB110 for the significance of the first believer.
  • See SBBH1:14 for a possible explanation for Mullá Husayn's presence in Shíráz at this time.
  • Nabíl-i-A`zam relates that Mullá Husayn was welcomed at the Báb's mansion by Mubárak, His Ethiopian servant. Others resident in this house at the time were Fiddih (f), responsible for the preparation of the food and the mother of Siyyid 'Alí-Muhammad, Zahrá Bagum. [DB53; KBWB5]
  • He revealed the first chapter of the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá' (the Commentary on the Súrih of Joseph. The entire text will later be translated by Táhirih. [B19–21; BBD190–1; BBRSM14–15; BKG28; BW12:85–8; BWMF16; DB52–65, 264, 216, BBR2pg14-15, GPB23, 73; MH56–71; SBBH17, HotD30]
  • Bahá'u'lláh has described this book as being `the first, the greatest, and mightiest of all books' in the Bábí Dispensation. [GPB23]
  • See SBBH5pg1 for discussion on the Qayyumu’l-Asma’.
  • This text was the most widely circulated of all the Báb's writings and came to be regarded as the Bábí Qur'an for almost the entirety of His mission. [BBRSM32]
  • This date marks the end of the Adamic Cycle of approximately six thousand years and the beginning of the Bahá'í Cycle or Cycle of Fulfilment. [BBD9, 35, 72; GPB100] Shoghi Effendi is quoted as saying that this is the second most important anniversary on the Bahá'í calendar. ZK320
  • The beginning of the Apostolic, Heroic or Primitive Age. [BBD35, 67]
  • See MH86–7 for an explanation of the implication of the word `Báb' to the Shí'í Muslims.
  • Three stages of the Báb's Revelation:
    1. He chose the title `Báb' and Mullá Husayn was given the title Bábu'l-Báb (the gate of the Gate).
    2. In the second year of the Revelation (from His confinement in the house of His uncle in Shíráz) He took the title of Siyyid-i-dhikr (dhikr means `remembrance of God') and gave the title `Báb' to Mullá Husayn. At Fort Tabarsí Mullá Husayn was called `Jináb-i Báb' by his companions.
    3. At His public declaration the Báb declared Himself to be the promised Qá'im. [MH87–8]
  • Shiraz; Iran Bab, Life of; Bab, Declaration of; Holy days; Bab, Writings of; Mulla Husayn; Qayyumul-Asma (book); Surih of Joseph; Tahirih; Bab, Life of; Cycles; Ages and Epochs; Heroic age; Qaim; Promised One; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bab, Basic timeline; Mubarak; Letters of the Living First, the greatest, and mightiest of all books in the Bábí Dispensation
    1844 23 May The birth of `Abdu'l-Bahá in a rented house near the Shimrán Gate in Tihrán. He was born at midnight. [AB9, SoG3-4]
  • He was known as `Abbás Effendi outside the Bahá'í community.
  • Bahá'u'lláh gave Him the titles Ghusn-i-A`zam (the Most Great Branch), Sirru'lláh (Mystery of God) and Áqá (the Master). [BBD2, 19, 87, 89]
  • Sarkár-i-Áqá (the Honourable Master) was a title of `Abdu'l-Bahá. [BBD201]
  • He Himself chose the title `Abdu'l-Bahá (Servant of Bahá) after the passing of Bahá'u'lláh. [BBD2]
  • Tihran; Iran Abdul-Baha, Life of; Bahaullah, Life of; Bab, Declaration of; Births and deaths; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1844 Jul - Aug Forty days after the Declaration of the Báb, the second Letter of the Living, Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí, had a vision that led him to Mullá Husayn and he accepted the Báb. During this period of waiting for the second person to recognize the Báb, He called Mulla Husayn to His house several times. He always came at night and stayed until dawn. [HotD41; Bahá’í Encyclopedia].
  • Sixteen others recognized Siyyid `Alí-Muhammad as the Promised One. The 18 were later designated `Letters of the Living'. [BBD138, B21–7; DB63–71, 80–2; MH73–81, MH121, SBBH1:16–17, GPB7-8]
  • See RB2:145–6 for the fate of the Letters of the Living.
  • See B26–7, BBD138, DB80–1, MH81 ; Letters of the Living (Hurúf-i-Hayy) for a list of the Letters of the Living.
  • See BBRSM24–5 for more on the Letters of the Living.
  • See BBRSM24–5 for a discussion of the special places occupied by Quddús, Mullá Husayn and Táhirih. See DB81-82 for the story of how Tahirih was recognized as a Letter of the Living by the Báb.
  • Iran Bab, Life of; Bab, Declaration of; Mulla Ali Bastami; Dreams; Mulla Husayn; Letters of the Living; Quddus; Tahirih; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1844 Jul - Aug The intention of the Báb was to introduce the new Revelation slowly so as not to cause estrangement. He instructed the Letters of the Living to spread out and teach His Faith and to this end He assigned each one a special task, most often to their own native provinces. This is analogous to Christ's instructions to His disciples. He instructed them to record the mane of every believer who embraced the Faith and send their lists to His uncle, Hájí Mírzá 'Alí in Shíráz in a sealed envelope. Thus fourteen Letters of the Living were dispatched; only Mullá Husayn and Quddús remained with Him. [BBRSM14–16, 36; SWB119, BBR2p36, DB92–4, 123; MH82–6; SBBH1:19]
  • To Mullá Husayn He had given the task of delivering a Tablet to Bahá'u'lláh in Tihrán and going to the court of the Sháh to apprise him of the Báb's cause. Mullá Husayn was not able to gain access to the Sháh. [B48–57; BBRSM15 BKG32–3; CH22–3; DB85-87, 96, 97; MH90–2, 102] He was also directed to send Him a written report on the nature and progress of his activities in Isfáhán, Tehran and in Khurásán. Not until He received this letter from Khurásán would He depart on pilgrimage. [DB123]
  • Mullá Husayn carried a Tablet revealed by the Báb for Muhammad Sháh to Tihrán . This was the first of a number of unsuccessful attempts to make him aware of the Revelation. [BBRSM20–1; MH102; SWB13]
  • Note: MH118-119 and DB127-128 indicate that Mullá Husayn had been in Tehran "between the months of Jámádí and Rajab". The first day of Jámádí, 1260 corresponds to 18 June, and the last day of Rajab to 15 August, 1844.
  • See RB2:303, `The Báb … sent Tablets to only two monarchs of His day — Muhammad Sháh of Persia and Sultán `Abdu'l-Majíd of Turkey.'
  • From Shiraz Mullá Husayn journeyed north to Isfahán where his message was rejected by the 'ulamás. Mullá Ja'far, the sifter of wheat, was the first and only one to embrace the Cause of the Báb in that city. There was however, a disciple of Siyyid Kazim, Mírzá Muhammad-'Alíy-i-Nahrí, who had been instructed to go to Isfahan some five years earlier to prepare the way for the advent of the new Revelation, who was receptive to the message of Mulla Husayn. He was instructed to go to Kirmán and acquaint Hájí Mírzá Karím Khán with the Message and then to travel to Shiraz. (This man's daughter was subsequently joined in wedlock with 'Abdu'l-Bahá.)[DB100]
  • Mullá Husayn then traveled to Káshán, about 130 miles from Isfahán. He had great success in that city but news of his conversion brought the wrath of the official clergy down upon him. [DB101note1; DB123-125]
  • He then went to Qum, another 100 miles from Káshán where he met with no success. After Qum he went to Tihrán. [MH98–101, DB101]
  • In Tirhrán he took residence in a madrisih and first met with the leader of the shaykhí community, Hájí Mírzá Muhammad, but he failed to win him over. He did, however, manage to convince a number of souls in private conversations. [DB103note1] This same reference seems to indicate that his well-wishers assisted in delivering the Tablet to Muhammad Sháh and his minister, Hájí Mírzá Àqásí but they did not receive it. " the book was not submitted to thy presence, through the intervention of such as regard themselves the well-wishers of the government." [Selections from the Writings of the Báb page 13]
  • See B53–6; DB104–7, MH104–110 for the delivery of the Báb's Tablet to Bahá'u'lláh by the young student, Mullá Huhammad-i-Mu'allim, a native of Núr. Mullá Husayn did not meet Bahá'u'lláh on this occasion.
  • On receiving the Tablet of the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh accepted His Cause and asked that a gift of a loaf of Russian sugar and a package of tea be given to Mulla Husayn for delivery to the Báb. [DB106-107] See DB123-125 for his activities in Khán.
  • Mullá Husayn left for Khurásán, as he had been instructed, winning supporters for the Báb's Cause while there he wrote to the Báb regarding these new believers and Bahá'u'lláh's immediate response to the Báb's Revelation. [B56, DB128–9, MH118]
  • After Khurásán he travelled to Najaf and Karbilá where he was to wait for further instructions from the Báb. [DB86]
  • See MH121–2 for a discussion of the speed of Mullá Husayn's journey before the letter was dispatched to the Báb. It assumes that Mullá Husayn departed after the Báb met with all the Letters of the Living (date not before 2 July, 1844.) In fact both Mullá Husayn and Mullá 'Alíy-Bastámí had been dispatched before this meeting. [DB85-86, 92, HotD46]
  • Kashan; Shiraz; Isfahan; Tihran; Mazandaran; Khurasan; Qum; Iran; Turkey Bab, Life of; Bab, Writings of; Letters of the Living; Mulla Husayn; Bahaullah, Life of; Tablet to Bahaullah; Shahs; Mulla Jafar (sifter of wheat); Muhammad Shah; Sultan Abdul-Majid; First believers; Letters of the Living; Bab, Basic timeline; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded First to embrace the Cause of the Báb in the city of Isfahán; first of a number of unsuccessful attempts to enlist aid of Muhammad Sháh
    1844 Jul - Aug To promote the Cause of the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh immediately journeyed to the village of Tákur in the province of Mázindarán, His native province. As a result Mázindarán in general and Núr in particular were the first among the provinces and districts of Persia to embrace the new Cause. [DB109-117] Takur; Iran Bahaullah, Life of; Basic timeline; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded first provinces and districts of Persia to embrace the Cause of the Bab.
    1844 11 Aug The Báb sent Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí to Najaf and Karbalá to proclaim His Cause among the Shaykhís. In Najaf Mullá `Alí delivered a letter from the Báb to Shaykh Muhammad-Hasan Najafí, the leading Shí`í divine and the keeper of the shrines in Iraq. [BBRSM15; DB87-91; SBBH20–1, HotD46]
  • The Shaykh's rejection of the claim led to a violent debate. Mullá `Alí was taken to Baghdád and imprisoned there. After a public trial, a joint tribunal of Sunní and Shí`í `ulamá, he was sent to Istanbul. He was the first martyr of the Bábí Dispensation. It is significant that Mullá Hasan Gawhar, a leading figure of the Shaykhí school, participated in the condemnation as it marks the first major challenge to Bábism from a Shaykhí leader. [B27, 37–8, 58; BBR83–90; BBRSM17; BKG31; DB90–2; MMBA, BBR2p17, GPB10]
  • Istanbul; Turkey; Iraq; Baghdad; Najaf; Karbala Bab, Life of; Mulla Ali Bastami; Ulama; Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Shaykhism; Firsts, Other; Trials; Court cases; Persecution, Court cases; Letters of the Living First martyr of the Bábí Dispensation; first major challenge to Babism from a Shaykhí leader
    1844 30 Sep The Báb received the letter from Mullá Husayn giving Him details of his journey and meeting with Bahá'u'lláh and others he had contacted. See DB126-128 for information on the letter and the affect it had on the Báb.
  • Nabíl indicated that the Báb received the letter on 9 October (26 Ramadan) and that it was a deciding factor in His decision to undertake the pilgrimage. [DB126–7, 129]
  • Balyuzi says soon after the Báb received the letter, `in the month of September' He left Shíráz'. [B57]
  • GPB8-9 says He received the letter in the month of Sha'bán, 1260 (16 August to 13 September, 1844).
  • See MH119 where the author speculates that if the letter arrived on 16 Ramadan (29 September) and the Báb departed from the port of Búshihr on the 19th of Ramadan (2 October, 1844), He had to have been in Búshihr when He received the letter.
  • Shiraz; Bushihr; Iran Bab, Life of; Bab, Pilgrimage of; Mulla Husayn; Bahaullah, Life of; Letters of the Living
    1844 Oct Pigrimage of the Báb

    The Báb, Quddús (Hájí Mullá Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Barfurúshí) and the Báb's Ethiopian servant, Mubarak, left Shíráz for Búshihr en route to Mecca. The journey took ten days. [B57; DB129; MH119]
  • DB129 says He left Shíráz during the month of Shavvál, 1260 (14 October to 11 November, 1844).
  • SBBH1 xxviii shows the departure date as 12 November, 1844.
  • Balyuzi, B57 says "in the month of September.
  • Iran; Saudi Arabia; Shiraz; Bushihr; Mecca Bab, Life of; Bab, Pilgrimage of; Quddus; Servants; Mubarak; Letters of the Living; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1844 2 or 3 Oct The Báb departed from Búshihr on His pilgrimage. [B57; MH119, 121, GPB9]
  • He instructed His followers to await His arrival in Karbalá. [DB86, 87; MH122; SBBH1:23]
  • He had been awaiting the letter from Mullá Husayn before starting on His pilgrimage. [DB123; MH117]
  • The vessel taking the Báb to Jiddah was probably the Arab sailing-boat named Futúh-ar-Ras`ul. [B69]
  • He joined the company of a group of pilgrims from Fárs. [DB76-77]
  • It was slow, stormy and unsteady sailing and the passengers were in constant dispute amongst themselves. [DB129note2]
  • The Báb, recognizing the difficulty in sea-travel, prayered that conditions might be improved. Nabil noted on page 131 "Within a short space of time, since that prayer was offered, maritime transport have greatly multiplied, and the Persian gulf, which in those days hardly possessed a single steam-driven vessel, now boast a fleet of ocean liners...". He goes on to attribute the Industrial Revolution to the impulse of the Revelation.
  • After twelve days the vessel made a rest-stop in Mascate for several days. The Báb attempted to convert a religious man of high rank but was unsuccessful. [DB129note2; [DB130note1]
  • Karbala; Iraq; Jiddah; Saudi Arabia; Muscate Bab, Life of; Bab, Pilgrimage of; Mulla Husayn; Ships; Industrial Revolution
    1844 c. Dec The Báb and His companions arrived in Jiddah after a rough sea voyage of two months. There they put on the garb of the pilgrim and proceed to Mecca by camel. [B71; DB129, 132]
  • See B69–71 and DB130–1 for a description of the voyage.
  • Quddús walked from Jiddah to Mecca. [B71, DB132, GPB9]
  • See DB132 for the story of the theft of his saddlebag by a Bedouin.
  • Jiddah; Saudi Arabia; Mecca; Saudi arabia Bab, Life of; Bab, Pilgrimage of; Quddus; Ships; Camels
    1844 12 Dec The Báb arrived in Mecca and performed the rites of pilgrimage in company with 100,000 other pilgrims. [GPB9]
  • See B70 and SA107-8 for the timing, rites and significance of the pilgrimage.
  • Mecca; Saudi Arabia Bab, Life of; Bab, Pilgrimage of; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1844 20 - 21 Dec The Báb offered 19 lambs as a sacrifice in the prescribed manner, nine in His own name, seven in the name of Quddús and three in the name of Mubarak, His Ethiopian servant, distributing the meat to the poor and needy. [B71; DB133] Mecca; Saudi Arabia Bab, Life of; Bab, Pilgrimage of; Quddus; Mubarak,
    1844 c. 20 Dec The Báb made a declaration of His mission by standing at the Ka`bih, holding the ring of the door and repeating three times that He is the Qá'im.
  • On the last day of His pilgrimage He made an open challenge to Mírzá Muhammad-Husayn-i-Kirmání, known as Muhít, of the Shaykhí school promising him that He would answer any questions he might pose on the condition that he either refute His Cause or bear allegiance to it. He fled for Medina before honouring his promise to submit questions. The Báb, while in transit to Medina, wrote a reply to the questions which had perplexed Mírzá Muhít (The Epistle between the Two Shrines) and had it delivered to him in Karbilá. He remained unmoved by the precepts inculcated, his attitude to the Faith was one of concealed and persistent opposition. [DB137-138; SBBR5p103-104; Bab73–4]
  • See DB137-138 for Mírzá Muhít's dealings with Bahá'u'lláh.
  • The Báb sent Quddus with an invitation to the Sharíf of Mecca acquainting him with the new Revelation. The Sharíf was too busy to respond. Years later he recognized his error in ignoring the epistle. [B71-74; BW12:89; DB138-140; GPB9, 89] iiiii
  • Mecca; Saudi Arabia Bab, Life of; Bab, Pilgrimage of; Kabih; Qaim; Mirza Muhammad-Husayn-i-Kirmani (Muhit); Mirza Muhit; Shaykhism; Sharif of Mecca; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; The Bab, Writings of
    c. 1845 or perhaps 1850 Birth of Mírzá `Alí-Muhammad-i-Khurásání, later known as Ibn-i-Asdaq, Hand of the Cause.
  • His father, Mullá Sádiq-i-Muqaddas had left his native Khurasan and travelled to the city of Karbila where he saw the Báb. Subsequently he went to Isfahan where he encountered Mullá Husayn Bushrui who led him to the recognition of the Promised One. He and Quddús were later dragged through the streets of Shiraz and expelled from the city.
  • In 1862 he and his father met Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdad. [PG108-109]
  • Iran Ibn-i-Asdaq (Mirza Ali-Muhammad); Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
    1845 c. Jan Crowds gathered in Karbalá in response to the Báb's summons, among them was Táhirih. [BabI62; BBRSM15, 215; SBBH1:22] Karbala; Iraq Bab, Life of; Tahirih
    1845 10 Jan The beginning of the Islamic new year. Messianic fervour grew, particularly among Shaykhís. [BBRSM15] Middle East; Iran; Iraq Prophecies; Shaykhism; Islam; Interfaith dialogue
    1845 13 Jan The trial of Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí in Baghdád. A fatwá is issued in Baghdád against both Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí and the Báb, condemning the Báb, who is unnamed in the fatwá, to death as an unbeliever. [B64; BBRSM15, 215; SBBH21, 22] Baghdad; Iraq Trials; Mulla Ali Bastami; Qayyumul-Asma (book); Fatwa; Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases
    1845 16 Jan The Báb arrived in Medina from Mecca.
  • DB140 says He arrived January 10, 1845.
  • He stayed for 27 days. [MS2] From there He proceeded to Jiddah where He took a boat bound for Búshihr. [B75]
  • Medina; Mecca; Saudi Arabia Bab, Life of; Bab, Pilgrimage of; Epistle between Two Shrines
    1845 12 Feb The Báb left Medina for Jiddah. [MS2] Medina; Jiddah; Saudi Arabia Bab, Life of; Bab, Pilgrimage of
    1845 27 Feb The Báb left Jiddah. [MS2]
  • He disembarked at Muscat and remained there for two months, awaiting news of the outcome of Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí's trial. [MS2]
  • He sent a letter to the Imám of Muscat. [MS2]
  • SBBH23 says the Báb left Jiddah on 4 March.
  • Jeddah; Saudi Arabia; Muscat; Oman Bab, Life of; Bab, Pilgrimage of; Mulla Ali Bastami; Trials; Bab, Writings of; Imam of Muscat; Court cases; Persecution, Court cases
    1945 Feb - Mar The Báb returned to Búshihr. He sent Quddús to Shíráz with a letter addressed to His uncle Hájí Mírzá Siyyid `Alí who, upon receiving it, embraced his Nephew's Cause, the first, after the Letters of the Living, to do so in Shíráz. The Báb also entrusted Quddús with a treatise for him entitled Khasá'il-i-Sab`ih (`the Seven Qualifications') and promised him his impending martyrdom. Later he gave his life as one of the Seven Martyrs of Tehran, see 1850 19 or 20 Feb. [B77–8; DB142–3; MS2, GPB9-10]
  • To the departing Quddus He promised intense suffering in Shíráz and eventual martyrdom. [DB142-143]
  • B77 and GPB10 say the Báb arrived in Búshihr in February - March.
  • SSBH1p23 and BBRSM216 say 15 May, 1845.
  • Before leaving on pilgrimage the Báb had stated that He would return to Karbalá and asked His followers to congregate there. An explanation in part for the large following that had gathered there is the messianic expectation associated with the year 1261, a thousand years after the Twelfth Imám's disappearance in 260 A.H.. This gathering was perceived as a threat by the authorities. [BBRSM15, 45, 216; DB157–8; SBBH1p23, 32]
  • The Báb changed His plan to meet His followers in Karbalá and instructed them to go to Isfahán instead. A number abandon Him, regarding this as badá', `alteration of divine will'. [BBRSM16; DB158; MH125; SBBH23]
  • Some speculate that He did not go to Karbalá to avoid conflict and sedition. Many Bábís had gone to Karbalá armed in preparation for holy war, `jihád'. [BBRSM21–2; SBBH1:23]
  • Bushihr; Iran; Shiraz Bab, Life of; Bab, Pilgrimage of; Bab, Family of; Bab, Uncles of; Uncles; Quddus; Haji Mirza Siyyid Ali; Dhasail-i-Sabih (Seven Qualifications); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; First believers; The Bab, Writings of first to embrace the Cause after the Letters of the Living.
    1845 c. 16 Apr Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí was removed from his prison cell in Baghdád and taken to Istanbul, where he was sentenced to hard labour in the imperial naval dockyard. Istanbul; Turkey; Baghdad; Iraq Mulla Ali Bastami; Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Turkey; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1845 c. Jun After expelling Mullá Husayn and Mullá Sádiq the governor of Fárs, Hasayn Khán ordered that the Báb, the instigator of the commotion, be arrested and brought to Shíráz. [B84; BW18:380; DB148–50; GPB11]
    Bushihr; Shiraz; Iran Governors; Husayn Khan; Quddus; Ismullahul-Asdaq (Mulla Sadiq Khurasani); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; Bab, Life of; Persecution
    1845 28 Jun Prince Dolgorukov was appointed Russian ambassador to Tihrán. He was previously first secretary of the Russian legation at Constantinople. He arrived in Tihrán in January 1846.
  • See Conspiracies and Forgeries: The Attack upon the Bahá'í Community in Iran by Moojan Momen where it says "Prince Dolgoruki....was Russian Minister in Tehran from 1845 to 1854".
  • Istanbul; Turkey; Tihran; Iran; Russia Prince Dolgorukov; Ambassadors; History (general); Iran, General history find reference
    1845 30 Jun At Dálakí, some 40 miles northeast of the Búshíhr, the Báb met the soldiers of the governor of Fárs who had been sent to arrest Him. He was escorted to Shíráz. [Bab84, 105; BBR170; BBRSM216; DB148–9; GPB11; TN6, SBBH1pxxv111]
  • DB150 says the Báb travelled `free and unfettered', `before His escort'.
  • BBRSM16 implies the Báb returned to Shíráz by Himself in July and that He was placed under house arrest upon arrival.
  • Dalaki; Fars; Shiraz; Iran Bab, Life of; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1845 c. July In Kirmán, Karím Khán, the self-appointed leading Shaykhí cleric, had a number of Bábís expelled from the city. [BBRSM17–18] Kirman; Iran Haji Mulla Muhammad Karim Khan Kirmani; Shaykhism
    1845 c. July Karím Khán wrote a number of refutations of the Báb. The first, Isháqu'l-Bátil (The Crushing of Falsehood) was published in July. This caused some Bábís to dissociate themselves from Shaykhism. [BBRSM17–18] Kirman; Iran Haji Mulla Muhammad Karim Khan Kirmani; Shaykhism
    1845 c. 7 Jul The Báb arrived in Shíráz.
  • Note: Other estimates for the time of His arrival in Shíráz are from about the 8th to 16th of August based on the fact that Husayn Khán ordered His arrest after the beating of Mullá Sádiq and Quddús. "According to A. L. M. Nicolas’ “Siyyid ‘Alí-Muhammad dit le Báb” (footnote 175, p. 225), this meeting took place on August 6, 1845 A.D." [DB146n2]
  • Bab105 says it must have taken the Báb another week at least to reach Shíráz;
  • SBBH1:24 says He arrived in Shíráz in early July.
  • Upon arrival in Shíráz the Báb was taken to the governor who publicly interrogated Him, rebuked Him and ordered his attendant to strike Him across the face. He was struck such a violent blow that His turban fell to the ground. Due to the intervention of Shay Abú-Turáb, the head ímam of the region He was released into the custody of His maternal uncle Hájí Mírzá Siyyid `Alí. [Bab85–9; BBRSM216; DB150–1; GPB11]
  • Note: DB155 states that after He was released and "regained His home" He was able to celebrate Naw-Rúz that fell on 10 Rabí'u'l-Avval, 1261 (19 March, 1945). This is an error. GPB11 says He was able to "celebrate the Naw-Rúz of that and the succeeding year in an atmosphere of relative tranquillity in the company of His mother, His wife and His uncle.'' This too appears to be in error. If He left Shíráz in September of 1846 He would not have been present In March of 1847.
  • Three of the divines of Shíráz passed a verdict of death upon The Báb. But for the intercession of Zahrá Bagum, the sister of the wife of The Báb, Khadíjih-Bagum, the mother of The Báb, Fátimih Bagum, with Shay Abú-Turáb, the Imám-Jum'ih of Shíráz, the Báb would have been executed. [LTDT12]
  • Shiraz; Iran Bab, Life of; Bab, Family of; Bab, Uncles of; Uncles; Haji Mirza Siyyid Ali; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1845 July and months following In Karbalá Táhirih revived the remnant of the Bábí community. She was considered a part of the radical element of Shaykhí Bábís because she believed that the Shaykhí tradition had been abrogated by the new Revelation. The new Bábí movement caused the Shaykhí leaders to unite in their opposition to the Báb and to redefine the nature of the school, toning down its more controversial teachings and moving back towards mainstream Shí`ísm. [BBRSM16–18] Karbala; Iraq Tahirih; Shaykhism
    1845 Jul (and months following) The Báb was released to the custody of His uncle, Hájí Mírzá Siyyid 'Alí. [DB151, LTDT13]
  • Báb was asked by Mírzá Abu'l-Qásim to attend a Friday gathering at the Mosque of Vakíl to appease the hostility and the curiosity of some of the residents of Shíráz and to clarify His position. The exact date of His attendance is unknown. He made a public pronouncement that He was neither the representative of the Hidden Imám nor the gate to him, that is, His station was higher. Many of those who witnessed His address became partisans. [Bab94–8; DB153–157]
  • see DB152 for pictures of the above mosque.
  • This time has been described by Shoghi Effendi as the `most fecund period' of the Báb's ministry. It marks the birth of the Bábí community. [Bab89–90]
  • During this time He was asked to speak in mosques and in colleges and He addressed gatherings in His home. The clergy sent their most able mullas to refute and humiliate Him without success. He never attacked the government or Islam but rather called out the corrupt clergy and the abuses of all classes of society. His fame and acceptance among the population grew. [DB157note1]
  • A considerable number of the Báb's followers had congregated in Isfahan at His instruction when He informed them He would not go to Karbilá when He returned from Mecca as He had previously stated. Upon hearing the news of the confinement of the Báb, Mullá Husayn and his companions, his brother and nephew, left Isfahán where they have been awaiting further instructions. They travelled to Shíráz in disguise. Mullá Husayn was able to meet secretly with the Báb several times in the house of His uncle. The Báb sent word to the remainder of His followers in Isfahán to leave and to travel to Shíráz in small, inconspicuous numbers. Among those gathered were some who were jealous of Múllá Husayn and the attention he received from the Báb. They threw their lot in with the detractors and were eventually expelled from the city for the unrest they caused. [DB160-162; Bab102–3; MH128–9]
  • After a time the presence of Mullá Husayn in Shíráz threatened to cause civil unrest. The Báb instructed him to go to Khurásán via Yazd and Kirmán and told the rest of the companions to return to Isfahán. He retained Mullá 'Abdu'l-Karím to transcribe His Writings. [Bab90, 102–3; DB170; MH130]
  • The Sháh sent one of the most learned men in Persia, Siyyid Yahyáy-i-Dárábí, (a town near Nayriz) surnamed Vahíd, to investigate the claims of the Báb. He became an adherent of the Cause of the Báb. To him He revealed some 2,000 verses at one sitting of five hours and among the the Surih of Kawthar. Vahíd and 'Abdu'l-Karím spent three days and three nights transcribing this Tablet. Siyyid Yahyáy-i-Dárábí wrote to the Sháh and resigned his post. On the instructions of the Báb he journeyed home to acquaint his father with the new Message. As a result of his conversion most of the inhabitants of the town of Nayríz later became Bábís. [Bab90–4; BBD216; BBRSM41; CH21; DB171–7; GPB11–12; TN7–8; DB171-172note 2; Tablet of Patience (Surih Íabr): Declaration of Bahá’u’lláh and Selected Topics by Foad Seddigh p370] iiiii
  • Another learned scholar, Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Zanjání, surnamed Hujjat, became a believer after reading only one page of the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá'. Several thousand of his fellow townspeople in Zanján became Bábís. [Bab100–2; BBD111; BBRSM16; GPB12; DB177-179]
  • Mírzá Ahmad-i-Azghandí, yet another learned man, who had compiled traditions and prophecies concerning the expected Revelation, became a believer as well. [GPB12–13]
  • Shiraz; Isfahan; Khurasan; Yazd; Kirman; Nayriz; Iran; Karbala; Iraq Bab, Life of; Vakil Mosque; Mosques; Mulla Husayn; Bab, Family of; Muhammad Shah; Shahs; Vahid ; Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi); Hujjat; Qayyumul-Asma (book); Mirza Ahmad-i-Azghandi; Tahirih; Mirza Ahmad-i-Azghandi; Abdul-Karim
    1845 1 Nov The Times of London carried an item on the arrest and torture of Quddús, Mullá Sádiq-i-Khurásání, Mullá `Alí-Akbar-i-Ardistání and Mullá Abú-Tálib in Shíráz in June. This was the first known printed reference to the Revelation. A similar article was reprinted on 19 November. [B76–7; BBR4, 69] Shiraz; Iran; London; United Kingdom Quddus; Ismullahul-Asdaq (Mulla Sadiq Khurasani); Mulla Ali-Akbar-i-Ardistani; Mulla Abu-Talib; Times (newspaper); Newspaper articles; Firsts, Other; Mentions First known published reference to The Báb. First newspaper story of the events of the Bábí Faith
    1845 30 Dec The Báb's birthday fell on the first day of the mourning observance for the Imám Husayn. Táhirih, who was in Karbalá with the widow of Siyyid Kázim-i-Rashtí, instructed her relatives and the Bábís to dress in bright clothing and joyously celebrate the Báb's birth. This caused a considerable disturbance, even among the Bábís. Táhirih was arrested and expelled from the city. [RR305, SA217] Karbala; Iraq Tahirih; Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1846 (In the year) The birth of Bahíyyih Khánum, the Greatest Holy Leaf, eldest daughter of Bahá'u'lláh and Navváb, and sister of `Abdu'l-Bahá, in Tihrán. She was later designated by Shoghi Effendi `the outstanding heroine of the Bahá'í Dispensation'. [BBD42; GPB108]
  • For a description of her nature see BK42–3.
  • Tihran; Iran Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Births and deaths
    1846 (In the year) Táhirih was sent back to Baghdád from Karbalá. She was lodged first in the house of Shaykh Muhammad Shíbl and then in the house of the Muftí of Baghdád where she stayed for three months. During her time in Iraq she enlisted a considerable number of followers and made a number of enemies among the clergy [Bab162; DB81note2; 271] Baghdad; Karbala; Iraq Tahirih
    1846 Naw-Rúz The Báb bequeathed all His possessions to His mother and His wife and revealed a special prayer for His wife to help her in times of sorrow. He told His wife of His impending martyrdom. He moved to the house of His uncle Hájí Mírzá Siyyid `Alí. He told the Bábís in Shíráz to go to Isfahán. [GPB14; KB21–2; TB103–5, LTDT13; DB190-192]
  • See KBWB.
  • Shiraz; Isfahan; Iran Bab, Life of; Bab, Family of; Prayer; Haji Mirza Siyyid Ali
    1846 23 Jun Quddús met Mullá Sádiq-i-Muqaddas in Shíráz to whom he entrusted a copy of Khasá'il-i-Sab`ih (`the Seven Qualifications'). Following instructions received in a Tablet from the Báb, Mullá Sádiq sounded the call to prayer using the additional words provided by the Báb. This, along with their teaching of the Cause, provoked a public commotion. [Bab78; DB144-145; BBRSM16]
  • The governor of Fárs, Husayn Khán Nizámu'd-Dawlih, had Quddús, Mullá Sádiq-i-Khurásání, Mullá `Alí-Akbar-i-Ardistání and Mullá Abú-Tálib arrested, tortured and expelled from Shíráz. [Bab78; BBR69; BW18:380; DB145–148; GPB11, BBR1pxxviii]
  • The governor's punishment was particularly cruel. He commanded that the beards of both Quddús and Mullá Sádiq be burned, their noses pierced and that a cord should be passed which and used to led them through the city. The men were then beaten. Mullá Sádiq was a frail man of about 50 years but in spite of this took some 900 strokes and still remained calm and serene. When questioned later he said the first seven lashes were severely painful but then he became indifferent to the rest. It was as though the strokes were not being applied to his own body. [DB146-148]
  • The London Times of November 1st and November 19, 1845 reported that this took place on the 23rd of June. [Bab76, BBR1p69, 82]
  • Note: Bab78 says that Mullá Abú-Tálib was not among the group. DB145 says that only Mulla Husayn and Mulla Sádiq were arrested.
  • Note: DB146 note2 says "According to A. L. M. Nicolas’ “Siyyid ‘Alí-Muhammad dit le Báb” (footnote 175, p. 225), this meeting took place on August 6, 1845 A.D."
  • Upon departing Shíráz Quddús made his way to Kirmán to interview Hájí Mírzá Karím Khán. The ambitious and seditious Karím Khán remained unconvinced buy Quddús had earned an ally in his host during his stay in Kirmán, Hájí Siyyid Javád, someone he had known from his day in Karbilá. From Kirmán Quddús travelled to Yazd and then to Ardikán, Náyin, Ardistán, Isfáhán, Káshán, Qum and to Tihrán. There he met with Bahá'u'lláh and after which proceeded to Mázindarán and to his native town of Bárfurúsh where he lived in the home of his father for two years. [DB180-183]
  • Mullá Sádiq travelled to Yazd with the intention of spreading news of the Cause among the 'ulamás of that province. There they encountered opposition from Hájí Mírzá Karím Khán. [DB180, 183-187]
  • Mullá Sádiq and Mullá Yúsuf-i-Ardibílí moved on to Kirmán where they received the same treatment then they travelled to Khurásán {DB187-188]
  • Fars; Shiraz; Iran Governors; Husayn Khan; Quddus; Ismullahul-Asdaq (Mulla Sadiq Khurasani); Mulla Ali-Akbar-i-Ardistani; Mulla Abu-Talib; Husayn Khan; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution first to be persecuted on Persian soil
    1846 (Summer) The Chief Constable, 'Abdu'l-Hamíd Khán, was instructed by order of the governor, Hasayn Khán, to break into the house of Hájí Mírzá Siyyid 'Alí where the Báb had been confined and to arrest Him. He and a follower were taken away along with His books and Writings. It was widely rumoured that He would be executed. He was allowed to return some time later. [LTDT14] Shiraz; Iran Bab, Life of; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1846 23 Sep Up to this point the Báb had not been critical of the civil government but considering that His denunciations of the intellectually dishonest and plundering clergy were so unrelenting, could they expect to escape His scrutiny? The governor, Husayn Khán, was thus threatened by the Báb's rising popularity and ordered His arrest. The chief constable, `Abdu'l-Hamíd Khán, took the Báb into custody and escorted Him to the governor's home but found it abandoned. He took the Báb to his own home where he learned that a cholera epidemic had swept the city and that his sons have been stricken. At the chief constable's insistence the Báb cureed the boys by requesting they drink some of the water with which He had washed His own face. `Abdu'l-Hamíd resigned his post and begged the governor to release the Báb who agreed on condition the Báb leave Shíráz. The incident proved to be Husayn Khán's undoing: the Sháh dismissed him from office shortly after. [B104–5; BBRSM55; DB194–7; DB194note1; GPB13; TN9]
  • This cholera outbreak was evidently a sign of the coming Manifestation. The outbreak raged for four years. [DB196note2)
  • See BBR170–1 and DB197 for the fate of Husayn Khán who was immediately dismissed by the Sháh.
  • DB196–7 says `Abdu'l-Hamíd Khán had only one ill son. iiiii
  • Shiraz; Iran Husayn Khan; Governors; Bab, Life of; Abdul-Hamid Khan; Epidemics; Muhammad Shah; Shahs; cholera
    1846 23 – 24 Sep The Báb departed for Isfahán after a sojourn in Shíráz of less than 15 months. [B105–6; BBRSM216; BW18:380; TN9, SBBR1pxxviii]
  • TN9 says that the Báb left Shíráz `the morning after' the night He saved the children from cholera.
  • Bab105 says he left `in the last days of September.
  • Shiraz; Isfahan; Iran Bab, Life of
    1846 Sep - Oct On His approach to Isfahan the Báb wrote to Manúchihr Khán, the governor-general of Isfahán, and asked him where He should take shelter. The governor requested that Siyyid Muhammad, the Imám-Jum`ih of Isfahán, accommodate Him. During His stay of 40 days the Báb impresseed His host as well as many of the clerics. [Bab109–10, 13; DB199–202, 208]
  • See Bab108–9 for information on Manúchihr Khán.
  • It was during His six-month stay in Isfahán that the Báb took a second wife, Fátimih, the sister of a Bábí from that city. She was the sister of Mulla Rajab-`Alí Isfahání. [RB1:249]
    • She became the 6th wife of Mírzá Yahyá in 1854 - 1856. He married her in Baghdad during Bahá'u'lláh's absence in Sulaymaniyah, and divorced her about a month later, giving her in marriage to Sayyid Muhammad Isfahani. [The Cyprus Exiles by Moojan Momen]
  • Isfahan; Iran Bab, Life of; Manuchihr Khan; Governor-generals; Siyyid Muhammad (Imam-Jumih); Fatimih; Mirza Yahya
    1846 c. Nov Manúchihr Khán arranged a meeting between the Báb and the clerics to silence their opposition. After the encounter, about 70 of them meet and issued a death-warrant. [B112–13; DB205–9] Isfahan; Iran Manuchihr Khan; Bab, Life of; Death-warrant
    1846 Dec Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí died in Istanbul naval dockyards. He was the first martyr of the Bábí Dispensation. [Bahá’í Encyclopedia] Istanbul; Turkey Mulla Ali Bastami; Persecution, Turkey; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Firsts, Other; Letters of the Living First martyr of the Bábí Dispensation
    1846 Dec Qurratu'l-'Ayn provoked disturbances in Karbalá. Her radical interpretation of Babism and her assumption of leadership split the Bábi community between the more conservative Bábis and her own circle of devotees. [BBRSM17] Karbala; Iraq Tahirih; QurratulAyn
    1846 date uncertain The Sháh had already instructed the governor, Manúchihr Khán to send the Báb to Tihrán. Seeking to discredit the Báb in the eyes of the Shah, Hájí Mírzá Áqási incited the mullas of Isfahan to condemn Him. The Imám-Jum'ih, knowing that about seventy of the leading clerics of the city had signed His death warrant, he, himself refused to endorse it and fearing for the safety of the Báb, devised a scheme to have the Báb escorted from Isfahán but then secretly returned to the governor's residence. The Báb remained there for four months with only three of His followers apprised of His whereabouts. These four months have been described as having been the calmest in His Ministry. [Bab113–16; DB209–211, 213; TN9–11]

    The governor offered all of his resources to try to win the Sháh over to His Cause but the Báb declined his offer saying that the Cause will triumph through the `poor and lowly'. [Bab115–16; DB212–213]

    Tihran; Isfahan; Iran Shah; Manuchihr Khan; Bab, Life of; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1847 22 Feb Birth of Thornton Chase, designated the first American Bahá'í, in Springfield, Massachusetts. Springfield; Massachusetts; United States Thornton Chase; Births and deaths First American Bahá'í
    1847 4 Mar The passing of Manúchihr Khán. His death had been predicted by the Báb 87 days earlier. The governor had made the Báb the beneficiary of his vast holdings, estimated to be 40 million francs, but his nephew Gurgín Khán appropriated everything after his death. [Bab116; DB212Note1, 213–214]
  • Before the death of Manúchihr Khán the Báb instructed His followers to disperse throughout Káshán, Qum and Tihrán. [B115; DB213–14] Gurgín Khán, in his role as the new governor, informed the Sháh that the Báb wss in Isfahán and had been sheltered by Manúchihr Khán. The Sháh ordered that the Báb be taken to Tihrán incognito. The Báb, escorted by Nusayrí horsemen, set out for Tihrán soon after midnight. [Bab116, 118; DB215–116; TN11]
  • Tihran; Isfahan; Iran Manuchihr Khan; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Bab, Life of; Gurgin Khan; Nusayri horsemen; Horses
    1847 21 Mar En route to Tihrán Hájí Mírzá Áqásí instructed the Báb to break His journey by stopping in the village of Káshán some 50km (31 miles) from the capital. He spent three nights in the home of Hájí Mírzá Jání, a noted resident of that city who had realized in a dream that the Báb would be his guest. After some time the Báb wrote to the Sháh requesting a meeting. Hájí Mírzá Áqási, determined that the meeting not take place, instilled fear in the sovereign and persuaded him that the best plan would be to send him to Máh-Kú. [B118; DB8, 217–22] Tihran; Kashan; Iran Bab, Life of; Haji Mirza Jani; Dreams
    1847 28 Mar The Báb and His escort arrived at the fortress of Kinár-Gird, 28 miles from Tihrán. Muhammad Big, the head of the escort, received a message from Hájí Mírzá Áqásí, the prime minister, telling him to take the Báb to Kulayn to await further instructions. [B119; DB225–6; GPB16] Tihran; Kulayn; Iran Bab, Life of; Fortress Kinar-Gird; Muhammad Big; Haji Mirza Aqasi
    1847 29 Mar The Báb arrived in Kulayn where He stayed for 20 days. [B120; DB227; TN11] Kulayn; Iran Bab, Life of
    1847 Spring - Summer Táhirih's activities in Iraq so alarm some Bábís of Kázimayn that they agitated against her. Siyyid `Alí Bishr wrote to the Báb in Máh-Kú on their behalf. The Báb replied praising Táhirih, causing the Kázimayn Bábís to withdraw from the Faith. [B 163]
  • Among those Táhirih met in Baghdád was Hakím Masíh, a Jewish doctor who years later becomes the first Bahá'í of Jewish background. [B165]
  • Táhirih was sent back to Persia by Najíb Páshá. She was accompanied by a number of Bábís; they made a number of stops along the way, enrolling supporters for the Cause of the Báb. [B163–4; BBRSM216]
  • Ma'ani says Táhirih left Baghdád early in 1847.
  • In Kirand 1,200 people are reported to have volunteered to follow her. [B164 DB272; TN20]
  • B164 says the number is 12,000; DB272 says it was 1,200.
  • In Kirmánsháh she was respectfully received by the `ulamá. [B164; DB272]
  • Táhirih arrived in Hamadán. Her father had sent her brothers here to persuade her to return to her native city of Qazvín. She agreed on condition that she may remain in Hamadán long enough to tell people about the Báb. [B165; DB273]
  • MF180 says Táhirih remained in Hamadán for two months.
  • Kazimayn; Baghdad; Iraq; Mah-Ku; Iran; Hamadan; Kirmanshah Tahirih; Bab, Life of First Bahá'í of Jewish background
    1847 Apr The Báb received a courteous message from the Sháh, who, on the advice of his prime minister, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí, assigned Him to the fortress of Máh-Kú in the province of Ádharbáyján. The Báb was taken to Máh-Kú via Tabríz. [B121–2, 124; DB229–32; GPB16; TN11–12] Mah-Ku; Adharbayjan; Tabriz; Iran Bab, Life of; Shah; Haji Mirza Aqasi; Fortress of Mah-Ku; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1847 1 Apr The Báb received a letter and gifts from Bahá'u'lláh in Tihrán delivered to His Hands by Mulla Muhammad-Mihdiy-i-Kandi. The letter cheered His heart, He had been despondent since His arrest and departure from Shíráz. [B120; DB227; GPB678] Tihran; Shiraz; Iran Bab, Life of; Gifts; Bahaullah, Writings of
    1847 c. 1 – 17 Apr One night the Báb disappeared and was found the next morning on the road coming from the direction of Tihrán. A look of confidence had settled on Him and His words have a new power. [B120–1; DB228–9]
  • Had He and Bahá'u'lláh met secretly? See SLH51 para96. Also see Indications in the Writings and Historical Records Relative to the Question Whether Bahá'u'lláh and the Báb Met from the Research Department of the Universal House of Justice. Also published in ‘Andalib Magazine, vol. V, no. 17, pp. 20-21.
  • Tihran; Iran Bab, Life of
    1847 c. 17 Apr The Báb sent a letter to the Sháh requesting an audience. [B121; DB229; TN11]

    Some accounts maintain that the prime minister intervened in the correspondence between the Báb and the Sháh. En route to Tabríz the Báb wrote to various people, including the Grand Vizier, the father and uncle of Táhirih, and Hájí Sulaymán Khán. Hujjat learned of this last letter and sent a message to the Bábís of Zanján to rescue the Báb. The Báb declined their assistance. [B124–5; DB235–6]

  • See B126 for an account of the Báb's demonstration to His guards that He could have escaped had He so wished.
  • Tabriz; Zanjan; Iran Bab, Life of; Bab, Writings of; Shah; Prime Ministers of Iran; Prime ministers; Grand Viziers; Tahirih; Haji Sulayman Khan; Hujjat
    1847 c. May Birth of Fátimih (Munírih) Khánum, wife of `Abdu'l-Bahá, in Isfahán.
  • Daughter of Mírzá Muhammad-'Alí. [DB208]
  • See DB208-209 for the story of her conception.
  • See MH96 for information on Munírih, future wife of `Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • See CH84 for her account of a dream she had as a young child.
  • She was first cousin to the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs. [CH86]
  • Isfahan; Iran Munirih Khanum; Abdul-Baha, Family of; Births and deaths
    1847 c. May - Jun The Báb arrived in Tabríz en route to Máh-Kú and was handed over to the officials of Nasir al-Din Mirza, to be imprisoned for forty days in the citadel of Tabriz, called the Ark. [BBR76; Connections by Vincent Flannery] He was well received by the general populace. He spent His time in seclusion, being allowed only two visitors. [B127–8; DB237–40; GPB18; TN12]
  • "A tumultuous concourse of people had gathered to witness His entry into the city … desirous of ascertaining the veracity of the wild reports that were current about Him … the acclamations of the multitude resounded on every side… Such was the clamour that a crier was ordered to warn the population of the danger that awaited those who ventured to seek His presence?" [DB237]
  • Tabriz; Iran Bab, Life of; Mah-Ku; Nasir al-Din Mirza
    1847 Jul The Báb in Máh-Kú

    The Báb arrived at the prison fortress of Máh-Kú (the Open Mountain). [B128; BW18:380]
  • See B128, BBD142 and DB243–4 for descriptions of Máh-Kú, its environs, fortress and inhabitants.
  • Mah-Ku; Iran Bab, Life of; Mah-Ku; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1847 Jul to 1848 Apr The people of Máh-Kú show markeded hostility to the Báb on His arrival. Later they were won over by His gentle manners and His love. They congregated at the foot of the mountain hoping to catch a glimpse of Him. [B129; DB244–5]

    At the beginning of the Báb's incarceration the warden `Alí Khán kept the Báb strictly confined and allowed no visitors. He had a vision of the Báb engaged in prayer outside of the prison gates, knowing that the Báb is inside. He became humble and permitted the Bábís to visit the Báb. [B129–31; DB245–8]

    The winter the Báb spent in Máh-Kú was exceptionally cold. [DB252]

    Many of the Báb's writings were revealed in this period. [GPB24–5]

  • It was probably at this time that He addressed all the divines in Persia and Najaf and Karbalá, detailing the errors committed by each one of them. [GPB24]
  • He revealed nine commentaries on the whole of the Qur'an, the fate of which is unknown. [DB31; GPB24]
  • He revealed the "Mother Book" of the Bábí Revelation, the Persian Bayán, containing the laws and precepts of the new Revelation in some 8,000 verses. It is primarily a eulogy of the Promised One. [BBD44–5; BBRSM32; BW12:91 GPB24–5; ESW165; SWB102, 159] It is possible that the latter part of the Persian Bayán was revealed while He was confined in Chihríq.
  • The Báb began the composition of the `smaller and less weighty' Arabic Bayán. [B132; BBD45; GPB25]
  • He stated in the Bayán that, to date, He had revealed some 500,000 verses, 100,000 of which had been circulated. [BBRSM32, GPB22]
  • In the Dalá'il-i-Sab'ih (Seven Proofs) the Báb assigned blame to the seven powerful sovereigns then ruling the world and censured the conduct of the Christian divines who, had they recognized Muhammad, would have been followed by the greater part of their co-religionists. [BBD63; BW12:96; GPB26]
  • The Báb wrote His `most detailed and illuminating' Tablet to Muhammad Sháh. [GPB26]
  • Mah-Ku; Iran; Najaf; Karbala; Iraq Bab, Life of; Ali Khan; Bayan-i-Farsi (Persian Bayan); Bayan-i-Arabi (Arabic Bayan); Bayan; Dalail-i-Sabih (Seven Proofs); Bab, Writings of; Tablet to Muhammad Shah; Muhammad Shah; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1847 Aug Táhirih sent Mullá Ibráhím Mahallátí to present to the chief mujtahid of Hamadán her dissertation in defence of the Bábí Cause. Mahallátí was attacked and severely beaten. Hamadan; Iran Tahirih; Mulla Ibrahim Mahallati; Babi
    1847 c. Aug - Sep On her departure from Hamadán Táhirih asked most of the Arab Bábís travelling with her to return to Iraq. [B165; DB273]

    Upon arriving in Qazvín, Táhirih refused her estranged husband's attempts at reconciliation and lived with her father. Her father-in-law Hájí Mullá Taqí, felt insulted and denounced the Shaykhís and Bábís. [B166; DB2736]

    Hamadan; Qazvin; Iran Tahirih; Haji Mulla Taqi
    1847 c. Aug Mullá Husayn was residing in Mashhad, in Khurásán, where he had been since returning from Shíráz in 1845. The leader of a local rebellion wished to enlist the Bábís on his side and sought a meeting with Mullá Husayn. To avoid entanglement in the affair, Mullá Husayn decided to make a pilgrimage to Máh-Kú. [TB56; DB254–5; MH133–5]
  • As an act of piety, he made the whole 1,200-mile journey on foot. Along the route he visited the Bábís and in Tihrán met secretly with Bahá'u'lláh. No account of their interview survives. In Qazvín, Mullá Husayn met Táhirih for the first time. [DB255; MH137]
  • Khurasan; Mah-Ku; Qazvin; Tihran Mulla Husayn; Tahirih; Bahaullah, Life of First meeting of Mullá Husayn and Táhirih
    1847 Sep or Oct The murder of Hájí Mullá Muhammad Taqí, the powerful uncle of Táhirih, by Mullá `Abdu'lláh of Shíráz. [B166; BBRSM216; DB276–8]

  • BBRSM22 says the murder took place towards the end of October.
  • Mullá `Abdu'lláh indicated that he was `never a convinced Bábí'. [DB276]
  • Iran Assassinations; Mulla Abdullah; Haji Mulla Muhammad Taqi; Tahirih; Persecution, Iran; Persecution
    1847 Oct - Nov Táhirih was accused of instigating the assassination of her uncle, Muhammad Taqí Baraghání, and was confined to her father's house while about 30 Bábís were arrested. Four, including the assassin, were taken to Tihrán and held in the house of Khusraw Khán. [BKG41; BW18:380; DB276–8] Tihran; Iran Assassinations; Mulla Abdullah; Haji Mulla Muhammad Taqi; Tahirih; Khusraw Khan; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1847 Nov - Dec Bahá'u'lláh, who was living in Tihrán, visited the detainees and gave them money. [BKG41; DB278–9; GPB68]
  • Mullá `Abdu'lláh confessed to the murder of Hájí Mullá Muhammad Taqí and was helped to escape. [BKG41–2; DB278]
  • See BKG42 for why Bahá'u'lláh was thought to have engineered his escape. Bahá'u'lláh was imprisoned for a few days for having assisted in Mullá `Abdu'lláh's escape.
  • This was Bahá'u'lláh's first imprisonment. [BKG41; BW18:380; DB585]
  • Shaykh Salib-i-Karímí, one of the imprisoned Bábís, was publicly executed in Tihrán.
  • He was the first to suffer martyrdom on Persian soil. His remains were interred in the courtyard of the shrine of the Imám-Zádih Zayd in Tihrán. [B166; BW18:380; DB280]
  • The remaining captives were returned to Qazvín. Hájí Asadu'lláh-i-Farhádí was secretly put to death in prison. Mullá Táhir-i-Shírází and Mullá Ibrahím-i-Maballátí were also put to death. [B166; BW18:380; DB280–3]
  • DB280–3 says `the rest of' the detainees were put to death by the relatives of Hájí Mullá Muhammad Taqí.
  • Tihran; Qazvin; Iran Bahaullah, Life of; Assassinations; Mulla Abdullah; Tahirih; Haji Mulla Muhammad Taqi; Cemeteries and graves; Firsts, Other; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution First imprisonment of Bahá'u'lláh; first martyr on Persian soil
    1848 (In the year) The birth of Mírzá Mihdí, `the Purest Branch', the son of Bahá'u'lláh and His wife Ásíyih Khánum (Navváb) in the family’s rented house near the Shemiran Gate (Darvázih Shimrán) in northern Tehran. [BBD155]
  • He was named after Mihdí, Bahá’u’lláh’s elder full brother, who was dear to Him and who had recently died. In later years Bahá’u’lláh gave Mírzá Mihdí the title "the Purest Branch."
  • In January of 1953 Bahá'u'lláh and His family left Tehran on the first stage of their exile. Mírzá Mihdí, who was unwell at the time and unfit to undertake three months of hard travel across the Iranian Plateau and the Zagros Mountains in severe winter weather, had to be left behind in the care of relatives. The Research Department of the Universal House of Justice, which has no definitive information on the topic, suggests that it is possible that more than one relative may have cared for Mírzá Mihdí over the seven years before he rejoined his parents in Baghdad. RoL165 says that he was left with his maternal grandmother, CH45 says it was his maternal great-grandmother, BKG13 says it was his paternal aunt, Hadrat-i-Ukht, identified as Sárih Khánum.
  • He was reunited with his parents in 1860 after Bahá’u’lláh’s return from the mountains of Sulaymaniyah and the family remained in Baghdad for another three years, until April 1863.
  • Mírzá Mihdí accompanied Bahá’u’lláh in His successive exiles to Istanbul, Edirne, and, finally, to Akka.
  • Despite his youth, Mírzá Mihdí was accustomed to hardship and was recognized as "a pillar of strength" among the exiles during the difficult period after their departure from Baghdad. He resembled ‘Abdu’l-Bahá in appearance and character and was noted for his piety, gentleness, dignity, courtesy, and patience. Throughout his brief adult life, Mírzá Mihdí was Bahá’u’lláh’s companion and served as one of His secretaries, recording the sacred tablets that He revealed. Many such manuscripts in Mírzá Mihdí’s excellent handwriting are extant." [Bahá'í Encyclopedia]
  • See also Mírzá Mihdí: The Purest Branch by Boris Handel published by George Ronald Publisher, 2017
  • See 22 June 1870 and 23 June 1870
  • Tihran; Iran Mirza Mihdi (Purest Branch); Births and deaths; Bahaullah, Family of; Boris Handel
    1848 (In the year) Bahá'u'lláh planed Táhirih's escape, giving the task to Mírzá Hádíy-i-Farhádí, the nephew of Hájí Asadu'lláh-i-Farhádí. Táhirih was rescued and escorted from Qazvín to Bahá'u'lláh's home in Tihrán. [B167; BKG42; DB284–5; MF199]
  • While she was in Bahá'u'lláh's home she was visited by Vahíd and challenged him by saying `Let deeds, not words, be our adorning!' [DB285; MF200]
  • After a few days Bahá'u'lláh sent Táhirih to a place of safety before sending her on to Khurásán. [DB286–7; GPB68]
  • Note: Ma'ani says this was the house of Mírzá Áqá Khán-i Núrí, who was then living in Káshán as an exile. His sister acted as Táhirih's hostess until she left for Badasht.
  • Tihran; Qazvin; Khurasan; Iran Tahirih; escape; Mirza Hadiy-i-Farhadi; Haji Asadullah-i-Farhadi; Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi)
    1848 20 March Mullá Husayn and his companion, walking from Mashhad, arrived at Máh-Kú on the eve of Naw-Rúz. The Báb met them at the gate and together they celebrated Naw-Rúz, the fourth after the declaration of the Báb. Mullá Husayn stayed the night at the fortress. He remained with the Báb for nine days. [B131; DB257, 262; MH138, 143]
  • MH137 says Mullá Husayn arrived in Tabríz on 21 March.
  • See DB255–7 for story of the dream of `Alí Khán, the prison warden, preceding the arrival of Mullá Husayn at Máh-Kú. From this time on the pilgrims were allowed unrestricted access to the Báb. [DB258]
  • The warden requested that the Báb marry his daughter. [DB259; MH143]
  • Mashhad; Mah-Ku; Iran Mulla Husayn; Bab, Life of Mulla Husayn
    1848 30 Mar Mullá Husayn departed for Mázindarán, setting out on foot as the Báb has directed. [DB260; MH144]
  • The Báb told him to visit the Bábís in Khuy, Urúmíyyih, Marághih, Mílán, Tabríz, Zanján, Qazvín and Tihrán before proceeding to Mázindarán. In Mázindarán he was to find `God's hidden treasure'. [DB260; MH144]
  • In Tihrán he again met Bahá'u'lláh. [DB261; MH148]
  • Mazandaran; Khuy; Urumiyyih; Maraghih; Milan; Tabriz; Zanjan; Qazvin; Iran Mulla Husayn; Bahaullah, Life of; Bab, Life of Mulla Husayn
    1848 9 Apr The Báb was removed from Máh-Kú. Prior to this He had communicated His higher claims to His followers.
  • Hájí Mírzá Áqásí was alarmed by the developments at Máh-Kú and ordered that the Báb be moved to Chihríq. [B131; DB259; GPB1920]
  • The Báb's presence in Máh-Kú, so close to the Russian frontier, was also a cause for concern for the Russian government. Prince Dolgorukov, the Russian Minister in Tihrán, asked that He be removed. It is likely that this request was made in 1847 but not carried out until this time. [B131; BBR72; TN13]
  • The Báb had been in Máh-Kú for nine months. [DB259]
  • Mah-Ku; Chihriq; Tihran; Iran Bab, Life of; Haji Mirza Aqasi; Russia; Prince Dolgorukov; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1848 10 Apr The Báb in Chihríq

    The Báb was transferred to the fortress of Chihríq, `Jabal-i-Shadíd' (the Grievous Mountain) into the custody of Yahyá Khán, a brother-in-law of Muhammad Sháh. [BR72; BBRSM216; GPB19]
  • He remained there for two years. [BBD55; BBR73; GPB27]
  • He was subjected to a more rigorous confinement than He had been at Máh-Kú and the warden was harsh and unpredictable. [B135; DB302]
  • Chihriq; Iran Bab, Life of; Chihriq; Yahya Khan; Muhammad Shah; Mah-Ku; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1848 Apr-Jul The presence of the Báb in Chihríq attracted much notice. Eventually Yahyá Khán softened his attitude to the Báb. [B135; DB303]
  • Excitement among local people eclipsed that of Máh-Kú. [GPB20]
  • Many priests and government officials became followers, among them Mírzá Asadu'lláh of Khuy, surnamed Dayyán. [B136; DB303; GPB20]
  • So many Bábís came to Chihríq that they could not all be housed. [B135]
  • See B136 for story of the inferior honey.
  • A dervish, a former navváb, arrived from India after having seen the Báb in a vision. [B137; DB305; GPB20]
  • The Báb revealed the Lawh-i-Hurúfát (Tablet of the Letters) in honour of Dayyán. [DB304; GPB27]
  • Chihriq; Iran; India Bab, Life; Yahya Khan; Mah-Ku; Dayyan (Mirza Asadullah); Honey; Dervishes; Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Lawh-i-Hurufat (Tablet of the Letters); Huruf (letters)
    1848 late Spring Mullá Husayn went to the house of Quddús in Bárfurúsh, Mázindarán, and realized that the `hidden treasure' was his recognition of the station of Quddús. [DB261–5; MH148–54]

    Mullá Husayn proceeded to Mashhad and built a `Bábíyyih', a centre for the Bábís, as instructed by Quddús. He and Quddús took up residence in it and began to teach the Bábí religion.

  • See DB288–90 and MH158–68 for the result of this effort.
  • Among those who come to the Bábíyyih was Sám Khán, the chief of police. [MH158]
  • See MH156 for a picture of the Bábíyyih.
  • Barfurush; Mazandaran; Mashhad; Iran Mulla Husayn; Quddus; Babi centre; Letters of the Living
    1848 summer Quddús left Mashhad for Badasht. Mullá Husayn was prevented from attending. He was invited to stay in the camp of the soldiers garrisoned in the area to control a local revolt. The invitation amounted to a confinement but he was able to teach the soldiers while so confined. [BKG50; DB290; MH165–6]
  • MH160 says that it was at this time that the Báb wrote to all the believers in Persia and Iraq instructing them to go to the aid of Mullá Husayn and Quddús in the `Land of Khá (Khurásán). DB269ff implies this letter was written in 1845.
  • Mashhad; Badasht; Iran Quddus; Mulla Husayn
    1848 c. 26 Jun - 17 Jul The Conference of Badasht

    Bahá'u'lláh, who hosted and directed the event, rented three gardens, one for Quddús, another for Táhirih and the third for Himself. [B168; GPB31, 68; MF200]

    The conference coincided with the removal of the Báb to Tabríz for interrogation in July. It was held near the village of Sháhrúd in Semnan province. [BBRSM23; DB292]

  • `The primary purpose of that gathering was to implement the revelation of the Bayán by a sudden, a complete and dramatic break with the past — with its order, its ecclesiasticism, its traditions, and ceremonials. The subsidiary purpose of the conference was to consider the means of emancipating the Báb from His cruel confinement in Chihríq.' [BBRSM23; BKG43; DB297–8; GPB31, 157]
  • From the beginning of His ministry the Báb had implicitly claimed some higher spiritual station than merely that of being the "bábu'l-imám" and in the early months of 1848 while still in prison in Máh-Kú He put forward these claims to his companions. He proclaimed HImself to be the Imam Mahdi, the promised Q´'im (He who will arise), the inaugurator of the Resurrection and the abrogator of the Islamic holy law. [BBRSM23]
  • B167 says that the Bábís did not come to Badasht to make plans to rescue the Báb.
  • It was attended by 81 believers and lasts 22 days. [BKG43–4, 46; DB292–3; GPB312]
  • Each day Bahá'u'lláh revealed a Tablet, and on each believer He conferred a new name. Each day an Islamic law was abrogated. Henceforth, when the Báb was addressing the believers, He used the new name that Bahá'u'lláh had bestowed upon them. [DB293; GPB32]
  • See BKG44–5, DB293 and MF201 for the story of the central event, Táhirih's confrontation with Quddús and removal of her veil.
  • Also see B167–9; BBD31–2; BBRSM46; BKG43–7; DB292–8; RB2:353.
  • Badasht; Tabriz; Shahrud; Chihriq; Iran Conference of Badasht; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Writings of; Quddus; Tahirih; Veils; Women; Womens rights; Gender; Equality; Bab, Life of; Bayan; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bab, Basic timeline; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Letters of the Living
    1848 Jul After three months in Chihríq, the Báb, on the order of Háji Mírzá Áqási was taken under escort to Tabríz. He was to be tried for apostasy before a gathering of high-ranking religious leaders (Mujtahid) in the presence of the young crown prince Másiri'd-Dín Mírzá . [B137; BW18:380; TN14]
  • Just prior to His leaving, in June of 1848 He was seen in public discourse with His followers by a Russian student named Mochenin from St. Petersburg University. It is believed that he and Dr William Cormick were the only Westerners to have seen the Báb. [BBR75]
  • En route He stopped in Urúmíyyih for ten days where the governor, Malik-Qásim Mírzá, tested the Báb by offering Him an unruly horse to ride to the public bath. The horse remained docile under the Bab's control and was the same when He came out and rode him on the return. The local people were certain that they had witnessed a miracle and broke into the bath to procure His bath water. [B138; BBR74; DB309–11, EB86-87]
  • A sketch of the Báb was made by local artist Aqa Bala Bayg from which he made a full-scale black and white portrait. Later Bahá'u'lláh directed that Aqa Bala Bayg make two copies of the portrait in water colour. The sketch and one of the water colours are now in the International Archives. [EB87; B138–9, Juhúrú'l-Haqq by Asadu'lláh Fádil-i-Mázindarání p.48 quoted in World Order Winter 1974-95 p41]
  • See "The Báb in the World of Images" by Bijan Masumian and Adib Masumian. [Bahá'í Studies Review, Volume 19, Number 1, 1 June 2013, pp. 171-190(20)]
  • Chihriq; Tabriz; Urumiyyih; Iran Mochenin; Bab, Life of; Bab, Trial of; Portraits; Bab, Portrait of; Aqa Bala Bayg Naqqash-bashi; Horses; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1848 c. Jul Quddús was arrested and taken to Sárí where he was placed under house arrest in the home of Mírzá Muhammad-Taqí, a leading cleric. [B171; BKG50; DB300]

    Táhirih was arrested and is later taken to Tihrán where she is held in the home of Mahmúd Khán, the Kalántar of Tihrán, until her martyrdom in August 1852.

    Mullá Husayn left the army camp near Mashhad where he had been a guest of a brother of the Sháh. He planned to make a pilgrimage to Karbalá. While making preparations for the journey he received a Tablet from the Báb instructing him to go to Mázindarán to help Quddús, carrying a Black Standard before him. He was also instructed to wear the Báb's own green turban and to take the new name Siyyid `Alí. [B171; BKG50; DB324; MH174]

    Sari; Tihran; Mashhad; Mazandaran; Iran; Karbala; Iraq Quddus; Mirza Muhammad-Taqi; Tahirih; Mahmud Khan; Kalantar; Mulla Husayn; Shahs; Black Standard; Green turban; Turbans; Names and titles; Letters of the Living
    1848 c. 17 Jul The Bábís left Badasht for Mázindarán. They were attacked by a mob of more than 500 outside the village of Níyálá. [B170–1; BKG46–7; BW18:380; DB298; GPB68]
  • Bahá'u'lláh travelled to Núr with Táhirih. He entrusted her into the care of Shaykh Abú-Turáb-i-Ishtahárdí, to be taken to a place of safety. [BKG48; DB299]
  • Bahá'u'lláh travelled to Núr `in easy stages'. By September He was in Bandar-Jaz. [BKG48]
  • Badasht; Mazandaran; Niyala; Nur; Bandar-Jaz; Iran Conference of Badasht; Bahaullah, Life of; Tahirih; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Mobs; Persecution
    1848 19 - 20 Jul The Women's Rights Convention was held in the Wesleyan Chapel at Seneca Falls, NY. The principle organizer was Lucretia Mott, with Elizabeth Cady Stanton as its driving intellect. A significant role was played by an African-American man, an abolitionist and a recently freed slave, Frederick Douglass. The convention adopted a Declaration of Rights and Sentiments that consisted of 11 resolutions including the right for women to vote. The signatories were the 68 women and 32 men in attendance. The right for women to vote became part of the United States Constitution in 1920. [The Calling: Tahirih of Persia and her American Contemporaries p114-160, "Seneca Falls First Woman's Rights Convention of 1848: The Sacred Rites of the Nation" by Bradford W. Miller (Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8.3, 1998)]
  • This conference has been compared to the Conference of Badasht with respect to the emancipation of women and entrenched prejudices.
  • Seneca Falls; New York; United States; Badasht; Iran Womens rights; Human rights; African Americans; Women; Gender; Equality; Conference of Badasht; Tahirih the first time ever recorded in American history, a woman (Elizabeth Cady Stanton) publicly demanded the vote
    1848 21 Jul Mullá Husayn and his 202 companions left Mashhad for Mázindarán under the Black Standard. They arrived in September. [BBRSM26, 216] Mashhad; Mazandaran; Iran Mulla Husayn; Black Standard
    1848 last week
    in Jul
    Trial of the Báb

    The Báb arrived in Tabríz and was brought before a panel of which the 17-year-old Crown Prince Násiri'd-Dín Mírzá was the president. The Báb publicly made His claim that He was the Qá'im. This claim had also been announced to those gathered at Badasht. [B140–7; BBR157; BBRSM23, 216; BW18:380; DB314–20; GPB21–2; TN14]
  • The purpose of the public forum was to force the Báb to recant His views; instead He took control of the hearing and embarrassed the clergy. After considerable argument and discussion, they decided He was devoid of reason. [GPB22; BBRSM216]
  • The Báb was bastinadoed. [B145; BBD44; DB320; GPB22; TN14–15] This is the first formal punishment He received. [BBRSM20]
  • This constituted the formal declaration of His mission. [GPB22]
  • The clergy issued a fatwa or legal pronouncement against the Báb condemning Him to death for heresy, but to no purpose as the civil authorities were unwilling to take action against Him. [BBRSM19–20]
  • See Trial of the Báb: Shi'ite Orthodoxy Confronts its Mirror Image by Denis MacEoin.
  • He was first attended by an Irish physician, Dr William Cormick, to ascertain His sanity and later to treat Him for a blow to the face that occurred during the bastinado. Cormick is the only Westerner to have met and conversed with Him. [B145; BBR74–5, 497–8 DBXXXIL–XXXIII]
  • For an account of the life of Dr. William Cormick see Connections by Brendan McNamara.
  • Tabriz; Badasht; Iran Bab, Life of; Bab, Trial of; Nasirid-Din Shah; Qaim; Bastinado; William Cormick; Fatwa; Conference of Badasht; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded First formal punishment of the Báb Le Journal de Constantinople 1848-1851 (first entry dated June 21 1848)
    1848 Jul - Sep Mullá Husayn and his companions, marching to Mázindarán, were joined by Bábís who had been at Badasht as well as newly-converted Bábís. [B171–2]
  • Their numbers rose to 300 and possibly beyond. [B172; BKG50]
  • The Black Standard was raised on the plain of Khurásán. [B171, 176–7; BBD46; BBRSM52; MH175]
  • The Black Standard flew for some 11 months. [B176–7; DB351]
  • See DB326 and MH177–83 for details of the journey.
  • See MH182 for Mullá Husayn's prophecy of the death of Muhammad Sháh.
  • Mazandaran; Badasht; Khurasan; Iran Mulla Husayn; Babis; Black Standard; Prophecies; Muhammad Shah; Conference of Badasht
    1848 Aug The Báb was taken back to Chihríq, where He remained until June/July 1850. [B147; DB322; TN15]
  • B147 says He must have arrived in the first days of August.
  • On His return the Báb wrote a denunciatory letter to Hájí Mírzá Áqásí. The epistle was given the name Khutbiy-i-Qahríyyih (Sermon of Wrath). He sent it to Hujjat in Tihrán, who delivered it personally. [B147; DB323; GPB27]
  • The Báb completed the Arabic Bayán. [BBR45; GBP25]
  • Chihriq; Iran Bab, Life of; Bab, Writings of; Haji Mirza Aqasi; Hujjat; Bayan-i-Arabi (Arabic Bayan); Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1848 Sep Bahá'u'lláh was in Bandar-Jaz. An edict came from Muhammad Sháh ordering His arrest. Bandar-Jaz; Iran Bahaullah, Life of; Muhammad Shah; Russian officials
    1848 1 Sep Birth of Auguste Forel, renowned entomologist and Bahá'í, in Switzerland. Morges; Switzerland Auguste Forel; Births and deaths
    1848 4 Sep The death of the chronically Muhammad Sháh whom Shoghi Effendi described as bigoted, sickly and vacillating. [BBR153–4; GPB4; Encyclopædia Iranica]
  • This precipitated the downfall of the Grand Vizier, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí because many of Tehran's elite arose against him. [Bab147; BBD19; BBR156]
  • For details of his life, fall and death in Karbila on the 1st of August, 1849, see BBR154–6 and BKG52–5.
  • The edict for Bahá'u'lláh's arrest was rendered null. [BKG50; BW18:381]
  • Iran Muhammad Shah; Grand Viziers; Prime Ministers of Iran; Prime Ministers; Haji Mirza Aqasi; Antichrist; Bahaullah, Life of; Iran, General history; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1848 12 Sep The accession of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh at Tabríz. [BBR482]
  • He was 17 years old. [BBR158; GPB37]
  • He ruled from 1848 to 1 May 1896 when he was assassinated on the eve of his jubilee. [BBD168; BBR482]
  • The first four years of his reign were marked by the `fiercest and bloodiest of the persecutions of the religion of the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh'. During the whole of his reign there were `sporadic persecutions and, in at least some cases, he himself was directly responsible for the death of the martyrs'. [BBR157]
  • For the first time in the Faith's history the civil and ecclesiastical powers banded together in a systematic campaign against it, one that was to `culminate in the horrors experienced by Bahá'u'lláh in the Síyáh-Chál' and `His subsequent banishment to Iraq'. [GPB37]
  • See BBRSM25 for an explanation of why the Bábí religion was a challenge to the secular regime.
  • See SB86 for a reason for Násiri'd-Dín Sháh's cruelty towards the Bábís and Bahá'ís.
  • See RB3:201 for an explanation of his lengthy reign.
  • He chose as his prime minister Mírzá Taqí Khán-i-Faráhání, known as a great reformer and a founder of modern Iran. [BBD221; BBR160]
  • It was not until the spring of 1849 that the new regime was in firm control.
  • His reform antagonized many and a coalition was formed against him. One of the most active proponents was the queen mother. She convinced the Shah that the prime minister wanted his throne. In October of 1851 the Shah dismissed him and exiled him to Kashan where he was murdered on the Shah's orders.
  • Tabriz; Iran; Iraq Nasirid-Din Shah; Qajar dynasty; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; History (general); Iran, General history; Mirza Taqi Khan-i-Farahani; Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Firsts, Other First time the civil and ecclesiastical powers banded together in a systematic campaign against the Faith
    1848 10 Oct Mullá Husayn and his company from Mashhad arrived near Bárfurúsh. The Sa`ídu'l-`Ulamá, threatened by their presence, stirred up the townspeople, who went out to meet them. Some three or four miles from the city they clashed and seven of Mullá Husayn's companions were killed. [B172; BW18:381; DB329–31; MH192–3]
  • MH188 says that the journey from Mashhad had taken 83 days.
  • In the ensuing battle, the townspeople were worsted. They begged for peace and a truce was agreed. [B172; DB336; MH197]
  • It was during this skirmish that Mullá Husayn cut a man, a musket and a tree with one blow from his sword. [B172; DB 330–1; MH193]
  • Mullá Husayn and his companions took shelter in a caravanserai. Three young men in succession mounted the roof to raise the call to prayer were each met with a bullet and killed. Mullá Husayn gaves the command to attack the townspeople, who were again routed. [BW18:381; DB337–8; MH201–5]
  • Mullá Husayn and his companions were offered safe passage by the town's leaders if they would leave Bárfurúsh. They agreed but were attacked by their escort, Khusraw-i-Qádí-Kalá'í and his hundred men. [B172; DB338–42; MH206–9]
  • Barfurush; Iran Mulla Husayn
    1848 12 Oct The band of 72 Bábís took refuge in the shrine of Shaykh Tabarsí which was located about 14 miles southeast of Bárfurúsh and prepared it for siege. [B173; BBRSM26; BW18:381; DB344–5] Barfurush; Iran Shaykh Tabarsi
    1848 Oct - May 1849 The siege of the Shrine of Shaykh Tabarsí
  • See BBD217, BW18:381, DB345–413 and MH221–85 for chronicle of events.
  • The episode lasted seven months. [BBRSM26; BW18:381]
  • See BBRSM26 for the Bábís' intentions.
  • See DB343–5 for pictures and DB348, MH217–18 for sketches.
  • See MH212 for a diagram of the fortifications.
  • Bahá'u'lláh visited the fortress and approved the fortifications. [BKG51, DB347–9; MH227]
  • He advised Mullá Husayn to seek the release of Quddús. Mullá Husayn set out immediately and secured the release of Quddús, who had been in detention for 95 days. [B173; BKG51; DB349–50; MH227]
  • Quddús arrived towards the end of the year. Some sources say October 20. [B173]
  • See DB352–4 for the entry of Quddús into Shaykh Tabarsí. His arrival brought the number of Bábís in the shrine to 313. [DB354]
  • Note: BBRSM26 and MH233–4 say that the number of defendants rose to 500–600 individuals.
    • 37 per cent of the identified participants were of the `ulamá class. [BBRSM50]
  • The siege began with the arrival of `Abdu'lláh Khán's forces on 19 December.
  • it is said that 2000 soldiers were involved in the siege.
  • See PG116-117 where 'Abdu'l-Bahá recounts the story of the heroism of the defenders of Shaykh Tabarsí.
  • Iran Shaykh Tabarsi; Bahaullah, Life of; Mulla Husayn; Quddus; Letters of the Living; - Basic timeline, Expanded Le Journal de Constantinople 1848-1851 (second entry dated March 24 1849 and third dated March 29 1849)
    1848 19 Oct Entry of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh into Tihrán. [BBR482]
  • MH240 says it took him 45 days to travel to Tihrán to occupy his father's throne.
  • Hájí Mírzá Áaqsí Khán-i-Faráhání took up post as his prime minister. [BBR482]
  • By the end of 1848 the governmental opposition to the Báb continued and intensified. Encouraged by the ulama (religious leaders), the public increasingly turned against the B´b and His followers and the Bábis "were held responsible for the country's general state of turmoil." [RR395]
  • Tihran; Iran Nasirid-Din Shah; Qajar dynasty; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; History (general); Iran, General history; Mirza Taqi Khan-i-Farahani; Prime ministers of Iran; Prime Ministers
    1848 early Dec Bahá'u'lláh set out from Tihrán with 11 companions to reinforce the Bábís at Shaykh Tabarsí. Nine miles from the fort they were arrested and taken to the town of Ámul, where they were held prisoner in the home of the deputy governor. This was Bahá'u'lláh's second imprisonment. He intervened to spare His companions the bastinado and He alone received it.
  • When the governor returned to his home he ordered that Bahá'u'lláh and His companions be released and arranged a safe conduct for them to Tihrán. [B174; BBD44; BKG56–60; BW18:381; DB369–76; GPB68; SB7]
  • See BKG57 and DB70 for pictures.
  • Tihran; Amul; Iran Bahaullah, Life of; Shaykh Tabarsi; Arrests; Bastinado
    1848 19 Dec The siege of the Shrine of Shaykh Tabarsí began in earnest with the arrival of `Abdu'lláh Khán's forces. [BW18:381]
  • DB361 says this was 1 December.
  • There were about 12,000 troops. [MH245]
  • The supply of bread and water to the fort was cut. A rainfall replenished the water supply and ruined the munitions of the government forces. Snow further hampered the army's movement. [DB361, MH243]
  • Iran Shaykh Tabarsi; Abdullah Khan; Armies; Persecution, Iran; Persecution
    1848 21 Dec The Bábís, led by Quddús, made a mounted attack on the army. All of the officers were killed including `Abdu'lláh Khán. A number of soldiers were drowned as they retreated into the Tálár River. About 430 soldiers were killed but no Bábís; one Bábí was wounded. [BW18:381; DB361–3; MH243–6]
  • For the next 19 days the defenders dug a moat. [DB363]
  • Iran Shaykh Tabarsi; Quddus; Abdullah Khan; Armies
    1849 (In the year) Bahá'u'lláh married his second wife, Fátimih Khánum Mahd-i-‘Ulyá (1828–1904), His cousin, the daughter of Malik-Nisá Khánum (Mírzá Buzurg's sister) and Mírzá Karím-i-Namadsáb.
  • Note: According to one source, she was married to the famous cleric Mírzá Muhammad Taqí ‘Allámi-yi-Núrí and widowed before Bahá'u'lláh married her.
  • Iran Bahaullah, Life of ; Bahaullah, Wives of; Mahd-i-Ulya (Fatimih Khanum); Malik-Nisa Khanum; Mirza Buzurg; Mirza Karim-i-Namadsab
    1849 (early) Jan Arrival of Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá and 3,000 royal troops in the vicinity of the shrine of Shaykh Tabarsí. [B173–4; BW18:381; DB363]
  • He set up camp and his headquarters in the village of Vás-Kas. [DB363]
  • Vas-Kas; Iran Mihdi-Quli Mirza; Armies; Shaykh Tabarsi
    1849 11 Jan Quddús and Mullá Husayn led a night attack on the encamped army. Two hundred and two Bábís dispersed the camp. [BW18:381; BD365; MH254]
  • DB 368 says this occurred on 21 December 1848.
  • Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá fled barefoot. [DB366]
  • Mullá Husayn's sword was broken in the attack and he used that of Quddús. His companions brought him the abandoned sword of Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá. [DB367; MH257]
  • At daybreak the soldiers mounted a counter-attack. [DB367; MH258–9]
  • In this encounter Quddús was wounded in the mouth and was rescued by Mullá Husayn who dispersed the enemy using the sword of Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá in one hand and that of Quddús in the other. [B174; DB367; MH258–9]
  • Iran Quddus; Mulla Husayn; Armies; Shaykh Tabarsi; Swords
    1849 27 Jan Reinforcements arrived for the besiegers under the leadership of ‘Abbás-Qulí Khán-i-Láríjání. [BW18:381; DB378–9; MH263]
  • This was the third army to be mustered.
  • The water supply was again cut off and Mullá Husayn ordered that a well be dug and a bath constructed. [DB379; MH263]
  • Iran Abbas-Quli Khan-i-Larijani; Armies; Mulla Husayn; Shaykh Tabarsi
    1849 1 Feb The well was completed. Mullá Husayn performed his ablutions and put on clean clothes and the turban of the Báb. [DB379; MH264–6] Iran Mulla Husayn; Turbans; Relics; Shaykh Tabarsi
    1849 2 Feb Soon after midnight, Mullá Husayn led a charge of 313 men that again routed the king's army. He was struck in the chest by a bullet and died. His body was carried back to the fort and buried. Ninety other Bábís were also wounded, about 40 of whom died. [B174; BW18:381; DB379–82; MH266–70]
  • Mullá Husayn was 36 years old at the time of his death. [DB383; MH272]
  • See DB382–3 for an account of his life.
  • See DB415–16 for an account of the heroics of Mullá Husayn.
  • See DB381–2 and MH265–70 for an account of the death and burial of Mullá Husayn.
  • See SDH13–14 for an account of his death by Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá.
  • Seventy–two of the original 313 inhabitants of the fort had been martyred by this time. [DB382]
  • It took the army 45 days to re-assemble its forces. [DB384; MH277]
  • Iran Mulla Husayn; Mihdi-Quli Mirza; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Shaykh Tabarsi; Letters of the Living
    1849 c. 11 Mar On learning through a traitor of the death of Mullá Husayn, ‘Abbás-Qulí Khán launched a fresh attack on the fort. [DB384–6]
  • DB386 says this was 10 days before Naw-Rúz.
  • Nineteen Bábís led by Mírzá Muhammad-Báqir overcame the attackers. [DB386–8]
  • Iran Abbas-Quli Khan-i-Larijani; Armies; Mulla Husayn; Shaykh Tabarsi
    1849 27 Mar Renewed forces under Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá encamped in the neighbourhood of the fort, built fortifications and began to bombard the shrine. [BW18:381; DB390–3]
  • DB391 says this was the ninth day after Naw-Rúz.
  • Iran Mihdi-Quli Mirza; Shaykh Tabarsi
    1849 c. end Mar The army continued to fire on the shrine for a few days. Mírzá Muhammad-Báqir and 18 others attacked the new fortifications and destroyed some of them. [DB393–4] Iran Shaykh Tabarsi; Armies; Mirza Muhammad-Baqir
    1849 early Apr Sulaymán Khán-i-Afshar arrived with more troops. [BW18:381] Iran Armies; Shaykh Tabarsi
    1849 26 Apr A charge by the forces of Sulaymán Khán was repulsed by 37 Bábís led by Mírzá Muhammad-Báqir. [BW18:381; DB3956]
  • A few days later some of the Bábís left the fort on the promise of Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá that they will be returned to their homes. As soon as they are outside the fort they were put to death. [DB396–9]
  • Iran Sulayman Khan; Babis; Mirza Muhammad-Baqir; Shaykh Tabarsi
    1849 9 May Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá sent an emissary to the fort to invite two representatives to his camp to conduct negotiations. On the strength of assurances written on a Qur'án, Quddús left the fort and entered the Prince's camp. [B175; BW18:381; DB399–400] Iran Mihdi-Quli Mirza; Quddus; Shaykh Tabarsi
    1849 10 May The end of the siege of the fort at Shaykh Tabarsí. Two hundred and two Bábís were tricked into leaving the shrine. [BW18:381]
  • DB400 says they accompanied Quddús.
  • They were not conducted to their homes as promised but were set upon by the Prince's soldiers. Some are killed, others sold into slavery. The fortifications around the shrine were razed to the ground. [DB403–4; MH283]
  • See DB414–29 for a list of the martyrs of Tabarsí.
  • Among those who gave their lives at Fort Tabarsi was Mullá Ja'far, the sifter of wheat and the first to embrace the Faith in Isfahan. [AY58]
  • Iran Shaykh Tabarsi; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Martyrs; Quddus; Mulla Jafar (sifter of wheat); - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1849 11 May Quddús was taken to Bárfurúsh and handed over to the priests. [DB408] Barfurush; Iran Quddus
    1849 16 May Quddús was tortured and, in the public square, he was struck down with an axe, dismembered and burnt. [B176; BBD191; BW18:381; DB409–13; MH283–4]
  • As he died he begged God's forgiveness for his foes. [DB411; MH284]
  • His remains were gathered and buried by a friend. [B176; DB413]
  • See GPB49–50 for the rank and titles of Quddús.
  • See Quddus, Companion of the Bab by Harriet Pettibone.
  • Barfurush; Iran Quddus; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Letters of the Living
    1849 c. Jun - Jul The Báb, in prison in the castle of Chihríq, learned of the massacre at Shaykh Tabarsí and the martyrdom of Quddús. He was so overcome with grief that He was unable to write or dictate for a period of five or six months. [DB411, 430]
  • See the Tablet of Visitation for Mulla Muhammad 'Ali-i-Barfurushi (Quddús) revealed by the Báb.
  • Chihriq; Iran Bab, Life of; Bab, Writings of; Prison; Shaykh Tabarsi; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Quddus; Tablets of Visitation; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1849 1 Aug Death of Hájí Mírzá Áqásí at Karbalá. [Bab147; BBD19; BBR156]
  • The Báb, in a letter to the Sháh called him "manifest darkness" and "the devil whom thou hast appointed as thy Chancellor". [SWB26]
  • Shoghi Effendi designated him as the "Antichrist of the Bábí Revelation" and called him a "vulgar, false-hearted and fickle-minded schemer". [GPB164, 4]
  • Karbala; Iraq; Iran Haji Mirza Aqasi; Prime Ministers of Iran; Prime Ministers
    1849 Sep Birth of Hájí Mírzá Hasan, Adíb, Hand of the Cause and Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Táliqán. Taliqan; Iran Adib (Haji Mirza Hasan Talaqani); Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths
    1849 26 Nov The Báb sent Mullá Ádí-Guzal to the graves of Quddús and Mullá Husayn to make a pilgrimage on His behalf [DB431] Iran Bab, Life of; Mulla Adi-Guzal; Cemeteries and graves; Quddus; Mulla Husayn; Pilgrimage
    1850 (Early weeks) Vahíd clashed with the authorities in Yazd. He escaped and made a missionary journey through Fárs. [B178–9; DB466–71; BBRSM28, 216]
  • B204–5 says Lt-Col Sheil reported it to London in February; BBRSM28, 216 says it was January or February; DB466 sets it at Naw-Rúz 1850 and DB468 says that the siege carried on for 40 days.
  • See BBR106–9 for the various dates assigned to this event and for the difficulties in dating it.
  • Yazd; Fars; Iran Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi)
    1850 15 Jan Mullá Ádí-Guzal arrived in Mázindarán and carried out the Báb's request. [DB432] Mazandaran; Iran Mulla Adi-Guzal; Bab, Life of
    1850 19 - 20 Feb The Bábi group in Tehran had been infiltrated by an informer who betrayed about fifty of its members to the authorities. Fearing a plot the government had seven of the leading members of the group executed including the Báb's uncle and guardian. These men were of high social status, three merchants, two prominent ulama, a Sufi spiritual guide and a government official. [BBRSM28] Tehran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1850 19 or 20 Feb Martyrdom of the Seven Martyrs of Tihrán. Seven of the Bábís were executed in Tihrán on the false charge of having plotted to kill the Grand Vizier. [B182–5; BBD225; BBR100–5; BBRSM28, 216; BKG71; BW18:381; DB462; GPB47–8]

  • See BBD225, BBR100 and BW18:381 for a list of their names.
  • Three of the victims were so eager to be martyrs that they asked the executioner if they could be the first to die. [B183; BBD225; GPB47]
  • Their bodies were left in the public square for three days. [BBD225; GPB47]
  • See GPB478 for the chief features of the episode.
  • The martyrs are the ‘Seven Goats' referred to in Islamic traditions that were to ‘walk in front' of the promised Qá'im. [GPB47–8]
  • See B206–7 and BBR100–5 for the accounts of the event and responses of Prince Dolgorukov and Lt-Col Sheil.
  • Tihran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Seven martyrs; Grand Viziers; Prince Dolgorukov; Sheil
    1850 (Spring) The house of Vahíd in Yazd was attacked by crowds and pillaged. The crowd was dispersed by Mullá Muhammad-Ridá. Vahíd left Yazd. [BW18:381; DB466–75] Yazd; Iran Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi); Mulla Muhammad-Rida; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Mobs; Persecution
    1850 13 May 1850 - 2 Jan 1851 c. The start of the Zanján upheaval. Hujjat had converted a sizeable proportion of the town and tension mounted between the Bábís and the ‘ulamá. [DB540–1, 527–81; B185–8, 209–13; BBD111, 245; BBR114–26; BBRSM28, 216; GPB44–5; TN245]
  • See BW18:381 for a chronicle of events.
  • Zanjan; Iran Hujjat; Zanjan upheaval; Upheavals; Ulama; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution Newspaper coverage of the Zanjan Upheaval
    1850 16 May Martyrdom of Shaykh Muhammad-i-Túb-Chí in Zanján, the first of the martyrs. [BBR115; DB542–3] Zanjan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Firsts, Other first of the martyrs
    1850 19 May The Governor sent a mob against Hujjat, which was dispersed by Mír Saláh. The Governor sent to Tihrán for reinforcements and the town Zanján was split into two camps. [BW18:381]

  • See BBD245 and GPB45 for the story of Zaynab, the Bábí woman who dressed as a man and defended the barricades.
  • Zaynab and the Women of Zanjan.
  • Tihran; Zanjan; Iran Governors; Hujjat; Mir Salah; Zaynab; Gender; Women; Equality; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Mobs; Persecution
    1850 27 May-
    21 Jun
    First Nayríz upheaval.

    Vahíd traveled from Yazd towards Shíráz, eventually coming to Nayríz. He went to the Mosque of Jum‘ih where he ascended the pulpit and proclaimed the Cause of God. The Governor moved against him and Vahíd ordered his companions to occupy the fort of Khájih. The siege that followed lasted a month. [B178, 204–5; BBR109–13; BW18:381]

  • See BW18:381 for a chronicle of events.
  • See RB1:325–31 for the story of Vahíd. See also GPB50, KI223.
  • See also B178–82; BBD171; BBR109–13; BBRSM28, 216; DB485–99; GPB42–4; RB1:264; TN245.
  • Nayriz; Yazd; Shiraz; Iran Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi); Mosques; Jumih; Governors; Fort Khajih; Nayriz upheaval; Upheavals; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution First Nayríz upheaval
    1850 Jun c. The Amír-Nizám, Mírzá Taqí Khán was determined to execute the Báb to halt the progress of His religion. On his orders the Báb was taken from Chihríq to Tabríz. [B152; BBR76–7; GPB51]
  • His guard took Him on a circuitous, much longer route through Urúmíyyih where His presence was noted by American missionaries. [B152; BBR73, 76]
  • Forty days before the Báb was to leave Chihríq He collected all His documents, Tablets, pen cases, seals, His agate rings, and His last Tablets to Mírzá 'Abdu'l-Karím Qazvíní, and put them in a coffer. He entrusted it to Mullá Báqir, one of the Letters of the Living, and instructed him to deliver it to His secretary. In the event that something should happen to Himself, the secretary was to proceed to Tihrán to deliver the box to ‘Jináb-i-Bahá', that is, Bahá'u'lláh. In His last Tablets, Mírzá Husayn-'Alí Núrí was referred to again and again as "Him Whom God shall make Manifest" also, He was referred to as "Bahá'u'lláh". [CH49; B151–2; DB504–5; TN25–6]
  • When the box was opened they found a Tablet in the form of a pentacle with 500 verses consisting of derivatives of the word ‘Bahá'. [B151–2; DB504–5; TN25–6]
  • Chihriq; Tabriz; Urumiyyih; Tihran; Iran Mirza Taqi Khan; Bab, Life of; Missionaries; Mulla Muhammad Baqir-i Tabrizi; Letters of the Living; Bahaullah, Life of; Bab, Writings of; Relics; Box with writings; Boxes; Greatest Name; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1850 17 Jun At Nayríz, Vahíd received a message from the Governor offering a truce and a promise of safety written on the Qur'án. He, together with five attendants, leave the fortress and were received into the camp of his enemies where he was entertained with great ceremony for three days. [B180–1; BW18:381] Nayriz; Iran Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi); Truces; Nayriz upheaval; Upheavals; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1850 21 Jun End of the first Nayríz upheaval. [BBRXXIX, 112]
  • Vahíd was forced to write to his companions in the fortress to assure them that a settlement had been reached. The Bábís left the fort, were set upon and killed. [B181; BW18;381]
  • Nayriz; Iran Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi); Nayriz upheaval; Upheavals
    1850 24 Jun The severed heads of 13 Bábís arrived in Shíráz from Nayríz. They were raised on lances and paraded through the town. [B182; BW18:381] Shiraz; Nayriz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Nayriz upheaval; Upheavals
    1850 29 Jun Vahíd was martyred in Nayríz. [B182; BW18:381; DB495, 499; GPB42; RB1:265]
  • See DB494 for details of his martyrdom.
  • His body was dragged through the streets to the accompaniment of drums and cymbals. [RB1:265]
  • See SDH13 for a respectful opinion of Vahíd expressed by an enemy of the Cause, one of the army chiefs who had fought against Vahíd.
  • See PG109-110 for the story of Jenabeh Vahid's show of reverence towards the Báb.
  • Nayriz; Tabriz; Iran Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1850 29 Jun The Báb arrived in Tabrí. [BBR76]
  • BBRXXIX says He arrived on 19 June.
  • RR397 says He arrived two days after the government troops succeeded in suppressing the first Nayríz uprising.
  • Tabriz; Iran Bab, Life of; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1850 8 Jul The Báb, divested of His turban and sash, was taken on foot to the barracks in Tabríz. Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alíy-i-Zunúzí, Anís, threw himself at the feet of the Báb and asked to go with Him. [B153; DB507]
  • That night the Báb asked that one of His companions kill Him, rather than let Him die at the hands of His enemies. Anís offered to do this but was restrained by the others. The Báb promised that Anís will be martyred with Him. [B154–5; DB507–8]
  • Tabriz; Iran Bab, Life of; Bab, Martyrdom of; Turbans; Barracks; Anis (Mirza Muhammad-Aliy-i-Zunuzi); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1850 9 Jul Martyrdom of the Báb

    In the morning the Báb was taken to the homes of the leading clerics to obtain the death-warrants. [B155; DB508]

  • The warrants were already prepared. [B155–6; DB510]
  • Anís's stepfather tried to persuade him to change his mind. Anís's young son was also brought to ‘soften his heart' but Anís's resolve remained unshaken. [B156–7; DB509–10]
  • At noon the Báb and Mirza Muhammad-Ali Zunuzi, known as Anis were suspended on a wall in the square in front of the citadel of Tabríz in Sarbazkhaneh Square. They were shot by 750 soldiers in three ranks of 250 men in succession. [B157; DB512]
  • When the smoke cleared the Báb was gone and Anís was standing, unharmed, under the nail from which they were suspended. The Báb, also unhurt, was found back in his cell completing His dictation to His secretary. [B157–8; DB512–13]
  • See BBD200–1 and DB510–12, 514 for the story of Sám Khán, the Christian colonel of the Armenian regiment which was ordered to execute the Báb.
  • The Báb and Anís were suspended a second time. A new regiment, the Násirí, was found to undertake the execution. After the volleys, the bodies of the Báb and Anís were shattered and melded together. [B158; DB514]
  • See BBR77–82 for Western accounts of the event.
  • The face of the Báb was untouched. [B158]
  • At the moment the shots were fired, a gale sweeps the city, stirring up so much dust that the city remained in darkness from noon until night. [B158; DB515]
  • See CH239 and DH197 for the story of the phenomenon of the two sunsets.
  • During the night, the bodies were thrown onto the edge of the moat surrounding the city. Soldiers were posted to stand guard over them and, nearby; two Bábís, feigning madness, keep vigil. The bodies were removed and hidden under cover of darkness. [B159; TN27]
  • Tabriz; Iran Bab, Martyrdom of; Bab, Life of; Bab, Remains of; Holy days; Anis (Mirza Muhammad-Aliy-i-Zunuzi); Sam Khan; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bab, Basic timeline; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1850 10 Jul The Russian Consul had an artist make a sketch of the body of the Báb. [B159; DB518; TN28]
  • See BBR43 for details of the drawing made by Consul Bakulin.
  • Tabriz; Iran Russian officials; Consuls; Bab, Sketches of; Martyrdom of the Bab; Bab, Life of
    1850 11 Jul The bodies were removed from the moat and taken to a silk factory. [B159–60; DB519]
  • The bodies were wrapped in a cloak and removed to a silk factory owned by one of the believer of Mílan and deposited in a small wooden casket. [B159–60; DB519]
  • See B159–60, DB518–22 and TN27–8, The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1952 Information Statistical & Comparative p20-22 for the story of the recovery of the bodies and eventual arrival in Haifa.
  • The soldiers reported that the bodies had been eaten by dogs. [B160; DB519]
  • Some time later, at Bahá'u'lláh's instructions, the casket was transported to Tehran and concealed in the shrine of Imám-Sádih Hasan.
  • And still later yet the remains were removed to the home of Hájí Sulaymán Khán and subsequently transferred to the shrine of Imám-Zádih Ma'súm.
  • Tabriz; Iran Bab, Martyrdom of; Bab, Remains of; Z^^^^
    1850 Jul The Faith of the Báb had spread to two countries at this point, Iran and Iraq. [MBW147]
  • B148–60, 202–3; BBD147; BBR77–82; DB510–17; GPB49–55; TN26–7.
  • By this time "there was no province in the entire country in which from a few up to ten Bábí communities had not been established. These early Bábí communities of Muslim converts, who were generally from Shaikhi background, had come from various strata of Persian society, although a few Jews and Zoroastrians had also joined the movement (Māzandarānī, 1943, p. 395; Samandar, p. 348)". [BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati]
  • Iran; Iraq; Middle East Statistics; Babi history Early mention of Bábís in western newspapers summer 1850
    1850 Aug c. Mullá Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardikání (Hájí Amín), Hand of the Cause, became a Bábí. Haji Amin (Abul-Hasan-i-Ardikani)
    1850 25 Aug The arrival of ‘Azíz Khán-i-Mukrí, commander-in-chief of Iran's army, in Zanján where the fighting began in May continues. He took charge of the operation. [BBR119; BW18:382; DB556]
  • For the story of Ashraf and his mother see DB562–3.
  • Zanjan; Iran Aziz Khan-i-Mukri; Commander-in-chief; Zanjan upheaval; Upheavals; Ashraf; Mothers; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1850 3 Oct Two of Vahíd's companions were executed in Shíráz. Shiraz; Iran Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1850 Nov-Dec Muhammad Khán, the commander of the government forces at Zanján, tried to deceive Hujjat into surrendering by drawing up a peace proposal. Hujjat, recalling Tabarsí and Nayríz, responded by sending children and old men to Muhammad Khán, who had them thrown into a dungeon. This signalled the beginning of the final month-long siege at Zanján. [B186–7; DB564–8] Zanjan; Nayriz; Iran Muhammad Khan; Hujjat; Zanjan upheaval; Upheavals
    1850 early Dec Hujjat was wounded in the arm. His companions laid down their arms and rushed to his assistance. The royal forces took advantage of the lull to breach the fortifications. [B187; BBR121; DB569]
  • About 100 women and children were taken captive. They were left exposed in the open for 15 days without food, shelter or appropriate clothing. [BBR121; DB569–70]
  • The remaining Bábís, about 140, sheltered in Hujjat's residence under fierce attack. [BBR121]
  • The bombardment of the fortress was stepped-up and Hujjat's house was particularly targeted. Hujjat's wife and baby were killed. [B187; DB572–3]
  • Zanjan; Iran Hujjat; Zanjan upheaval; Upheavals
    1850 29 Dec Hujjat died of his wounds. [B187; BRR122; BW18:382]
  • DB573 says this was on 8 January 1851.
  • Zanjan; Iran Hujjat; Zanjan upheaval; Upheavals
    1851 (In the year) Mullá Zaynu'l-'Abidín (Zaynu'l-Muqarrabin), a prominent mujtahid, became a Bábí, in Najafábád. Najafabad; Iran Zaynul-Muqarrabin (Mulla Zaynul-Abidin)
    1851 2 Jan c. End of the Zanján upheaval. [BW18:382]
  • Hujjat, wounded in the right arm by a bullet 19 days previously, succumbed to his wounds. With the death of Hujjat the Bábí resistance weakens. A general assault by the royal forces ended the siege. [B187; BBR122; BW18:382; DB573–4]
  • See B187 and DB574–7 for the fate of the survivors.
  • See B187 and DB577–9 for the fate of Hujjat's body.
  • About 1,800 Bábís were killed during the upheaval. [DB580, 598]
  • Zanjan; Iran Hujjat; Zanjan upheaval; Upheavals
    1851 2 Mar Four Bábís brought from Zanján were executed in Tihrán. [BW18:382] Tihran; Zanjan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1851 30 Apr Mullá Hasan-i-Fadíl was executed in Yazd when he refused to recant. [BW18:382] Yazd; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1851 1 May Áqá Husayn was blown from a canon in Yazd. [BW18:382] Yazd; Iran Canons; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1851 Jun c. Mírzá Taqí Khán met with Bahá'u'lláh and told Him that it would be advisable for Bahá'u'lláh to leave Tihrán temporarily. A few days later, He lef for Karbalá on pilgrimage. [BKG66; DB587, 591] Tihran; Iran; Karbala; Iraq Mirza Taqi Khan; Bahaullah, Life of
    1851 23 Jul Áqá Muhammad-Sádiq-i-Yúzdárání was beaten to death in Yazd after refusing to recant. [BW18:382] Yazd; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1851 Aug Bahá'u'lláh spent most of August in Kirmánsháh. [BKG67; DB90, 591] Kirmanshah; Iran Bahaullah, Life of
    1851 4 Aug Áqá ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Hakkák was blown from a canon after refusing to recant. [BW18:382] Canons; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1851 28 Aug Bahá'u'lláh arrived in Karbalá via Baghdád on His pilgrimage. He stayed for 10 months. [BKG67; DB593; GPB70]
  • See BKG68 and DB593–4 for those who became Bábís in Karbalá in this period.
  • Karbala; Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Life of; Pilgrimage; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1851 5 Oct Shaykh Hasan-i-Zunúzí, the Báb's amanuensis, had been sent from the Báb's side in Chihríq to live in Karbilá at a time just before the incident at Shaykh Tabarsí when all available believers were being dispatched to assist Quddús. Here, the Báb told him, he would meet the promised Husayn. Although he had never met Bahá'u'lláh before, on this day he recognized Him as He walked by the inner courtyard of the Shrine of the Imám Husayn. [BKG67–8]
  • There is a Shíh tradition that, in the Latter Days, 'Alí would re-appear twice, once before Muhammad and once after Husayn. The Báb's name was 'Alí-Muhammad and Bahá'u'lláh's name was Husayn-Alí, hence the prophecy was fulfilled. Shaykh Hasan wants to proclaim the advent of the Promised One however Bahá'u'lláh advises him that it is not yet time.[OPOP163, DB31-33]
  • Karbala; Iraq Shaykh Hasan-i-Zunuzi; Bab, Life of; amanuensis; Bahaullah, Life of; Imam Husayn; Prophecies
    1851 Nov c. Siyyid Basír-Hindí, a blind Indian, was put to death by Ildirím Mírzá. [BW18:382]
  • For details of his life see DB588–90.
  • Iran Siyyid Basir-Hindi; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1851 13 Nov Mírzá Taqí Khán, the Amír-Nizám, was dismissed from his post and told he was only in charge of the army. [BBR163; BKG71]
  • He was succeeded by Mírzá Áqá Khán-i-Núrí. [BBRXXIX, 482; DB598]
  • Mirza Taqi Khan; Mirza Aqa Khan; Prime ministers of Iran; Prime Ministers
    1851 Dec After learning of the death of the Báb, his mother Fáṭimih Bagum moved to Karbilá with her closest companions. Karbala; Iraq Fatimih Bagum; Bab, Family of Bahaikipedia
    1852 Birth of Aqa Buzurg Khurasani (Badí‘), Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Mashhad. Mashhad; Iran Badi (Mirza Aqa Buzurg-i-Nishapuri); Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths
    1852 Jan Mírzá Taqí Khán was killed in the public bath in Káshán by order of the Sháh on the instigation of the Sháh's mother and Mírzá Áqá Khán. [BBR164–5; BKG72]
  • He chose to have his veins opened and he bled to death. [BBR164; BKG72]
  • Shoghi Effendi described him has being "arbitrary, bloodthirsty and reckless". [GPB4]
  • Kashan; Iran Mirza Taqi Khan; Prime ministers; Assassinations; Public baths; Nasirid-Din Shah, Mother of; Mirza Aqa Khan
    1852 21 Feb Birth of Isabella Brittingham, prominent American Bahá'í teacher, in New York City. New York; United States Isabella Brittingham; Births and deaths
    1852 20 Mar The publication of Uncle Tom's Cabin; or, Life Among the Lowly by Harriet Beecher Stowe. It was the best-selling novel of the 19th century and the second best-selling book of that century, following the Bible. It is credited with helping fuel the abolitionist cause in the 1850s. In recent years, the negative associations with Uncle Tom's Cabin have, to an extent, overshadowed the historical impact of the book as a "vital antislavery tool. [Wikipedia]
  • Harriet Beecher Stowe was an ancestor of Ellen "Mother" Beecher who was a grandmother of Hand of the Cause of God Dorothy Baker.
  • United States Uncle Tom's Cabin: Life Among the Lowly; English literature; Literature; Race (general); Harriet Beecher Stowe; Ellen Beecher; Hands of the Cause; Dorothy Baker
    1852 Apr - May c. Bahá'u'lláh returned to Iran from Karbalá. [DB598]
  • He was the guest of the Grand Vizier for one month. [BKG74; DB598–9]
  • Karbala; Iraq; Iran Bahaullah, Life of; Grand Viziers; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1852 summer Bahá'u'lláh stayed at the summer residence of Ja‘far-Qulí Khán, the brother of the Grand Vizier, in Afchih, Lavásán, near Tihrán. [BKG77; DB599] Afchih; Lavasan; Tihran; Iran Bahaullah, Life of; Jafar-Quli Khan; Grand Viziers
    1852 15 Aug Attempt on the life of the Sháh. [BBR128; BBRSM:30; BKG74–5; DB599; ESW20; GPB62; TN2930]
  • See BKG74–5 for circumstances of the event.
  • See BKG76 for the fate of the perpetrators.
  • See BBR128–46 for reporting of the event in the West.
  • Ja‘far-Qulí Khán wrote immediately to Bahá'u'lláh telling Him of the event and that the mother of the Sháh was denouncing Bahá'u'lláh as the ‘would-be murderer'. Ja‘far-Qulí Khán offered to hide Bahá'u'lláh. [BKG77; DB602]
  • Iran Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on; Nasirid-Din Shah, Mother of; Shahs; History (general); Iran, General history; Jafar-Quli Khan; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1852 -1853 "In the hecatomb of 1852-1853 the ranks of the Bábís were drastically thinned. Most of the leading disciples were killed, only a few surviving in distant exile. The next ten years were hopelessly dark. Within the Bábí community there was much confusion and fear. It seemed at times that all the heroism, all the sacrifices, had been in vain. Enemies gloated over the virtual extermination of what they saw as a pernicious heretical sect. Sympathetic outsiders concluded that the movement that had shown so much promise cracked under persecution and collapsed, leaving behind only a glorious memory." [Varqá and Rúhu'lláh: Deathless in Martyrdom by Kazem Kazemzadeh, World Order, Winter 1974-75 p.29] Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Babi history
    1852 16 Aug Bahá'u'lláh rode out towards the headquarters of the imperial army. At the time, He had been in ‘The Abode of the Birds’ (MurghMaḥallih), a garden which had been His summer residence. He stopped at Zargandih at the home of Mírzá Majíd Khán-i-Áhí, secretary to the Russian legation. [BKG77; DB603, AY235]
  • Bahá'u'lláh was invited to remain in this home. [DB603]
  • The Sháh was informed of Bahá'u'lláh's arrival and sent an officer to the legation to demand the delivery of Bahá'u'lláh into his hands. The Russian minister, Prince Dolgorukov, refused and suggested that Bahá'u'lláh be sent to the home of the Grand Vizier. [BKG77; DB603]
  • Bahá'u'lláh was arrested. [BKG77; DB603]
  • Zargandih; Iran Bahaullah, Life of; Mirza Majid Khan-i-Ahi; Russian officials; Shahs; Prince Dolgorukov; Grand Viziers; Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1852 16 – 27 Aug The martyrdom of Táhirih in Tihrán. [BBR172–3; BBRSM:30; BW18:382; BKG87; MF203]
  • She was martyred in the Ílkhání garden, strangled with her own silk handkerchief which she had provided for the purpose. Her body was lowered into a well which was then filled with stones. [BBD220; DB622–8; GPB75]
  • See GPB73–5 for a history of her life.
  • Tihran; Iran Tahirih; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Women; Gender; Equality; Letters of the Living; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1852 (days following
    16 Aug)
    For a few days after His arrest, Bahá'u'lláh was interrogated. [TN31]

    He was then taken ‘on foot and in chains, with bared head and bare feet' to Tihrán where He was cast into the Síyáh-Chál. [BKG77; DB606–7; ESW20; GPB71; TN31]

  • See BKG77–8 and DB606–8 for a description of Bahá'u'lláh's journey.
  • See CH40–1 for the effect on Bahá'u'lláh's family.
  • Tihran; Iran Bahaullah, Life of; Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Chains; Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1852 16 – 22 Aug A large number of Bábís were arrested in Tihrán and its environs following the attempt on the life of the Sháh. A number were executed. [BBR134–5; BW18:382]
  • Eighty–one, of whom 38 were leading members of the Bábí community, were thrown into the Síyáh-Chál. [BKG77]
  • Tihran; Iran Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1852 22 Aug – 27 Aug After the initial executions, about 20 or more Bábís were distributed among the various courtiers and government departments to be tortured and put to death. [BBR135–6 BW18:382] Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1852 26 Aug An account of the punishment meted out to those who participated in the attempt on the life of the Sháh and those who happened to be followers of the Báb, was published in the Vaqayi-yi Ittifáqíyyih, a Tihran newspaper. In addition, the newspaper reported that Mírzá Husayn 'Ali-i Nuri (Bahá'u'lláh) and five others who did not participated were sentenced to life imprisonment by the Sháh.
  • See Bahá'u'lláh's Prison Sentence: The Official Account translated by Kazem Kazemzadeh and Firuz Kazemzadeh with an introduction by Firuz Kazemzadeh published in World Order Vol 13 Issue 2 Winter 1978-1979 page 11.
  • Tihran; Iran Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on; Persecution; Persecution, Iran; Newspaper articles; Bahaullah, Life of
    1852 Aug In Mílán, Iran, 15 Bábís were arrested and imprisoned. [BW18:382]

    Many Bábís were tortured and killed in the weeks following the attempt on the life of the Sháh. [BKG84]

  • See BBR171 for the story of Mahmud Khán, the Kalántar of Tihrán, and his role in the arrest and execution of the Bábís.
  • See BKG84–93 for a description of the tortures and executions of Bábís. Thirty–eight Bábís were martyred.
  • See BKG86–7 and DB616–21 for the torture and martyrdom of Sulaymán Khán. Holes were gouged in his body and nine lighted candles were inserted. He joyfully danced to the place of his execution. His body was hacked in two, each half is then suspended on either side of the gate.
  • The persecutions were so severe that the community was nearly annihilated. The Bábí remnant virtually disappeared from view until the 1870s. [BBRSM:30; EB269]
  • Milan; Tihran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Shah; Mahmud Khan; Kalantar; Sulayman Khan
    1852 Aug-Dec Bahá'u'lláh's imprisonment in the Síyáh-Chál
  • See AB10–11, BBD211–12, BKG79–83, CH41–2, DB631–3, GPB109 and RB1:9 for a description of the prison and the conditions suffered by the prisoners.
  • No food or drink was given to Bahá'u'lláh for three days and nights. [DB608]
  • Bahá'u'lláh remained in the prison for four months. [CH41; ESW20, 77; GPB104; TN31]
  • "Upon Our arrival We were first conducted along a pitch-black corridor, from whence We descended three steep flights of stairs to the place of confinement assigned to Us. The dungeon was wrapped in thick darkness, and Our fellow prisoners numbered nearly a hundred and fifty souls: thieves, assassins and highwaymen. Though crowded, it had no other outlet than the passage by which We entered. No pen can depict that place, nor any tongue describe its loathsome smell. Most of these men had neither clothes nor bedding to lie on. God alone knoweth what befell Us in that most foul-smelling and gloomy place!" [ESW20-21]
  • See CH42–3 for the effect of Bahá'u'lláh's imprisonment on His wife and children. Friends and and even family were afraid to be associated with His immediate family. During this period Mírzá Músá helped the family surreptitiously and Mírzá Yúsif, who was married to Bahá'u'lláh's cousin, a Russian citizen and a friend of the Russian Consul, was less afraid of repercussions for his support of them.
  • They were also assisted by Isfandíyár, the family's black servant that had been emancipated in 1839 on the order of Bahá'u'lláh. This man's life was in great danger. At one time they had 150 policemen looking for him but he managed to evade capture. They thought that if they questioned (tortured) Isfandíyár he would reveal Bahá'u'lláh's nefarious plots. [SoW Vol IX April 28, 1918 p38-39]
  • Another who helped the family was Mírzá Muhammad Tabrizi who rented a house for them in Sangelak. [PG122]
  • ‘Abdu'l-Bahá, as a child of eight, was attacked in the street of Tihrán. [DB616]
  • See AB11–12, RB1:9 for ‘Abdu'l-Bahá's account of His visit to His father.
  • Bahá'u'lláh's properties were plundered. [CH41; RB1:11]
  • See BBD4–5 and BKG94–8 for the story of ‘Abdu'l-Vahháb-i-Shírází who was martyred while being held in the Síyáh-Chál.
  • See BBD190, 200 and ESW77 about the two chains with which Bahá'u'lláh was burdened while in the Síyáh-Chál. Five other Bábís were chained to Him day and night. [CH41]
  • Bahá'u'lláh had some 30 or 40 companions. [BBIC:6, CH41]
  • An attempt was made to poison Him. The attempt failed but His health was impaired for years following. [BBIC:6; BKG99–100, GPB72] Bahá'u'lláh's half-brother Mírzá Yahyá fled to Tákur and went into hiding. He eventually went to Baghdád. [BKG90, 107, CH41]
  • Tihran; Takur; Iran; Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Attempts on; Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Prison; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Vahhab-i-Shirazi; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Poison; Chains; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Basic timeline
    1852 Oct Bahá'u'lláh had a vision of the Maiden, who announced to Him that He was the Manifestation of God for this Age. [BBD142–3, 212; BKG823 ESW11–12, 21 GPB101–2; KAN62]

  • This experience compares to the episode of Moses and the Burning Bush, Zoroaster and the Seven Visions, Buddha under the Bodhi tree, the descent of the Dove upon Jesus and the voice of Gabriel commanding Muhammad to ‘cry in the name of thy Lord'. [GPB93, 101]
  • The Báb repeatedly gave the year nine as the date of the appearance of ‘Him Whom God shall make manifest'. The Declaration of the Báb took place in AH 1260; year nine was therefore AH 1269, which began in the middle of October when Bahá'u'lláh had been in prison for about two months. [CB46–7]
  • Subsequently in His Writings Bahá’u’lláh declared that He was the "Promised One" of all religions, fulfilling the messianic prophecies found in world religions. He stated that being several messiahs converging one person were the spiritual, rather than material, fulfilment of the messianic and eschatological prophecies found in the literature of the major religions. His eschatological claims constitute six distinctive messianic identifications: from Judaism, the incarnation of the "Everlasting Father" from the Yuletide prophecy of Isaiah 9:6, the "Lord of Hosts"; from Christianity, the "Spirit of Truth" or Comforter predicted by Jesus in His farewell discourse of John 14-17 and the return of Christ "in the glory of the Father"; from Zoroastrianism, the return of Shah Bahram Varjavand, a Zoroastrian messiah predicted in various late Pahlavi texts; from Shi'a Islam the return of the Third Imam, Imam Husayn; from Sunni Islam, the return of Jesus, Isa; and from the Bábí religion, He whom God shall make manifest.
  • While Bahá’u’lláh did not explicitly state Himself to be either the Hindu or Buddhist messiah, He did so in principle through His writings. Later, ‘Abdu’l-Bahá stated that Bahá’u’lláh was the Kalki avatar, who in the classical Hindu Vaishnavas tradition, is the tenth and final avatar (great incarnation) of Vishnu who will come to end The Age of Darkness and Destruction. Bahá’ís also believe that Bahá’u’lláh is the fulfilment of the prophecy of appearance of the Maitreya Buddha, who is a future Buddha who will eventually appear on Earth, achieve complete enlightenment, and teach the pure Dharma. Bahá’ís believe that the prophecy that Maitreya will usher in a new society of tolerance and love has been fulfilled by Bahá’u’lláh's teachings on world peace. [Bahaikipedia]
  • See P&M295-196(1969), 298-299(1987) where states, "...the First Call gone forth from His lips than the whole creation was revolutionized, and all that are in the heavens and all that are on earth were stirred to the depths". What was "the First Call"?. See GPB121, “These initial and impassioned outpourings of a Soul struggling to unburden itself, in the solitude of a self-imposed exile (many of them, alas lost to posterity) are, with the Tablet of Kullu’t-Tá’am and the poem entitled Rashh-i-‘Amá, revealed in Ṭihrán, the first fruits of His Divine Pen.” iiiii
  • Tihran; Iran Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Birth of Revelation of; Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Visions; Maid of Heaven; Angels; Year nine; Promised One; Prophecies; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Lawh Kullut-Taam (Tablet of All Food); Rashh-i-Ama (Sprinkling from the Cloud of Unknowing); Firsts, Other; dreams first emanations of the Supreme Pen
    1852 between Aug - Nov The revelation of Rashh-i-Ama (The Clouds of the Realms Above) while in the Síyáh-Chál in Tehran. This tablet is considered to be among the first revealed by Bahá'u'lláh after being apprised that He was to be the Manifestation of God.
  • See P&M295-196(1969), 298-299(1987) where states, "...the First Call gone forth from His lips than the whole creation was revolutionized, and all that are in the heavens and all that are on earth were stirred to the depths". What was "the First Call"?. See GPB121, “These initial and impassioned outpourings of a Soul struggling to unburden itself, in the solitude of a self-imposed exile (many of them, alas lost to posterity) are, with the Tablet of Kullu’t-Tá’am and the poem entitled Rashh-i-‘Amá, revealed in Ṭihrán, the first fruits of His Divine Pen.”
  • See also RoB1p45-52 for information on "The First Emanations of the Supreme Pen". Taherzadeh explains that this tablet has great significance in Islamic prophecy where it is said that when the Promised One appears He will utter one word that will cause the people to flee HIm. Islamic prophecy also holds that the well-known saying, "I am He" will be fulfilled. In this tablet and many that were to follow, Bahá'u'lláh proclaims that "I am God".
    Taherzadeh also states Bahá'u'lláh disclosed for the first time one of the unique features of His Revelation, namely, the advent of the "Day of God".
    "In a language supremely beautiful and soul-stirring, He attributes these energies to Himself. His choice of words, and the beauty, power, depth and mystery of this poem...are such that they may well prove impossible to translate." [RoB1p45]
  • See Tablet of the Mist of the Unknown by Bahá'u'lláh translated by Ramin Neshati, 2000
  • See Sprinkling of the Cloud of Unknowing by Bahá'u'lláh translated by Stephen Lambden published in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 3:2 1984-09/1995
  • See Clouds and the Hiding God: Observations on some Terms in the Early Writing of Bahá'u'lláh by Moshe Sharon published in Lights of Irfan, Vol 13, 2012,p363-379 for an exploration of the mystical terms found in the Tablet.
  • See Sprinkling from a Cloud (Rashh-i-Amá): Wilmette Institute faculty notes by Ismael Velasco and Julio Savi, 1999 where each author provides a synopsis of the Tablet.
  • See Sprinkling from a Cloud (Rashh-i-Amá): Tablet study outline by Jonah Winters, 1999
  • See List of Baha'i Studies and Translations by Stephen Lambden for a chronological list of the known Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh (and the Báb).
  • Tihran; Iran Rashh-i-Ama (Sprinkling from the Cloud of Unknowing); Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Poetry of; Poetry; Call of the Divine Beloved (book); Siyah Chal (Black Pit)
    1852 27 Oct The Bábí Faith was first mentioned in the 27 October 1852 volume of Magyar Hírlap (The Hungarian Newspaper), under the title „Persia műveltségi történetéhez” ("To the History of Education in Persia”) where Captain Von Goumoens, a captain of the Austrian army based in Tehran reported on the terrible events related to the persecution of Bahá’ís in Iran.[www.bahai.hu] Budapest; Hungary Newspaper articles; Mentions; Firsts, Other First mention of the Faith in Hungary
    1852 Dec Bahá'u'lláh was released from the Síyáh-Chál.
  • This was owing to: the efforts of the Russian Minister Prince Dolgorukov; the public confession of the would-be assassin; the testimony of competent tribunals; the efforts of Bahá'u'lláh's own kinsmen; and the sacrifices of those followers imprisoned with Him. [GPB104–5]
  • See CH43–4 for the role of the Russian Consul in securing His release. He invoked his full power as an envoy of Russia and called out the Sháh and his court for their barbaric behaviour.
  • See BKG101–2, CH44 and DB647–8 for the physical condition of Bahá'u'lláh upon release.
  • See BKG101, DB648–9 and GPB105 for the words of Bahá'u'lláh to Mírzá Áqá Khán upon His release.
  • The Russian minister invited Bahá'u'lláh to go to Russia but He chose instead to go to Iraq. It may be that He refused the offer because He knew that acceptance of such help would have been misrepresented as having political implications. [BBIC:8; DB650]
  • Iran; Iraq Bahaullah, Life of; Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on; Russia; Minister; Prince Dolgorukov; Mirza Aqa Khan; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1853 12 Jan Bahá'u'lláh and His family departed for Baghdád after a one month respite in the home of his half-brother Mírzá Ridá-Qulí. During the three-month journey Bahá'u'lláh was accompanied by His wife Navváb, (Who was six weeks from giving birth upon departure.) His eldest son ‘Abdu'l-Bahá (9), Bahíyyih Khánum (7) and two of His brothers, Mírzá Músá and Mírzá Muhammad-Qulí. Mírzá Mihdí (2), was very delicate and so was left behind with the grandmother of Àsíyih Khánum. They were escorted by an officer of the Persian imperial bodyguard and an official representing the Russian legation. [BKG102–5; GPB108]
  • CH44–5 says the family had ten days after Bahá'u'lláh's release to prepare for the journey to Iraq.
  • ‘Never had the fortunes of the Faith proclaimed by the Báb sunk to a lower ebb'. [DB651]
  • This exile compares to the migration of Muhammad, the exodus of Moses and the banishment of Abraham. [GPB107–8]
  • See BKG104 and GPB108–9 for conditions on the journey.
  • Bahá'u'lláh's black servant, Isfandíyár, who had managed to evade capture during this dark period, after he had paid all the debts to various merchants, went to Mazandaran where he was engaged by the Governor. Years later when his master made a pilgrimage to Iraq Isfandíyár met Bahá'u'lláh and stated his preference to return to His service. Bahá'u'lláh said that he owed his master a debt of gratitude and could not leave his employ without his permission. It was not granted and Isfandíyár returned to Mazandaran and stayed with the Governor until his passing. [PUP428; SoW IX 28 April, 1918 p38-39]
  • Also see A Gift of Love Offered to the Greatest Holy Leaf (compiled and edited by Gloria Faizi, 1982), by Hand of the Cause Abu'l-Qasim Faizi, which includes a brief summary of the character of Isfandiyar and his services to the Holy Family on pages 14-16.
  • Iran; Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mirza Rida-Quli; Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Abdul-Baha, Life of; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Mirza Musa; Mirza Mihdi; Mirza Muhammad-Quli; Isfandiyar; Russian officials; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1853 21 Mar Bahá'u'lláh and His companions arrived in Khániqayn, just across the Iraqi border, where they rested in a beautiful orchard to observe Naw-Rúz. [BKG105]
  • The Governor of Tehran had sent soldiers with the party of exiles to the frontier where they were met by Turkish soldiers who escorted them to Baghdád. [Ch47]
  • Khaniqayn; Iraq Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Naw-Ruz
    1853 26 Mar Five Bábís, acting on their own initiative, murdered the governor of Nayríz, providing the spark for the second Nayríz upheaval. [BBR147] Nayriz; Iran Nayriz upheaval; Upheavals; Governors; Persecution, Iran; Persecution; Assassinations
    1853 8 Apr Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád

    Bahá'u'lláh and His family arrived in Baghdád. [BBR177; BKG106; GPB109; TN38]

  • See BBR177–83 for conditions in Baghdád during this period.
  • Shoghi Effendi describes this as being the lowest period of the faith of the Báb. [DB651, GPB113-114]
  • Shortly after the family's arrival in Baghdád Navváb gave birth to a son. [CB71; CH51–2]
  • Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Life of; Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1853 or 1854 Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Lawh-i Kullu't-ta‘ám (Tablet of All Food). [BRSM:62; BKG112]
  • The revelation of this Tablet pointed out Mírzá Yahyá's lack of ability. [BKG 112]
  • This Tablet also describes five Worlds of God.
  • Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Writings of; Lawh Kullut-Taam (Tablet of All Food); Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Worlds of God
    1853 or 1854 Birth of Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alí, first son of Bahá'u'lláh and His second wife, Mahd-i-‘Ulyá. [CB 125]
  • He was born in the first year of Bahá'u'lláh's arrival in Baghdád. CB125]
  • Baghdad; Iraq Mirza Muhammad-Ali; Births and deaths; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Wives of; Bahaullah, Family of; Mahd-i-Ulya (Fatimih Khanum); Firsts, Other First son of Bahá'u'lláh and His second wife, Mahd-i-‘Ulyá; first year of Bahá'u'lláh's arrival Baghdád
    1853 (Summer) Bahá'u'lláh revealed His station and mission to Mírzá Áqá Ján in Karbalá. He was the first person to believe in Bahá'ú'lláh as "Him Whom God shall make manifest." [BKG109–11; GPB115–16; CoB181]
  • Bried story about Mírzá Áqá Ján and his first inclination that Bahá'u'lláh was indeed the One promised by the Báb.
  • Karbala; Iraq Bahaullah, Life of; Mirza Aqa Jan the first person to believe in Bahá'ú'lláh as "Him Whom God shall make manifest." a few newspaper stories in English mention 'A certain "Babee"'
    1853 Oct Second Nayríz upheaval. [BBR147–51; BBRSM:217; BW18:382; DB642–5]
  • The new governor of Nayríz, Mírzá Na‘ím-i-Núrí, arrests a large number of Bábís and pillages their properties. The Bábís take to the hills. [BW18:382]
  • See BW18:382 for a chronicle of events.
  • See BBR147–51 for Western accounts.
  • Nayriz; Iran Nayriz upheaval; Upheavals; Mirza Naim-i-Nuri; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1853 31 Oct Some 600 female and 80 to 180 male Bábís are taken prisoner at Nayríz and marched to Shíráz, along with the heads of' some 180 martyrs. This fulfils an Islamic prophecy concerning the appearance of the Qá'im indicating that the heads of the followers would be used as gifts. [BW18:382; KI245] Nayriz; Shiraz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Prophecies
    1853 24 Nov The prisoners from Nayríz and the heads of the martyrs arrive in Shíráz. More Bábís are executed and their heads sent to Tihrán. The heads are later buried at Ábádih. [BW18:382] Shiraz; Nayriz; Tihran; Abadih; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1854 10 Apr - 1856 19 Mar Bahá'u'lláh in Sulaymaniyyih
    Bahá'u'lláh suddenly left Baghdád and went to Kurdistán. [BKG115; DB585; GPB120]
  • Before He left, Bahá'u'lláh asked His family to look after Mírzá Yahyá during His absence. [CB70–1; CH50–1]
  • Bahá'u'lláh lived for some time as a dervish in a cave on the mountain of Sar-Galú. He took the name Darvísh Muhammad-i-Írání to conceal His true identity. [BBD214–15; BBRSM:60–1; BKG116–19; GPB120–1; TN38–9]
  • This action compares to Moses' going out to the desert of Sinai, to Buddha's retreat to the wilds of India, to Christ's walk in the wilderness and to Muhammad's withdrawal to the hills of Arabia. [BKG114]
  • Áqá Abu'l-Qásim-i-Hamadání was His only companion. Áqá Abu'l-Qásim was killed on a journey to collect money and provisions. [BKG116–17]
  • "It was this period of voluntary seclusion, following shortly after the execution of the Báb in 1850, which bequeathed to history irrevocable proof that Bahá'u'lláh and not His half-brother, Subhi-Ezel, was in reality the one celebrated by the Báb and for whom the Bábí Movement was the spiritual preparation. By this act of voluntary retirement, Bahá'u'lláh gave Sebhi-Ezel unhampered opportunity to exercise the spiritual leadership over the Bábís which the latter claimed as his right. The result, however, demonstrated Subhi-Ezel's utter incapacity to maintain unity among the Bábís, inspire them with faith and confidence sufficient to meet their many difficulties and guide them along lines of true future progress. Non other than the return of Bahá'u'lláh could re-quicken the flames of their ardour or supply them with the more universal principles of conduct and faith required to transform the Bábí Movement into a world religion." [BW2Surveyp33]
  • It was during this time that Bahá'u'lláh revealed the poem Qasídiyi-i-‘Izz-i-Varqá'íyyih (Ode of the Dove). It was composed of 2,000 couplets but Bahá'u'lláh allowed only 127 to be preserved. [BBD215; BKG118; GPB123]
  • See BKG114, GPB117–19 and K1250 for reasons for Bahá'u'lláh's retirement.
  • Before and during His absence no fewer than 25 people claimed to be the One promised by the Báb. [BBRSM29, 59; EB269; GPB125]
  • See BKG115–19 and GPB120 for Bahá'u'lláh's activities while in Kurdistán.
  • See KI248–51 for Bahá'u'lláh's own account of the episode.
  • See BKG119–22 and GPB124–6 for the condition of the Bábí community in Baghdád during this period.
  • The son born to Navváb shortly after the family's arrival in Baghdád became ill and died during Bahá'u'lláh's absence. [CB71; CH51–2]
  • See SBBR2:1–28 for Bahá'u'lláh's contact with Súfís.
  • BW16:528 for an account of Daoud Toeg, who visited the caves of Sar-Galú and photographed them.
  • Kurdistan; Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Dervishes; Sulaymaniyyih; Sar-Galu; Aqa Abul-Qasim-i-Hamadani; Poetry; Qasidiyyih-Varqaiyyih (Ode of the Dove); Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Sufism; Daoud Toeg; Caves; Interfaith dialogue; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1854 10 Apr-1856 19 Mar Mírzá Yáhyá, who had been hiding in Mazíndarán since the attempt on the life of the Sháh, at some point prior to Bahá'u'lláh's retirement to the mountains of Kurdistán, had joined the exiles in Baghdád. During Bahá'u'lláh's absence He asked that the friends treat him with consideration and that the family offer him shelter and hospitality in the family home.
  • See CH50-52 for the effect this had on the family. Eventually the family relocated to a different house during this period and Yáhyá did come come with them out of fear of exposure but rather he lived in a smaller house near theirs where they could continue to supply him with meals.
  • Baghdad; Iraq Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Bahaullah, Life of
    1855 During Bahá'u'lláh's absence At some point during the retirement of Bahá'u'lláh, Mírzá 'Aqá Ján was engaged in the service of Mírzá Yahyá who wanted him to go on a secret mission to Tehran to assassinate Násiri'd-Dín Sháh. He accepted the assignment and soon after his arrival managed to obtain access to the court in the guise of a labourer. He realized the extent of his folly and returned to Baghdád and when Bahá'u'lláh returned from exile he confessed his part in the scheme and begged Bahá'u'lláh's forgiveness and he was permitted to resume service for Bahá'u'lláh. [CoB181-182] Baghdad; Iraq; Tihran; Iran Mirza Aqa Jan; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Nasirid-Din Shah
    1855 5 Mar Birth of John Henry Hyde Dunn, Hand of the Cause, in London. London; United Kingdom John Henry Hyde Dunn; birth; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
    1855 15 Oct 1855 or 1856 Birth of Robert Turner, first black American Bahá'í. United States Robert Turner; Births and deaths First African-American Baha'i.
    c. 1856 – 1857 Birth of Samadíyyih Khánum, first daughter of Bahá'u'lláh and His second wife, Mahd-i-‘Ulyá. Baghdad; Iraq Samadiyyih Khanum; Bahaullah, Family of; Mahd-i-Ulya (Fatimih Khanum); Births and deaths First daughter of Bahá'u'lláh and His second wife, Mahd-i-‘Ulyá
    1856 – 1858 Bahá'u'lláh's writings during this period were so prolific that in one hour He would reveal a thousand verses and in the course of one day the equivalent of the Qur'án. He revealed a vast number of works and then commanded that hundreds of thousands of verses be destroyed. [BBRSM62–3; BKG167; GPB137–8] Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1856 to Mar 1857 The Anglo-Persian War. [BBR165, 263] Iran History (General); Iran, General history
    1856 19 Mar Bahá'u'lláh returned from Sulaymáníyyih, Kurdistán two years after His withdrawal at ‘Abdu’l-Baha's request, a moment Shoghi Effendi has described as “a turning point of the utmost significance in the history of the first Bahá’í century.” [GPB127]

    Baha’u’llah’s return revived and animated the Bábí community.

    "He Himself has described the situation which then confronted Him:

    We found no more than a handful of souls, faint and dispirited, nay utterly lost and dead. The Cause of God had ceased to be on any one's lips, nor was any heart receptive to its message. [GPB125]

  • From this time Bahá'u'lláh started to educate the believers in the principles of the Faith. [GPB127–8; TN39]
  • Baghdad; Iraq; Sulaymaniyyih; Kurdistan Bahaullah, Life of; Sulaymaniyyih; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1856 Mar During His absence Mírzá Musá rented a house in the Karkh district in the west of the city. The house was large, two or three stories, and was made of simple mud brick with a surrounding central courtyard. At some point before His departure on the 22nd of April, 1863, the house was purchased. He later named it "The Most Great House" and designated it a place of pilgrimage. It is also referred to as the "Throne of His Glory", and the "Lamp of Salvation between earth and heaven". [CEBF66]
  • After His departure the House was held in the names of various custodians and allowed to fall into disrepair. [CEBF66]
  • Baghdad; Iraq House of Bahaullah (Baghdad); Bahaullah, Houses of; Bahaullah, Life of; Pilgrimage; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1856 (after Bahá'u'lláh's return) Siyyid Asadulláh of Khuy was an influential and devoted Bábi whom the Báb had designated "Dayyán" (Judge). During Mírzá Yahyá's leadership in Baghdad he had found him so weak and the community so desparate that he, like some twenty others, declared himself to be to be the Promised One. He soon rescinded his claim after Bahá'u'lláh's return when he, as the Báb had promised, became the third person to believe in Bahá'u'lláh. Mírzá Yahyá saw this man a threat and ordered his servant Mírzá Muhammad-i-Mázindarání to murder him. [MCS562]

    In Epistle to the Son of the Wolf (p174-176) Bahá'u'lláh mentions Mírzá 'Alí-Akbar, a relative of the Báb and Abu'l-Qáaim-i-Káshí and states "several other suffered martyrdom through the decree pronounced by Mírzá Yahyá."

    Baghdad; Iraq Siyyid Asadullah (Dayyan); Mirza Yahya; Mirza Muhammad-i-Mazindarani; Mirza Ali-Akbar; Abul-Qaaim-i-Kashi; He Whom God shall make manifest
    1857 c. The revelation of Sahíiy-i-Shattíyyih (Book of the River or Book of the Tigris) by Bahá'u'lláh.
  • See Tablet of the River [Tigris] by Bahá'u'lláh translated by Juan Cole, 1997 for the background to the Tablet and a translation. Cole contends, by his translation, that at this time Bahá'u'lláh, had no thought of advancing any claim to Revelation.
  • See Concealment and Revelation in Bahá'u'lláh's Book of the River by Nader Saiedi published in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 9:3, 1999 where Saiedi postulates, based on his translation that Bahá'u'lláh was fully aware of His mission from at least the time of his imprisonment in the Siyah-Chal and rejects any suggestion that Bahá'u'lláh's consciousness evolved in this regard.
  • See Messianic Concealment and Theophanic Disclosure by Moojan Momen published in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 Association for Bahá'í Studies of New Zealand, 2007, where Momen contends that the controversy is an illusory one caused by the specific nature of the meaning of the word "amr" and that the phrase that is the subject of dispute proves neither side's case, however it is translated. He explains it by say there is a theological schematic of the stages of the evolution of the mission of the Manifestations of God, the phenomenon of a period of messianic concealment followed by a theophanic disclosure. He then imposes this schematic upon the dispensation of the Báb creating a new interpretation of His ministry and further suggests it could be applied to the Revelation of Muhammad and Jesus.
  • Baghdad; Iraq Shahifiy-i-Shattiyyih (Book of the River); Rivers; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Birth of Revelation of; Bahaullah, Declaration of; Tigris river
    c. 1857, 1858 Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Four Valleys, (Chahar Vadi) addressed to Shaykh ‘Abdu'r-Rahmán-i-Tálabání (or Karkútí), a man of erudition and understanding and a leader of the Qádiríyyih Order, someone He had come in contact with in Kurdistán. In it He describes four different paths of approach to the Divine. [SA157–8, BKG163; RoB1p104] Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Writings of; Chahar Vadi (Four Valleys); Call of the Divine Beloved (book); Shaykh Abdur-Rahman-i-Talabani; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1858 (In the year) Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Hidden Words (Kalimát-i-Maknúnih), originally designated ‘The Hidden Words of Fátimih', while walking along the banks of the Tigris. [BBD102; BKG159; GPB138–40] Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Kalimat-i-Maknunih (Hidden Words); Fatimih; Tigris; Rivers; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Interfaith dialogue
    1858 19 Jul Nabil, who had met Bahá'u'lláh in 1850, was one of the Bábí leaders who claimed to be the promised messianic figure according to the Báb’s prophecies. After his return to Baghdad he withdrew his claim when he recognized Bahá'u'lláh’s status as the fulfillment of the Báb’s predictions and the leader of the Bábís. He became one of Bahá'u'lláh’s earliest followers. [RoB1p202, “Nabil-e aʿzam Zaranadi, Mollā Mohammad,” by Vahid Rafati, Encyclopædia Iranica] Baghdad; Iraq Nabil-i-Azam
    1858 Aug The dismissal of Mírzá Áqá Khán, the prime minister who had directed the persecution of the Bábís that followed the attempt on the life of the Sháh. Iran Mirza Aqa Khan; Prime Ministers of Iran; Prime Ministers; Nasirid-Din Shah; Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on; Shahs
    1858 – 1862 It was in this period that Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Seven Valleys in response to a request from a Súfí, Shaykh Muhyi'd-Dín, the Qádí of Khániqayn, whom He may have met in Kurdistán. In it Bahá'u'lláh described the stages of the mystical life. [BBD206 BBRSM:64; SA150; BKG161-163; RoB1p98-101]
  • For details of the composition and content of the Seven Valleys see SA150.
  • Baghdad; Iraq; Kurdistan Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Haft Vadi (Seven Valleys); Call of the Divine Beloved (book); Sufism; Shaykh Muhyid-Din; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Basic timeline
    c. 1860 Mírzá Mihdí, the son of Bahá'u'lláh, was taken from Tihrán to join his family in Baghdád. He was about 12 years old. [RB3:205]
  • He traveled with the second wife of Bahá'u'lláh, Mahd-i-‘Ulyá. [MMNF]
  • Tihran; Iran; Baghdad; Iraq Mirza Mihdi (Purest Branch); Mahd-i-Ulya (Fatimih Khanum)
    1860 (In the year) Birth of Shaykh Muhammad-‘Alíy-i-Qá'iní, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Naw Firist, near Bírjand. [EB273] Naw-Firist; Birjand; Iran Shaykh Muhammad-Aliy-i-Qaini; Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths
    c. 1861 ‘Abdu'l-Bahá wrote the Sharh-i Kuntu Kanzan Makhfiyan, the commentary on the Islamic tradition ‘I was a Hidden Treasure …' for ‘Alí Shawkat Páshá. He is reported to be 17 years old at the time. [AB14]
  • See Commentary on the Islamic Tradition "I Was a Hidden Treasure..." by Abdu'l-Bahá translated by Moojan Momen.
  • Baghdad; Iraq Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Sharh-i Kuntu Kanzan Makhfiyan (Commentary on the tradition of the Hidden Treasure); Commentaries; Hadith; Islam; Hidden Treasure (Hadith); Ali Shawkat Pasha; Bahaullah, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1861 -1892 Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Kitáb-i-Íqán (The Book of Certitude), ‘a comprehensive exposition of the nature and purpose of religion'. [BBD134, 162; BKG159; BBD134; BBRSM64–5; GPB138–9; RB1:158]
  • The Tablet was revealed in answer to four questions put to Bahá'u'lláh by Hájí Mírzá Siyyid Muhammad, a maternal uncle of the Báb. [BBD134, 162; BKG163–5; RB1:158]
  • It was revealed in the course of two days and two nights. [BBD 134; BKG165; GPB238; RB1:158]
  • The original manuscript, in the handwriting of ‘Abdu'l-Bahá, is in the Bahá'í International Archives. [BKG165; RB1:159]
  • It was probably the first of Bahá'u'lláh's writings to appear in print. [BKG165; EB121]
  • For a discussion of the circumstances of its revelation, its content and major themes see RB1:153–97.
  • BEL1.77 gives the year of Revelation as 1862.
  • Baghdad; Iraq; Tihran; Iran Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Kitab-i-Iqan (Book of Certitude); Haji Mirza Siyyid Muhammad; Bab, Family of; Bab, Uncles of; Uncles; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Interfaith dialogue; Islam; Quran; Christianity; Bible; Prophecies First (probably) of Bahá'u'lláh's writings to appear in print
    1861 .c Hájí Ákhúnd (Mullá ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí), Hand of the Cause, became a Bábí in Mashhad. [EB266] Mashhad; Iran Haji Ákhund; Hand of the Cause Haji Akhund (Mulla Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi); Hands of the Cause first Babi in Mashhad
    1861 .c Mullá Sádiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khurásání (Ismu'láhu'l-Asdaq), a Bábí and father of Ibn Asdaq, met Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád and became a follower. [BKG18] Baghdad; Iraq Mulla Sadiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khursuni; Ibn-i-Asdaq (Mirza Ali-Muhammad)
    1861 25 Jun Death of Sultán ‘Abdu'l-Majíd and accession of Sultán ‘Abdu'l-‘Azíz to the Ottoman throne. He ruled until 1876. [BBR485]
  • Note: BKG139 says this was 14 August.
  • Istanbul; Turkey Sultan Abdul-Majid; Sultan Abdul-Aziz; Ottoman Empire
    c. 1862 Bahá'u'lláh sent a ring and cashmere shawl to His niece, Shahr-Bánú, the daughter of Mírzá Muhammad-Hasan, in Tihrán to ask for her hand in marriage to ‘Abdu'l-Bahá. Shahr-Bánú's uncle, acting in place of her dead father, refused to let her go to Iraq. [BKG342–3] Tihran; Iran; Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Life of; Rings; Shawls; Gifts; Shahr-Banu; Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Abdul-Baha, Life of
    1862 – 1868 Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alí, a cousin of the Báb, lived in Shanghai during this period. This is the first record of a Bábí or Bahá'í living in China. [PH24]
  • From 1870 he lived in Hong Kong dealing as a merchant and was joined by his brother, Hájí Mírzá Muhammad Husayn. [PH24]
  • Shanghai; Hong Kong; China Haji Mirza Muhammad-Ali (Afnan); Haji Mirza Muhammad Husayn (Afnan); Afnan; Bab, Family of; First Bahais by country or area First record of Bábí or Bahá'í living in China
    1862 - 1863 Hájí Mírzá Haydar-`Alí and six other prominent Bahá'ís were arrested in Cairo for being Bahá'ís at the instigation of the corrupt Persian consul, Mírzá Husayn Khán. They were banished to Khartoum, where Haydar-`Alí spent the next 9 years in confinement. [BBR257; BKG250; GBP178, SDH32-66] Egypt Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali; Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1862 c. Mar - Jun Birth of Sádhijíyyih, second daughter of Bahá'u'lláh and His second wife, Mahd-i-‘Ulyá. Baghdad; Iraq Sadhijiyyih; Bahaullah, Family of; Mahd-i-Ulya (Fatimih Khanum); Births and deaths
    1862 10 May The Persian ambassador requested that the Ottomans move the Bábís farther from Persia. Istanbul; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of
    1863 or earlier Colonel Sir Arnold Burrowes Kemball, the British Consul-General in Baghdád, offered Bahá'u'lláh the protection of British citizenship and offered Him residence in India or anywhere of Bahá'u'lláh's choosing. [BBR183, 234; BBRSM65; GPB131]
  • Bahá'u'lláh declined the invitation, preferring to remain in Ottoman lands. [GBP131]
  • See BBR183, 508 for details on Kemball; see BBR160–1 for a picture.
  • Baghdad; Iraq; India; Britain Colonel; Arnold Burrowes Kemball; British; Consul-General; Bahaullah, Life of
    1863 c. Jan 1863 The governor of Baghdád, Námiq Páshá, received the first of ‘five successive commands' from ‘Alí Páshá, the Grand Vizier of Turkey, to transfer Bahá'u'lláh to Constantinople. This order was ignored by the governor, who was sympathetic to Bahá'u'lláh. In the next three months, four more orders were received and similarly ignored before the governor was compelled to comply. [BKG154; GPB131] Baghdad; Iraq; Istanbul; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Governors; Namiq Pasha; Grand Viziers; Ali Pasha First of ‘five successive commands' to transfer Bahá'u'lláh to Constantinople
    1863 Mar Bahá'u'lláh celebrated the two-week festival of Naw-Rúz at the Mazra‘iy-i-Vashshásh, a farm along the river Tigris, not far from His house in Baghdád. [BKG154; GPB147; SA163] Mazraiy-i-Vashshash; Tigris; Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Life of; Naw-Ruz
    1863 26 Mar Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Tablet of the Holy Mariner on the fifth day of Naw-Rúz. [BKG154; GPB147; RB1:228; SA163]
  • The Tablet was recited by Mírzá Áqá Ján. [RB1:228]
  • See GPB147 and RB1:228 for the effect on those present.
  • See RB1:228–44 and SA163–5 for descriptions of the Tablet and analyses of its content.
  • Immediately after it was chanted Bahá'u'lláh ordered the tents to be folded and everyone to return to the city. [GBP147; RB1:228–9; SA163]
  • The party had not yet left when a messenger arrived from Námiq Páshá summoning Bahá'u'lláh to the governorate the next day to receive the invitation to go to Constantinople. [RB1:229; SA163]
  • Mazraiy-i-Vashshash; Iraq; Istanbul; Turkey Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Lawh-i-Mallahul-Quds (Tablet of the Holy Mariner); Naw-Ruz; Mirza Áqa Jan; Namiq Pasha; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1863 27 Mar Bahá'u'lláh met the deputy governor in a mosque opposite the Government House where the Farmán which had been sent by the Sultán was announced to Him and advised that He and His family were to be exiled to an unknown destination. Námiq Páshá could not bring himself to meet Bahá'u'lláh and give Him this news in person. At first he summoned Him to the courthouse but when He refused to attend he asked Him to meet in the mosque. [CH81-82,BKG154–5; GPB147–8; RB1:229]
  • See BKG155–6 and GPB148 for the effect of this news on the believers.
  • Bahá'u'lláh and His family had been given Ottoman citizenship by this time. [BBRSM66]
  • See BKG156–8 for a list of those chosen by Bahá'u'lláh to migrate with Him.
  • See TN50–3 for the story of the sedition behind Bahá'u'lláh's removal from Baghdád.
  • Fearful of Bahá'u'lláh's growing influence in Baghdád, the Persian Consul had made representation to the Sultan to have Him delivered to the Persian authorities. The Sultan, although the Caliph of Sunni Islam, considered himself a mystical seeker and was no doubt intrigued with Bahá'u'lláh from the reports of the Governor of 'Akká, Námiq Páshá, and his own Prime Minister, 'Alí Páshá. This combination of sympathy and interest led the Ottoman government to invite Him to the capital rather than send Him to a remote location or return Him to Persia to an uncertain fate. [BBD196; BBIC13, 57note 68]
  • Baghdad; Iraq; Istanbul; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Governors; Namiq Pasha; Ottoman citizenship
    1863 18 Apr Birth of William Henry (Harry) Randall, Disciple of ‘Abdu'l-Bahá, in Boston. Boston; Massachusetts; United States William Harry Randall; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Births and deaths
    1863 22 Apr - 3 May Declaration of Bahá'u'lláh in the Garden of Ridván.

    The garden was located in a large agricultural area immediately north of the walls of the city of Baghdad, about 450 metres (1,480 ft) from the city's northern Mu'azzam gate. Located on the eastern bank of the Tigris River in what is now the Bab al-Mu'azzam neighbourhood of Baghdad's Rusafa District, it was directly opposite the district in which Bahá'u'lláh lived during his stay in the city, on the river's western bank. [Wiki]

    Baghdad; Iraq Ridvan; Bahaullah, Declaration of; Ridvan garden; Najibiyyih Garden; Gardens; Holy days; Bahaullah, Life of; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Basic timeline
    1863 22 Apr Thirty–one days after Naw-Rúz, which in this year fell on 22 March, Bahá'u'lláh left His house for the last time and walked to the Najíbíyyih Garden, afterwards known as the Garden of Ridván (Paradise).
  • See BKG168, GPB149, RB1:260–1 and SA234–5 for details of His walk.
  • For the first time, He wore a tall táj as a symbol of His station. [BBD221; BKG176; GPB152]
  • Bahá'u'lláh entered the Garden just as the call to afternoon prayer was being made. [GPB149; RB1:261]
  • On this day Bahá'u'lláh declared His mission to a few of His disciples. [RB1:260, 262]
  • On the afternoon of Bahá'u'lláh's arrival at the Garden He revealed the Lawh-i-Ayyúb (Tablet of Job) (also known as the Súriy-i-Sabr (Súrat of Patience), Madínatu's-Sabr (City of Patience) and Súrat Ayyúb for Hájí Muhammad-i-Taqíy-i-Nayrízí whom He surnamed Ayyúb (Job). He was a veteran of the battle of Nayríz. The Tablet praised Vahíd and the believers of Nayríz. [SA239; Tablet of Patience (Surih Íabr): Declaration of Bahá’u’lláh and Selected Topics by Foad Seddigh]
  • He also revealed the Tablet of Ridván, an Arabic tablet beginning with "He is seated upon this luminous throne.... [SA239]
  • ...and Húr-i-'Ujáb (The Wondrous Maiden). [SA239]
  • ...as well as Qad atá Rabí'u'l-Bayán, ...The Divine Springtime is come.... [SA240]
  • and an Arabic Tablet that begins...When the gladness of God seized all else. [SA240]
  • ‘Of the exact circumstances … we, alas, are but scantily informed.' [BKG173; GPB153]
  • For such details as are known, see BKG173–5 and GPB153.
  • For the import of the event, see BKG169–73; G27–35; GBP153–5.
  • This initiated the holy day of the First Day of Ridván, to be celebrated on 21 April. [BBD196]
  • This marked the end of the dispensation of the Báb and of the first epoch of the Heroic or Apostolic Age of the Bahá'í dispensation. [BBD72, 79]
  • On the same day Bahá'u'lláh made three important statements to His followers:
    1. He forbade the use of the sword.
    2. He stated that no other Manifestations will appear before one thousand years. This was later reiterated in the Kitáb-i-Badí‘ and in The Kitáb-i-Aqdas.
    3. He stated that, as from that moment, all the names and attributes of God were manifested within all created things, implying the advent of a new Day. [RB1:278–80]

    During the 12 days in the Ridván Garden Bahá'u'lláh confided to ‘Abdu'l-Bahá that He was ‘Him Whom God shall make manifest'. [CH82]

  • See CH82–3 for the effect of this announcement on ‘Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Writings of; Ridvan; Naw-Ruz; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Declaration of; Ridvan garden; Najibiyyih Garden; Ages and Epochs; Lawh-i-Ayyub; Haji Muhammad-i-Taqiy-i-Nayrizi; Abdul-Baha, Life of; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Firsts, Other; Taj; Holy days; Z^^^^ iiiii First time Bahá'u'lláh wears tall táj as symbol of His station; First Day of Ridván; first epoch of Heroic or Apostolic Age
    1863 Apr Mírzá Yahyá fled Baghdád, travelling to Mosul in disguise. [BKG158; RB252–5]
  • Mírzá Yahyá had, since Bahá'u'lláh's return, concealed himself indoors ore, whenever danger threatened, would withdraw himself to Hillih or Basra where he disguised himself as a Jewish shoe merchant. [BKG224]
  • CH59 says that he left Baghdád about two weeks before the larger party.
  • Bahá'u'lláh advised him to go to Persia to disseminate the Writings of the Báb. [RB1:252–3]
  • Mírzá Yahyá abandoned the Writings of the Báb and travelled surreptitiously to Constantinople, joining the exiles when they passed through Mosul. He had obtained a passport in the name of Mírzá 'Alíh-i-Kirmánsháhí. [ESW167–8; RB1:255; BKG224]
  • See ESW167 and RB1:253–4 for Yahyá's movements.
  • Baghdad; Mosul; Iraq; Istanbul; Turkey; Iran Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal)
    1863 30 Apr Bahá'u'lláh's family joined Him in the Garden. [BKG175; RB1:281; SA235]
  • This initiated the holy day of the Ninth Day of Ridván, to be celebrated on 29 April. [BBD 196]
  • Baghdad; Iraq Ridvan; Bahaullah, Declaration of; Bahaullah, Family of; Bahaullah, Life of; Ridvan Festival; Najibiyyih Garden; Holy days
    1863 3 May Bahá'u'lláh left the Garden of Ridván.
  • This initiated the holy day the Twelfth Day of Ridván, to be celebrated on 2 May. [BBD196]
  • As He was about to leave He revealed a Tablet addressed to Áqá Mírzá Áqá in Shíráz. It brought relief and happiness to those who received it. [EB222]
  • His leaving was accompanied by symbolic signs of His station: He rode a horse rather than a donkey and wore a tall táj. [BBD221; BKG176]
  • See BKG175–6, GPB155 and RB1:281–2 for descriptions of the scenes that accompanied His departure.
  • Bahá'u'lláh and His party arrived at Firayját, about three miles away on the banks of the Tigris. [BKG176]

  • They remained here for seven days. [BKG176]
  • See BKG for a description of activities during this period.
  • Baghdad; Firayjat; Iraq; Shiraz; Iran Ridvan; Bahaullah, Declaration of; Bahaullah, Life of; Ridvan Festival; Aqa Mirza Aqay-i-Afnan (Nurud-Din); Afnan; Horses; Donkeys; Taj; Tigris; Rivers; Ridvan garden; Najibiyyih Garden; Holy days
    1863 9 May Bahá'u'lláh and His party left Firayját for Istanbul although at this point the destination was unknown to the exiles. [CH57, GPB156; SA235]
  • The journey took 110 days. [GPB156]
  • For the number of people on the journey see BKG179 (72), GPB156 (26 plus members of His family plus guards), RB2:5–6 (54) and SW13:277 (72).
  • The caravan consisted of fifty mules, a mounted guard of ten soldiers with their officer, and seven pairs of howdahs, each pair surmounted by four parasols. By virtue of the written order of Namiq Pasha Bahá'u'lláh was accorded an enthusiastic reception by the religious notables and government officials as the caravan wound its way northward. [ALM12]
  • For the details of the journey see BKG176–96; GPB1567; SW13:277.
  • See BKG180 for a map of the journey.
  • They passed through the following:
    • Judaydih
    • Dilí-'Abbás
    • Qarih-Tapih
    • Saláhíyyih (stay two nights)
    • Dúst-Khurmátú
    • Táwuq
    • Karkúk (stay two days)
    • Irbíl
    • By the River Záb
    • Bartallih
    • Mosul (stay three days)
    • khú
    • Jazírih
    • Nisíbín (Nusaybin)(On the boarder of Iraq, Syria, and Turkey)
    • Hasan-Áqá
    • Márdiín (three day halt)
    • Díyár-Bakr (after three days of travel) (stay two-three days) It was here that Mírzá Yahyá made himself known to the party after having travelled in disguise from Mosul. [ALM12]
    • Ma'dan-Mis (one night)
    • Khárpút (one day's travel)(stay two or three days)
    • Ma'dan-Nuqrih
    • Dilik-Tásh
    • Sívás
    • Túqát (Tokat)
    • Amasia (Amasya)(stay two days)
    • Iláhíyyih (the last day of the overland journey)
    • Sámsún on the Black Sea. (110 days after departure) [The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953 :Information Statistical & Comparative p43]
  • As the party drew close to Sámsún on the Black Sea Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Súriy-i-Hawdaj. [BKG195; RB2:6]
  • Picture
  • The party remained in Sámsún for seven days. [GPB157]
  • Firayjat; Samsun; Istanbul; Judaydih; Dili-Abbas; Qarih-Tapih; Salahiyyih; Dust-Khurmatu; Tawuq; Karkuk; Irbil; Bartallih; Mosul; Zakhu; Jazirih; Nisibin; Hasan-Aqa; Mardiin; Diyar-Bakr; Madan-Mis; Kharput; Madan-Nuqrih; Dilik-Tash; Sivas; Tuqat; Amasia; Ilahiyyih Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Journeys; Black Sea; Suriy-i-Hawdaj; Bahaullah, Writings of; Z^^^^
    1863 13 Aug Bahá'u'lláh and His party departed from Sámsún by steamer for Istanbul. [BKG196; GPB157]
  • They touched in Sinope, a port of call on the 14 of August and in Anyábulí on the 15th. [The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953 :Information Statistical & Comparative p43]
  • Samsun; Sinope; Anyabuli; Istanbul; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of
    1863 16 Aug Bahá'u'lláh and His party arrived at Constantinople at noon. He was received with great honour by a government official appointed At that time it was a city of about 100,000 inhabitants. [BKG197; GPB157; RB2:1]
  • Picture.
  • The band of exiles had been augmented along the journey and now numbered about 70. At first the Governor allotted them space in an inn that was inadequate for their numbers and then 'Abdu'l-Bahá asked the governor that the family have a house apart. Mírzá Yáhyá and his family were invited to share the house. [CH59]
  • See The Bahá'í Faith in Turkey or Essays and Notes on Babi and Bahá'í History Chapter 4 by John Walbridge
  • Istanbul; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal) first time a Manifestation of God had set foot on the European continent.
    1863 16 Aug - 1 Dec Bahá'u'lláh in Constantinople

                 "spot that art situate on the shores of the two seas" [KA217] 

    Upon arrival He and His family were driven to the residence of Shamsi Big near the Sharif Mosque. They stayed here about one month. His companions were given accommodation elsewhere in the city. [BKG197, 204; GPB157–61, HDBFXXVIII]

  • See BKG197–204 for an account of Bahá'u'lláh's stay.
  • His arrival in Constantinople and stay of about 5 years marked the first time in history that a Manifestation of God had set foot in the European continent. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 2 June, 1982 addressed To the Friends gathered at the International Conference in Dublin.]
  • Among the works Bahá'u'lláh revealed in Constantinople was Mathnaví-i-Mubárak. [RB2:29–54]
  • It was during Bahá'u'lláh's stay in Constantinople that the conciliatory attitude of the authorities changed to that of hostility as a direct consequence of the intrigues and misrepresentations of the Persian Ambassador. [ALM16]
  • News was brought to Bahá'u'lláh by Shamsí Big of the possibility that He would be transferred to Adrianople. [BKG199]
  • Bahá'u'lláh refused to leave, on pain of martyrdom, but Mírzá Yahyá and his comrades, cowardly and fearful, persuaded Him to go. [BKG201–3]
  • Sultán ‘Abdu'l-‘Azíz issued an edict banishing Bahá'u'lláh to Adrianople. It was issued "less than four months after the arrival of the exiles."[GPB159–60; RB2:57]
  • The decision was taken to further exile Bahá'u'lláh in part due to the machinations of the Persian Ambassador Mírzá Husayn Khán and his accomplice, Hájí Mírzá Hasan-i-Safá whose government was continually pressing the Turkish forces to arouse hostility against HIm. [GPB159}
  • See BBIC:34, note 68, BKG201 and GPB159 for reasons for the edict.
  • On the same day Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Lawh-i-‘Abdu'l-‘Azíz-Va-Vukalá, a Tablet addressed to the Sultán. When the Grand Vizier perused it he turned pale. The text of this Tablet has been lost. [BKG206; GPB160]
  • "...Sultán 'Abdu'l-'Azíz, the self-styled vicar of the Prophet of Islám and the absolute ruler of a mighty empire. So potent, so august a personage was the first among the sovereigns of the world to receive the Divine Summons, and the first among Oriental monarchs to sustain the impact of God's retributive justice." [GPB158]
  • Istanbul; Edirne; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mathnaviyi-i Mubarak; Shamsi Big; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Sultan Abdul-Aziz; Lawh-i-Abdul-Aziz-Va-Vukala; Grand Viziers; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Writings of; Z^^^^ first among the sovereigns to receive the Divine Summons.
    1863 c. Aug - Nov Death of Sádhijíyyih, 18-month-old daughter of Bahá'u'lláh and Mahd-i-‘Ulyá. Her body was buried in a plot of land outside the Ádirnih Gate of Constantinople. [BKG203] Istanbul; Turkey Sadhijiyyih; Bahaullah, Family of; Mahd-i-Ulya (Fatimih Khanum); Edirne Gate
    1863 16 Aug -16 Sep Bahá'u'lláh was resident in the House of Shamsí Big near the mosque of Khirqiu-i-Sharifh. During this period He revealed:
  • The Subhánika-Yá-Hú (Tablet of the Bell). [BKG206; BW14:632; RB2:18]
  • See SDH41-43 for the story of Hájí Mirzá Haydar-'Alí and the use of this tablet during his imprisonment in Egypt.
  • He also revealed the Lawh-i-'Abdu'l-'Aziz Va-Vukalá. [BW19p583]
  • Istanbul; Turkey; Egypt Bahaullah, Writings of; Lawh-i-Naqus (Tablet of the Bell); Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali; Bab, Declaration of; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Writings of; Z^^^^
    1863 Sep Because the Shamsi Big residence was too small Bahá'u'lláh and His family were moved to the house of Visi Pasha, situated near the mosque of Sultan Fatih Mehmet. They spend three months in this residence. [ALM21] Istanbul; Turkey Visi Pasha; Bahaullah, Houses of; Shamsi Big
    1863 1 Dec Bahá'u'lláh and His companions left Constantinople for Adrianople. Carriages, wagons and pack animals were provided as well as ox-carts for their possessions. [BKG204; GPB161; RB2:427; ALM22]
  • His departure has been described by Shoghi Effendi as the event that "closes the opening scene of one of the most dramatic episodes in the ministry of Bahá'u'lláh". [GPB162]
  • The journey took twelve days and they passed through the following villages en route: [BKG204; GPB161; The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953 :Information Statistical & Comparative p43]
    • chik-Chakmachih Three hours from Constantinople - spent one night [N7N21]
    • Buyúk-Chakmachih Arrived about noon. [N&N23]
      • Picture of the bridge at Buyúk-Chakmachih (Büyükçekmece) which Bahá’u’lláh and His companions crossed on their way from Constantinople to Adrianople.
      • Map.
    • Salvarí The procession left at midnight in the pouring rain and intense cold.
    • Birkás
    • Bábás
    • Bábá-Iskí
  • See BKG204–5, GPB161 and RB2:62 for the rigours of the journey. The winter was extremely cold and the travellers were not clad for freezing weather.
  • Istanbul; Edirne; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Winter; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1863 12 Dec Bahá'u'lláh in Adrianople

    Bahá'u'lláh and His companions arrived in Adrianople (the "remote prison")("The Land of Mystery" (GPB174). It would be here where the sun of His revelation would ascend to its zenith, where He proclaimed the Message of His revelation to the whole world. [BKG206; GPB161; RB2:62]

  • Picture.
  • This was the furthest point from His native land that Bahá'u'lláh reached and the first time in known history that a Manifestation of God had lived on the European continent. [BKG217]
  • See BKG218–19, 221–2; GPB161–2 and MRHK179–96 for a description of the houses Bahá'u'lláh lived in during this period.
  • See BKG219–20 for the hardships of the first winter.
  • Edirne; Adrianople; Turkey; Europe Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Bahaullah, Houses of, Banishment of; Firsts, Other; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Land of Mystery
    1863 Dec Bahá'u'lláh and His party spent three nights in the Khán-i-'Aráb caravanserai. [BKG218] Edirne; Adrianople Baha'u'llah, Houses of; Z^^^^
    1863 c. 12 - 21 Dec Bahá'u'lláh and His family stayed for one week at a house in the Murádíyyih quarter of the city, in the north-eastern section near Takyiy-i-Mawlavi. The house was located on high ground with a good view of the city and close to the Muradiyyih mosque. The rest of the exiles remained at the inn. [BKG218] During this time He revealed:
  • Kitáb-i-Badí' (The Wonderous or Unique Book) .
  • Edirne; Adrianople Bahaullah, Writings of; Baha'u'llah, Houses of; Z^^^^
    1863 c.22 Dec - 22 Jun or 22 Oct Bahá'u'lláh and His family spent about six to ten months in another house in the Murádíyyih quarter near the Takyiy-i-Mawlaví. Those who were still in the caravanserai moved to the house thus vacated. Next door to this house a place was rented for Áqáy Ridá, Mírzá Yahyá and their families. [BW19p584; BKG221]

    During this time He revealed the following:

  • Lawh-i-Sayyáh (Tablet of the Traveller. [BKG220] (Leiden list suggests "following Separation, February - June 1867]
  • Lah-i-Naqtih (Tablet of the Point). [BKG220]
  • Edirne; Adrianople Bahaullah, houses of; Bahaullah, Writings of; Z^^^^
    1864 (In the year) Birth of Mírzá Hádí Shírází, the father of Shoghi Effendi, in Shíráz. Shiraz; Iran Mirza Hadi Shirazi; Shoghi Effendi, Family of; Births and deaths
    1864 Apr Upheaval at Najafábád
  • Several hundred Bahá'ís were arrested by Shaykh Muhammad-Báqir (later stigmatized as ‘the Wolf' by Bahá'u'lláh) and taken to Isfahán to be put to death. He was dissuaded from this plan by other ‘ulamá of Isfahán. Two of the prisoners were executed, 18 were sent to Tihrán and the remainder were sent back to Najafábád where they were severely beaten. Those sent to Tihrán were put in a dungeon but released after three months by the Sháh. Two of these were beaten then executed upon their return from Tihrán on the order of Shaykh Muhammad-Báqir. [BBD213; BBR268–9; BW18:382]
  • Najafabad; Isfahan; Tihran; Iran Shaykh Muhammad-Baqir; Wolf; Najafabad upheaval; Upheavals
    1864 27 Mar Birth of A. L. M. Nicolas, who later became an important European scholar on the life and teachings of the Báb, in Rasht. [BBR516] Rasht; Iran; Europe A.L.M. Nicolas; Births and deaths
    1864 Apr Sulaymán Páshá, a Súfí, succeeded Muhammad Pásháy-i-Qibrisí as Governor of Adrianople. Both were admirers of Bahá'u'lláh. [CH59, BBR487; BKG254] Edirne; Adrianople; Turkey Sulayman Pasha; Sufism; Muhammad Pashay-i-Qibrisi; Governors
    1864 15 Aug Birth of Mírzá Díyá'u'lláh, the third son of Bahá'u'lláh and Mahdi-‘Ulyá. [BKG222] Edirne; Adrianople; Turkey Mirza Diyaullah; Bahaullah, Family of; Mahd-i-Ulya (Fatimih Khanum); Births and deaths
    1864 (between Jun and Oct) Bahá'u'lláh and His family moved to the house of Amru'lláh (The Cause of God) located to the north of the Mosque of Sultán Salím and close to it. They occupied the upper floor, Mírzá Muhammad-Qulí and his family the middle one and some of the attendants were housed on the ground floor. Other houses were found in the same quarter, one for Áqáy-i-Kalím and his family and one for Mírzá Yahyá and his. [BKG221, ALM35]
  • Picture - The Mosque of Sultan Salim.
  • Picture - The interior of the mosque.
  • Picture - The interior of the mosque.
  • It was while they were in this house that Mírzá Yahyá, a discontent since the early days in Baghdad, began to rebel more openly with support from Siyyid Muhammad-i-Isfahani. It was the "first major internal convulsion which seized a newly re-arisen community and which threatened to cause an irreparable breach in the ranks of its members". Bahá'u'lláh designated this period and the time following as Ayyám-i-Shidád (Days of Stress) . [BKG223-233; GPB163]
  • Edirne; Adrianople House of Amrullah; Bahaullah, Houses of; Bahaullah, Life of; Z****
    1864 c. During time in Adrianople At some point near the end of His life the Báb had consigned His remaining papers, His seal, His qalam-dán (pencil-box) and His last Tablets to Mírzá 'Abdu'l-Karím Qazvíní with instructions to deliver them to Mírzá Husayn-'Alí Núrí should something happen to Himself. In His last Tablets, Mírzá Husayn-'Alí Núrí was referred to again and again as "Him Whom God shall make Manifest" also, He was referred to as "Bahá'u'lláh". Mírzá 'Abdu'l-Karím Qazvíní fulfilled this trust and these items remained in the possession of Bahá'u'lláh until the days of Adrianople. When Mírzá Yáhyá asked permission to see these articles Bahá'u'lláh consented but they were never returned. Yahyá kept these items as a support of his claim to leadership asserting that the Báb had given them to him. [CH49] Edirne; Adrianople; Turkey Bab, Life of; Bahaullah, Life of; Bab, Writings of; Mirza Abdul-Karim Qazvini; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Box with writings; Boxes; Relics
    1864 c. After years of imprisonment in Tehran, Àbdu'r '-Rasúl-Qumí visited Bahá'u'lláh in Adrianople then took up residence in Baghdad, caring for the garden of the House of Bahá'u'lláh. He was well-known to the Muslims and a target of their attacks. One morning as he was carrying skins of water from the Tigris River he was ambushed by a number of attackers and was mortally wounded. He managed to disperse the assailants, drag himself to the garden where he watered the flowers for the last time.

    His name was mentioned in many Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh, consoling his family. His son was appointed caretaker of the pilgrims in 'Akká and he served in this capacity until the days of Shoghi Effendi. [FAA8]

    Baghdad; Iraq; Edirne; Adrianople; Turkey; Akka House of Bahaullah (Baghdad); Abdur-Rasul-Qumi; Gardeners; Caretakers; Murders
    1864 Dec Death of Governor Sulaymán Páshá of Adrianople. He was succeeded by ‘Árif Páshá, who was not well-disposed to Bahá'u'lláh and His followers. [BBR487] Edirne; Adrianople; Turkey Governors; Sulayman Pasha; Arif Pasha; Bahaullah, Life of
    1864 c. During the time in Adrianople In their efforts to discredit Bahá'u'lláh and His companions, the followers of Azál made complaints to the authorities. They alleged that they had insufficient means of livelihood, blaming Bahá'u'lláh for depriving them of their share of the allowances. Àqá Ján Kajkuláh, instigated by Siyyid Muhammad, wrote to dignitaries and government representatives with the false accusation that Bahá'u'lláh had made an alliance with Bulgaria for the purpose of conquering Constantinople.
  • The Persiana ambassador in Constantinople took advantage of the disturbance in Turkey to inform Persian Consuls in Iraq and in Egypt that the Turkish government had withdrawn protection for the Bábí sect. This news precipitated malice and mischief in both countries. [FAA7]
  • Edirne; Adrianople Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Aqa Jan Kajkulah; Siyyid Muhammad-i-Isfahani; Antichrist
    1864 Dec Mírzá Yahyá began his attempts on Bahá'u'lláh's life about one year after the arrival of the exiles. He invited Bahá'u'lláh to a feast and shared a dish, half of which was laced with poison. Bahá'u'lláh was ill for 21 days following this attempt and was left with a shaking hand for the rest of His life.
  • Bahá'u'lláh was attended by a foreign Christian doctor named Shíshmán who died shortly after seeing Him. Bahá'u'lláh intimates that the doctor has sacrificed his life for Him.
  • On another occasion he poisoned the well which provided water for the family and companions of Bahá'u'lláh. [BKG225]
  • Mírzá Yahyá tried to convince the barber, Ustád Muhammad-'Alíy-i-Salmání, to assassinate HIm. This enraged the barber and, contrary to Bahá'u'lláh's instructions, disclosed Mírzá Yahyá's intentions to the community thus causing further discontent. [CH60, BKG225–30, CB82–3, GPB165-166 and RB2:158–61]
  • Edirne; Adrianople; Turkey Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Bahaullah, Attempts on; Poison; Sacrifice
    1865 (In the year) French diplomat Joseph Comte de Gobineau published Religions et les Philosophies dans l'Asie Centrale, over half of which is devoted to a study of the Bábí movement.
  • Gobineau's work was written when Mírzá Yahyá was still know as the nominal head of the Bábí Faith between 1855 and 1858 when Gobineau was First Secretary and Chargé d'Affaires of the French Legation. Two embassy employees during his time there were ardent supporters of Mírzá Yahyá, one of whom was his brother-in-law. (He served as the Ambassador from March 1862 until September, 1863.)
  • This work attracted a number of other European intellectuals, including E. G. Browne of Cambridge, who eventually became the most prolific western writer and researcher of the Bábi religion. [BBR17, MCS483; 500; 512]
  • France; Iran Joseph Comte de Gobineau; Babi studies; Edward Granville Browne; Mirza Yahya
    1865 (In the year) Mírzá Kazem-Beg of St Petersburg University published Bab Babidy, the first Western book written entirely on the subject of the Bábí religion. [BBR26] St Petersburg; Russia Babi studies; Mirza Kazem-Beg; First publications First Western book written entirely on the subject of the Bábí religion
    c. 1865 Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Arabic Tablet of Ahmad (Lawh-i-Ahmad) for Ahmad, a believer from Yazd. [RB2:107]
  • The Tablet may have been revealed as early as 1864
  • See RB2:107–66 for the story of Ahmad.
  • See Bahá'í News pg 541 (March 1967) for A Flame of Fire: The Story of the Tablet of Ahmad by A.Q. Faizi. Part 2 of the story is found in the April 1967 edition. It is also found at Bahá'í Library.
  • See RB2:119–26 for an analysis of the Tablet.
  • Shoghi Effendi states that the Tablet has a special potency and significance. [DG60]
  • See "Ahmad, The Flame of Fire" by Darius Shahrokh.
  • See Learn Well This Tablet by H. Richard Gurninsky, published by George Ronald Publisher, Oxford, 2000.
  • Edirne; Adrianople; Turkey; Yazd; Iran Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Lawh-i-Ahmad (Tablet of Ahmad (Arabic)); Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1865 Mar Death of former Prime Minister Mírzá Áqá Khán, in Qum. He was buried at Karbalá. [BBR165] Qum; Iran; Karbala; Iraq Prime Ministers; Mirza Aqa Khan
    1865 Nov Nabil Zarandi arrived in Tehran where he remained for four months. At that time the proclamation of Baha'u'llah was not common knowledge although some had been commissioned to slowly reveal to the Babis of Tehran the extent of Azal's opposition to Baha'u'llah. [BCI1p14] Tehran
    1965 - 1866 Prior to and during the crisis that was to follow, Bahá'u'lláh began revealing Tablets at a prodigious rate. From about this time until approximately June, 1867 when He transferred His residence to the house of ‘Izzat Áqá, Bahá'u'lláh had revealed the following Tablets among numerous others:
  • The Lawḥ-i-Nuqṭih (The Tablet of the Point)
  • The Lawḥ-i-Aḥmad-i-Arabí (The Tablet of Ahmad, Arabic), revealed in honour of Ahmad of Yazd.
  • The Súriy-i-Aṣḥáb (Tablet of the Companions) addressed to Mírzá Áqáyi-Muníb
    • The Lawḥ-i-Sayyáḥ (Tablet of the Traveller) (Note there are several Tablets with this name revealed at different times to different recipients.)
    • The Súriy-i-Damm (The Tablet of Blood) addressed to Nabíl-i-A'zam
    • The Súriy-i-Ḥajj (Tablet of Pilgrimage) for pilgrimage to the House of the Báb
    • The Lawḥu’r-Rúḥ (Tablet of the Spirit)
    • The Lawḥu’r-Riḍván
    • The Lawḥu’t-Tuqá (The Tablet of Piety or the Fear of God)
      [GPB171; N&N23-29; BW13p1061-1062]
  • Edirne; Adrianople Suriy-i-Amr; Lawḥ-i-Nuqṭih; Lawḥ-i-Aḥmad; Suriy-i-Aṣḥab; Lawḥ-i-Sayyaḥ; Suriy-i-Damm; Suriy-i-Ḥajj; Lawḥu’r-Ruḥ; Lawḥu’r-Riḍvan; Lawḥu’t-Tuqa;   or---SuriyiAmr; LawḥiNuqṭih; LawḥiAḥmad; SuriyiAṣḥab; LawḥiSayyaḥ; SuriyiDamm; SuriyiḤajj; LawḥurRuḥ; LawḥurRiḍvan; LawḥutTuqa; Bahaullah, Writings of; Z****
    1866 22 Feb Nabil Zarandi received a letter from Bahá'u'lláh giving him permission to proclaim the new religion openly and to reveal what he had witnessed in Baghdad of the actions of Azal and Siyyid Muhammad Isfahani. Prior to this time he had been asked to conceal this information. Almost all of the Bábís in Tehran became Bahá'ís upon hearing this news. [BCI1p14]
  • At this time number of Bahá'ís in Tehran was constantly being supplemented by those who had fled the persecution in their home towns. [BC1p15]
  • Tehran Azal; Siyyid Muhammad Isfahani; Z****
    1866 c. Mar The Most Great Separation

    Mírzá Yáhyá's behaviour could no longer be tolerated or concealed. Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Súriy-i-Amr (Súrih of Command) as a direct order to him. [CH60, 83, CB84; GBP166; BKG223-245]

  • This was the formal announcement to the nominee of the Báb of the station of ‘Him Whom God shall make manifest' and a summons for him to pay allegiance to His Cause. [CB83–4; RB2:161]
  • Bahá'u'lláh directed his amanuensis to take the Tablet to Mírzá Yáhyá. Upon receipt he became very angry and a "jealous fire consumed him". He responded, after a requested day's respite, by claiming that he was the recipient of a divine revelation and all must turn to him. [CH60, BKG230; CB84; GPB166–7; RB2:162]
  • Shoghi Effendi described this event as "one of the darkest dates in Bahá'í history and was the signal for the open and final rupture between Bahá'u'lláh and Mírzá Yahyá. [GPB167]
  • The announcement that Bahá'u'lláh was the Promised One spread quickly to Iraq and to Persia. The followers were happy for the clarification and glad to be rid of Yáhyá. Only the express command of Bahá'u'lláh prevented them from ridding the world of such nefarious traitor. [CH61]
  • It is believed that Yáhyá's conduct and accusations precipitated the next exile. [CH61]
  • Edirne; Adrianople; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Suriy-i-Amr (Surih of Command); Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Most Great Separation; Firsts, other; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Z^^^^
    1866 Mar Khurshíd Páshá took up the governorship of Adrianople. [BBR487; BKG233] Edirne; Adrianople Khurshid Pasha; Governors
    1866 c. Mar Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Lawh-i-Bahá in honour of Khátún Ján, a believer and close friend of Táhirih. [RB2:171, 179]
  • It was probably revealed just before He took up residence in the house of Ridá Big. [RB2:171]
  • This was the first Tablet in which Bahá'u'lláh used the term ‘people of Bahá' to refer to His followers, to distinguish them from the ‘people of the Bayán'. [RB2:179]
  • Edirne; Adrianople; Turkey Lawh-i-Baha; Khatun Jan; Rida Big; Firsts, Other; Bahaullah, Writings of first Tablet in which Bahá'u'lláh uses the term ‘people of Bahá' to refer to His followers
    1866 10 Mar Bahá'u'lláh and His family withdrew from the house of Amru'lláh, the residence shared with the exiles, and went to the house of Ridá Big. [BKG230; GPB167; RB2:162]
  • He stayed in this house for about one year. [GPB168]
  • See BKG235 for a description of the house of Ridá Big.
  • Bahá'u'lláh went into isolation for two months. He ordered that all of the family's goods should be divided. He even hed delivered to him certain relics he had long coveted such as the seals, rings and manuscripts in the handwriting of the Báb. The companions were to choose between Himself and Azal. This has become known as the ‘Most Great Separation'. [BBRSM67; BKG230–2; GPB167–8; RB2:162]
  • See BKG231–2, GPB167 and RB2:163 for the effect of this.
  • See BBRSM59–60 for a description of Azal's leadership.
  • The continued efforts of Mírzá Yahyá and Siyyid Muhammad sullied the reputation of Bahá'u'lláh in Adrianople and in the capital. In addition, temporary beach had been made in the ranks of the supporters. [GPB170]
  • Mírzá Yahyá sent messengers to Persia with false accounts of the events. He sent one of his wives to the authorities claiming that Bahá'u'lláh had deprived him of his fair share of the allowances. [BKG233]
  • Edirne; Adrianople; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; House of Amrullah; Rida Big; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Most Great Separation
    1866 14 Nov The ‘star-fall' of 1866. [RB2:270, 422–6]
  • The falling of stars was predicted in Matthew 24:29.
  • For Bahá'u'lláh's reference to this see ESW131–2.
  • For the symbolism of falling stars see KI41.
  • See The Delight of Hearts pg87 for an account.
  • The spectacular shower of meteors in the early hours of the morning of 14 November 1866 was observed all over Europe. It was an extraordinary event exciting comment from professional astronomers and laymen alike. The following sample account is from The Times Saturday, 17 November 1866:

    The Rev. Robert Main, the Radcliffe Observer at Oxford, gave the following account of the meteorological phenomenon of Tuesday night last: --

    '...This great display began about 13h. (or 1 o'clock in the morning), and reached its maximum at about 13h.24m., after which time it gradually began to slacken. The watch, however, was kept up till 18h., though after 15h., there were not many meteors seen. In all there were observed not fewer than 3,000 during the night, of which about 2,000 fell between 13h. and 14h., or between 1 a.m. and 2 a.m. As to the general appearance of the meteors, it was noticed that the majority of them were of a whitish or yellowish colour. Some, however, were reddish or orange-coloured, and one meteor was noticed to be bluish. The brightest left generally a train behind them, which was to be seen for a few seconds after the meteor disappeared.' (Adapted from ‘The Revelation of Baha’u’llah', by Adib Taherzadeh, vol. 2)

  • Falling stars; Symbolism; Prophecies; Lawh-i-Ibn-i-Dhib (Epistle to the Son of the Wolf); Bible; Christianity
    1866 Dec About a hundred Bahá'ís were arrested in Tabríz following a disturbance in which a Bábí is killed. [BBR251–3; BW18:382] Tabriz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1866 1 Dec Birth of Marion Jack, prominent Bahá'í travel teacher, pioneer and artist, known affectionately as ‘General jack' for her services to the Bahá'í community, in Saint John, New Brunswick.
  • LDG1:217 for information on her pioneer work.
  • Saint John; New Brunswick; Canada Marion Jack; Births and deaths
    1867 (In the year) Birth of Mírzá Badí'u'lláh, fourth son of Bahá'u'lláh and Mahd-i‘Ulyá in Adrianople. [BKG247] Edirne; Adrianople; Turkey Mirza Badiullah; Bahaullah, Family of; Mahd-i-Ulya (Fatimih Khanum); Births and deaths
    1867 11 Jan Three Bahá'ís were executed in Tabríz. Their arrest was precipitated by conflict and rivalry between the Azalís and the Bahá'ís. [BBR252–3; BKG237–8; BW18:382–3; RB2:61]
  • BW18:382 says this was 8 January.
  • Tabriz; Iran Azali Babis; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1867 Jan or Feb Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alí, a Bahá'í physician, was executed in Zanján. [BBR253; BKG238; BW18:383]

    Áqá Najaf-‘Alíy-i-Zanjání, a disciple of Hujjat, was executed in Tihrán. [BBR254; BW18:383]

    Zanjan; Tihran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1867 c. Mar Bahá'u'lláh moved back to the now empty house of Amru'lláh. [GPB168]
  • He stayed for about three months. [GPB168]
  • BKG239 says that within six months of Bahá'u'lláh's return to the house the owner sold it.
  • Edirne; Adrianople; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Houses of; House of Amrullah
    1867 Apr The appeal by 53 Bahá'ís "in Baghdád" addressed to the United States Congress arrived at the American Consulate in Beirut. [BBR265, Petition from the Persian Reformers]
  • Also see An 1867 Petition from Bahá'ís in Shushtar, Iran, to the U.S. Congress translated by Manuchehr Derakhshani and Nesreen Akhtarkhavari.
  • Baghdad; Shushtar Petitions; United States government; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution 1867 Petition
    1867 c. Jun (or later) Bahá'u'lláh rented the house of ‘Izzat Áqá where He and His family lived until their departure from Adrianople. [BKG239; GPB168]
  • See BKG241 for a description of this house.
  • Picture.
  • Edirne; Adrianople; Turkey Bahaullah, Houses of; Bahaullah, Life of; House of Izzat Aqa; Houses
    1867 c. Aug Bahá'u'lláh refused to draw the allowance granted Him by the Ottoman government. [RB2:327]
  • Mírzá Yahyá had twice petitioned the government to convince it that he ought to be the recipient of the allowance. [RB2:327]
  • Bahá'u'lláh sold some of His belongings to provide the necessities for Himself and His dependents. [RB2:327]
  • Edirne; Adrianople; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Ottoman government; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal)
    1867 Sep - Aug 1868 Bahá'u'lláh addressed a Tablet to to Mullá-'Alí Akbar-i-Sháhmírzádí and Jamál-i-Burújirdí in Tehran to transfer the casket containing the remains of the Báb to a safer hiding place so they temporarily concealed it within a wall of the Masjid-i-M´shá'u'lláh outside of the gates of the city of Tehran. After the hiding place was detected the casket was smuggled into the city and deposited in the house of Mírzá Hasan-i-Vazír, a believer and son-in-law of Hájí Mírzá Siyyid 'Alíy-i-Tafríshí, the Majdu'l-Ashráf. [GPB177; ISC-1963p32] Iran Bab, Burial of; Bab, Remains of; Haji Akhund (Mulla Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi); Jamal-i-Burujirdi; Imam-Zadih Masum; Z^^^^
    1867 Sep "The Most Great Idol" was cast out of the community.

    Mírzá Yahyá's henceman, Siyyíd Muhammad, convinced Yahyá to challenge Bahá'u'lláh to to face-to-face encounter in the mosque of Sultán Salím in a distant part of the city, believing that Bahá'u'lláh would not show. Bahá'u'lláh immediately set out to walk to the appointed mosque. Upon learning this Mírzá Yahyá postponed the interview for a day or two. Bahá'u'llah returned to His home and revealed a Tablet to be delivered to Siyyíd Muhammad when he produced a sealed note stating that should Mírzá Yahyá fail to appear at the trysting-place, he would produce a document refuting Yahyá's claims. Neither were forthcoming and the Tablet to Siyyid Muhammad remained undelivered.

    Prior to this the community had been divided however this incident firmly established His ascendency. The Covenant of the Báb had prevailed [GPB168-170]

  • A period of prodigious activity ensued. Bahá'u'lláh later stated in the Lawh-i-Siraj, "In those days the equivalent of all that hath been sent down aforetime unto the Prophets hath been revealed." [GPB171]
  • Edirne; Adrianople The Most Great Idol; Mirza Yahya; Siyyid Muhammad
    1867 Sep - Aug 1868 Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Kitáb-i-Badí‘, the Munájátháy-i-Síyám (Prayers for Fasting), the first Tablet to Napoleon III, the Lawh-i-Sultán written to Násiri'd-Dín Sháh, and the Súriy-i-Ra'ís. [BKG245; GBP172]
  • See RB2:370–82 for details of the Kitáb-i-Badí'.
  • Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Súriy-i-Ghusn (Tablet of the Branch) in which ‘Abdu'l-Bahá's future station was foreshadowed. [BBD218; BKG250; GPB177]
  • See RB2:338–9 for a description of the Tablet.
  • Edirne; Adrianople; Turkey Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Suriy-i-Muluk (Surih to the Kings); Kitab-i-Badi (Wondrous Book); Munajathay-i-Siyam (Prayers for Fasting); Lawh-i-Napulyun (Tablet to Napoleon III); Lawh-i-Sultan (Tablet to Nasirid-Din Shah); Suriy-i-Rais (Tablet to Sultan Ali Pasha); Suriy-i-Ghusn (Tablet of the Branch); Abdul-Baha, Life of; Firsts, Other; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded First time Bahá'u'lláh directs His words collectively to entire company of monarchs of East and West; first Egyptian centre established; first pilgrimages to residence of Bahá'u'lláh
    1867 Sep Thinking that He will not accept Mírzá Yahyá, prodded on by Mír Muhammad, challenged Bahá'u'lláh to a public confrontation in the mosque of Sultán Salím. In the end, it was Mírzá Yahyá who did not appear. [BKG239–41; GPB168–9; RB2:291–300, SDH22]
  • The incident gained Bahá'u'lláh respect in the eyes of the people. [RB2:289]
  • See [RB2:304] for a picture of the mosque.
  • Edirne; Adrianople; Turkey Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Mir Muhammad; Bahaullah, Life of; Confrontation; Mosques; Challenges
    1867 Sep - Aug 1868 In this period the extent of the Faith was enlarged with expansion in the Caucasus, the establishment of the first Egyptian centre and the establishment of the Faith in Syria. [GPB176]
  • While Nabil was in Khorasan in spring 1866, at his suggestion, the greeting Alláh-u-Abhá (God is the most Glorious) was adopted by the followers of Bahá'u'lláh, replacing the old salutation of Allāho Akbar (God is the Greatest), which was common among the Bábis. This was a significant action that gave group identity to the Bahá'ís and was a sign of their independence from the Bábís and the Azális, a Bábí faction that considered Mírzá Yaḥyā Ṣobḥ-e Azál as the legitimate successor to the Báb. The greeting Alláh-u-Abhá superseded the Islamic salutation and was simultaneously adopted in Persia and Adrianople. [BKG250; GPB176, “Nabil-e aʿzam Zaranadi, Mollā Mohammad,” by Vahid Rafati, Encyclopædia Iranica,]
  • The phrase ‘the people of the Bayán', which now denotes the followers of Mírzá Yahyá, was discarded and is replaced by the term ‘the people of Bahá'. [BKG250; GBP176]
  • Caucasus; Egypt; Syria; Khurasan; Iran; Edirne; Adrianople; Turkey Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Nabil-i-Azam; People of the Bayan; People of Baha; Allah-u-Abha; Greatest Name; Most Great Separation
    1867 Sep - Aug 1868 Persecutions began anew in Ádharbáyján, Zanján, Níshápúr and Tihrán. [GPB178] Adharbayjan; Zanjan; Nishapur; Tihran; Iran Persecution, Adharbayjan; Persecution, Iran; Persecution
    1867 Sep - Aug 1868 Nabíl-i-A‘zam was dispatched to Iraq and Iran to inform the Bábís of the advent of Bahá'u'lláh. He was further instructed to perform the rites of pilgrimage on Bahá'u'lláh's behalf in the House of the Báb and the Most Great House in Baghdad. [BKG250; EB224; GPB176–7]
  • For details of his mission see EB224–7.
  • On hearing Nabíl's message, the wife of the Báb, Khadíjih Khánum, immediately recognized the station of Bahá'u'lláh. [EB225]
  • Nabil was the first Bahá'í to perform pilgrimage to the house of the Báb in Shiraz in fall 1866, in accordance with the rites prescribed in the Surat al-ḥajj revealed by Bahá'u'lláh. He also went to Baghdad and performed the pilgrimage to the House of Bahá'u'lláh in spring 1867, according to another sura, Surat al-damm written by Bahá'u'lláh for that purpose. Nabil’s pilgrimage to those two houses marked the inception of pilgrimage laws ordained by Bahá'u'lláh later in his Kitāb-i-Aqdas. For the rites of these two pilgrimages performed by Nabíl see SA113–15. [GPB176-177, “Nabil-e aʿzam Zaranadi, Mollā Mohammad,” by Vahid Rafati, Encyclopædia Iranica, DB434-435]
  • Shiraz; Iran; Baghdad; Iraq Nabil-i-Azam; Pilgrims; Pilgrimage; First pilgrims; Khadijih Khanum; House of Bahaullah (Baghdad) The first pilgrimage to the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdad
    1867 (In the year) In this period the extent of the Faith was enlarged with expansion in the Caucasus, the establishment of the first Egyptian centre and the establishment of the Faith in Syria. [GPB176] Caucasus; Egypt; Syria
    1867 c. 15 - 21 Dec During His short stay at this house Bahá'u'lláh also revealed the Súriy-Mulúk (Súrih of Kings). [BKG245; GPB171–2; RB2:301-336; BW19p584]
  • This is described by Shoghi Effendi as ‘the most momentous Tablet revealed by Bahá'u'lláh', in which He, ‘for the first time, directed His words collectively to the entire company of the monarchs of East and West'. [GPB171]
  • See GPB172–5 and RB2:301–25 for a description of the content of the Tablet.
  • Tablet to the Kings (Súratu'l-Mulúk): Tablet study outline by Jonah Winters.
  • An Introduction to the Súratu'l-Haykal (Discourse of The Temple) by Mohamad Ghasem Bayat.
  • In The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953: Information Statistical & Comparative p41 Shoghi Effendi dated this tablet as "1863". Given the intense activity of that year an assumption was made that it was revealed near the end of the year in either Constantinople or Adrianople.

    Chronological list of significant events related to Bahá'u'lláh's historic pronouncement in the Súriy-i-Múlúk

    • Fall of the French Monarchy (1870)
    • Virtual extinction of the Pope's Temporal Sovereignty (1870)
    • Assassination of Sultán 'Abdu'l-'Azíz (1876)
    • Assassination of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh (1896)
    • Overthrow of Sultán 'Abdu'l-Hamíd II (1909)
    • Fall of the Portuguese Monarchy (1910)
    • Fall of the Chinese Monarchy (1916)
    • Fall of the Russian Monarchy (1917)
    • Fall of the German Monarchy (1918)
    • Fall of the Austrian Monarchy (1918)
    • Fall of the Hungarian Monarchy (1918)
    • Fall of the Turkish Monarchy (1922)
    • Collapse of the Caliphate (1924)
    • Fall of the Qájár Dynasty (1925)
    • Fall of the Spanish Monarchy (1931)
    • Fall of the Albanian Monarchy (1938)
    • Fall of the Serbian Monarchy (1941)
    • Fall of the Italian Monarchy (1946)
    • Fall of the Bulgarian Monarchy (1946)
    • Fall of the Rumanian Monarchy (1947) [The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953: Information Statistical & Comparative p41-42]
  • Edirne; Adrianople; Turkey Suriy-i-Muluk (Surih to the Kings); Tablets to kings and rulers; History (general); Summons of the Lord of Hosts (book); Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Peace; World peace (general); Z^^^^
    1868 – 1870 During this period Bahá'u'lláh revealed a number of Tablets to rulers including the Lawh-i-Ra'ís to `Alí Páshá, His second Tablet to Napoleon III and Tablets to Czar Alexander II, Queen Victoria and Pope Pius IX. [BBD13]
  • President Grant of the United States was in office when Bahá'u'lláh addressed a Tablet to the `Rulers of America and the Presidents of the Republics therein'. [BFA1:80N]
  • Akka Ali Pasha; Napoleon III; Pope Pius IX; Popes; Christianity; Queen Victoria; Alexander II; Lawh-i-Napulyun (Tablet to Napoleon III); Lawh-i-Pap (Tablet to Pope Pius IX); Lawh-i-Malikih (Tablet to Queen Victoria); Lawh-i-Malik-i-Rus (Tablet to Alexander II); President Grant; Lawh-i-Rais (Tablet to Sultan Ali Pasha); Tablets to Kings and rulers; Summons of the Lord of Hosts (book); Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Peace; World peace (general); Z^^^^
    1868 (In the year) Hájí Mullá `Alí-i-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí (later Hand of the Cause Hájí Ákhúnd) was imprisoned in Tihrán as a Bahá'í on the order of Mullá `Alí Kání. This is the first of many imprisonments. [EB266]
  • He was imprisoned so often that `Abdu'l-Bahá later said of him that at the first sign of disturbances, he would `put on his turban, wrap himself in his `abá and sit waiting' to be arrested. [MF11]
  • Tihran; Iran Haji Akhund (Mulla Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi); Mulla Ali Kani; Hands of the Cause
    1868 Apr Seven Bahá'ís in Constantinople were arrested and interrogated by a commission of inquiry whose mandate it was to verify the claims of Bahá'u'lláh and Mírzá Yahyá. [BKG250–2; GPB179; MF99–100 RB2:3289]
  • See RB2:329–32 for the conduct of the interrogations.
  • Among those arrested was Mishkín-Qalam, the calligrapher. He was particularly distraught because he is not allowed pen or paper. Eventually these were given to him. [BKG252]
  • Istanbul; Turkey Mishkin-Qalam; Calligraphy; Persecution; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Turkey
    1868 c. May Bahá'u'lláh sent Nabíl-i-A`zam to Cairo to enquire after Hájí Mírzá Haydar-`Alí. He was instructed by Bahá'u'lláh to appeal to the officials for the release of several Bahá'ís who had been imprisoned in Cairo at the instigation of their enemies. He was thrown into prison in Cairo for two months and then in the Alexandria jail for a few more months. While there he befriended a Christian cellmate, Fáris Effendi, who soon becomes a Bahá'í. [BKG248, 265–6; EB268; GPB178]
  • Fáris Effendi was probably the first Christian to become a Bahá'í. [RB3:10, “Nabil-e aʿzam Zaranadi, Mollā Mohammad,” by Vahid Rafati, Encyclopædia Iranica]
    • Law˙-i-Aqdas (“Most Holy Tablet,” late 1870s?) was most probably addressed to (“Dr.”) Fáris Effendi.
  • See BKG265–8 for an account of Nabíl's arrest and imprisonment.
  • After his release he travelled to Cyprus and Beirut and then joined the Bahá'u'lláh's exiled community in Akka in late October of 1969. He spent the last two decades of his life in that area. [“Nabil-e aʿzam Zaranadi, Mollā Mohammad,” by Vahid Rafati, Encyclopædia Iranica]
  • Cairo; Egypt Nabil-i-Azam; Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali; Faris Effendi; Imprisonments; First believers by background; Christianity; Conversion; Interfaith dialogue First Christian to become a Bahá'í
    1868 c. 7 Jun Nabíl had a dream in which Bahá'u'lláh appeared to him in his cell and assured him that he will have reason to rejoice within the next 81 days. [BKG267] Cairo; Egypt Nabil-i-Azam
    1868 c. Jul Principal Bahá'ís in Baghdád were arrested by the Turkish authorities and exiled to Mosul and other places. [BBR265; BKG247; CH129–30; RB2:333]
  • RB2:333 indicates this took place towards the end of Bahá'u'lláh's stay in Adrianople.
  • About 70 people were exiled. [GPB178; RB2:334] Estimate given by Hájí Mirzá Haydar-;Alí is 80. (DOH12]
  • See BKG184 for an illustration of Mosul.
  • See BKG183 for a description of the city.
  • See RB2:334 for the hardships suffered by the exiles.
  • They remained in Mosul for some 20 years until Bahá'u'lláh advised the community to disband (1885-1886). Their hardship was lessened by generous contributions from the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs. A charity fund was established, the first fund of that kind in any Bahá'í community. [RB2:334–6]
  • Baghdad; Mosul; Iraq Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Charity and relief work; Funds; Firsts, Other; Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution First charity fund
    1868 c. 21 Jul Mírzá Abu'l-Qásim-i-Shírází was arrested in Egypt and money extorted from him. [BBR257–8; BKG243; GPB178] Egypt Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1868 26 Jul Bahá'u'lláh was banished to 'Akká

    Sultán `Abdu'l-`Azíz, at the instigation of his Prime Minister, Ali Pasha, issued a firmán condemning Bahá'u'lláh to perpetual banishment. [BKG283–4; GPB179, 186; RB2:401–2]

  • See RB2:402 for a list of those included in the edict.
  • BKG261, GPB181 and RB2:403 indicate that it was not until the party reached Gallipoli that they were informed that their ultimate destination was `Akká.
  • BBD40 says that it was because of the disloyal Mírzá Yahyá's plotting against Bahá`u`lláh that the Turkish authorities condemned Him to perpetual imprisonment in `Akká.
  • Edirne; Istanbul; Turkey; Baghdad; Iraq; Gallipoli; Akka Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Sultan Abdul-Aziz; Khurshid Pasha; Firmans; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1868 Aug One morning without warning Bahá'u'lláh's house was surrounded by soldiers. The inhabitants were rounded up and taken to government headquarters. They were told to make ready for their departure for Gallipoli. [BKG255; GPB179; RB2:403]
  • The party was given three days to prepare for the journey. It it had been rumoured that they were to be separated, Bahá'u'lláh to one place, 'Abdu'l-Bahá to another and the friends to still another place. [CH62]
  • One of the companions, Karilá'í Ja'far was so grieved by the threatened separation that he attempted to kill himself. He was prevented from do so but was too ill to travel. Bahá'u'lláh refused to leave until the Governor in Adrianople made a promise to care for him until he was well enough to travel. He joined the friends in 'Akká forty days after their arrival. [CH62, RoB1p97-98]
  • The Consuls of European powers offered assistance to Bahá'u'lláh and were prepared to ask the intervention of their governments. Bahá'u'lláh refused these offers. [BKG255, 257–8]
  • Western accounts of this incident suggest that Bahá`u`lláh asked for such assistance. [BBR187–91]
  • The next day the goods of the Bahá'ís were sold or auctioned for very low prices. [BKG255, 258]
  • Group and individual photographs were taken of the Bahá'í and Azalí exiles in Adrianople, including one of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • Edirne; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1868 Aug Mullá Muhammad-Ridá, Ridá'r-Rúh was poisoned in Yazd. [BW18:383] Yazd; Iran Mulla Muhammad-Rida (Ridar-Ruh); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1868 12 Aug Bahá'u'lláh, His family and companions, escorted by a Turkish captain and a number of soldiers, set out for Gallipoli. [BKG260; GPB180; RB2:409]
  • En route they passed through the villages of Uzún-Kuprí and Káshánih before reaching Gallipoli after 4 days. [The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953: Information Statistical & Comparative p44]
  • N&N23 says the Lawh-i-Ra'ís (Tablet of Ra'ís) was revealed in Káshánih.
  • Edirne; Gallipoli; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Bahaullah, Writings of; Z^^^^
    1868 15 Aug The Bahá'ís imprisoned in Constantinople arrived in Gallipoli to be exiled with Bahá'u'lláh's party. [BKG260] Gallipoli; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of
    1868 16 Aug They arrived in Gallipoli on the fifth day. [BKG260]
  • GPB180 says it was a four-day journey. CH62 says it took three days of travel by cart and wagon.
  • They remained there for three nights. CH62 says they remained there for a week awaiting replies to telegrams that had been sent to Constantinople. [BKG263; GPB181]
  • BKG261 says they were there for `a few days'.
  • Gallipoli; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of
    1868 21 Aug Bahá'u'lláh and His companions left Gallipoli on an Austrian-Lloyd steamer. CH62 says it was a Turkish boat. [BKG263; GPB182; RB2:411]
  • CH62 says it was a Turkish boat.
  • There were 72 exiles, 10 soldiers and 2 officers. The journey took 11 days. [CH63]
  • See BKG270 for map of the journey.
  • Towards sunset the same day the steamer touched on Madellí and stoped for a few hours. It continued on to Smyrna the same night where they stayed for two days and left at night. [BKG264; N&N22]
  • Mírzá Yahyá and the four Bahá'ís arrested at Constantinople, including Mishkín-Qalam, were sent to Famagusta in Cyprus. [BKG268; GPB179]
  • See also
  • Gallipoli; Madelli; Smyrna; Famagusta; Turkey; Cyprus Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Ships; Mishkin-Qalam; Mirza Aliy-i-Sayyah-i-Maraghihi (Mulla Adi-Guzal); Aqa Abdul-Ghaffar; Aqa Muhammad-Baqir (Qahvih-chiy-i Mahallati); Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Exile; Cyprus exiles; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1868 22 Aug Soon after sunrise the ship arrived at Smyrna. [BKG264]
  • It stays for two days and left at night. [BKG264; GPB182; N&N22]
  • The illness of Mírzá Áqáy-i-Káshání (Jináb-i-Muníb) necessitated his removal to the hospital. He died before 'Abdu'l-Bahá and Mírzá Musá could return to the ship. 'Abdu'l-Bahá maked arrangements with the local funeral director. They held a simple funeral and burial took place in Izmír. [CH65, BKG264–5; GPB182]
  • This young and vibrant man had arrived in Baghdad before the exile and travelled with the party holding the bridle of the horse of Bahá'u'lláh the whole route, often with 'Abdu'l-Bahá on the other side. When the party reached Constantinople he was instructed to go on teaching trip to Persia and to Iraq, a long and an arduous tour. He rejoined the group in Adrianople just prior to the exile and he was in precarious condition but begged Bahá'u'lláh for permission to be included. It is reported in FAA21 that he died two or three days after the departure of the ship.
  • Izmir (Smyrna); Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mirza Aqay-i-Kashani
    1868 23 Aug The steamer left Smyrna at night for Alexandria, which she gained on a morning two days later. [BKG265] Izmir (Smyrna); Turkey; Alexandria; Egypt Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Ships
    1868 26 - 27 Aug The steamer carrying Bahá'u'lláh docked at Alexandria, early in the morning. [BKG265; RB3:6]
  • The exiles changed ships, again onto an Austrian-Lloyd ship. [BKG265]
  • Several exiles go ashore to make purchases. One passes by the prison house where Nabíl was detained. Nabíl, watching from the roof of his prison cell, recognized him. [CH65, BKG265, 267; RB3:6]
  • Nabíl and Fáris Effendi write letters to Bahá'u'lláh which were delivered by a Christian youth. The youth returned with a Tablet from Bahá'u'lláh and gifts from `Abdu'l-Bahá and Mírzá Mihdí. [BKG267–8; RB3:6–7]
  • The ship bearing Bahá'u'lláh and the exiles left Alexandria for Port Said. [BKG268]
  • Alexandria; Egypt Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Nabil-i-Azam; Faris Effendi; Gifts; Ships
    1868 29 Aug In the morning the ship arrived in Port Said. At nightfall it traveled on to Jaffa. [BKG268] Port Said; Jaffa; Israel Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Ships
    1868 30 Aug The ship arrived at Jaffa at sunset. At midnight the ship left for Haifa. [BKG168] Jaffa; Haifa; Israel Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Ships
    1868 31 Aug The ship arrived in Haifa in the early morning. [BKG269; GPB182; RB3:11]
  • Bahá'u'lláh and His companions — 70 in all — disembarked and were taken ashore in sailing boats. [RB3:11]
  • One of the Bahá'ís, Áqá `Abdu'l-Ghaffár, one of the four companions of Bahá'u'lláh condemned to share the exile of Mírzá Yahyá, threw himself into the sea when he learned he was to be separated from Bahá'u'lláh. [BKG269; GPB182]
  • A few hours later Bahá'u'lláh's party was put aboard a sailing vessel and taken to `Akká. [RB3:12]
  • See photo of the sea gate by which the exiles entered the citadel.
  • See CH66 for Bahíyyih Khánum's account of the journey.
  • The exiles landed in `Akká and began a confinement in the citadel that was to last two years, two months and five days. [CH67, BBR205; BKG169; DH12; RB3:11]
  • Photo of the citadel.
  • See BKG277–9 for a list of the exiles. Two others joined them immediately after arrival. [BBR205]
  • See BR205–6 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's account of the journey of exile.
  • See RB32:2 and RB3:21 for prophecies regarding Bahá'u'lláh's exile to `Akká.
  • See DH17–24 for a history of `Akká before the arrival of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • See DH26–8 and GPB186–7 for a description of the exiles' walk to the prison.
  • See GPB186–7 for Bahá'u'lláh's description of the citadel and the conditions there on His arrival.
  • See BKG275–7 for Áqá Ridá's description of the citadel and the conditions there.
  • See DH30–1 for a description of the citadel building and the accommodation used by Bahá'u'lláh.
  • The first night the exiles were refused both food and drink. [GPB187]
  • Afterwards each prisoner was allocated three loaves of stale black bread as a daily food ration plus filthy water. [GBP187]
  • Within two days all fell ill with typhoid but for two, 'Abdu'l-Bahá and another man who was able to help Him nurse and care for the others. [CH234]
  • Three of the exiles died soon after arrival. Soon after their death Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Lawh-i-Ra'ís, the second Tablet to `Alí Páshá. [BKG283; GPB187; RB3:20, 34]
  • See BKG317–21 and CH250–1 for the story of the Azalís who were confined to `Akká with the exiles.
  • See BBRSM69–70 for details on the system of communications used between the Holy Land and the Bahá'í communities.
  • At first the Governor was disinclined to relax the strict rules of the exiles but eventually allowed Mírzá Ja'far to go into town, accompanied by a soldier, to purchase food. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had sent Mírzá 'bdu'l-Ahad ahead some time before with instructions to open a shop. It was six months before the exiles could make contact with him. During this time a Greek, Dr. Petro, became a friend and, after having made investigations, assured the Governor that the exiles were not criminals. [CH67]
  • The King of Martyrs and his brother The Beloved of Martyrs were the first to make contact with the exiles by telegraph. They were able to provide much need assistance. [CH67]
  • After the restrictions had been relaxed somewhat Shaykh Salmán was able to function as a courier carrying Tablets and letters to and from Persia. When he was arrested in Aleppo, carrying a most important supplication from a friend in Persia to Bahá'u'lláh, he swallowed the letter to avoid detection. [CH67-68]
  • Haifa; Famagusta; Akka; Israel; Cyprus Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mishkin-Qalam; Aqa Abdul-Ghaffar; Lawh-i-Rais (Tablet to Sultan Ali Pasha); Mirza Jafar; Citadel; Prophecies; Cyprus exiles; Exile; Firsts, Other; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre First night in citadel in `Akká
    1868 3 Sep The firmán of the Sultán `Abdu'l-`Azíz condemning Bahá'u'lláh to life imprisonment was read out in the Mosque of Al-Jazzár. [BKG284–5; GPB186; RB3:18]
  • See CH64, BKG283–4, 286; GBP186, RB2:402 and RB3:18 for the terms of the edict. They were labelled as malefactors, sowers of sedition, hardened criminals, enemies of the pure religion of God and of man. The faithful were commanded to shun these outcasts. All of those that did a disservice to the captives might flatter themselves that they "did service to God".
  • See RB3:18–19 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's response.
  • See BKG283–8, RB3:19-20 for conditions of life in the barracks.
  • The local authorities and the clerics did their part to stir up the populus against the exiles. See DH197 and CH239-242 for the story of a man who made an attempt on the life of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • From this time forward Bahá'u'lláh met only with His followers.
  • Akka; Israel Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Firmans; Mosque of Al-Jazzar
    1868 5 Sep The ship that had delivered the exiles to 'Akká carried on and Mírzá Yahyá arrived in Cyprus with his entire family but without a single disciple or even a servant. [BBR306]
  • Also exiled to Cyprus were four loyal Bahá'ís and they were:
      Mishkín-Qalam (Áqá Hussain Isfahání)
      Mirzá ‘Alíy-i-Sayyáh-i-Maraghih'í (Mullá Ádí-Guzal)
      Áqá ‘Abdu’l-Ghaffár
      Áqá Muḥammad-Báqir (Qahvih-chiy-i Mahallátí) (coffee-maker)
  • With their arrival Cyprus became the first island in the Mediterranean to receive the Faith.
  • See also GPB 182 and AB285, 523.
  • Famagusta; Cyprus Mishkin-Qalam; Mirza Aliy-i-Sayyah-i-Maraghihi (Mulla Adi-Guzal); Aqa Abdul-Ghaffar; Aqa Muhammad-Baqir (Qahvih-chiy-i Mahallati); Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Exile; Cyprus exiles; First Bahais by country or area; Islands the first island in the Mediterranean to receive the Faith.
    1868 c. Oct Nabíl was released from prison in Egypt and departed for `Akká. [BKG290–1; RB3:57]
  • He visited Cyprus on the way. [BKG291]
  • Cairo; Egypt; Akka; Cyprus Nabil-i-Azam
    1868 30 Oct Christoph Hoffman, founder of the Templers, and Georg David Hardegg, his principal lieutenant, landed in Haifa to gather the Children of God in Jerusalem in preparation for the Second Coming of Christ. Hardegg remained in Haifa to head the Tempelgesellschaft while Hoffman went to Jaffa in 1869 to found a school and a hospital there. [BBD224; BBR204, 2, 15–16; DH133, SBBH1p215-218]
  • The colony on Mount Carmel was composed of a few dozen Templer families from Württemberg (S. Germany) and they were joined by kindred families of German origin from southern Russia and by some who had emigrated to America and become citizens, mainly from New York state. [Tablet to Hardegg (Lawh-i-Hirtík): A Tablet of Bahá'u'lláh to the Templer Leader Georg David Hardegg by Stephen Lambden and Kamran Ekbal, A Tablet of Bahā'-Allāh to Georg David Hardegg, the Lawḥ-i Hartīk by Stephen Lambden]
  • DH139 and GPB277 say this was 1863.
  • See BBR215–18 for the relationship between Bahá'u'lláh and the Templers.
  • A tablet addressed to Georg David Hardegg, Lawh-i-Hirtik, contained the proclamation of Bahá'u'lláh as the Promised One and the return of the Father. He also was warned not to make the same errors of the Pharisees who neglected the validity of Christ's own claims.
  • Bahá'u'lláh stayed in the houses of the colony several times. [BBR234]
  • See BBR236–9 for articles written about the Bahá'ís by Templers.
  • Haifa; Jaffa Christoph Hoffman; Georg David Hardegg; Templer colony; Bahaullah, Life of; Lawh-i-Hirtik (Tablet to Hardegg); Interfaith dialogue; Christianity; Prophecies
    1868 end Oct Nabíl entered `Akká in disguise but was recognized and after three days was expelled from the city. [BKG290–1; GPB188; RB3:57]
  • He spent the next four months wandering about Haifa, Mount Carmel and the Galilee waiting for another opportunity to enter `Akká. He lived for a time in the cave of Elijah on Mount Carmel. He would walk the 10 miles to the vantage point outside of the citadel where he might, on rare occasion, see the hand of Bahá'u'lláh waving from the small middle window.[BKG290–1; RB3:57, CH68]
  • Akka Nabil-i-Azam
    1869 – 1872 A great famine occurred in Iran in which about 10 per cent of the population died and a further 10 per cent emigrated. [BBRSM86; GPB233] Iran Iran, General history; Famine
    1869 Early in the year Hájí Amín-i-Iláhí arrived in `Akká from Iran and was the first pilgrim to see Bahá'u'lláh. [DH33]
  • He was `only able to do so in the public bath, where it had been arranged that he should see Bahá'u'lláh without approaching Him or giving any sign of recognition'. This was the bath of Al-Jazzár. [DH33; GBP817]
  • Akka Haji Amin (Abul-Hasan-i-Ardikani); Public baths; Pilgrims; First pilgrims First pilgrim to see Bahá'u'lláh in `Akká
    1869 (In the year) Franz Josef, Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary, maked a pilgrimage to Jerusalem but failed to enquire after Bahá'u'lláh. [KAN116] Jerusalem; Israel; Hungary Franz Josef; Bahaullah, Life of; Tablets to kings and rulers
    1869 (In the year) The 17-year-old Áqá Buzurg-i-Níshápúrí, Badí`, arrived in `Akká having walked from Mosul. He was able to enter the city unsuspected. [BKG297; RB3:178]
  • He was still wearing the simple clothes of a water bearer. [BKG297]
  • For the story of his life, see BKG294–297 and RB3:176–179.
  • For his transformation see RB3:179–182. Badí` saw `Abdu'l-Bahá in a mosque and was able to write a note to Him. The same night Badí` entered the citadel and went into the presence of Bahá'u'lláh. He met Bahá'u'lláh twice. [BKG297; RW3:179]
    • Badí` asked Bahá'u'lláh for the honour of delivering the Tablet to the Sháh and Bahá'u'lláh bestowed it on him. [BKG297; RB3:182]
    • The journey to Tehran took four months; he traveled alone. [BKG298]
    • For the story of the journey see BKG297–300 and RB3:184.
    • For the Tablet of Bahá'u'lláh to Badí` see BKG299 and RB3:175–176.
    • Regarding the tablet to the Sháh

      “Bahá’u’lláh’s lengthiest epistle to any single sovereign” -- Lawḥ-i-Sulṭán, (the Tablet to Náṣiri’d-Dín Sháh) Of the various writings that make up the Súriy-i-Haykal, one requires particular mention. The Lawḥ-i-Sulṭán, the Tablet to Náṣiri’d-Dín Sháh, Bahá’u’lláh’s lengthiest epistle to any single sovereign, was revealed in the weeks immediately preceding His final banishment to ‘Akká. It was eventually delivered to the monarch by Badí‘, a youth of seventeen, who had entreated Bahá’u’lláh for the honour of rendering some service. His efforts won him the crown of martyrdom and immortalized his name. The Tablet contains the celebrated passage describing the circumstances in which the divine call was communicated to Bahá’u’lláh and the effect it produced. Here, too, we find His unequivocal offer to meet with the Muslim clergy, in the presence of the Sháh, and to provide whatever proofs of the new Revelation they might consider to be definitive, a test of spiritual integrity significantly failed by those who claimed to be the authoritative trustees of the message of the Qur’án. [The Universal House of Justice (Introduction to ‘The Summons of the Lord of Hosts’)]

  • Akka; Mosul; Iraq; Tihran; Iran Badi (Mirza Aqa Buzurg-i-Nishapuri); Lawh-i-Sultan (Tablet to Nasirid-Din Shah); Suriy-i-Muluk (Surih to the Kings); Tablets to kings and rulers; Nasirid-Din Shah; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Apostles of Bahaullah
    1869 Feb Nabíl made a second attempt to enter `Akká. He was able to remain for 81 days and met Mírzá Áqá Ján and others but did not see Bahá'u'lláh. [BKG291; RB3:57]
  • DH35 says Nabíl spent 81 days in the citadel from 21 March to 9 June 1870.
  • Akka Nabil-i-Azam
    1869 1 May Nabíl met Bahá'u'lláh. [RB3:57] Akka Nabil-i-Azam; Citadel
    1869 12 May Birth of Clara Davis Dunn, Hand of the Cause, in London. London; United Kingdom Clara Dunn; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
    1869 Jul Badí` delivered the Tablet of Bahá'u'lláh to the Sháh. He was tortured and executed. [BBRXXXIX; BKG300; BW18:383; RB3:184–6]
  • For details of his torture and martyrdom see BKG300, 304–7 and RB3:186–91.
  • For the account of the French Minister in Tihrán see BBR254–5.
  • He is given the title Fakhru'sh-Shuhadá' (Pride of Martyrs). [BKG300]
  • Shoghi Effendi listed him among the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW3:80–1]
  • For the effect on Bahá'u'lláh of the martyrdom of Badí` see BKG300 and GPB199.
  • See also BKG293–314; GPB199, RB3:172–203; TN589
  • Iran Badi (Mirza Aqa Buzurg-i-Nishapuri); Apostles of Bahaullah; Shahs; Nasirid-Din Shah; Lawh-i-Sultan (Tablet to Nasirid-Din Shah); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1869 17 Nov The Suez Canal was opened to navigation. At this time the canal was only 25 feet deep, 72 feet wide at the bottom, and 200 to 300 feet wide at the surface. Consequently, fewer than 500 ships navigated it in its first full year of operation. Major improvements began in 1876 however and the canal soon grew into the one of the world’s most heavily traveled shipping lanes. In modern times about 50 ships navigate the canal daily.
  • See 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Egypt pg96 for 'Abdu'l-Bahá's "The Spiritual Lesson Drawn from the Material Progress of Port Said and the Suez Canal".
  • Port Said; Egypt Suez Canal; Unity; Teaching
    1869 25 Dec A mob attacked the Bahá'ís in Fárán, Khurásán, Iran, and two were severely beaten. [BW18:383] Faran; Khurasan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Mobs; Persecution
    1870 (In the year) Násiri'd-Dín Sháh maded a pilgrimage to the shrines in Iraq. In preparation for his visit the Bahá'ís were rounded up, arrested and exiled. [BBR267; BBRSM90; BKG441]
  • See BKG441–3 for details of the exile.
  • Iraq; Iran Nasirid-Din Shah; Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1870 (In the year) In Zanján, Áqá Siyyid Ashraf was arrested, condemned to death as a Bábí and executed. [BWG470]
  • He was the son of Mír Jalíl, one of the companions of Hujjat who was martyred in Tihrán at the end of the Zanján episode. [BKG470]
  • He was born during the siege at Zanján. [BKG470]
  • His mother was brought to prison to persuade him to recant his faith but she threatened to disown him if he did so. [BBD25; BKG470; ESW73–4; GPB199–200]
  • See G135–6 for Bahá'u'lláh's Tablet concerning Ashraf and his mother.
  • Zanjan; Iran Ashraf, Aqa Siyyid; Mir Jalil; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1870 (In the year) `Údí Khammár completed the restoration and expansion of the mansion at Bahjí originally built by `Abdu'lláh Páshá in 1821. [BBD42, 128; DH106-107]
  • See DH107 for the inscription he places over the door.
  • Akka Udi Khammar; Abdullah Pasha; Bahji; Inscriptions; House of Bahaullah (Bahji)
    1870 14 Jan Birth of May (or Mary) Ellis Bolles, prominent American Bahá'í teacher, in Englewood, New Jersey. [BFA1p141]
  • At the age of 11 she had a dream in which she experienced a flash of light so bright that blinded her for a day.[BFA1p141]
  • In 1896 she dreamed she saw the earth from space. One worked was written on the surface and the only letters she could read were "B" and "H". [BFA1p141]
  • In another dream she saw a vision of a man clothed in Eastern garb who beckoned her from across the Mediterranean. [BFA1p141]
  • Englewood; New Jersey; United States May Maxwell (Bolles); Births and deaths; dreams
    1870 22 Jun Mírzá Mihdí, the Purest Branch, fell through the skylight in the roof of the prison in `Akká onto a crate lying on the floor below. [BKG311–12; GBP188; RB3:205]
  • It was a normal practice for prisoners to go onto the roof in the summer evenings for fresh air. [RB3:205]
  • He was chanting the verses of Bahá'u'lláh's Qasídiy-i-Varqá'íyyih. [RB3:206]
  • He was so badly injured that his clothes have to be torn from him. [RB206]
  • Bahá'u'lláh came to him at His bedside and asked His son whether he wished to live; the Purest Branch begged Bahá'u'lláh to accept his life as a ransom for the opening of the gates of the prison to pilgrims. Bahá'u'lláh accepted this sacrifice. [BKG311–12; GPB188; RB3:208]
  • Akka Mirza Mihdi (Purest Branch); Qasidiyyih-Varqaiyyih (Ode of the Dove); Citadel; Pilgrimage; Pilgrims; First pilgrims
    1870 23 Jun Mírzá Mihdí died from his injuries 22 hours after his fall. [BKG311–12; GPB188; RB3:208]
  • See BKG313, GPB188 and RB3:210 for the prayer of Bahá'u'lláh for His son.
  • Shoghi Effendi equate his death with the acts of atonement associated with Abraham's intended sacrifice of His son, with the crucifixion of Christ and with the martyrdom of Imám Husayn. [GPB188]
  • He was interred in the cemetery next to the shrine of Nabí Sálih in `Akká. [GBP188; RB3:209]
  • Also see BBD155, BKG311–14, RB3:204–20.
  • Akka Mirza Mihdi (Purest Branch); Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Cemeteries and graves
    1870 Jul The Roman Catholic Vatican Council under Pope Pius IX formulated the doctrine of papal infallibility. Shortly afterwards Italian forces under Victor Emmanuel II attacked the Papal States and seize and occupy Rome, virtually extinguishing the temporal sovereignty of the pope. [GPB227; PDC54]
  • See Bahá'í Historical Facts.
  • Rome; Italy Pope Pius IX; Popes; Christianity; History (general)
    1870 19 Jul – 1871 10 May Franco-Prussian War was a conflict between the Second French Empire of Napoleon III and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia. The conflict was caused by Prussian ambitions to extend German unification and French fears of the shift in the European balance of power that would result if the Prussians succeeded.
  • See KA90 for Bahá'u'lláh's reference to this and KAN121 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's interpretation.
  • Germany; France Franco-Prussian War; War (general); History (general); Napoleon III
    1870 1 - 2 Sep Battle of Sedan. Napoleon III suffered defeat at the hands of Kaiser Wilhelm I. It resulted in the capture of Emperor Napoleon III and large numbers of his troops and for all intents and purposes decided the war in favour of Prussia and its allies, though fighting continued under a new French government. Napoleon went into exile in England, where he died in 1873.
  • Bahá'u'lláh referred to this in KA86.
  • Sedan; France; Germany; England Franco-Prussian War; War (general); History (general); Napoleon III; Kaiser Wilhelm I; Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book)
    1870 29 Sep Mírzá `Abdu'l-Ghaffár effected his escape from Cyprus and rejoins Bahá'u'lláh in `Akká. [BBR306] Cyprus; Akka Mirza Abdul-Ghaffar
    1970 Oct Bahá'u'lláh was moved to the house of Malik in the Fákhúrah quarter, in the western part of `Akká. [BBRXXIX, 209; BKG315; GPB189; RB3:221]
  • Bahá'u'lláh's occupation of this house lasted three months. BBR209–10; BKG315; GPB189]
  • This occurred approximately four months after the death of the Purest Branch. [BKG315; GPB189; RB3:221]
  • The movement of troops required the use of the barracks and the prisoners were shifted to alternative accommodations. 'Abdu'l-Bahá rented an inn and had it renovated so that it was habitable. [BKG315; RB3:221; 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Egypt p78]
  • See PG121 where 'Abdu'l-Bahá describes the first seven years of confinement in 'Akká.
  • Akka Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Houses of; House of Malik
    1871 (In the year) Muhammad-Hasan Khán-i-Káshí died in Burújird, Iran, after being bastinadoed. [BW18:383]
  • Three Bahá'ís were executed in Shíráz. [BW18:383]
  • Burujird; Shiraz; Iran Muhammad-Hasan Khan-i-Kashi
    1971 c. Jan Bahá'u'lláh was moved to the house of Khavvám, across the street from the house of Malik. [BBR209–10; BKG315; GPB189]
  • His occupation of this house lasted a few months. [BKG319]
  • Akka Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Houses of; House of Khavvam; House of Malik
    1871 c. May Bahá'u'lláh was transferred to the house of Rábi`ih. [GPB189]
  • His occupation of this house lasted four months. [BKG319; DH38–9]
  • Akka House of Rabiih; Bahaullah, Houses of
    1871 mid-year `Údí Khammár, a wealthy Maronite Christian merchant, and his family moved into the recently restored mansion at Bahjí, leaving their `Akká house empty. [BKG316–17; DH203] Akka Udi Khammar; Bahji; House of Udi Khammar; House of Bahaullah (Bahji)
    1871 4 Aug Shaykh `Alíy-i-Sayyáh, one of the Bahá'ís imprisoned in Cyprus, died, allegedly of poisoning. [BBR306, FOI,Forward]
  • Subsequently Mishkín-Qalam married the widow of Sayyáh. [BBR 306, FOIp24]
  • Cyprus Shaykh Aliy-i-Sayyah; Mishkin-Qalam
    1871 Sep Bahá'u'lláh was transferred to the house of `Údí Khammár in `Akká. [BBD109; BKG317; DH39, 203; GPB189]
  • The house was so small that 13 people of both sexes occupy one room. The remainder of Bahá'u'lláh's companions took up residence in other houses and the Khán-i-`Avámíd. [GBP189]
  • Bahá'u'lláh's occupation of this house lasted two years. [BKG319]
  • See BKG317 for the initial response of His neighbour, Ilyás `Abbúd.
  • See DH201–3 for a biography of `Údí Khammár.
  • Akka Bahaullah, Houses of; House of Udi Khammar; Udi Khammar; House of Abbud; Ilyas Abbud; Khan-i-Avamid; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    1871 16 Oct The famous British writer and critic, Matthew Arnold, made a brief reference to the Faith in an address that he gave to the Birmingham and Midland Institute. (See M. Momen, Babi and Bahá'í Religions). This reference was probably because of Comte de Gobineau's book Les Religions et Les Philosophies dans l'Asie Centrale which was published in 1865. [First Public Mentions of the Bahá'í Faith in the West by Bahá'í Information Office of the UK] Birmingham; Matthew Arnold; Comte de Gobineau first public mention of the Faith in England
    1871 1 Nov Birth of `Lua' Getsinger (Lucinda Louisa Aurora Moore), Banner of the Cause (líva), Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, Herald of the Covenant and Mother Teacher of the West. [AB67}
  • Lua is accredited with bringing such notables as May Ellis Bolles and Mrs Phoebe Hearst. [AB67
  • Hume NY; United States May Ellis Bolles; Mrs Phoebe Hearst; Lua Getsinger; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Births and deaths
    1871 End of the year Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Lawh-i-Qad Ihtaraqa'l-Mukhlisun (Fire Tablet). It was revealed in answer to a letter from one of His devoted followers in Persia, Haji Siyyid 'Ali-Akbar-i-Dahaji. In a passage, as yet untranslated, addressed to the uncle of Haji Siyyid 'Ali-Akbar, Bahá'u'lláh stated that He revealed the Fire Tablet for the his nephew so that it might create in him feelings of joy as well as igniting in his heart the fire of the love of God. It was revealed at a time when great afflictions and sorrows had surrounded Bahá'u'lláh as a result of the hostility, betrayal and acts of infamy perpetrated by those few individuals who had once claimed to be the helpers of the Cause of God. [BKG321–2; RB3:226–31] Akka Lawh-i-Qad-Ihtaraqal-Mukhlisun (Fire Tablet); Haji Siyyid Ali-Akbar-i-Dahaji; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1872 (In the year) Restoration of the House of the Báb began at the request of Khadíjih Bigum. On completion of the work she took up residence there. [EB232] Shiraz; Iran Khadijih Bagum; Bab, House of (Shiraz); Restoration
    c. 1872 Bahá'u'lláh tasked Shaykh Salmán to escort Munírih Khánum (Fátimih Khánum) to `Akká to marry `Abdu'l-Bahá. She traveled from her home in Isfahan to Shíráz where she stayed with the wife of the Báb then went to Mecca for pilgrimage. From Mecca she traveled to `Akká. [MKBM]
  • DH45 says she was called to the Holy Land in December 1871 to January 1872.
  • BKG347 says she performed the pilgrimage in February 1873.
  • See CH75–79 (Visit to Shíráz) and CH80-90 (Her journey and subsequent marriage) for Munírih Khánum's own account.
  • Isfahan; Iran; Shiraz; Mecca; Akka Munirih Khanum
    1872 (In the year) Birth of Joseph H. Hannen, a Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá. Joseph Hannen; Births and deaths
    1872 22 Jan Three Azalís were murdered by seven Bahá'ís in 'Akká. [BBD163; BKG3256 DH41; GPB189; RB3:235]
  • Siyyid Muhammad Isfahání, Nasr’ulláh Tafríshí, Áqá Ján Ka’j Kuláh and Ridá Qulí, these four kept vigil from the second story window of a building overlooking the land gate to ensure no followers of Bahá'u'lláh would have access to the prison city. For some time they had been successful at preventing the entrance of pilgrims, some of whom who had spend some six months even traveling on foot. This also precluded the possibility of communications from 'Akká reaching the believers in other lands. After two years and a few months, Bahá’u’lláh was released from the His cell and was free to walk among the prison population. Some of the friends, including Salmání, decided to get rid of these enemies and, during the night, went to their place and killed Siyyid Muhammad, Áqá Ján and another person. [Sweet and Enchanting Stories, Aziz Rohani, p. 31.]
  • Bahá'u'lláh was taken to the Governorate where He was interrogated and held for 70 hours. [BKG317-330; GBP190; RB3:234-239, AB34-36]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá was thrown into prison and kept in chains the first night. Twenty–five of the companions were also imprisoned and shackled. [BKG328; GBP190; RB3:237]
  • See BKG331, GPB191 and RB3:238 for the effect of the murders on the local population.
  • Ilyás `Abbúd put a barricade between his house and the house of `Údí Khammár, which he had rented for use by Bahá'u'lláh's family. [BKG331; GPB191]
  • See BKG330; DH44 and RB3:239 for the fate of the murderers, who were imprisoned for seven years.
  • Siyyid Muḥammad-i-Isfahání has been described by Shoghi Effendi as the “Antichrist of the Bahá’í Revelation.” He was a man of corrupt character and great personal ambition who had induced Mírzá Yaḥyá to oppose Bahá’u’lláh and to claim prophethood for himself. Although he was an adherent of Mírzá Yaḥyá, Siyyid Muḥammad was one of the four Azalis exiled with Bahá’u’lláh to ‘Akká. He continued to agitate and plot against Bahá’u’lláh. In describing the circumstances of his death, Shoghi Effendi has written in God Passes By:

    A fresh danger now clearly threatened the life of Bahá’u’lláh. Though He Himself had stringently forbidden His followers, on several occasions, both verbally and in writing, any retaliatory acts against their tormentors, and had even sent back to Beirut an irresponsible Arab convert, who had meditated avenging the wrongs suffered by his beloved Leader, seven of the companions clandestinely sought out and slew three of their persecutors, among whom were Siyyid Muḥammad and Áqá Ján.

    The consternation that seized an already oppressed community was indescribable. Bahá’u’lláh’s indignation knew no bounds. “Were We,” He thus voices His emotions, in a Tablet revealed shortly after this act had been committed, “to make mention of what befell Us, the heavens would be rent asunder and the mountains would crumble.” “My captivity,” He wrote on another occasion, “cannot harm Me. That which can harm Me is the conduct of those who love Me, who claim to be related to Me, and yet perpetrate what causeth My heart and My pen to groan.” [GPB189-190]

  • Akka Siyyid Muhammad-i-Isfahani; Ilyas Abbud; House of Abbud; House of Udi Khammar; Bahaullah, Houses of; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Antichrist; Murders; Opposition; Azali Babis; Ustad Muhammad-Ali Salmani; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Basic timeline, Expanded
    1872 31 May Birth of Thomas Breakwell, considered the first English Bahá'í, in Woking, Surrey, England.
  • In fact Ethel Rosenberg declared two years before him.
  • Woking; Surrey; United Kingdom Thomas Breakwell; Births and deaths; Ethel Rosenberg First English Bahá'í
    1872 10 Aug Birth of Martha Root, Hand of the Cause and itinerant Bahá'í teacher, in Richmond, Ohio. Richmond; Ohio; United States Martha Root; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
    1872 Oct The Reverend James Huber, a missionary from the Church Missionary Society of Germany stationed in Nazareth, in the company of Georg David Hardegg of the Templer settlement in Haifa, tried to pay a visit to Bahá'u'lláh in 'Akká. They were unable to do so due to the fact that He was under police guard at the time. The two men were, however, received by 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [SBBH1p218] Akka James Huber; Georg David Hardegg; Templers
    1872 22 Nov Muhammad-Báqir-i-Mahallátí, one of the Bahá'ís imprisoned in Cyprus, died. [BBR306]
  • He had begun his service to Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdad and was a member of the entourage that accompanied Him to Constantinople in 1863 and further served in His household in Adrianople. See FOIp9-12 for a brief description of his service.
  • This left Mishkín-Qalam as the only Bahá'í in Cyprus. [BBR306]
  • Cyprus Aqa Muhammad-Baqir (Qahvih-chiy-i Mahallati); Mishkin-Qalam; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Cyprus exiles
    1872 Last months Munírih Khánum arrived in `Akká. She stayed in the house of Mírzá Músá for several months. [MKBM]
  • Note: BKG347 suggests she arrived some time after February 1873.
  • Akka Munirih Khanum; Mirza Musa
    1873 (In the year) Ibn-i-Abhar was arrested in Tihrán and imprisoned for 14 months and 15 days. [BW18:383] Tihran; Iran Ibn-i-Abhar (Mulla Muhammad Taqi)
    1873 (In the year) Ahmad Big Tawfíq (Ahmad Bey) became Mutasarrif of `Akká. [BBD12, 20; BBR487; DH126–9; GPB192]
  • His governorship lasted two years. [BKG337]
  • This `sagacious and humane governor' met `Abdu'l-Bahá and was greatly impressed by Him. The governor perused some of the writings, which also impressed him. [BKG334; GPB191]
  • In response to a request for permission to render Bahá'u'lláh some service, the suggestion was made to him to restore the disused aqueduct built to bring water into `Akká, a suggestion which he immediately arose to carry out'. [DH52; GBP192]
  • See DH126–9 for history of the aqueduct.
  • See BKG333–4 for information on Ahmad Big Tawfíq.
  • Akka Ahmad Big Tawfiq (Ahmad Bey); Mutasarrifs; Governors
    1873 Early part Bahá'u'lláh completed the revelation of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas in the southeast corner room of the house of `Údí Khammár. [BBD132; BKG351; DH46; GPB213; RB3:275; SA248]
  • There is evidence to suggest that at least some of the work was written earlier as confirmed by the book's reference to the fall of Napoleon III in 1870 and there is further evidence to suggest that parts of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas were revealed as early as 1868. [SA16–17, 248]
  • For the significance of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas see BKG351–3, BW15:87–91, GPB213–15 and RB3:275–399.
  • For analyses of its significance, content and application, see RB3:275–399 and SA248–52.
  • Akka Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Laws; House of Udi Khammar; Charters; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Dating of Writings; Tablets to kings and rulers; Napoleon III; Gradual implementation of laws
    1873 (In the year) "Many of the laws of the Báb...are carefully designed in a way that testifies that the advent of Him Whom God shall make manifest was impending....The Báb never revealed the words of the (obligatory) prayer itself, thus making the implementation of this law dependent on the arrival of the Promised One." [GH366]
    The original Bahá'í obligatory prayer, mentioned in the Kitab-i-Aqdas, involved nine cycles of movement starting with a bow (rak`ah) and was to be said morning, noon, and afternoon. It probably called for three rak`ahs at each time. Bahá'u'lláh revealed the text but did not release it in order to avoid provoking conflict with Muslims. This prayer was one of the documents in the cases taken by `Abdu'l-Bahá's brothers shortly after the passing of Bahá'u'lláh. Some time later, after the writing of the Kitab-i-Aqdas but before that of its supplement Questions and Answers, Bahá'u'lláh wrote a second set of obligatory prayers which are in use today. Three alternative forms were provided: a very short prayer to be said between noon and sunset; a somewhat longer prayer to be said in the morning, the afternoon, and the evening; and a long prayer to be said once during twenty-four hours. [Prayer and Worship by John Walbridge]
    Obligatory Prayer; Prayer; Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Questions and Answers (Aqdas)
    1873 (In the year) The Law of the Huqúqu'lláh that had first been ordained by the Báb in the Persian Bayán, chapter 19 of unit 5, was reiterated in the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, verses 227-233 and in the Questions and Answers.
  • At first Bahá'u'lláh declined to accept the Huqúq from the believers stating that the funds were not needed. [Huqúqu'lláh: The Right of God p9]
  • "After the Kitáb-i-Aqdas had been revealed in response to the pleas of the friends, Bahá’u’lláh withheld it from publication for some time and even then, when a number of devoted Bahá’ís, having learned of the law, endeavored to offer the Ḥuqúqu’lláh, the payment was not accepted. The Tablets of Bahá’u’lláh show His acute consciousness of the way in which material wealth has been permitted to degrade religion in the past, and He preferred the Faith to sacrifice all material benefits rather than to soil to the slightest degree its dignity and purity. Herein is a lesson for all Bahá’í institutions for all time." [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1987]
  • Huququllah; Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Questions and Answers (Aqdas)
    1873 c. Mar Ilyás `Abbúd offers to provide a room in his house for `Abdu'l-Bahá and Munírih Khánum after their marriage. He furnishes a room, opens a doorway into it through the dividing wall and presents it to Bahá'u'lláh for `Abdu'l-Bahá's use. [BKG348; DH45] Ilyas Abbud; House of Abbud; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Munirih Khanum
    1873 1 Mar Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Tablet of the Vision, "Lawh-i-Rú'yá" in Arabic. See the Provisional Translation by Stephan Lambden. Akka Lawh-i-Ruya (Tablet of the Vision); Bahaullah, Writings of; Maid of Heaven
    1873 8 Mar Marriage of `Abdu'l-Bahá to Munírih Khánum in the House of `Abbúd.
  • DH45 says the marriage took place in late August or September 1872.
  • See CH87–90, SES25-26, DH45–6 and RB2:208–9 for details of the wedding.
  • For the story of Munírih Khánum's life see RB2:204–9.
  • She was the daughter of Mírzá Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Nahrí by his second wife. [BBD165; GPB130; RB2:204]
  • See BBD 166, BKG340–1, DB208–9 and RB2:203–4 for the story of her conception.
  • See BKG344, MA112–13 and RB2:206–7 for the story of her first marriage.
  • The marriage resulted in nine children, five of whom died in childhood: Husayn Effendi (died 1887, aged two), Mihdí (died aged two-and-a-half), Túbá, Fu'ádiyyih and Rúhangíz. Four daughters grew to adulthood. The oldest of these was Díyá'iyyih, who married Mírzá Hádí Shírází in 1895. Shoghi Effendi was their eldest child. The second daughter, Túbá Khánum, married Mírzá Muhsin Afnán. The third daughter of `Abdu'l-Bahá, Rúhá, married Mírzá Jalál, the son of Mírzá Muhammad-Hasan, the King of Martyrs. The fourth daughter, Munavvar, married Mírzá Ahmad. [ABMM]
  • Akka Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Family of; Munirih Khanum; Weddings; Mirza Muhammad-Aliy-i-Nahri; Diyaiyyih Khanum; Mirza Hadi Shirazi; Tuba Khanum; Mirza Muhsin Afnan; Ruha Khanum; Mirza Jalal; Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Munavvar Khanum; Mirza Ahmad; Genealogy; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline
    1873 12 Apr Birth of Hippolyte Dreyfus, the first French Bahá'í, in Paris. Named by Shoghi Effendi a Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá. Paris; France Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; First Bahais by country or area; Births and deaths First French Bahá'í
    1873 7 Jun Birth of Amelia Engelder Collins, Hand of the Cause, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Pittsburgh; Pennsylvania; United States Amelia Collins; Births and deaths
    1873 Late in the year Bahá'u'lláh acquired the house of `Abbúd. It is joined to the house of `Údí Khammár to make one residence and Bahá'u'lláh moved to the side of the house previously occupied by `Abbúd. [BBD106, 109; BKG319; DH51]
  • He lived here for four years. [BBD106, 109; BKG319; DH51]
  • See BBD1 for information on Ilyás `Abbúd.
  • Akka Ilyas Abbud; House of Abbud; Bahaullah, Houses of; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    1873 Latter part of the year The existence of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas was made known to the Bahá'ís. [SA248] Akka Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of
    1873 or 1874 Lawh-i-Hikmat (Tablet of Wisdom) was written by Bahá’u’lláh in 'Akká and addressed to Mulla Muhammad-'Alí (Nabíl-i-Qa'iní), a former mujtahid in the Ithna 'Ashari sect of Shi'i Islam and a distinguished Bahá’í scholar and teacher. In this Tablet, Bahá’u’lláh elaborated His teachings on many themes, including the origins and development of "hikmat-i-iláhí” (divine philosophy), discussing a number of philosophers, including the Father of Philosophy (Idris/Hermes), Balinus (Apollonius of Tyana), Empedocles, Pythagoras, Hippocrates, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle and Pliny. As well He explained the influence of the Word of God and the cause and origin of creation and of nature.
  • Ethel Rosenberg questioned 'Abdu'l-Bahá about the fact that Bahá'u'lláh's account of the Greek philosophers differed from historical documents. He answered in a lengthy letter which was translated into Persian and given wide distribution. It became known as the Rosenberg Tablet. [EJR78-81; A Tablet of 'Abdu'l-Bahá Explaining Three Verses in the Lawh-i-Hikmat by Abdu'l-Bahá translated by the Bahá'í World Centre.]
  • A copy of the Tablet of Wisdom with numbered paragraphs is available here.
  • See Rizal, Revelation and Revolution: Rizal's Letter to the Women of Malolos and Baha'u'llah's letter to Nabil Akbar Lawh-i-Hikmat (Tablet of Wisdom) by Stephen Ramo.
  • Akka Lawh-i-Hikmat (Tablet of Wisdom); Philosophy; Tablets of Bahaullah revealed after the Kitab-i-Aqdas; Bahaullah, Writings of; Ethel Rosenberg
    1874 Apr Shaykh Muhammad-Báqir, the Wolf, has 20 or more Bahá'ís arrested in Isfahán. [BW18:383] Isfahan; Iran Shaykh Muhammad-Baqir; Wolf
    1874 8 May The arrival of the eldest son of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh, Sultán-Mas'úd Mírzá, Zillu's-Sultán, in Isfahán as governor. [BBR269]

    Within a few days of the arrival of Zillu's-Sultán in Isfahán, a general persecution of Bahá'ís began. [BBRXXXIX, 269–70]

  • This can be traced to Shaykh Muhammad Báqir, the `Wolf'. [BBR270]
  • See SDH104 for comment by Bahá'u'lláh on a challenge made by Shaykh Muhammad-Báqir.
  • For Western reports of this outburst see BBR270–3.
  • Isfahan; Iran Sultan-Masud Mirza; Governors; Zillus-Sultan; Shaykh Muhammad-Baqir; Wolf
    1874 19 May Birth of John Ebenezer Esslemont, Hand of the Cause of God, in Aberdeen, Scotland. Aberdeen; Scotland; United Kingdom Esslemont; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
    1874 6 Jun Birth of Louis George Gregory, Hand of the Cause of God at Charleston, South Carolina. Charleston; South Carolina; United States Louis Gregory; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
    1874 14 Nov Birth of William Sutherland Maxwell, Hand of the Cause of God, in Montreal. Montreal; Canada William Sutherland Maxwell; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
    1875 (In the year) The `ulamá arouse the rabble against the Bahá'ís in Sidih, Isfahán. Several Bahá'ís were imprisoned, including Nayyir and Síná. [BW18:383] Sidih; Isfahan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1875 (In the year) Bahá'u'lláh sent Sulaymán Khán Ilyás, Jamál Effendi, to India. [BW4:285; GPB195; MC155]
  • See EB120–1, 122–8 and MF134–8.
  • BBRSM90, 193 say he was sent in 1871 and left in 1878. BW18p246 says he arrived in 1872. EB122 says he reached Bombay in 1878 and stayed 11 years on the subcontinent.
  • His work helped establish Bahá'í communities in Bombay, Calcutta and Madras as well as in Burma. [BBRSM91; GPB225]
  • Among those he taught was Siyyid Mustafá Rúmí, who later found the Bahá'í community of Burma. [BW10:517]
  • Mumbai (Bombay); Kolkata (Calcutta); Chennai (Madras); India; Myanmar (Burma) Sulayman Khan Ilyas; Jamal Effendi; Siyyid Mustafa Rumi first..
    1875 (In the year) `Abdu'l-Bahá rented a small garden near `Akká for Bahá'u'lláh's use. [BBD196–7; DH95]
  • See DH95 for its situation.
  • This garden on the river Na`mayn was later named Ridván by Bahá'u'lláh. [DH95]
  • Akka Ridvan Garden; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Bahaullah, Life of; Gardens
    1875 (In the year) `Abdu'l-Bahá wrote The Mysterious Forces of Civilization, a treatise on the establishment of a just, progressive and divinely-based government. [SDCV]
  • It was lithographed in Bombay in 1882. It was first published in English under the title The Mysterious Forces of Civilization in London in 1910. [SDCV] It was re-issued in 1918 and later translated as The Secret of Divine Civilization by Marzieh Gail and published by the Bahá'í Publishing Trust in Wilmette in 1957.
  • Shoghi Effendi called it `Abdu'l-Bahá's outstanding contribution to the future reorganization of the world'. [WOB37]
  • Akka; Mumbai (Bombay); India Secret of Divine Civilization (book); Publishing; Publications; First Publications; Reform; Iran; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1875 (In the year) Theosophy was established as a religious philosophical movement in New York City by Helena Petrovna Blavatsky (1831-1891). It contained elements of Hinduism and Buddhism and held that the purpose of all the religions was to assist humanity toward perfection and that all religions had a portion of the "truth". It has since split into a number of conflicting ideologies. [ABF9note54, Wikipedia (Blavatskian)]
  • The cordial relations between the Theosophical Society and the Bahá'í Faith helped in the spreading of the Faith in the United States, Europe and in South America.
  • New York; United States Theosophy; Theosophical Society; Helena Blavatsky; Esoterism; Occultism
    1875 21 Jul Birth of Agnes Baldwin Alexander, Hand of the Cause, in Hawaii.
  • She was a granddaughter of two of Hawaii's most famous missionary families, the Baldwins and the Alexanders.
  • Hawaii Agnes Alexander; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
    1875 16 Oct Birth of Tarázu'lláh Samandarí, Hand of the Cause of God, in Qazvín. Qazvin; Iran Tarazullah Samandari; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
    1876 (In the year) Six Bahá'ís were arrested in Tihrán and imprisoned for three months and 17 days. [BW18:383] Tihran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1876 (In the year) The conversion of Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl Gulpáygání, a leading clerical philosopher. [BBRSM88; EB264]
  • See EB263–5 for details of his life.
  • See BKG262 for details of his conversion.
  • Iran Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani
    1876 14 Feb Birth of Keith Ransom-Kehler, Hand of the Cause and the first American Bahá'í martyr, in Kentucky. Kentucky; United States Keith Ransom-Kehler; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Firsts, Other First American Bahá'í martyr
    1876 30 May Sultán `Abdu'l-`Azíz was deposed. He had ruled from 1861. [BBR485] Turkey Sultan Abdul-Aziz; Sultans; History (General); Ottoman Empire
    1876 4 Jun `Abdu'l-`Azíz either committed suicide or was assassinated. [BBD2; BBR485; GPB225]
  • Accession of Murád V to the throne. [BBR485]
  • Bahá'u'lláh had predicted his downfall in the Lawh-i-Fu'ád. [RB3:87]
  • Bahá'u'lláh stated that the tyranny of Sultán `Abdu'l-`Azíz exceeded that of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh because the Sultán exiled Bahá'u'lláh to the Most Great Prison without any reason whereas the Sháh had reason to be fearful of the Bahá'ís because of the attempt on his life. [BKG412]
  • Bahá'u'lláh had addressed two Tablets to the Sultán including the Súriy-i-Mulúk (Tablet to the Kings) but he did not respond. [BBD2]
  • See The Summons of the Lord of Hosts p177-181 for the Lawh-i-Fu'ád and p185-235 for the Súriy-i-Mulúk.
  • Istanbul; Turkey Sultan Abdul-Aziz; Births and deaths; Nasirid-Din Shah; Murad V; Lawh-i-Fuad (Tablet to Fuad Pasha); Suriy-i-Muluk (Surih to the Kings); History (general); Prophecies
    1876 14 Jun Birth of George Townshend, Hand of the Cause of God, in Dublin. Dublin; Ireland George Townshend; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
    1876 31 Aug Deposition of Murád V followed by the accession of `Abdu'l-Hamíd II to the Sultanate of the Ottoman Empire, upon which the banishment decree of Sultan 'Abdu'l-Aziz for Bahá'u'lláh was relaxed. Istanbul; Turkey Murad V; Abdul-Hamid II; Sultan
    c. 1877 `Abdu'l-Bahá rented the house of Mazra`ih for Bahá'u'lláh's use. [BKG357; DH87; RB3:416] Akka Bahaullah, Houses of; House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); Abdul-Baha, Life of; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    1877 – 1878 As a result of the war between Russia and Turkey some 11 million people were freed from the Turkish yoke. Adrianople was occupied. [BKG262; GPB225]
    • See BKG460 for the Siege of Plevna.
    Edirne (Adrianople); Plevna; Turkey; Russia Wars; History (general)
    1877 Spring `Abdu'l-Bahá held a banquet for the notables of `Akká in a pine grove near Bahjí. [BKG358; DH54, 87]
  • He received permission from its Christian owner, Jirjis al-Jamál. [DH54]
  • The acceptance of the invitation by the notables signalled the fact that the firmán of `Abdu'l-`Azíz, though still in force, was a dead letter. [DH54; GPB193]
  • Bahji Firmans; Abdul-Baha, Life of
    1877 Jun Possibly the first visit of Bahá'u'lláh to the Ridván Garden outside `Akká. [BBD196–7; DH95; GPB193]
  • See DH95–101 for a description of the garden and Bahá'u'lláh's use of it.
  • See CH96–8 for Túbá Khánum's description of the garden.
  • Akka Ridvan Garden; Bahaullah, Life of; Gardens; Firsts, Other; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre First visit of Bahá'u'lláh to Ridván Garden outside `Akká
    1877 3–10 Jun Bahá'u'lláh took up residence at Mazra`ih. [BBD154]
  • It took the repeated pleadings of Shaykh `Alíy-i-Mírí, the Muftí of `Akká, to persuade Him to go. [BBD 154; BKG358–9; GPB192–3]
  • See BKG359 and DH89 for a description.
  • Bahá'u'lláh resided there for two years with some members of His family while `Abdu'l-Bahá, the Greatest Holy Leaf and Navváb continued to live in the House of `Abbúd. [BBD13, 106; DH89–90]
  • See CH136 for the reason why `Abdu'l-Bahá did not live at Mazra`ih.
  • Also see DH8994.
  • Akka House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); Bahaullah, Houses of; Bahaullah, Life of; Shaykh Aliy-i-Miri (Mufti of Akka); Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    1877 Sep Hájí `Abdu'l-Majíd-i-Níshápúrí was executed in Mashhad. [BW18:383] Mashhad Haji Abdul-Majid-i-Nishapuri; Iran, persecution
    1877 26 Sep Birth of Siegfried Schopflocher, Hand of the Cause of God, in Germany. Furth; Bavaria; Germany Siegfried Schopflocher; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
    1877 Dec Mullá Kázim-i-Tálkhunchi'í was executed in Isfahán. [BBR273–4; BW18:383] Isfahan Mulla Kazim-i-Talkhunchii
    1877 (Near the end of the year) Conversion of Siyyid Mustafá Rúmí in Calcutta, while he was travelling with Jamál Effendi. [RSLG] Kolkata (Calcutta); India Siyyid Mustafa Rumi; Jamal Effendi
    1878 to 1881 The first Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh was Hájí Sháh-Muhammad-i-Manshádí, or Jináb-i-Sháh Muhammad from Manshád, Yazd who had become a believer in Baghdad. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
  • His title was Amínu'l-Bayán (Trustee of the Bayán).
  • He made many journeys between Iran and the Holy Land carrying donations and petitions from the friends and returning with Tablets and news.
  • See SABF47-48 for the story of the lost coin given as a donation by a very poor woman.
  • He was tasked with receiving the casket of the Báb after the location had been discovered by a number of believers. He transferred it to the Mosque of Imámzádih Zayd in Tehran where it was buried beneath the floor of the inner sanctuary of the shrine. It was consequently discovered and moved to a series of private homes in Tehran until 'Abdu'l-Bahá sent for it for the internment. [ISC-1963p32]
  • Hájí Sháh-Muhammad was in 'Akká when Áqá Buzurg, entitled Badí', came to confer with Bahá'u'lláh. He and Badí met on Mount Carmel as directed by Bahá'u'lláh.
  • He was killed as a result of wounds incurred during an attack during a Kurdish revolt. [RoB3p73]
  • Iran; Yazd; Baghdad; Tihran Huququllah; Huququllah, Trustees of; Haji Shah-Muhammad-i-Manshadi (Aminul-Bayan); Bab, Remains of; Mosques; Firsts, Other; Z^^^^ The First Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh
    1878 (In the year) Siyyid Mustafá Rúmí arrived in Burma with Jamál Effendi.
  • He married into a well-to-do Indo-Burman family of traders and settles in Rangoon, remaining in Burma to build up the Burmese community. [BW10:517; PH23]
  • See BW10:517–18 and MC155 for his conversion of Daidanaw, the first all-Bahá'í village in the world outside Iran.
  • See BW10:517–20 for an account of his life.
  • He was named a Hand of the Cause of God by the Guardian after his passing. In the village of Daidanaw, Burma (Rangoon) there is a building they call "the Shrine of Siyyid Mustafa Rumí" in his honour. [CBN253Aug-Sep1971p5]
  • Daidanaw; Myanmar (Burma) Siyyid Mustafa Rumi; Jamal Effendi; Hands of the Cause; Firsts, Other First all-Bahá'í village outside Iran
    1878 19 Feb Birth of George Adam Benke, German-Russian Bahá'í, who after his death was named by Shoghi Effendi as the first European Bahá'í martyr, in the Ukraine. [BW5:416–18] Ukraine George Adam Benke; Births and deaths First European Bahá'í martyr
    1878 12 Jul The British government took over the administration of Cyprus. [BBR306] Cyprus History (general); British
    c. 1879 Sárih Khánum, the faithful sister of Bahá'u'lláh, passed away in Tihrán. She was buried a short distance from the city. [RB1:49–50] Tihran; Iran Sarih Khanum; Bahaullah, Family of; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Cemeteries and graves
    1879 (In the year) `Abdu'l-Bahá traveled to Beirut at the invitation of Midhat Páshá, the Válí of Syria. [BKG378]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá was still officially a prisoner of the Ottoman Empire. BKG379]
  • Bahá'u'lláh revealed a Tablet marking the occasion. [BKG378–9; GPB243; TB227–8]
  • Among the important figures `Abdu'l-Bahá met in Beirut were Midhat Páshá and Shaykh Muhammad `Abduh, the future Grand Muftí of Egypt. [BKG379]
  • Beirut; Lebanon; Egypt Midhat Pasha; Muhammad Abduh; Lawh-i-Ard-i-Ba (Tablet of the Land of Ba); Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of
    1879 12 Mar The arrest of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Hasan, the `King of Martyrs', and Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Husayn, the `Beloved of Martyrs'. [BBD 130] Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs
    1879 17 Mar The martyrdom of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Hasan, the `King of Martyrs', and Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Husayn, the `Beloved of Martyrs'. [BW18:383]
  • Their martyrdom was instigated by Mír Muhammad-Husayn, the Imám-Jum`ih, stigmatized by Bahá'u'lláh as the `she-serpent', who owed the brothers a large sum of money. [GPB200–1, ARG172, SDH104]
  • Shaykh Muhammad-Báqir, the `Wolf', pronounces the death sentence on the two brothers and the Zillu's-Sultán ratifies the decision. [GPB201]
  • The brothers are put in chains, decapitated and dragged to the Maydán-i-Sháh for public viewing. [GPB201]
  • For Western accounts of their martyrdom see BBR274–6.
  • See SDH112 for the story of the pilgrimage of their families to the Holy Land.
  • See BW11:594 for a picture of the memorial to the King and the Beloved of Martyrs.
  • Isfahan; Iran Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Mir Muhammad-Husayn; Shaykh Muhammad-Baqir; Wolf; Zillus-Sultan
    1879 Summer An epidemic of plague broke out in `Akká and environs. Among others who felt its effects were `Údí Khammár and his family who left the mansion at Bahjí. [BBD42, 128; BKG362; DH91, 203; GPB194] Akka Udi Khammar; Bahji; House of Bahaullah (Bahji)
    1879 20 Jun Mishkín-Qalam was given permission to move from Famagusta to Nicosia. [BBR307] Famagusta; Nicosia; Cyprus Mishkin-Qalam
    1879 Sep Bahá'u'lláh moved to the empty mansion at Bahjí after two years' residence at Mazra`ih. [BBD42; BKG362]
  • See BBD42 and GPB216 for a list of Tablets revealed by Bahá'u'lláh during His occupation of the mansion of Bahjí.
  • Mazraih; Bahji House of Bahaullah (Bahji); Bahaullah, Houses of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    1879 Nov 30 Birth of Laura Clifford Barney (Laura Dreyfus-Barney) in Cincinnati, Ohio. She compiled Some Answered Questions from her interviews with `Abdu'l-Bahá during her visit to Acca between 1904 and 1906. (d. Paris 18 August 1974) Cincinnati; Ohio; United States Some Answered Questions; Laura Clifford Barney; Laura Barney; Births and deaths
    1879 or 1880 Birth of Túbá Khánum, second daughter of `Abdu'l-Bahá. [CH93, 95, ABMM] Akka Tuba Khanum; Abdul-Baha, Family of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Births and deaths
    1880 Early 1880s The first Zoroastrians became Bahá'ís, in Persia. [SBBH2:67]
  • For information on these converts see SBBR2:67–93.
  • Iran Zoroastrianism; Conversion First Zoroastrians become Bahá'ís
    1880 In the year Martyrdom of seven Bahá'ís in Sultánábád. [BW18:383]
  • Three Bahá'ís were killed on the orders of Siyyid Muhammad-Báqir-i-Mujtahid and a large number of Bahá'ís were thrown into prison. [BW18:383]
  • Sayyidih Khánum Bíbí, an old lady, was sent to Tihrán and was strangled in prison. [BW18:383]
  • Sultanabad; Tihran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1889 (In the year) Bahá'u'lláh instructed Jamal Effendi, a Persian scholar of noble birth and high rank, to proceed to India and acquaint its people with the Bahá'í teachings. He arrived in Bombay in 1872, (sources differ on the date), and proceeded to travel throughout the country. Despite the language difficulty he managed to convey the teachings to many distinguished people. Jamal Effendi's vast knowledge, eloquent tongue and unfailing courtesy attracted many persons to him, and he was the guest of a number of prominent Indians of high standing. At innumerable meetings and discussions Jamal Effendi outlined Bahá'u'lláh's teachings for the upliftment of mankind and many recognized the truth of his words and embraced the Cause. It was not until 1880 that Jamal Effendi's strenuous efforts produced permanent results. In that year the first Bahá'í group was formed at Bombay and from there the Faith spread rapidly to Poona, Calcutta, Karachi and Delhi where Local Spiritual Assemblies were eventually established. [BW18p246] Bombay; Poona; Calcutta; Karachi; Delhi; India Jamal Effendi; Z**** first Bahai group in India; first Bahai group in Bombay.
    1880 18 or 19 Jun Bahá'u'lláh visited the Druze village of Yirkih (Yerka). `Abdu'l-Bahá joined Him for the last four nights. [DH123]
  • See DH123 for other Druze villages visited by Bahá'u'lláh.
  • Yirkih (Yerka); Palestine Bahaullah, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Druze
    1880 15 Aug Mishkín-Qalam addressed a petition to the High Commissioner of Cyprus begging to be released from his confinement. [BBR307]
  • See BBR307–11 for consequences of this.
  • Cyprus Mishkin-Qalam
    1881 (sometime prior to) The revelation of Javáhiru'l-Asrár, (meaning literally the "gems" or "essences" of mysteries) (in Arabic) by Bahá'u'lláh in reply to a question posed by Siyyid Yúsuf-i-Sihdihí Isfahání, who, at the time, was residing in Karbilá. One of the central themes of the treatise is the subject of "transformation", meaning the return of the Promised One in a different human guise. The second theme can be said to be mystical in nature. It has many similarities to The Seven Valleys. Bahá'u'lláh describes the seven valleys, but the names and orders of valleys are slightly different from those found in the book of The Seven Valleys [GDMii]
  • It was published in English in 2002 under the title Gems of Divine Mysteries. [Chronology 2002-06-26]
  • For a synopsis of the treaties see Gems of Mysteries (Javáhiru'l-Asrár): Wilmette Institute faculty notes by Muin Afnani, 1999.
  • See The Seven Cities of Bahá'u'lláh compiled by Arjen Bolhuis. 2002.
  • See Seven Cities in the Spiritual Journey to God: Gems of Divine Mysteries (Javáhiru'l-Asrár) and Seven Valleys by Fadl Mazandarani (published as Jinab-i-Fadl Mazandarani) originally published in "Star of the West", 13:11, pages 301-303, 1923-02.
  • See A Symbolic Profile of the Bahá'í Faith by Christopher Buck published in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:4, page 1–48, Ottawa: Association for Bahá'í Studies, 1998. iiiii
  • Javahirul-Asrar (Gems of Divine Mysteries); Bahaullah, Writings of
    1881 (In the year) The Ridván Garden and the Firdaws Garden were purchased in the name of Bahá'u'lláh. [BBD84, 196; DH95, 103]
  • Most of the flowering plants in the Ridván Garden were brought by pilgrims from Iran. [CH96]
  • BWC; Akka Ridvan Garden; Firdaws Garden; Gardens; Pilgrims; Purchases and exchanges; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    1881 to 1928 The second Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh was Hájí Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardikání, entitled Amín-i-Iláhí (Trusted of God). He had been a companion of Jináb-i-Sháh until his death in 1881 in a fatal attack. Hájí Sháh-Muhammad and Hájí Abu'l-Hasan had been the first believers to succeed in entering the city of 'Akká and attain the presence of Bahá'u'lláh in the public bath in the early days of His confinement in the Most Great Prison. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
  • He travelled to Paris to obtain the presence of 'Abu'l-Bahá. By 1906 he had made 19 pilgrimages to the Holy Land. [AY225]
  • Shoghi Effendi named him a Hand of the Cause of God posthumously (July, 1928) and was he was also named one of the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh. In appreciation of Hájí Amín's services, 'Abdu'l-Bahá named one of the doors of the Shrine of the Báb after him.
  • Upon his death Shoghi Effendi appointed Hájí Ghulám-Ridá (entitled Amín-i-Amín), who for several years had been Hájí Amín's assistant, to succeed him as Trustee of the Huqúq'u'lláh. [RoB3p74-86]
  • Akka; BWC Huququllah; Huququllah, Trustees of; Haji Abul-Hasan-i-Ardikani (Amin-i-Ilahi); Hands of the Cause; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Apostles of Bahaullah; Haji Shah-Muhammad-i-Manshadi (Aminul-Bayan); Haji Ghulam-Rida (Amin-i-Amin); Public baths
    1881 (In the year) The passing of Fáṭimih Bagum, the mother of the Báb in Karbila. She herself was from a prominent Shírází merchant family; she could trace her background back to the Imám Husayn. The daughter of Mírzá Siyyid Muhammad Husayn, she married Siyyid Muhammad Ridá, and had several children with him, however only one survived; ‘Alí-Muhammad. Widowed shortly after, she went to live with her brother Hájí Mirzá Siyyid 'Ali who served as a father figure to Siyyid ‘Alí-Muhammad. On hearing that Siyyid ‘Alí-Muhammad was making a pilgrimage to the holy city of Karbilá, she was distressed and arranged the marriage between Him to His second cousin once removed: Khadíjih Bagum.

    Originally, Fáṭimih Bagum did not accept her Son’s cause unlike her brother, however she kept an open mind. She was devastated on hearing the news of the treatment of her Son, and after His martyrdom her family kept it a secret from her for nearly a whole year. After hearing the news, the distraught Fáṭimih Bagum moved to Karbilá with her closest companions in December of 1851. She did not become a believer until some time later when Bahá'u'lláh instructed two of His faithful followers, Hájí Siyyid Javád-i-Karbilá'í and the wife of Hájí 'Abdu'l-Majíd-i-Shírázi to instruct her in the principles of the Faith

  • Shoghí Effendí pursued in trying to locate her grave, but it has not yet been found.
  • The Báb referred to Fáṭimih Bagum as "Ummu’l-Mu’minin" (mother of the believers) and "Ummu’dh-Dhikr" (mother of the Remembrance). Bahá’u’lláh referred to her as "Khayru’n-Nisa" (the best of women) and forbad all others, except Khadíjih Bagum, from adopting this title. [Wikipedia]
  • Karbila; Iraq In Memoriam; Faṭimih Bagum; The Bab, life of; Z****
    1881 24 Mar Mírzá Yahyá was granted freedom by the British administration of Cyprus. [BBR311]
  • He asked for British citizenship or protection so that he might return to Iran or Turkey in safety but was denied so stayed on in Cyprus for the rest of his life with a pension of 1193 pias/month from the British government. [BBR311]
  • Famagusta; Cyprus Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal)
    1882 (In the year) Ibn-i-Asdaq was given the distinction Shahíd Ibn-i-Shahíd (Martyr, son of the martyr) by Bahá'u'lláh. [EB173] Ibn-i-Asdaq (Mirza Ali-Muhammad); Names and titles
    1882 (In the year) Mírzá `Alí-Muhammad Varqá was arrested in Yazd. He is sent to Isfahán where he was imprisoned for a year. [BW18:383] Yazd; Isfahan; Iran Varqa, Mirza Ali-Muhammad; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; Varqa
    1882 20 Jan The Lawh-i-Maqsúd (The Goal, The Desired One) was revealed by Bahá'u'lláh in 'Akká. [MMG131-135; Lawh-i-Maqsúd: Letter from the Universal House of Justice; excerpt from Juan Cole's Modernity and Millennium]
  • The Tablet has been published in Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh revealed after the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, Wilmette: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1997, pages 159-178.
  • Leiden List says it was revealed December 31st, 1881.
  • Akka LawhiMaqsud; Bahaullah, Writings of
    1882 11 Jul The British navy bombarded Alexandria, beginning or provoking fires that destroyed the city and forced a mass exodus of its population to the interior. In August-September the British invaded the country, restored Khedive Tawfiq to his throne, arrested 'Urabi, the Muslim modernist Muhammad 'Abduh, and other constitutionalists, and imposed a "veiled protectorate" on the country that differed only in name from direct colonial rule. The official British sources attempted to suggest that they had saved Egypt from a military junta allied to Islamic fanaticism, but more impartial observers have characterized the British invasion as the quashing of a grassroots democratic movement by an imperial power in the service of the European bond market. [BFA15, Wilmette Institute faculty notes] Alexandria; Egypt Britain; History (general); Muhammad Abduh
    1882 11 Nov The passing of Khadíjih-Bagum, the wife of the Báb, in Shíráz in the house of her Husband. [BBD127; EB235; KBWB35; DB191; RoB2p387] Note: KBWB35 states that she passed on the 15th of September, 1882.
  • Within two hours of her passing her faithful servitor, an Ethiopian slave named Fiddhih, someone who had been a member of the household since the age of seven, passed away as well. Both were interred within the Shrine of Sháh-Chirágh. [BK35]
  • Upon her passing Bahá'u'lláh revealed a tablet of visitation for her and later He composed a verse to be inscribed on her tombstone. [RoB2p387]
  • Shiraz; Iran Khadijih Bagum; Servants; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Cemeteries and graves; Z****
    1882 – 1883 The Tihrán Upheaval.
  • A number of leading members of the Tihrán Bahá'í community were arrested and subsequently condemned to death. Some were confined for a period of 19 months in severe circumstances but the death sentences were not carried out. [BBR292–5; BW18:383]
  • This was occasioned by the release of Bahá'u'lláh from strict confinement and the subsequent increase in the number of pilgrims from Iran causing an upsurge of Bahá'í activities, particularly in Tihrán. [BBR292–5]
  • Tihran; Iran Tihran upheaval; Upheavals; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1883 (In the year) Six Bahá'ís were arrested in Yazd and sent to Isfahán in chains. BW18:383]

    Four Bahá'ís were arrested in Sarvistán, Fárs, and sent to Shíráz where they are bastinadoed. [BW18:383]

    Yazd; Isfahan; Sarvistan; Fars; Shiraz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1883 19 Mar Sixteen Bahá'í traders of the bazaar were arrested in Rasht; three others are brought from Láhíján. [BW18:383] Rasht; Lahijan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1883 15 Apr Birth in Goslar, Germany, of Dr Artur Eduard Heinrich Brauns, a prominent German Bahá'í, named by Shoghi Effendi a Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá. Goslar; Germany Artur Eduard Heinrich Brauns; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Births and deaths
    1883 June 21 The name Thornton Chase appeared in newspaper coverage of a poem printed in The Grand Army Magazine, June 1883, "Lo! the Ranks are Thinned and Thinning" United States Thornton Chase; Newspaper articles Thornton Chase in the newspapers
    1883 Aug Bahá'u'lláh travelled to Haifa on the second of four known visits (His first is His brief stop there before travelling to Akká in 1868). This second visit lasted about three weeks. [BBD94; DH109; GPB194]
  • He stays in Bayt-i-Fanduq, a house in the German Templar colony, that had served as a guest house. The building was located at the northeast corner of Meir Rutberg and Yafo Street. [BKG373–4; BPP173; DH109]
  • Haifa Templer colony; Bayt-i-Fanduq; Bahaullah, Life of First visit to Haifa by Bahá'u'lláh
    1884 (In the year) Birth of Valíyu'lláh Varqá, Hand of the Cause of God, in Tabríz. [BW18:381-834] Tabriz; Iran Varqa, Valiyullah; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Varqa
    1885 27 Mar 1885 Martyrdom of Mullá `Alíy-i-Námiqí in Námiq, Turbat-i-Haydarí, Khurásán. [BW18:383] Namiq; Turbat-i-Haydari; Khurasan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1886 In the year Birth of Músá Banání, Hand of the Cause of God, in Baghdád. [BW15p421–423] Baghdad; Iraq Musa Banani; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
    1886 In the year Birth of Narayan Rao Sethji Vakil, the first Hindu to become a Bahá'í in Surat, Gujarat, India. Surat; Gujarat; India Narayan Rao Sethji Vakil; Births and deaths; First believers by background; Conversion; Hinduism; Interfaith dialogue first Hindu to become a Bahá'í.
    1886 (In the year) `Abdu'l-Bahá wrote A Traveller's Narrative. [TN40]
  • A translation into English by E. G. Browne was published in New York, 1930 by the Bahá'í Publishing Committee. [A Traveller's Narrative - A Critical Analysis]
  • Akka Travelers Narrative (book); Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1886 (In the year) The passing of the wife of Bahá'u'lláh, Ásíyih Khánum, entitled Navváb (the Most Exalted Leaf) in the House of `Abbúd. [BBD170; BKG369; DH57, 213]
  • See CB119–20 for comments on her nature and station and for Tablets revealed by Bahá'u'lláh in her honour.
  • After her passing Bahá'u'lláh revealled a Tablet for her in which He called her his `perpetual consort in all the worlds of God'. [GPB108]
  • See CB120–1 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's commentary on Isaiah 54, which refers to Navváb.
  • She was interred in the Bahá'í section of the Muslim cemetery. [BBD170; DH57, 81]
  • Muhammad-Yúsuf Páshá demanded that `Abdu'l-Bahá vacate the house of `Abbúd even during Navváb's illness. [BKG369]
  • Akka Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Muhammad-Yusuf Pasha; House of Abbud; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Cemeteries and graves; Abdul-Baha, Life of
    1886 14 Sep Mishkín-Qalam, who had been living in Larnica, left Cyprus on a Syrian vessel going direct to `Akká. [BBR311, FOI24] Larnica; Cyprus; Akka Mishkin-Qalam
    1887 (In the year) Mírzá Músá, Áqáy-i-Kalím, the faithful brother of Bahá'u'lláh, passed away in `Akká. [BBD166; BKG369; DH57]
  • He was buried in the Bahá'í section of the Muslim cemetery. [DH81]
  • He was designated by Shoghi Effendi as one of the 19 Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh. [BBD166; BW3:80–1]
  • See Bahá'í Chronicles for a brief biography as well as MoF86-90.
  • Akka Mirza Musa; Aqay-i-Kalim; Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths; Cemeteries and graves; In Memoriam
    1887 (In the year) Karbalá'í Hasan Khán and Karbalá'í Sádiq were arrested in Sarvistán, Fárs, and imprisoned for two years before being killed in prison. [BW18:383] Sarvistan; Fars; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1887 13 Apr The first mention of the concept of `Hand of the Cause' in Bahá'u'lláh's writings is within a Tablet revealed in honour of Ibn-i-Asdaq. [BBD115; EB173] Ibn-i-Asdaq (Mirza Ali-Muhammad); Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Institution; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands appointed by Bahaullah; Firsts, Other; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Appointed arm First mention of concept of `Hand of the Cause'
    1887 – 1888 E. G. Browne, the noted Orientalist, spent 12 months in Persia. An important purpose of his journey was to contact the Bábís. [BBR29]
  • For a list of his books and other works and his relationship with the Bahá'í Faith see BBR29–36.
  • Also see BBD47; Balyuzi, Edward Granville Browne and the Bahá'í Faith and Momen, Selections From the Writings of E. G. Browne.
  • While sailing from Naples to New York 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave an account of Mírzá Yahyá and his followers and of the complaints they made to Edward G. Browne: "They tampered with the contents of the history of Hájí Mírzá Jání by removing some of its passages and inserting others. They sent it to the libraries of London and Paris and through such falsehood induced him [Browne] to translate and publish the document. In order to achieve his own selfish desires, he had it printed." [Mahmúd's Diary p21]
  • Iran; United Kingdom Edward Granville Browne; Mirza Yahya; Covenant-breakers; Haji Mirza Jani
    1888 (In the year) Jamál Effendi, accompanied by Hájí Faraju'lláh-i-Tafrishí, embarked on a long journey to the East visiting Burma, Java (Indonesia), Siam (Thailand), Singapore, Kashmir, Tibet, Yarqand, Khuqand in Chinese Turkistan, and Afghanistan. [EB123–4; PH22] Myanmar (Burma); Java; Indonesia; Siam (Thailand); Thailand; Singapore; Kashmir; India; Tibet; Yarqand; Khuqand; Chinese Turkistan; China; Afghanistan Jamal Effendi; Haji Farajullah-i-Tafrishi
    1888 29 Mar The first lecture in the West on the Bahá'í Faith (`Bábism') was given by E. G. Browne at the Essay Society, Newcastle, England. [SCU12] Newcastle; United Kingdom Edward Granville Browne; Firsts, Other First lecture in West on Bahá'í Faith
    1888 c. Jul-Aug Two Bahá'ís were arrested in Sarvistán, Fárs, and were sent to Shíráz, where one was imprisoned. [BW18:383] Sarvistan; Fars; Shiraz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1888 Jul Nabíl began his chronicle, The Dawn-Breakers: Nabíl's Narrative of the Early Days of the Bahá'í Revelation. [DBXXXVII] Akka Nabil-i-Azam; Dawn-Breakers (book)
    1888 23 Oct The martyrdom of Mírzá Ashraf of Ábádih in Isfahán. He was hanged, his body burnt and left hanging in the market. Later his body was buried beneath a wall. [BBRXXIX, 277–80; BW18:383; GPB201] Isfahan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1889(In the year) The passing of Mullá Sádiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khurásání entitled by Bahá'u'lláh Ism'lláh'l-Asdaq (In the Name of God the Most Truthful) in Hamadán. He was born in Mashhad in 1800, the son of a cleric, around the beginning of the 19th century He furthered his own clerical studies in Karbila under the Shaykhi leader Sayyid Qasim Rashti, eventually gaining the rank of mujtahid, and becoming known by the honorific title Muqaddas (‘the holy one’).
  • As a young man he had been a disciple of Siyyid Kázim and had met Siyyid 'Alí-Muhammad in Karbilá. He was among the first believers who identified with the Message of the Báb. See DB100 and EB7 for the story of how he independently determined His identity when he met Mullá Husayn in Isfahán on his way to deliver a tablet to Bahá'u'lláh in Tehran. The very next day he left Isfahán for Shíráz on foot arriving 12 days later to find that the Báb had already departed for pilgrimage.
  • He took up residence in Shíráz and received a Tablet from the Báb instructing him to change the Call to Prayer. See DB146-148, EB13-14 for the story of how he endured over 900 strokes of the lash on the command of Husayn Khán-i-Írva´ní, the Governor of the province of Fars, and remained indifferent to the pain. (6 August, 1845) He was expelled from the city and proceeded to Yazd. He had similar fate in that city and was banished.
  • On the way to Khurásán he joined Mullá Husayn and those who would participate in the Tabarsí siege where he was on hand for the death of Mullá Husayn. (DB381) After the deception and massacre he was one of the few survivors and, as a prisoner, was taken to Mázindarán to be executed by the family Prince Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá who had commanded the royal troops and had been killed in battle. On route the party called on the clerics to interrogate him and his fellow Bábi and they became convinced that they were not heretics deserving of execution. The prisoners were to be sent to Tehran but escaped and made their way to Míhámí and eventually to Mashad.
  • In 1861, after life in that city became impossible, he went to Baghdád where he attained the presence of Bahá'u'lláh. After 14 months he returned to his native province of Khurásán.
  • He continued in his audacious teaching and as a result was taken to Tehran where he was kept in the Síhåh-Chál. He taught a number of fellow prisoners about the Promised One and converted Hakím Masíh, the Jewish physician assigned to attend to the prisoners. He was the first Bahá'í of Jewish background in Tehran (and was the grandfather of Lutfu'lláh Hakím, a former member of the Universal House of Justice.) After 28 months imprisonment he was pardoned but refuse to leave without his fellow prisoners. The Sháh released 40 of the 43 prisoners. (The remaining three were guilty of actual crimes.)
  • After Tehran he went to Khurásán and returned to the capital some three years later to help in changing the hiding place of the remains of the Báb. Then he travelled to Káshán, Isfahán and Yazd where he convinced some of the Afnáns to accept the truth of their Nephew's claims. After returning to Khurásán he was given permission to make a pilgrimage to 'Akká where he remained for some four months, returning by way of Mosul and Baghdád. When he reached Hamadán he was exhausted. Twelve days after his arrival he passed.
  • He had been the recipient of many tablets from Bahá'u'lláh including a Tablet of Visitation after his passing. One of the most well-know tablets was the Lawh-i-Ahbáb (Tablet of the Friends). It is thought He revealed this Tablet some time after leaving the barracks in 'Akká, about 1870-1871. [RoB3p258-260, List of the Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh]
  • He was the father of Ibn-i-Asdaq who Bahá'u'lláh appointed a Hand of the Cause of God. [EB19]
  • ‘Abdu’l-Baha posthumously referred to him as a Hand of the Cause of God.
  • References [LoF32-41, MF5-8, DB381. EB7-23, BBR 69-70]
  • Hamadan; Iran Hands referred to as such by Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Ismullahul-Asdaq (Mulla Sadiq Khurasani)
    1889 Jun E. G. Browne gave a paper on the Bahá'í Faith (`Bábism') at the Royal Asiatic Society, London. London; United Kingdom Edward Granville Browne; Royal Asiatic Society
    1889 Jun Áqá Najafí, the `Son of the Wolf', initiated a campaign against the Bahá'ís in Isfahán, Sidih and Najafábád. [BW18:383] Isfahan; Sidih; Najafabad; Iran Aqa Najafi (Son of the Wolf)
    1889 17 Jul Upheaval in Najafábád: Áqá Najafí, the `Son of the Wolf', drove over a hundred Bahá'ís out of Sidih and Najafábád. They took sanctuary in the Telegraph Office and in the stables of the governor of Isfahán. [BW18:383]
  • See BBR280–4 for Western reporting of the episode.
  • Najafabad; Sidih; Isfahan; Iran Aqa Najafi (Son of the Wolf); Najafabad upheaval; Upheavals
    1889 18 Jul The Bahá'ís were persuaded to leave the Telegraph Office in Isfahán after being assured that they would receive protection in their villages. [BW18:383] Isfahan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1889 Aug Bahá'ís of Sidih and Najafábád, after having received no help or protection, went to Tihrán to petition the Sháh. [BW18:383] Tihran; Sidih; Najafabad; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Petitions
    1889 8 Sep Hájí Muhammad Ridáy-i-Isfahání was martyred in `Ishqábád. [BBRXXIX, 296–7; GPB202]

    "In the city of 'Ishqábád the newly established Shí'ah community, envious of the rising prestige of the followers of Bahá'u'lláh who were living in their midst, instigated two ruffians to assault the seventy-year old Hájí Muhammad-Ridáy-i-Isfáhání, whom, in broad day and in the midst of the bazaar, they stabbed in no less than thirty-two places, exposing his liver, lacerating his stomach and tearing open his breast. A military court dispatched by the Czar to 'Ishqábád established, after prolonged investigation, the guilt of the Shí'ahs, sentencing two to death and banishing six others - a sentence which neither Násir'd-Dín Sháh, nor the 'ulamás of Tihrán, of Mashad and of Tabríz, who were appealed to, could mitigate, but which the representatives of the aggrieved community, through their magnanimous intercession which greatly surprised the Russian authorities, succeeded in having commuted to a lighter punishment." [GPB202-203]

  • Czar Alexander III sent a military commission from St Petersburg to conduct the trial of those accused of the murder. [AB109; GPB202]
  • Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl served as chief Bahá'í spokesman at the trial. [AB109]
  • Two were found guilty and sentenced to death, six others were ordered to be transported to Siberia. [AB109; BBR297; GPB203]
  • Bahá'u'lláh attached importance to the action as being the first time Shí'ís received judicial punishment for an attack on Bahá'ís. [BBRSM91]
  • The Bahá'í community interceded on behalf of the culprits and had the death sentences commuted to transportation to Siberia. [AB109; BBR297; GPB203]
  • For Western accounts of the episode see BBR296–300.
  • Ishqabad; Turkmenistan Haji Muhammad Riday-i-Isfahani; Czar Alexander III; Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Firsts, Other; Persecution, Turkmenistan; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Court cases; Court cases; Persecution; Human rights First time Shí'ís received judicial punishment for attack on Bahá'ís
    1889 19 Nov Birth of General Shu`á`u'lláh `Alá'í, Hand of the Cause of God, in Tihrán. Tihran; Iran Shuaullah Alai; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
    1890 (In the decade) Bahá'í books were published for the first time, in Bombay and Cairo. [GPB195; SA250] Mumbai (Bombay); India; Cairo; Egypt Bahai literature; Publishing; Publications; First publications; Business First time Bahá'í books published in Bombay and Cairo
    1890 (In the year) Hájí Ákhúnd, Hájí Amín and Ibn-i-Abhar were arrested. Hájí Ákhúnd was imprisoned in Tihrán for two years; Hájí Amín was imprisoned in Qazvín for two years; and Ibn-i-Abhar was imprisoned in Tihrán for four years. [BW18:383–4]

    Mírzá Mahmúd-i-Furúghí was arrested in Furúghí and sent to Mashhad. From there he was sent to Kalát-i-Nadírí where he was imprisoned for two years. [BW18:384]

    In Mashhad a mob set out to kill Mírzá Husayn-i-Bajistání, but failing to find him they looted his shop. [BW18:384]

    Tihran; Qazvin; Kalat-i-Nadiri; Mashhad; Iran Haji Akhund (Mulla Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi); Haji Amin (Abul-Hasan-i-Ardikani); Ibn-i-Abhar (Mulla Muhammad Taqi); Mirza Mahmud-i-Furughi; Mirza Husayn-i-Bajistani; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Mobs; Persecution
    1890 c. Ibrahim George Kheiralla (Khayru'lláh) became a Bahá'í in Cairo under the tutelage of `Abdu'l-Karím-i-Tihrání. [BFA1:19]
  • It was probable that he was the first Bahá'í from Syrian Christian background. [BFA19]
  • See BFA1:175 for pictures.
  • Cairo; Egypt Ibrahim George Kheiralla; First believers by background; Christianity; Conversion; Interfaith dialogue first Bahá'í from Syrian Christian background
    1890 c. E. G. Browne was in `Akká. Bahá'u'lláh was staying in the Templer colony in Haifa when he arrived. [BBR253] Akka; Haifa Edward Granville Browne; Templer colony; Bahaullah, Life of
    1890 (In the year) By 1890 about a thousand Bahá'ís had settled in `Ishqábád. [BBRSM91, SDOH99] Ishqabad; Turkmenistan Statistics
    1890 (In the year) A number of people of the Jewish, Zoroastrian and Buddhist Faiths became Bahá'ís. [BBR248–9; GPB195] Judaism; Jews; Zoroastrianism; Buddhism; Conversion; Interfaith dialogue
    1890 25 Feb Seven Bahá'ís from Sidih who had gone to Tihrán to petition the Sháh for protection, secured a decree from him permitting them to return home. When they try to enter Sidih they were killed. [BBRXXIX, 285–9; BW18:383] Sidih; Tihran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Petitions
    1890 Apr Bahá'u'lláh visited Haifa for a third time. He spent about two weeks there on this visit. [BBD94; BPP173; DH109; GPB194; RB4:351]
  • He first stayed near Bayt-i-Zahlán, near the town. [BKG374]
  • He then moved to Oliphant House in the German colony. His tent was pitched on a piece of land opposite (currently on Ben Gurion 6). The plot upon which the tent of Bahá’u’lláh was pitched, is now a centre for soldiers named General Pierre Koenig Soldier Centre. [BKG374; BPP173]
  • Haifa Templer colony; Bahaullah, Life of; Oliphant House; Bayt-i-Zahlan; Tents
    1890 15–20 Apr E. G. Browne was granted four successive interviews with Bahá'u'lláh at Bahjí. [BBD43; BBR225; BKG371; GPB193]
  • See BBR225–32 for Browne's own account of the visit.
  • See BBR229–31, BKG371–3 and DH110 for Browne's pen portrait of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave Browne the manuscript of A Traveller's Narrative: the Episode of the Báb in the handwriting of Zaynu'l-Muqarrabín for him to translate. [EGB54, BW11p510]
  • BFA1:445; Balyuzi, Edward Granville Browne and The Bahá'í Faith and Momen, Selections From the Writings of E. G. Browne.
  • E.G. Browne was also in the presence of Bahá’u’lláh in the Junayn Garden (occurred some time during his five day visit to Bahjí from April 15th to April 20th in 1890). [Reflections on the Bahá'í Writings.]
  • Akka Edward Granville Browne; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Pen portraits of; Pen portraits; Portraits; Travelers Narrative (book); Zaynul-Muqarrabin (Mulla Zaynul-Abidin); Bahji; Junayn gardens
    1890 Aug-Sep Mullá Hasan and his two brothers were arrested and beaten in Sarcháh, Bírjand. [BW18:383] Sarchah; Birjand; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1890 Nov Nabíl presented his chronicle, The Dawn-Breakers, to Bahá'u'lláh and `Abdu'l-Bahá for approval. [DBXXXVII] Akka Nabil-i-Azam; Dawn-Breakers (book)
    1891 (In the year) In Bombay, on the instructions of Bahá'u'lláh, the Kitáb-i-Aqdas was published for the first time. [SA250]
  • It was published in Arabic. [SA250]
  • Mumbai (Bombay); India Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Publishing; Publications; First publications; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of First publication of The Kitáb-i-Aqdas in Bombay
    1891 (In the year) Bahá'u'lláh revealed Epistle to the Son of the Wolf addressed to Shaykh Muhammad-Taqíy-i-Najafí (Shaykh Najafí), the son of Shaykh Muhammad-Báqir. [BBD78, 164; BKG382; GPB219; RB4:368]
  • It was revealed about a year before the ascension of Bahá'u'lláh. [GPB220]
  • It was Bahá'u'lláh's `last outstanding Tablet'. [BBD78; BKG382; GPB219]
  • For an analysis of its content, themes and circumstances of its revelation, see RB34:368–412.
  • For a study guide to the Tablet see RB4:433–40.
  • Bahji; Yazd; Iran Lawh-i-Ibn-i-Dhib (Epistle to the Son of the Wolf); Aqa Najafi (Son of the Wolf); Shaykh Muhammad-Taqiy-i-Najafi (Shaykh Najafi); Lawh-i-Times (Tablet to the Times); Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1891 (In the year) Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Kitáb-i-`Ahd. [BBD32; CB142; GPB236–40, BKG420–5; RB4:419–20]
  • It was probably written at least one year before His Ascension. CB142]
  • In it Bahá'u'lláh alluded to Epistle to the Son of the Wolf as the `Crimson Book'. [DG16; ESW32; GPB238]
  • In Kitáb-i-`Ahd Bahá'u'lláh explicitly appointed `Abdu'l-Bahá His successor, the Centre of the Covenant and the Expounder of the revealed word. [BKG420; GPB239]
  • Akka Kitab-i-Ahd (Book of the Covenant); Bahaullah, Will and Testament of; Crimson Book; Covenant (general); Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Bahji; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1891 (In the year) A Traveller's Narrative was published in two volumes by the Cambridge University Press. [BBD226; EGB55]

    It is an historical account written by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá around 1886 and first published anonymously in Persian in 1890. This English translation was prepared by Professor Edward G. Browne.

    Cambridge; United Kingdom Travelers Narrative (book); Publications; First publications
    1891 (In the year) Tablet of Visitation for Imám Husayn was revealed by Bahá'u'lláh. It was originally revealed as "Lawh-i-Zíyárat-Namih-i-Imám Husayn".
  • For a translation by Khazeh Fananapazir with a commentary edited by Mehdi Wolf see Tablet of Visitation for Imám Husayn.
  • Tablet of Visitation for Imam Husayn; Lawh-i-Ziyarat-Namih-i-Imam Husayn
    1891 15 Feb First public lecture in the West on the Bahá'í Faith was given by E. G. Browne at the Southplace Institute, London.
  • He spoke to the Pembroke College Literary Society in England (Martletts), at which the Faith was discussed at length.
  • London; United Kingdom Edward Granville Browne; Southplace Institute; Firsts, Other First public lecture in West on Bahá'í Faith find reference
    1891 19 May The execution of the Seven Martyrs of Yazd. [BBRXXIX, BW18:384]

    Seven Bahá'ís were executed on the order of the governor of Yazd, Husain Mírzá, Jalálu'd-Dín-Dawlih (the grandson of the shah and the son of Zillu's-Sultán) and at the instigation of the mujtahid, Shaykh Hasan-i-Sabzivárí. [BW18:384]

  • For their names see BW18:384.
  • For details of the executions see GBP201–2.
  • For Western reports of the episode see BBR301–5.
  • Bahá'u'lláh stated that a representative of Zillu's-Sultán. Hájí Sayyáh, visited Him in 'Akká in the hope of persuading Him to support his plot to usurp the throne. He was promised freedom to practice the Faith should He support him. Hájí Sayyáh was arrested in Tehran in April of 1891 and Zillu's-Sultán, afraid that he would be implicated in the plot to overthrow the king, inaugurated vigorous persecution of the Bahá'ís in Yazd in order to draw attention from himself and prove his loyalty to the crown and to Islam. Had Bahá'u'lláh reported this incident to the Shah, Zillu's-Sultán would have paid dearly for his disloyalty. [BBR357-358]
  • See also RB3:194–6 and SBBH2:77.
  • “The tyrant of the land of Yá (Yazd) committed that which has caused the Concourse on High to shed tears of blood.” from the Lawḥ-i-Dunyá (Tablet of the World) Tablets of Bahá’u’lláh, p. 85
  • Yazd; Iran Jalalud-Din-Dawlih; Shaykh Hasan-i-Sabzivari; Seven martyrs of Yazd; Seven martyrs; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Zillus-Sultan; Haji Sayyah; Shah; Lawh-i-Dunya (Tablet of the World)
    1891 after 19 May Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Lawh-i-Times, Tablet to the Times in which He recounted the circumstances of the martyrdoms in Yazd. [RB4:348–50, BW18p976-7] Akka; London; United Kingdom; Yazd; Iran Bahji; Times (newspaper); Newspapers; Media; Lawh-i-Times (Tablet to the Times); Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Seven martyrs of Yazd; Seven martyrs; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1891 Apr c. Two believers were arrested during the same period of intense persecution. Hájí Amín was sent to the prison of Qazvín, and Hand of the Cause Ibn-i-Abhar was consigned for four years in Tíhran, in which he bore the same chains as Bahá'u'lláh did, during the Latter's imprisonment in 1852. [Essay by Mehdi Wolf] Qazvin; Tihran; Iran Haji Amin (Abul-Hasan-i-Ardikani); Ibn-i-Abhar (Mulla Muhammad Taqi); Hands of the Cause; Chains; Imprisonments
    1891 27 Jun Bahá'u'lláh visited Haifa for the fourth time. [BKG374; DH109; GPB194; RB4:351]
  • He stayed three months. [BBD94; BKG374; DH109; GPB194; RB4:351]
  • He lived in the house of Ilyás Abyad near the Templar colony, His tent pitched nearby on the foot of Mount Carmel on HaGefen Street. [BKG374; DH186]
  • Bahá'u'lláh instructed to the Master to arrange the transportation of the remains of the Báb from Persia to the Holy Land and their interment in a mausoleum below the clump of cypress trees at a spot which He indicated with His hand. It is stated that there were 15 tiny cypress trees at that time, each one the size of a finger. See Rob4p363 for a photo of the site indicated. [AB45; BKG374; DH134–5; GPB194]
  • For a story of the difficulties in obtaining land for access to the site of the Shrine of the Báb see SES79-80.
  • One day He pitched His tent a few hundred yards east of the Carmelite monastery and visited the monastery. [DH186]
  • Bahá'u'lláh visited the cave of Elijah. [BKG375; DH174; RB4:3512]
  • He revealed the Lawh-i-Karmil (Tablet of Carmel), the `Charter of the World Spiritual and Administrative Centres of the Faith' near the site of the future Mashriqu'l-Adhkár. [BBD1 18–19; BKG375; DH109, 174; MBW63; RB4:352]
  • For the text of this Tablet see BKG376–7, G14–17 and TB3–5.
  • For an analysis of the text see RB4:353–67.
  • See article "Carmel: The Mountain of God and the Tablet of Carmel" by Zikrullah Khadem, ZK279-300.
  • See PG102-103 for a commemoration of Bahá'lláh's visit on the 21st of October, 1922 when 'Abdu'l-Bahá entertained guests from India, Persia, Kurdistan, Egypt and England in a tent erected on the same spot.
  • BWC; Haifa; Mount Carmel Zikrullah Khadem; Bab, Shrine of; Carmelite monastery; Cave of Elijah; Elijah; Lawh-i-Karmil (Tablet of Carmel); Charters; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Haifa; House of Ilyas Abyad; Templer colony; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1891 Jul-Aug Members of the Afnán family met Bahá'u'lláh in Haifa during His visit. [BKG374, 406]
  • For details of this visit see BKG406–13.
  • Also see Memories of the Báb, Bahá’u’lláh and `Abdu’l-Bahá by Mírzá Habíbu’lláh Afnán, (Ahang Rabbani trans.) pages 26-31>.
  • Haifa Afnan; Bahaullah, Life of
    1891 3 Oct Mullá Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Dihábádí was martyred, one of the Seven Martyrs of Yazd who were killed at the hands of Jalálu’d-Dawlih and Zillu’s-Sultan. [BW18:384] Yazd; Iran Mulla Muhammad-Aliy-i-Dihabadi; Jalalud-Dawlih; Zillus-Sultan; Seven Martyrs of Yazd; Seven martyrs; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1892 (In the year) Mu'tuminu's-Saltanih was poisoned in Tihrán on the orders of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh. [BW18:384] Tihran; Iran Mutuminus-Saltanih; Nasirid-Din Shah; Assassinations
    1892 c. `Abdu'l-Bahá wrote Risáliy-i-Siyásiyyih (Treatise on Politics). [ABMM] Akka; Bahji Risaliy-i-Siyasiyyih (Treatise on Leadership); Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of
    1892 (Before 29 May) Close to the end of His life Bahá'u'lláh became displeased with Mírzá Àqá Ján and dismissed him from His service. He had served as His servant, with the title of Khádim (Servant) and later Khádimu'lláh (Servant of God) as well as His amanuensis and companion for almost forty years [CoB182] Akka Mirza Aqa Jan; Covenant-breakers; Z****
    1892 8 May Bahá'u'lláh contracted a slight fever. [GPB221]
  • See RB4:414–17 for the progress of this illness.
  • Bahji House of Bahaullah (Bahji); Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Ascension of
    1892 c. 24 May Bahá'u'lláh called all the believers and many pilgrims to His bedside for their last audience with Him. [GPB222] Bahji House of Bahaullah (Bahji); Bahaullah, Ascension of; Pilgrims
    1892 29 May The Ascension of Bahá'u'lláh

    Bahá'u'lláh passed away at Bahjí in His seventy–fifth year. [AB47; BBRXXIX, 233; BKG420; CB148; GPB221; RB4:411]

  • He cited these last words, two verses from the Kitáb-i-Aqdas:

    “Say: Let not your hearts be perturbed, O people, when the glory of My Presence is withdrawn, and the ocean of My utterance is stilled. In My presence amongst you there is a wisdom, and in My absence there is yet another, inscrutable to all but God, the Incomparable, the All-Knowing. Verily, We behold you from Our realm of glory, and shall aid whosoever will arise for the triumph of Our Cause with the hosts of the Concourse on high and a company of Our favoured angels.”

    “Be not dismayed, O peoples of the world, when the day-star of My beauty is set, and the heaven of My tabernacle is concealed from your eyes. Arise to further My Cause, and to exalt My Word amongst men. We are with you at all times, and shall strengthen you through the power of truth. We are truly almighty. Whoso hath recognized Me will arise and serve Me with such determination that the powers of earth and heaven shall be unable to defeat his purpose.” [GWB137]

  • For an account by Túbá Khánum see CH105–9.
  • Bahá'u'lláh had spent 23 years, 8 months and 29 (or 30) days in the Holy Land. [DH12]
  • He passed away eight hours after sunset. [GPB221; UD170]
  • The news of His passing was immediately communicated to Sultán `Abdu'l-Hamíd by `Abdu'l-Bahá: `the Sun of Bahá has set'. [AB47; BKG420 GPB222]
  • Shortly after sunset, on the very day of His passing, Bahá'u'lláh was buried beneath the floor of a room in the house adjacent to the mansion of Bahjí, the Qiblih of the Bahá'í Faith. [AB47; BBD211; BKG427; GPB222]
  • See CB149 and RB4:149 for the effect of Bahá'u'lláh's ascension on`Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • See ARG71-72 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's account of His attempt to convince Mírzá Muhammad-'Alí to be faithful to the Covenant.
  • See CoC132-134; AB52–3, CB148–9, 152-153 and RB4:148–9 for the theft of Bahá'u'lláh's cases containing His seals, papers and other items. See as well An Epistle to the Bahá'í World by Mirza Badi'u'llah, page 13, written during his short-life period of confession/redemption.
    • One of the documents in these cases was the original Long Obligatory Prayer that had been mentioned in the Kitab-i-Aqdas. Bahá'u'lláh had revealed the text but did not release it in order to avoid provoking conflict with Muslims. [Prayer and Worship by John Walbridge]
  • See AB52–61, CB148–51 and RB4:148–54 for the Covenant-breaking activities of Bahá'u'lláh's family immediately following His death.
  • For 'Abdu'l-Bahá's description of His Father see BWF220-224.
  • See GPB222–3 for the mourning following the ascension of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • See BBR234–6 for a list of Europeans who had met Bahá'u'lláh.
  • Bahji Bahaullah, Ascension of; Bahaullah, Life of; Holy days; Sultan Abdul-Hamid; Covenant-breakers; Covenant (general); Qiblih; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; Abdul-Baha, Life of; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Box with Writings; Boxes; Seals; Obligatory prayer
    1892 29 May At the time of His passing Bahá'u'lláh left approximately 50,000 believers scattered in Iran and other Middle Eastern countries (ʿAbd-al-Bahāʾ, Majmūʿa-ye makātīb, Tehran, 1975, no. 13, photocopied ms., p. 3)". [BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati]
  • From 'Abdu'l-Bahá, "...at the time of Bahá’u’lláh’s ascension, more than two hundred thousand souls had taken shelter beneath His blessed shadow and had attained the station of certitude." Twelve table talks given by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá in ‘Akká in the selection entitled (Christ and Bahá'u'lláh).
  • The Faith had spread to 15 countries. [MBW61]
  • These countries were: Iraq, Iran, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Burma, Egypt, Georgia, India, Israel (Palestine), Lebanon, Pakistan, Sudan, Syria, Turkey, and Turkmenistan. [Patheos website]
  • statistics; Z****
    1892 (After the ascension of Bahá'u'lláh) `Abdu'l-Bahá asked Nabíl-i-Azam to choose a number of passages from the writings of Bahá'u'lláh to be used as a tablet of visitation. Nabil selected four passages and composed the text which is known as the Ziārat-nāma. This Tablet is also used at observances commemorating the Martyrdom of the Báb. [BBD234; BKG427; GPB222; RB4:419, “Nabil-e aʿzam Zaranadi, Mollā Mohammad,” by Vahid Rafati, Encyclopædia Iranica]
  • For an analysis of this Tablet, see SA121–2.
  • Bahji Nabil-i-Azam; Tablets of Visitation
    1892 (In the year) `Abdu'l-Bahá rented the house now known as the Pilgrim House (or the "Tea House") at Bahjí from its Christian owner Iskandar Hawwá', the husband of `Údí Khammár's daughter Haní. [DH114, 226] Bahji Abdul-Baha, Life of; Pilgrim Houses; Tea House; Udi Khammar; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    1892 7 Jun On the ninth day after Bahá'u'lláh's passing the Will and Testament of Bahá'u'lláh, the Kitáb-i-`Ahd was read at Bahjí before a large assembly in His Most Holy Tomb. [AB51–2; BBD132; CB150; DH113; GPB238; RB4:419–20, BKG420-425]
  • In it Bahá'u'lláh explicitly appointed `Abdu'l-Bahá His successor, the Centre of the Covenant and the Expounder of the revealed word. [BKG420; GPB239]
  • See CB150, 164 for the effect this had on the believers.
  • Bahji Kitab-i-Ahd (Book of the Covenant); Bahaullah, Will and Testament of; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Bahaullah, Ascension of; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Covenant (general)
    1892 16 Jun `Abdu'l-Bahá sent a message to the Bahá'ís of the world calling for steadfastness. [AB48–9; DH113]
  • This was `Abdu'l-Bahá's first message to the Bahá'í world. [AB48–9; CH110]
  • For the text of the message see AB48–9, CH110–11, DH113 and SWAB17–18.
  • BWC Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Bahaullah, Ascension of First message of `Abdu'l-Bahá
    1892 19 Jun Anton Haddad departed Cairo en route to the United States. [An Outline of the Bahá'í Movement in the United States: A sketch of its promulgator [Ibrahim Kheiralla] and why afterwards denied his Master, Abbas Effendi by Anton Haddad]
  • He was probably the first Bahá'í to reach American soil. [BFA1:26]
  • Cairo; Egypt; United States; North America Anton Haddad; Ibrahim Kheiralla first Baha'i to reach North America
    1892 (In the year) Soon after the ascension of Bahá'u'lláh the Covenant-breakers led by Mírzá Muhammad-'Alí, on the pretext that he had been unfaithful to Bahá'u'áh, plotted to murder Mírzá 'Aqá Ján. Their real motive however, was to gain control of his property. Mírzá 'Aqá Ján, upon hearing of the plot, went to 'Abdu'l-Bahá, begged for forgiveness for his misdeeds and took refuge in His house. [CoB184] Akka Mirza Aqa Jan; Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers; Z****
    1892 summer `Abdu'l-Bahá went to Haifa and Mount Carmel and isolated Himself in a small apartment in the stone building west of the lower cave of Elijah. [DH59, 188] Mount Carmel; Haifa Abdul-Baha, Life of; Cave of Elijah; Elijah
    1892 summer Anton Haddad arrived in the United States. [BFA1:26]
  • He was probably the first Bahá'í to reach American soil. [BFA1:26]
  • Z****; Anton Haddad First Bahá'í to reach American soil
    1892 Summer Áqá Murtadá of Sarvistán, who had been in prison for five years, was executed in Shíráz. [BW18:384] Sarvistan; Shiraz; Iran Iran, persecutions; Aqa Murtada
    1892 6 Jul The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Nabil-i-Akbar Áqá Muhammed-i-Qá'iní. He was born in Naw-Firist, Persia (Iran) on 29 March 1829.
  • “It has been claimed that no one within the enclave of the Bahá'í Faith has ever surpassed the profundity of his erudition.” Bahá’u’lláh addressed the Lawh-i-Hikmat (Tablet of Wisdom) in his honour. [EB115]
  • He was imprisoned a number of times in Iran for his Bahá’í activities and eventually moved to Ashkhabad (‘Ishqábád, Turkmenistan). He died in Bukhárá, Uzbekistan. ‘Abdu’l-Bahá designated him a Hand of the Cause of God. [LoF28-31]
  • For details of his life see EB112–15.
  • Bukhara; Uzbekistan; Naw-Firist; Iran Nabil-i-Akbar (Aqa Muhammed-i-Qaini); Hands referred to as such by Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Lawh-i-Hikmat (Tablet of Wisdom); Baha'u'llah, Writings of
    1892 3 Sep Nabíl, inconsolable at the death of Bahá'u'lláh, committed suicide by drowning himself in the sea. [AB56; BBD167; BKG265-268, , 427–8; MF32-37; DH81; EB268-270; GPB222; Rob1p201-206]
  • He left a note paying homage to `Abdu'l-Bahá, writing the date of his death in the single Arabic word `Gharíq' (drowned), the numerical value of which is AH 1310 (AD 1892–3). [MF35; RB1:205]
  • See OPOP86 for "Pilgrim's Note" concerning what Jináb-i-Fádil said that 'Abdu'l-Bahá said about Nabil's suicide.
  • See DH81 for his own epitaph.
  • He was buried in the Muslim Cemetery near `Akká. [DH81]
  • He was one of 19 Apostles of Bahá’u’lláh designated by Shoghi Effendi in recognition of distinguished services that those nineteen loyal and devoted Persian Bahá'ís have rendered to their faith. [BW3p80-81]
  • Nabíl was born in the village of Zarand on the 29th of July, 1831. He had become a Bábí around 1847 after over-hearing a conversation between two men about the Báb. He accepted the faith of Bahá'u'lláh in 1858. During his years as a Bábí, Nabil traveled to Lorestan, Kermanshah, Tehran, and Khorasan; he met with the Bábís and Bábí leaders in those provinces to foster the Bábí ideology and inspire the believers to arise, consolidate, and expand the new Bábí communities. He also transcribed and distributed Bábí literature among the rank and file of the society to promote the Bábí faith. He was jailed in Sāva for four months because of his pro-Bábí activities. In September 1854, he set out for Baghdad and Karbala, where he stayed until October 1856. During late 1856 to July 1858, he traveled to Hamadan, his hometown Zarand, and many major Babi communities in the capital province and returned to Baghdad on 19 July 1858.
    Nabil’s life as a Bahá'í is summed up in his extensive travels throughout Iran, Iraq, Turkey, the Caucasus, Egypt, and Palestine. In his early travels as a Bahá'í, he met with the Bábí communities to invite them to the Bahá'í faith; he attracted the Bábi leaders to the recognition of Bahá'u'lláh as the fulfillment of the Báb’s prophecies concerning the promised messianic figure and helped reinforce the belief of the new Bahá'ís in the teachings and principles that were being advanced by Bahá'u'lláh. Through these activities, Nabíl became an outstanding teacher, defender, and promulgator of the Bahá'í faith. [Dawn over Mount Hira, "The Poet Laureate" p19-104, or p85-98, “Nabil-e aʿzam Zaranadi, Mollā Mohammad,” by Vahid Rafati, Encyclopædia Iranica, DB434-435]
  • Although known primarily as an historian in the West he was a gifted and prolific poet who devoted most of his poetry to the historical events in the Bábí and Bahá'í faiths. His most famous poem in couplet form about the history of the Bahá'í faith was published as Maṯnawi-e Nabil Zarandi in Cairo in 1924 in 65 pages and reprinted in Langenhain in 1995. In this poem he describes major historical events from the early days of the Bábí movement to the year 1869. His second poem, in 666 verses, deals with Bahá'u'lláh’s banishment from Edirne to Akka. Other historical poetry of Nabil consists of his poem titled “Maṯnawi-e weṣāl wa hejr” in 175 verses (pub. in Rafati, 2014, Chap. 6; Ḏokāʾi, p. 416) and his poem on the life of Āqā Moḥammad Nabil Akbar Qāʾeni in 303 verses (Ḵušahā-i az ḵarman-e adab wa honar 13, pp. 108-16). In addition to those poems, Nabil left behind a great collection of poetry in different forms, only a fraction of which has been published.
    His other works in prose included a treatise on the Bábí-Bahá'í calendar, a treatise on Bahá'í inheritance laws (Fāżel Māzandarāni, IV pp. 1, 214), and his account on the event of the passing of Bahá'u'lláh (Nabil Zarandi, Maṯnawi-e Nabil Zarandi, Langenhain, 1995, pp. 67-108). But Nabil’s most celebrated work is Maṭāleʿ al-anwār, an extensive historical narrative of the Bábí faith, written in Akka in 1888-90, which was edited and translated into English by Shoghi Effendi as The Dawn-Breakers. The work was first published in the United States in 1932. [“Nabil-e aʿzam Zaranadi, Mollā Mohammad,” by Vahid Rafati, Encyclopædia Iranica; DB434-435]
  • Akka; Zarand; Sava; Baghdad; Karbala; Cairo; Erdine; Turkey Nabil-i-Azam; Suicide; Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths; Cemeteries and graves
    1892 20 Dec Ibrahim Kheiralla arrived in New York. [AB65; BBD129; BFA1:26; SSBH1:88; AY111]
  • See BFA1 for Kheiralla's life, work for the Bahá'í Faith and defection.
  • New York; United States Ibrahim George Kheiralla
    1893 28 May Mírzá Áqá Ján, Bahá'u'lláh's amanuensis for almost 40 years, threw in his lot with Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí and became a Covenant-breaker. [CB181, RoB1p315-319]
  • For the story of his downfall see CB181-182.
  • Bahji Mirza Aqa Jan; Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers
    1893 17 Jun Áqá Muhammad-Ridáy-i-Muhammadábádí was killed by three men on the orders of two of the `ulamá of Yazd. [BW18:384; GPB296]
  • He was the first to suffer martyrdom in the ministry of `Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • See GPB296 for details of his martyrdom.
  • Yazd; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Firsts, Other First to suffer martyrdom in ministry of `Abdu'l-Bahá
    1893 23 Sep First public reference in North America to the Bahá'í Faith. [SBBH1p76]
  • Reference was made to it in a paper entitled The Religious Mission of the English Speaking Nations by Rev. Henry H. Jessup, a retired missionary from north Syria, read by Rev George A. Ford at the World Parliament of Religions in Chicago. [AB63–4; BBD2412; BBR57; BFA1:323; BW2:230; GPB256; SBBH1:76, 88, 202]
  • See AB63–4, BW2:169 for text.
  • Historians have observed that, before this Parliament, "religion" was classified by many Americans into ethnic religion and universal religion. They considered there being only one universal religion: Christianity. In this view, all previous faiths were ethnic religions, and their purpose was to prepare the people for Christianity. Ethnic religions may have had portions of the truth, but only Christianity had all truth. This 1893 Parliament was a pivotal moment in the abolition of such classification, as representatives of "eastern" religions such as Swami Vivekananda and Anagarika Dharmapala promoted a new religious tolerance. [Paraphrased quote from Robert Stockman]
  • Chicago; United States Henry H. Jessup; World Parliament of Religions; Interfaith dialogue; Firsts, Other; Mentions First public reference in North America to Bahá'í Faith
    1894 (In the year) Green Acre was founded by Sarah J. Farmer in the aftermath of the World Parliament of Religions. [BBRSM:104; BFA2:142–7; BW5:29; GPB261; SBBH1:125] Eliot; Maine; United States; Nishapur; Hamadan; Dastjirdan; Khurasan; Faran; Khurasan Sarah Farmer; Green Acre; Haji Yari; Aqa Abdul-Vahhab Mukhtari; World Parliament of Religions; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution Green Acre Bahá'í School (Wikipedia)
    1894 (In the year) Two Bahá'ís were arrested and bastinadoed in Níshápúr. One died seven days later, the other two years later. [BW18:384]
  • Hájí Yárí, a Bahá'í of Jewish background, was arrested and imprisoned in Hamadán. [BW18:384]
  • A Bahá'í in Dastjirdán, Khurásán, Áqá `Abdu'l-Vahháb Mukhtárí, was beaten and expelled from the village. [BW18:384]
  • Bahá'ís in Fárán, Khurásán, were beaten and Bahá'í homes were looted. [BW18:384]
  • Nishapur; Hamadan; Dastjirdan; Faran Persecutions, Iran
    1894 Feb Ibrahim George Kheiralla settled in Chicago. [BFA1:XXVII, AB65]
  • Owing to his work, the first Bahá'í community in North America was soon formed in Chicago. [BBRSM:100; BW10:179]
  • See AY59-60 for a description of the teaching method used by Haddad and Kheiralla.
  • Chicago; United States Ibrahim George Kheiralla; Anton Haddad; Teaching; Firsts, Other First Bahá'í community in North America formed in Chicago
    1894 5 Jun Thornton Chase became a Bahá'í in Chicago. [BBD53; BFA1:35–6]
  • For some time before he heard of the Bahá'í Faith, he had been a follower of the noble and mystical teachings of Emanuel Swedenborg. [SEBW3]
  • He was designated by `Abdu'l-Bahá as the first American believer. [BBD53; GPB257]
  • See BFA1:35 for his own account of how he became a Bahá'í.
  • See BFA1:33–7 for other Americans who became Bahá'ís around the same time.
  • He was given the name Thábit (Steadfast) by `Abdu'l-Bahá. [BBD53; GPB257]
  • He had been invited to join the Hearst pilgrimage in 1898 but was unable to go to the Holy Land until 1907. [AY61]
  • Chicago; United States Thornton Chase; First Bahais by country or area; Names and titles; Emanuel Swedenborg First American Bahá'í Thornton Chase in the newspapers (series of mentions especially 1893-7)
    1895 (In the year) Mrs Kate C. Ives of Orleans, Cape Cod, Massachusetts became a Bahá'í, making her the first woman born in the United States to have accepted the Bahá'í Faith. [BFA1:37] Orleans; Cape Cod; Massachusetts; United States First Bahais by country or area First woman born in United States to become a Bahá'í
    1895 c. summer Miss Marion Brown became a Bahá'í in London, the first European to accept the Bahá'í Faith. [BFA1:37] London; United Kingdom Marion Brown; First Bahais by country or area First European to become a Bahá'í
    1895 23 Jun Birth of Leonora Stirling Holsapple (later Armstrong) in Hudson, New York. She was the first pioneer to Brazil and is regarded as the Mother of South America. [Wikipedia] Hudson; New York; United States Leonora Holsapple Armstrong; Names and titles; Births and deaths first Baha'i in Brazil
    1896 (In the year) Díyá'íyyih Khánum, the eldest daughter of `Abdu'l-Bahá, married Mírzá Hádí Afnán of Shíráz. [BW4:234 (GENEALOGY); DH59–60]
  • These are the parents of Shoghi Effendi.
  • For a picture of Díyá'íyyih Khánum see MA105.
  • Akka Diyaiyyih Khanum; Mirza Hadi Afnan; Afnan; Abdul-Baha, Family of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Family of
    1896 (In the year) Bahá'ís in Hisár, Khurásán were persecuted and imprisoned. [BW18:384] Hisar; Khurasan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1896 (In the year) Áqá Siyyid Mihdíy-i-Yazdí was martyred in Tabríz. [BW18:384] Tabriz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1896 (In the year) Mullá Hasan Khazá'í was arrested in Khúzistán. [BW18:384] Khuzistan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1896 15 Feb Birth of Leroy C. Ioas, Hand of the Cause of God, in Wilmington, Illinois. His parents, Charles and Maria had become Bahá'ís in 1898 in Chicago. [Wikipedia] Wilmington; Illinois Leroy Ioas; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
    1896 19 Apr Násiri'd-Dín Sháh was assassinated on the eve of the celebration of his jubilee. He had ascended to the throne in 1848 and by the Islamic lunar calendar it marked the 50th year of his reign. [BKG455]
  • BBRXXIX and BBRSM219 say it was 1 May.
  • His assassin, Mírzá Ridá-yi-Kirmáni, a Pan-Islamic terrorist, was a follower of Jamálu'd-Dín-i-Afghání, one of the originators of the Constitutional movement in Iran and an enemy of the Faith. [BBRSM87; GBP296; MCS540]
  • For an account of his assassination see PDC67–8.
  • See BKG430–55 for a history of his reign.
  • He was succeeded by his son Muzaffari'd-Dín. [GPB296]
  • See also CBM54-56.
  • See AY214-216.
  • Rayy; Iran Nasirid-Din Shah; Shahs; Throne changes; Qajar dynasty; History (general); Iran, General history; Births and deaths; Jamalud-Din-i-Afghani; Assassinations
    1896 1 May Muzaffari'd-Dín became the shah of Persia. He was the son of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh. He had been sent as governor to the province of Azerbaijan in 1861 and, as the crown prince, had spent 35 years in the pursuit of pleasure. When he ascended to the throne he was unprepared for the office. In addition, the country had huge debts to both Britain and Russia. Iran Muzaffarid-Din Shah; Shahs; Throne changes; History (general); Iran, General history find reference
    1896 1 May The martyrdom of Hand of the Cause of God Varqa (‘Dove’), Mírzá ‘Ali-Muhammad. (b.1856) He and his young son, Ruhu’lláh, were killed by, Hajib’ud-Dawleh, one of the Qajar courtiers, in fact the Chief Steward, in the aftermath of the assassination of Nasir'd-Din Shah. [GPB296, BBRXXIX]
  • For the story of their lives see MRHK405–22 and World Order: Winter 1974-1975, Vol. 9 No.2 p29-44.
  • For a Western account of the episode see BBR361–2.
  • ‘Abdu’l-Bahá named him posthumously as a Hand of the Cause and Shoghi Effendi designated him as one of the Apostles of Bahá-u-lláh. [EB75-97 LoF42-49, BBR361-362, SoBSNBp225-229]
  • See Varqá and Son: The Heavenly Doves by Darius Shahrokh.
  • See also Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • See SoW Vol 12 No 4 (17 May 1921 (Volume 7 pg93) for a photo of Varqá, Ruhu'lláh and their two companions.
  • Yazd; Tihran; Iran Varqa, Mirza Ali-Muhammad; Varqa, Ruhullah; In Memoriam; Apostles of Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause; Hands appointed by Abdul-Baha; Hands appointed by Abdul-Baha; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Varqa
    1896 13 May Birth of Dr Ugo Giachery, Hand of the Cause of God, in Palermo, Sicily. [Wikipedia] Palermo; Sicily Ugo Giachery; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
    1896 Jun - Jul Several Bahá'ís were beaten and four were imprisoned in Turbat-i-Haydarí when two mujtahids stirred up the townspeople against them. [BW18:384] Turbat-i-Haydari; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1896 21 Jul Hájí Muhammad Sádiq was stabbed to death in Turbat-i-Haydarí. [BW18:384] Turbat-i-Haydari; Iran Haji Muhammad Sadiq; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1896 24 Jul Four Bahá'ís were executed in Turbat-i-Haydarí on the order of the mujtahid. [BW18:384; BBR405]
  • BBRXXIX says the four Bahá'ís were martyred in August.
  • These four together with Hájí Muhammad Sádiq are known as the Shuhadáy-i-Khamsih (Five Martyrs). [GPB296]
  • Their martyrdom was the result of the assassination of the Sháh, for which the Bahá'ís were erroneously blamed. [GPB296]
  • For Western accounts of the episode see BBR405–6.
  • Turbat-i-Haydari; Iran Haji Muhammad Sadiq; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Assassinations; Nasirid-Din Shah
    1896 c. Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá rented the former Governorate of `Abdu'lláh Páshá in the northwest corner of the city of `Akká at the inner moat. [BBD13, 108; DH60]
  • He established it as His residence and as the home for His daughters, their husbands and families. [DH60-4, BW16:104]
  • See also BW16:104–6, DH60–4.
  • Akka Abdullah Pasha; House of Abdullah Pasha; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Family of
    1896 Nov Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí sent letters with misleading statements and calumnies against `Abdu'l-Bahá, thus making widely known his Covenant-breaking activities. `Abdu'l-Bahá could no longer conceal his unfaithfulness. [CB151, 178 SDH128-129] Akka Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers
    1896 (In the year) `Abdu'l-Bahá was forced to withdraw from `Akká to Tiberias owing to the accusations levelled against Him by Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí. [SBBH1:77] Tiberias; Hisar; Khurasan; Tabriz; Khuzistan Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers
    1897 (In the year) The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Shaykh Muhammad-Ridáy-i-Yazdí (Mullá Ridá) while incarcerated in the Síyáh-Cháh.
  • He was born in Muhammad-Ábád in the province of Yazd into a well-known family in about 1814. He was provided a good education and he became a divine known for his piety, eloquence and courage.
  • Mullá Ridá became a follower of the Báb in the early days of the Revelation. He recognized Bahá'u'lláh as the Promised One of the Bayan some time after 1855 upon reading Qasídiy-i-Varqá'íyyih, "Ode of the Dove". (Bahá'u'lláh had composed this ode while still in Sulaymáníyyih.)
  • He was a fearless teacher who was outspoken and often suffered imprisonment and torture. "Other than seventeen-year-old Badí, no one has surpassed Mullá Ridá's unusual power of endurance. The rare combination of endurance, eloquence, courage and humour made him that unique hero who illuminated the pages of the history of the Bahá'í Faith." [Extract from a Persian book called Masabih-i-Hidayat, Volume I by Azizu'llah-i-Sulaymani]
  • In one story of his courage in teaching and his endurance in withstanding abuse, he was found to be picking his teeth while being bastinadoed and, in another, while a elderly man he withstood a brutal flogging on his bare back in the prison yard. A witness to this flogging, Ghulám-Ridá Khán, a notable of Tehran who happened to be imprisoned at the same time, became a believer upon seeing his steadfastness under the lashing. [RoB1p84-91, EB89-111, LoF21-27]
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá referred to a few of the believers posthumously as being Hands of the Cause (see MF5 and BW14p446) Adib Taherzadeh points out that "since there are one or two others by the same name (Shaykh-Ridáy-i-Yazdí) it is not possible to identify him. However, some believe strongly that he is Mullá Muhammad-i-Ridáy-i-Muhammmad-Ábádí. [RoB4p186n]
  • Muhammadabad; Yazd; Tihran; Iran Mulla Rida (Shaykh Muhammad-Riday-i-Yazdi); Hands referred to as such by Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Bahaullah, Writings of
    1897 (In the year) Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí, the first Bahá'í to have settled China, died in Bombay on his way back to Shíráz. [PH24] China; Mumbai (Bombay); India Haji Mirza Muhammad-Ali (Afnan); Afnan; First Bahais by country or area; In Memoriam; Births and deaths First Bahá'í to have settled in China
    1897 (In the year) The Hands of the Cause appointed by Bahá'u'lláh were instructed by `Abdu'l-Bahá to gather to begin the consultations regarding the future organization of the Bahá'í community in Tihrán.
  • This gathering lead to the formation of the Central Spiritual Assembly of Tihrán in 1899. [BBD98, 114, 115; EB268; BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati]
  • Tihran; Iran Hands appointed by Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Central Spiritual Assembly of Tihran; Spiritual Assemblies; Administrative Order
    1897 (In the year) Fifteen Bahá'ís were arrested in Saysán, Ádharbáyján. They were taken to Tabríz, imprisoned and fined. [BW18:384]
  • Three Bahá'ís were arrested in Nayríz on the orders of Áqá Najafí, the `Son of the Wolf'. [BW18:384]
  • The homes of several Bahá'ís in Hamadán were looted and ransacked after complaints by Jews of the town against Bahá'ís of Jewish background. [BW18:384]
  • Saysan; Adharbayjan; Tabriz; Nayriz; Hamadan; Iran Aqa Najafi (Son of the Wolf); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1897 Feb Six Bahá'ís were arrested in Mamaqán, Ádharbáyján. Three were bastinadoed and three were imprisoned in Tabríz. [BW18:384] Mamaqan; Adharbayjan; Tabriz; Iran Persecution, Adharbayjan; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1897 24 Feb Birth of Jalal Khazeh (Jalál Khádih), Hand of the Cause of God, in Tihrán. Tihran; Iran Jalal Khazeh; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
    1897 1 Mar The birth of Shoghi Effendi, in the house of `Abdu'lláh Páshá. [BBD208; BKG359; DH60, 214; GBF2]
  • He was descended from both the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh: his mother was the eldest daughter of `Abdu'l-Bahá; his father was an Afnán, a grandson of Hájí Mírzá `Abu'l-Qásim, a cousin of the mother of the Báb and a brother of His wife. [CB280; GBF2]
  • He was the Ghusn-i-Mumtáz, the Chosen Branch. [BBD87]
  • `Shoghi' means `one who longs'. [CB281]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá commanded everyone, even Shoghi Effendi's father, to add the title `Effendi' after his name. [CB281; GBF2]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá gave him the surname Rabbání in the early years of his study in Haifa so that he will not be confused with his cousins, who were all called Afnán or Shahíd. The family name "Rabbání" was also used by Shoghi Effendi's brothers and sister. [BBD191–2; DH60–1; PG4]
  • As a young boy the Master sent him with a nurse named Hájar Khátún to live in Haifa where he was registered in the French Jesuit school, Collège des Frères. By the age of nine or ten his mother had gotten rid of this nurse. He was unhappy at school in Haifa so the Master sent him to a Catholic boarding school in Beirut where he was equally unhappy. He even sent an attendant to rent a house and provide care so he could attend as a day student but still he was not happy so arrangements were made for him to enter the preparatory school associated with the Syrian Protestant College. [PG4; PP15-17]
  • See also Rabbani, The Priceless Pearl; Rabbani, The Guardian of the Bahá'í Faith; Giachery, Shoghi Effendi: Recollections.
  • Akka Shoghi Effendi, Life of; House of Abdullah Pasha; Bahaullah; Family of; Abdul-Baha, Family of; Afnan; Aghsan; Haji Mirza Abul-Qasim; Rabbani (name); Names and titles; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline
    1897 21 May Lua Getsinger became a Bahá'í in Chicago. She had been called Khayru’lláh’s best pupil. [BFA1:XXVII, AY59] Chicago; United States Lua Getsinger; Ibrahim George Kheiralla
    1897 29 May The Covenant-breakers living at Bahji, realized that Mírzá Àqá Ján would be useful to them in their plot to undermine the authority of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. They sent a letter to him purportedly from the Bahá'ís in Iran requesting that he assume leadership. Mírzá Àqá Ján arranged for a feast to be held at the Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh on the fifth anniversary of His passing when he planned to announce his intention to the assembled followers. The Covenant-breakers, anticipating that his announcement would cause a disturbance, bribed a local official to have men on hand to take charge of the scene and to discredit 'Abdu'l-Bahá in the process. They had hope that He would be banished and they would be left in complete control of the Shrine. The disturbance did not happen as planned; the the result was that Mírzá Àqá Ján had openly thrown in his lot with the Covenant-breakers. They arranged for him to live in the Shrine until his death in 1901. During this time 'Abdu'l-Bahá and the faithful followers did not enter the Shrine but rather observed their devotions outside. [CoB184-189] Bahji Mirza Aqa Jan; Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers; Z****
    1898 (In the year) `Abdu'l-Bahá instructed that the remains of the Báb be brought from their hiding place in Tihrán to the Holy Land. [BBD209]
  • Picture of the shipping crate.
  • Tihran; Iran Bab, Remains of; Haji Muhammad; Shrine of the Bab
    1898 (In the year) The first anti-Bahá'í polemical tracts were published by Christian missionaries in Iran. [SBB111:69] Iran Criticism and apologetics; Firsts, Other First anti-Bahá'í polemics by missionaries in Iran
    1898 (In the year) The Tarbíyat School for boys was established in Tihrán by the Bahá'ís. [BBD221] Tihran; Iran Tarbiyat School; Bahai schools; Social and economic development Founding of the first Tarbíyat School for boys
    1898 (In the year) Several Bahá'ís were arrested and imprisoned in Qazvín. [BW18:384]

    Hájí Muhammad was set upon and killed in Hisár, Khurásán. BW18:384]

    Qazvin; Hisar; Khurasan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1898 Feb Kheiralla arrived in New York and began classes on the Bahá'í Faith. [BFA1:XXVIII, 116] New York Ibrahim George Kheiralla
    1898 9 Feb Hájí Muhammad-i-Turk was shot, beaten and then burned to death in a main street in Mashhad by four religious students. [BBRXXX, 406; BW18:384]
  • For Western accounts of the episode see BBR406–17.
  • Mashhad Haji Muhammad-i-Turk
    1898 Apr Nine Bahá'ís attending a Ridván meeting were arrested, beaten and imprisoned in Hamadán. [BW18:384] Hamadan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1898 Jun In New York City, 141 people became Bahá'ís in the five months since Kheiralla's arrival. [BFA1:XXVIII, 125] New York; United States Ibrahim George Kheiralla
    1898 1 Jun Áqá Ghulám-Husayn-i-Banádakí was killed by a mob in Yazd after refusing to deny his faith. [BW18:384] Yazd; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Mobs; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1898 Jul or Aug Phoebe Hearst became a Bahá'í in California through the efforts of Lua and Edward Getsinger. [BFA1:XXVIII 139]
  • SBBH1:93 says this was July, based on Kheiralla's autobiography; BFA1 is based on a letter from Phoebe Hearst.
  • California Phoebe Hearst; Lua Getsinger; Edward Getsinger
    1898 20 Aug Jamál Effendi passed away in `Akká. [EB128] Akka Jamal Effendi; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1898 (Autumn) Eighteen people became Bahá'ís in Kenosha, Wisconsin, following the visit of Kheiralla in the autumn of 1897. [BFA1:XXVIII]
  • This marked the establishment of the third Bahá'í community in North America. [BFA1:110]
  • Kenosha; Wisconsin Ibrahim George Kheiralla
    1898 22 Sep The first Western pilgrims departed for `Akká, travelling via New York and Paris. [BFA1:XXVIII, 140–1, 230]
  • It was arranged by Phoebe Hearst, who had already planned a journey to Egypt for the autumn. [BFA1:140, AY60]
  • There were 15 pilgrims in all. Among them is Ibáhím Kheiralla. [AB68; AY111]
  • New York; United States Pilgrimage; First pilgrims; Pilgrims; Phoebe Hearst; Lua Getsinger; Edward Getsinger; Robert Turner; Ibrahim George Kheiralla First Western pilgrims
    1898 11 Nov Kheiralla arrived in `Akká. [BFA1:XXVIII, 141]
  • He had left the party of pilgrims in France and departed for Egypt in early October where he had children. his wife went to England to invite her Bahá'í aunt to accompany them to Akka. [BFA141]
  • During his visit `Abdu'l-Bahá conferred titles on him: `Bahá's Peter', the `Second Columbus' and `Conqueror of America'. [BFA1:142; GPB275; SBBH2:112]
  • Akka Ibrahim George Kheiralla
    1898 13 Nov `Abdu'l-Bahá commemorated Kheiralla's arrival by ending the period of mourning for Bahá'u'lláh and by opening His Tomb to pilgrims for the first time. [BFA1:142–3; SBBH2:112] Bahji Ibrahim George Kheiralla; Firsts, Other; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Bahaullah, Ascension of; Pilgrimage; Pilgrims First time Tomb of Bahá'u'lláh opened to pilgrims
    1898 10 Dec The first Western pilgrims arrived in `Akká. [AB68; BBD13; BBRXXX; DH214; GPB257; SCU13; Bahá'í Teachings]
  • They divided themselves into three parties, using Cairo as a staging post. [AB68; BFA1:143; SBBH1:93]
  • See AB68–72; BFA2:9; DH61; GPB257, 259 for those included in the pilgrimage group.
  • Included were Mrs Hearst's nieces, a few American friends and, joining in London, Mrs Mary Thornburgh-Cropper and her mother. [SCU13. CH234-236]
  • In Paris the group was joined by two nieces of Mrs Hearst, Mrs Thornburgh, her daughter Miriam Thornburgh-Cropper and May Bolls. [AB68]
  • There were further additions in Egypt. [AB68]
  • See BFA1:143–4 for those included in the first group.
  • Among the group was Robert Turner, the first member of the black race to become a Bahá'í. For 35 years, Turner faithfully served as butler to Phoebe Apperson Hearst and Senator George Hearst, parents of newspaper magnate William Randolph Hearst. [AB72; BBD227; BFA1:139; GPB259]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá received the pilgrims in the House of `Abdu'lláh Páshá. [BBD13, 108; DH61]
  • See AB68–71; BW16:104–5; CH235–6 and GPB257–9 for the pilgrims' responses to the pilgrimage.
  • Edward Getsinger made a recording of `Abdu'l-Bahá chanting a prayer. [BFA1:160]
  • The Getsingers returned from the pilgrimage with an Arabic copy of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas which was later translated by Anton Haddad. [BFA2:11]
  • See Star of the West, vol. VII, No. 4 or "Lua Getsinger - Herald of the Covenant" By Amine DeMille for a description of how 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave Lua the power to speak. iiiii
  • Akka; Cairo; Egypt Pilgrims; Pilgrimage; First pilgrims; Mary Virginia Thornburgh-Cropper; Robert Turner; First believers by background; Edward Getsinger; Lua Getsinger; Anton Haddad; Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); House of Abdullah Pasha; Abdul-Baha, Voice recording of First Western pilgrims; first group of first Western pilgrims; first member of black race to become Bahá'í
    1898 c. 20 Dec The second group of Western pilgrims arrived in `Akká, and stayed three days before returning to Cairo. [BFA1:145]
  • See BFA1:145 for those included in this group.
  • Akka Pilgrimage; First pilgrims; Pilgrims
    1898 21 Dec Birth of Dorothy Beecher Baker, Hand of the Cause of God. Dorothy Baker; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
    1899 (In the year) Miss Olive Jackson of Manhattan became the first black American woman Bahá'í. [BFA1:126–7] Manhattan; New York; United States Race (general); Firsts, Other First black American woman Bahá'í
    1899 (In the year) The Serpent by Thornton Chase, an 18-page pamphlet on the image of the serpent in the Bible, was published in Chicago. This was probably the first published essay written by an American Bahá'í. [BFA2:26] Chicago; United States Thornton Chase; First publications; Publications First published essay written by American Bahá'í
    1899 (In the year) A local spiritual assembly called "The Consulting Assembly of Tihrán", a forerunner of the National Spiritual Assembly, was established. [EB175–6; 26 November, 2007]
  • Four Hands of the Cause were permanent members; nine others were elected by special electors appointed by the Hands. [EB175–6]
  • Tihran; Iran NSA; Spiritual Assemblies; Hands of the Cause; Appointments; Elections first National Assembly of Iran
    1899 (In the year) Siyyid Mustafá Rúmí and others transported a marble casket to the Holy Land made by the Bahá'ís of Mandalay to accommodate the remains of the Báb. [BW10:517] Haifa; Mandalay Siyyid Mustafa Rumi; Bab, Shrine of; Bab, Sarcophagus for
    1899 31 Jan The remains of the Báb arrived in the Holy Land. [BBD209; DH66; GPB274]
  • They were stored in the room of the Greatest Holy Leaf in the house of `Abdu'lláh Páshá until the Shrine of the Báb was completed. [DH66]
  • Akka Bab, Remains of; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Bab, Shrine of; House of Abdullah Pasha
    1899 Feb The first Tablets of `Abdu'l-Bahá arrived in America. [BFA1:143]
  • See BFA1:143 for the recipients.
  • United States Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Firsts, Other First Tablets of `Abdu'l-Bahá arrive in America
    1899 c. Feb - Mar `Abdu'l-Bahá, accompanied by Kheiralla, laid the foundation stone for the Shrine of the Báb. [BFA1:XXVIII, 142; BBD209; GPB275; SBBH2:112] Mount Carmel Abdul-Baha, Life of; Bab, Shrine of; Foundation stones and groundbreaking; Ibrahim George Kheiralla
    1899 16 Feb The third group of Western pilgrims arrived in the Holy Land. [BFA1:145]
  • See BFA1:145 for those in the group.
  • Haifa; Akka Pilgrimage; Pilgrims; First pilgrims
    1899 16 Feb Birth of Hermann Grossmann, Hand of the Cause of God, in Rosario de Santa Fé, Argentina, into a family of German background. [Bahaikepedia] Rosario de Santa Fe; Argentina Herman Grossmann; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
    1899 Spring On her return from pilgrimage, May Bolles established the first Bahá'í group on the European continent in Paris. [AB159; BBRSM106; BFA2:151; GPB259; SBBH1:93]
  • For information on those who became Bahá'ís in Paris, including Thomas Breakwell, the "first English believer"and Hippolyte Dreyfus, the "first Frenchman to embrace the Faith", and Laura Barney see BFA2:151–2, 154–5; and GBP259-260.
  • Paris; France May Maxwell (Bolles); Thomas Breakwell; Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; Laura Clifford Barney; Z**** First Bahá'í group on European continent. First Frenchman to embrace the Faith.
    1899 9 Apr Upheaval at Najafábád. [BBRXXX, 426; BW18:384–5]
  • Mírzá Báqir-i-Há'í was arrested, several Bahá'ís were beaten and Bahá'í homes were looted in Najafábád. [BBR426; BW18:384–5]
  • Some 300 Bahá'ís occupied the British telegraph office hoping that the Sháh would intervene on behalf of the Bahá'ís. [BBR427–8]
  • For Western accounts of the episode see BBR426–30.
  • Najafabad; Iran Najafabad upheaval; Upheavals
    1899 May A council board of seven officers, a forerunner of the Local Spiritual Assembly, was established in Kenosha. [BFA1:112; GPB260]
  • Those elected were not so much members of a council but rather "community officers" who carried out the decisions made at a community meeting. [BFA1p112] iiiii
  • Kenosha; Wisconsin; United States Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies; Z****
    1899 c. 1 May and period following Kheiralla returned to the United States from `Akká. [BFA1:xxix, 158] (After his departure from Palestine he was abandoned by his American wife.) [SBBH1p239]
  • His ambitions to lead the Bahá'í Faith caused a crisis in the American Bahá'í community. [BFA1:158–84; CB247–9, GPB259–260; 319; SBBH194, 239; AY119; WOB82-83]
  • In the following months `Abdu'l-Bahá dispatched successive teachers to heal the rift:
    • Hájí `Abdu'l-Karím-i-Tihrání, who had taught Kheiralla the Faith, from c. 26 Apr to 5 Aug 1900. [BFA1:173–6; BFA2:17–29]
    • Hájí Hasan-i-Khurásání, from 29 Nov 1900 to Aug 1901. [BFA2:35, 389]
    • Mírzá Asadu'lláh-i-Isfahání, from 29 Nov 1900 to 12 May 1902. [BFA2:VI, 35–43ff]
    • Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl, from Aug 1901 to Dec 1904. [BFA2:XV-XVI, 80–7; BW9:855–60]
  • "...four chosen messengers of 'Abdu'l-Bahá who, in rapid succession, were dispatched by Him to pacify and reinvigorate that troubled community. ...were commissioned to undertake, the beginnings of that vast Administration, the corner-stone of which these messengers were instructed to lay... [WOB83-84; AY119]
  • See BFA1:177–8 for lists of believers who sided with Kheiralla, left the Faith or remained loyal to `Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • See SBBH1:98–101 for Kheiralla's teachings.
    • Note: GPB259 says that Kheiralla had returned from the Holy Land in December of 1899 but in fact it was in the month of May. [BFA1pxxix] iiiii
  • United States; Akka Ibrahim George Kheiralla; Covenant-breakers; Haji Abdul-Karim-i-Tihrani; Haji Hasan-i-Khurasani; Mirza Asadullah-i-Isfahani; Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Z****
    1899 Summer Ethel Jenner Rosenberg accepted the Bahá'í Faith, the first English woman to become a Bahá'í in her native land. [AB73–4; ER39; GPB260; SBR20, 33; SEBW55-64, SCU17]
  • For her biography see Rob Weinberg's, Ethel Jenner Rosenberg.
  • She visited 'Abdu'l-Bahá several times in the first decade of the century. [SCU17]
  • United Kingdom Ethel Rosenberg; First Bahais by country or area First English woman to become a Bahá'í in her native land
    1899 Oct - Nov Stoyan Vatralsky, a Harvard educated, Bulgarian Christian, attacked the Bahá'ís, `Truth-knowers', in a series of talks in a church in Kenosha, Wisconsin. [BFA1:XXIX, 114–15; SBBH2:111 SBBH1p232; SBBH1p232-238]
  • By this time two per cent of the population of Kenosha were Bahá'ís. [BFA1:114]
  • See also WOB83 for others who wrote polemics against the Bahá'í Faith.
  • Kenosha; Wisconsin; United States Opposition; Opposition, Christian; statistics
    1899 19 Nov Birth of Yan Kee Leong, the first believer in Malaya, in Selangor, Malaysia. Selangor; Malaysia; Malaya Yan Kee Leong; Births and deaths First believer in Malaya find reference
    1899 3 Dec Charles Mason Remey became a Bahá'í in Paris through May Bolles. [BFA2:151–2] Paris; France Charles Mason Remey; May Maxwell (Bolles)
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