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Bahá'í Chronology: years 196-

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196-

date event locations tags firsts see also
1960 (In the decade) A number of Bahá’í primary schools were opened in Bolivia. Bolivia Bahai schools
1960s, early The first woman Somali to become a Bahá’í, Fatumeh Jama, enrolled. Somalia Fatumeh Jama first Bahá’í woman Somalia
1960s, early Two Bahá’í primary schools were opened in Uganda. Uganda Bahai schools
1960 (In the year) The first Côte d’Ivorian to become a Bahá’í, Mr Un Bodo, a Bété from the region of Gagnoa working as a policeman in Abidjan, enrolled. Ivory Coast Un Bodo first Côte d’Ivorian a Bahá’í
1960 (In the year) The first Maya-Quiche to become a Bahá’í in Guatemala, Filomena Cajas de Velasquez, a tourist guide, enrolled.
  • Later she was the first Guatemalan woman to serve on the national spiritual assembly.
  • Guatemala Filomena Cajas de Velasquez first Maya-Quiche Bahá’í; first Guatemalan woman on NSA
    1960 (In the year) Bahá’ís in Angola were detained and questioned by officials.
  • Joaquim Sampaio was carried off in the middle of the night and was never seen again. It was presumed that he was executed or died in a prison camp.
  • One family was forced to leave the country.
  • Angola Persecution, Angola; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1960 (In the year) The first local spiritual assembly in the Cocos Islands was formed on West Island.
  • For picture see BW13:1052.
  • West Island LSA first LSA Cocos Islands
    1960 Jan Frédéric Hodonou (b. January 9, 1929, Ouidah, Benin. d. January 10, 2016 in Ouidah, Benin) was introduced to the Faith by Madame Geneviève Lai, a French artist and her Vietnamese husband in Cotonou. [Bahá'í Chronicles] Cotonou; Benin Frederic Hodonou first Baha'i of Benin
    1960 Ridván c. Hand of the Cause Charles Mason Remey claimed he was the second, ‘hereditary’ Guardian of the Bahá’í Faith. [BW13:397; BW16:90; SS49]
  • See MC205–6, 231–6 for details of Remey’s claims.
  • See also BBRSM130-1, 138–9; CB386–91; MC196–217, 223–8; SBBH1:220, NOTE 207.
  • At some point in 1960 Mason sent notification of his "appointment" as guardian to the Israeli government. [British Library]
  • BWC; Haifa Charles Mason Remey; Guardianship; Covenant-breakers
    1960 Ridván The Custodians announced that the Bahá’í Faith was represented in over 256 territories and was established in over 5,800 localities; there were 31 national spiritual assemblies and nearly 1,500 local spiritual assemblies; and Bahá’í literature is in 268 languages. [Mc183–96] Worldwide Custodians; Growth; Statistics; Ten Year Crusade
    1960 27 Apr The International Bahá’í Council by unanimous vote rejected the claim of Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [MC206–7] Haifa International Bahai Council; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship
    1960 28 Apr The Custodians called upon all believers to join the Hands in repudiation of the claims of Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [MC196–7] Haifa Custodians; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship
    1960 30 Apr The unveiling of Statue of a Liberated Woman by sculptor Fuad Abdurahmanov (b. 28 April, 1915 in Shaki, d. 15 June, 1971 Baku) The statue stands in central Baku and depicts a woman casting off her veil. It is said to have been influenced by the story of Tahirih. [BWNS1150] Baku; Azerbaijan Fuad Abdurahmanov; Statue of a Liberated Woman; BWNS; Tahirih; Veils
    1960 30 Apr – 10 May Twenty–four national spiritual assemblies and five national conventions sent messages of support to the Custodians, repudiating the claim made by Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [MC199–202]
  • The National Spiritual Assembly of France voted to recognize the claim. [MC203]
  • BWC; Haifa; France NSA; Custodians; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship
    1960 5 May Hand of the Cause Abu’l-Qásim Faizí was sent by the Custodians to France to meet with the National Spiritual Assembly and Bahá’ís of France. [MC197]
  • After consultation, five members of the assembly continued to support Charles Mason Remey in his claim to be the second Guardian and resigned from the assembly. The national assembly was dissolved. [MC203]
  • BWC; Haifa; France Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Abul-Qasim Faizi; NSA; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship
    1960 12 – 31 May Six national spiritual assemblies sent messages of support to the Custodians, repudiating the claim made by Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [MC207–8] NSA; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship
    1960 13 May The International Bahá’í Council wrote to the Custodians recording its decision taken on 27 April to reject the claims of Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [Mc206–7] Haifa International Bahai Council; Charles Mason Remey; Custodians; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship
    1960 17 – 18 May The Bahá’í International Community attended a meeting called by the United Nations Office of Public Information to discuss problems of cooperation ‘with the United Nations family insofar as its programme affects the new nations’. The Bahá’í statement regarding this becomes part of the conference record. [BW13:792]
  • For text of statement see BW13:792–4.
  • BIC
    1960 31 May In a letter addressed to all National Assemblies in the Western Hemisphere and to the Auxiliary Boards, the Hands of the Faith Corrine True, Hermann Grossmann, and William Sears provided an update on the activities of Charles Mason Remey. Some salient points were:
  • Of all the National Spiritual Assemblies only France failed to reject Remey's claims. Hand of the Cause Faizi made a visit to investigate and, with the co-operation of the European Hands, arranged for a new election.
  • Remey had sent two letters calling for support and in the second he deemed the remaining twenty-six Hands of the Cause "violators".
  • It was made known that for the previous two years Remey had been trying to convince his fellow Hands to appoint a Guardian. Until the previous Ridván he hadn't disclosed that it was he, himself, that he had in mind. Remey was aware and had been shown a letter from the Guardian clearly stating that the Hands did not have the authority to appoint a Guardian, only to ratify the choice. He had made his claim notwithstanding the vow that he had taken along with the other Hands in November, 1957 at Bahjí, and re-affirmed in 1958 with their signatures, to complete the Plan and elect the Universal House of Justice at Ridván, 1963. The question of the Guardianship would be referred to the Universal House of Justice.
  • The Hands had spent two years trying to convince Remey of the impossibility of appointing a Guardian. Up to this point they had taken no action other than to warn the friends of his intentions and to ask them to refrain from associating with him.
  • They urged the friends to concentrate their full energies on completing the Plan. [Statement on Mason Remey from the Western Hands of the Faith] iiiii
  • Western Hemisphere Covenant-breakers; Charles Mason Remey; Corrine True; Hermann Grossmann; William Sears; Custodians; Guardian
    1960 1 Jul Ben and Louise Whitecow (early Peigan believers) married in Calgary, Alberta, were the first Bahá’ís in Canada to have a legally recognized Bahá’í marriage. [BW13:687] Calgary; Alberta; Canada Weddings; Recognition; Firsts, Other first Bahá’ís in Canada to have legally recognized Bahá’í marriage
    1960 12 Jul Horace Hotchkiss Holley, Hand of the Cause of God, passed away in Haifa. (b. 7 April, 1887 in Torrington, CT) [MC226-227, BW13:849]
  • See FMH58-59 for the story of how he came to believe in the Faith.
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
  • For his obituary see BW13:849–858.
  • For cable from the Hands of the Cause see MC217–18.
  • See also SBR214-247, LoF253-264 and Holley, Horace Hotchkiss by R. Jackson Armstrong-Ingram.
      Some of his is publications: See BEL7.1197 to 7.1233]
    • The Bahá'í Religion: Papers Read at the Conference on Some Living Religions Within the British Empire Papers presented by Horace Holley and Ruhi Afnan. 1925 [BEL7.386]
    • Bahaism: The Modern Social Religion, (1913) [BEL7.1203]
    • Religion for Mankind, (1956) [BEL7.1222]
    • World Unity,
    • Bahá'í, The Spirit of the Age, (1921) [BEL7.1201]
    • Bahá'í Scriptures; Selections from the Utterances of Bahaʼuʼllah and Abdul Baha, (1923 and 1928) The first general book-length compilation of the writings of Bahá'u'lláh and 'Abdu'l-Bahá. Many passages were early and nonauthoritative translations. The book was superseded by Bahá'í World Faith [BEL4.71]
    • Read-aloud Plays,
    • Divinations and Creation,
    • The World Economy of Baháʼuʼlláh
    • The Inner Garden; A Book of Verse
    • The Reality of Man (1931) [BEL3.103]
    • He was a man of enormous capacity. When asked about it he reerred to a "zone of energy" in which he sometimes operated when more than normal strength was available to him. [FMH58]
  • Haifa; Torrington; Connecticut; United States Horace Holley; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, First Contingent; Bahai Scriptures (book); Plays; Arts
    1960 26 Jul The Hands of the Cause of God declared Charles Mason Remey a Covenant-breaker. [BBRSM221; MC224–5] Haifa Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers
    1960 Aug All Bahá’í activity in Egypt was prohibited by Presidential Decree No 263 issued by President Nasser of the United Arab Republic (Egypt and Syria).
  • Bahá’ís were interrogated, arrested, fined and imprisoned and their property confiscated. [BBRSM174; MC228]
  • See message from the Universal House of Justice to the Bahá'ís of Egypt dated 21 December 2006.
  • Egypt Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1960 3 Aug Cable from the Hands of the Cause of God announcing the expulsion as Covenant Breakers of John Carre, Barnard Fillon, Moneer Darakhshan, Joel Marangela, Jaques Soghomonian, Donald Harvey, John Byers and Mary Wilkin. [MoC223] BWC Covenant-breakers; Joel Bray Marangella; John Carre; Barnard Fillon; Moneer Darakhshan; Joel Marangela; Jaques Soghomonian; Donald Harvey; John Byers; Mary Wilkin; Custodians
    1960 18 – 27 Oct The fourth Conclave of the Hands of the Cause of God was convened at Bahjí. [MoC229] Haifa; BWC Bahji; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Hands of the Cause, Conclaves
    1960 2 Nov The Hands of the Cause issued a message from their fourth Conclave. [MoC237–44]
  • All the Hands of the Cause were henceforth to render their services on a global, rather than a regional, scale. [MoC239]
  • Haifa Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Hands of the Cause, Conclaves
    1960 18 Nov Clara Dunn, Hand of the Cause of God, passed away in Sydney. (b.12 May 1869) [BW13:859; MoC245]
  • For her obituary see BW13:859–62.
  • For cable from the Hands see MoC245.
  • See also SBR153–75.
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed her among the second contingent on the 29th of February, 1952. [MoCxxiii]
  • For a biography see The Bahá'í Encyclopedia Project.
  • Sydney; Australia Clara Dunn; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Second Contingent
    1960 20 Nov The cornerstone of the fifth House of Worship was laid in Langenhain, Germany, by Hand of the Cause of God Amelia Collins. [BW13:739; MC238, 245, 249–50]
  • See also MoC14–15, 236.
  • Langenhain; Frankfurt; Germany; Europe Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Langenhain; Foundation stones and groundbreaking; Amelia Collins
    1960 Dec Mr Yan Kee Leong of Malaysia took the Bahá’í Faith to the remote Iban people of Brunei. Brunei Yan Kee Leong first teacher Iban people
    1960 Dec Philip Suning, the first member of the Iban tribe to become a Bahá’í, enrolled. Brunei First believers by background first Bahá’í Iban tribe
    1960 Late Eric Moyce and Gay Corker, both youth and the first two local people to become Bahá’ís in St Helena, enrolled. St Helena Eric Moyce; Gay Corker first local Bahá’ís in St Helena
    1961 (In the year) Knud Jensen (of mixed Danish, St Thomanian parentage), the first local person to become a Bahá’í in the Virgin Islands, enrolled. Virgin Islands; United States First Bahais by country or area first Bahá’í in Virgin Islands
    1961 (In the year) The military government in Indonesia issued instructions to local authorities to ban all Bahá’í activities and to confiscate all Bahá’í property. [MoC329] Indonesia Persecution, Indonesia; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1961 Jan - Feb Hand of the Cause of God Dr Rahmatu’lláh Muhájir traveled to India and demonstrated the principle of mass teaching. [DM172–84; SBBH2:165–7]
  • Mass teaching began in the rural area of Madhya Pradesh among the Hindu population. In 1961 there were 850 Bahá’ís; in 1963 87,000; by 1973 nearly 400,000; and by 1987 about two million. In 1983 45 per cent of all local spiritual assemblies were in India. [BBRSM195; BW13:299]
  • Madhya Pradesh; India Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Rahmatullah Muhajir; Mass conversion; Mass teaching; Teaching; LSA; Statistics; Growth
    1961 14 Jan The House of Worship in Kampala, the Mother Temple of Africa, was dedicated by Hand of the Cause Rúhíyyih Khánum in a service for Bahá’ís only. [BW13:713–14; CG45]
  • For details of the service and a picture see BW13:714. [TG159]
  • Enoch Olinga was not present because of the unrest in British Cameroons. [TG160]
  • Kampala; Uganda Mashriqul-Adhkar, Kampala
    1961 15 Jan The House of Worship in Kampala is officially opened by Hand of the Cause Rúhíyyih Khánum in a public service attended by 1,500 people. [BW13:715–18; MoC15]
  • For message of the Custodians to the dedication service see MoC2503.
  • For cable of the Custodians to the Bahá’ís of the world see MoC253.

    Specifics

      Location:Northern Kampala, on Dikaaya Hill in Kawempe Division.
      Foundation Stone: 26 Jan 1958 (Beneath the stone is a silver box containing the sacred earth from the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh and a wooden box containing a piece of the plaster from the Prison Fortress of Máh-Kú where the Báb had been incarcerated.)
      Construction Period: Land purchased: 20 April 1954, January 1958 – 14 January 1961
      Site Dedication: 14 January 1961 (Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum brought a gift from the Guardian- a carpet from the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh was hung on the inside of the door facing the Qiblih.)
      Architect: Charles Mason Remey
      Seating:Over 400 (800 for Dedication ceremony)
      Dimensions: Dome at its base-44ft. Diameter of inner floor-84ft. Circumference: 265ft yielding 5,550 sq ft of floor space. Height of the building-124ft.
      Cost: $ ? (initial budget was 42,00 Pounds Sterling)
      Dependencies:
      References: BW13p704-719, CEBF241, CG45
  • Kampala; Uganda Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Kampala; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Dedications; Architects; Gifts; Boxes containing dust, earth or plaster; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Mah-Ku; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1961 17 Jan Following the arrest of Bahá’ís in Turkey in March 1959 and the subsequent court case, the Turkish court received the findings of three outstanding religious scholars that the Bahá’í Faith was an independent religion. [MoC308]
  • For details of the history of the case see MoC306–8.
  • Turkey Persecution, Turkey; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases; Human rights
    1961 21 – 25 Feb The first Indian congress of Bolivia was held in Oruro, with Indians participating. [BW13:268] Oruro; Bolivia Conferences; Indigenous people first Indian congress of Bolivia
    1961 3 Apr Corinne True, Hand of the Cause of God, passed away in Chicago. [BW13:846]
  • For her obituary see BW13:846–9.
  • For cables from the Custodians see MoC257.
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed her among the second contingent on the 29th of February, 1952. [MoCxxiii]
  • See also Rutstein, Corinne True George Ronald (1987)
  • Chicago; United States Corinne True; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Second Contingent
    1961 Ridván The International Bahá’í Council was elected for the first time, by postal ballot of the members of the national spiritual assemblies. [BW13:397; MoC282]
  • The members were Jessie Revell, ‘Alí Nakhjavání, Lutfu’lláh Hakím, Ethel Revell, Charles Wolcott, Sylvia Ioas, Mildred Mottahedeh, Ian Semple and Borrah Kavelin. [MoC282]
  • See BW13:398 for picture.
  • See also BBD118; BBRSM131; BW16:90; CB324; MoC168, 242.
  • Haifa; BWC International Bahai Council; Universal House of Justice; Jessie Revell; Ali Nakhjavani; Lutfullah Hakim; Ethel Revell; Charles Wolcott; Sylvia Ioas; Mildred Mottahedeh; Ian Semple; H. Borrah Kavelin; Firsts, Other first election IBC by postal ballot
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Argentina was formed. [BW13:258] Argentina NSA first NSA Argentina
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Bolivia was formed. [BW13:258] Bolivia NSA first NSA Bolivia
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Chile was formed. [BW13:258]
  • For picture see BW13:260.
  • Chile NSA first NSA Chile
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Colombia was formed. [BW13:258] Colombia NSA first NSA Colombia
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Costa Rica was formed. [BW13:258]<
  • For picture see BW13:261.
  • Costa Rica NSA first NSA Costa Rica
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Cuba was formed. [BW13:258] Cuba NSA first NSA Cuba
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Dominican Republic was formed. [BW13:258] Dominican Republic NSA first NSA Dominican Republic
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Ecuador was formed. [BW13:258] Ecuador NSA first NSA Ecuador
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Guatemala was formed. [BW13:258] Guatemala NSA first NSA Guatemala
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of El Salvador was formed. [BW13:258]<
  • For picture see BW13:263.
  • El Salvador NSA first NSA El Salvador
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Haiti was formed. [BW13:258] Haiti NSA first NSA Haiti
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Honduras was formed. [BW13:258]
  • For picture see BW13:265.
  • Honduras NSA first NSA Honduras
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Jamaica was formed. [BW13:258]
  • Elected Randolph Fitz-Henley, William A. W. Mitchell, Alfred Senior, Clarence Ullrich, Alice Maud Gallier, Percival Aiken, Emily Taylor, Margarite Ullrich and Ruby Taylor. [The Gleaner]
  • Jamaica NSA first NSA Jamaica
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Mexico was formed. [BW13:258]
  • For picture see BW13:266.
  • Mexico NSA first NSA Mexico
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Nicaragua was formed. [BW13:258] Nicaragua NSA first NSA Nicaragua
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Panama was formed. [BW13:258] Panama NSA first NSA Panama
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Paraguay was formed. [BW13:258] Paraguay NSA first NSA Paraguay
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Peru was formed. [BW13:258] Peru NSA first NSA Peru
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Venezuela was formed. [BW13:258] Venezuela NSA first NSA Venezuela
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Uruguay was formed. [BW13:258]
  • For picture see BW13:268.
  • Uruguay NSA first NSA Uruguay
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Brazil was formed. [BW13:258] Brazil NSA first NSA Brazil
    1961 1 May Kanichi (Moto) Yamamoto, the first Japanese Bahá’í, passed away in Berkeley, California. [SBR185]
  • For the story of his life see SBR176–86.
  • For picture see SBR190.
  • Berkeley; California; United States Kanichi Yamamoto first Japanese Bahá’í
    1961 23 Jun Fred Murray, the first full-blooded Aborigine and member of the Minen tribe to become a Bahá’í, enrolled. [BW14:369] Australia Fred Murray first full-blooded Bahá'í Aborigine member of Minen tribe
    1961 25 – 26 Jun The newly-elected International Bahá’í Council met for the first time. [BW13:397; MoC285–6]
  • For details of the meeting and excerpts from its minutes see MC285–91.
  • Haifa International Bahai Council
    1961 8 Jul The Custodians announced that mass conversion had begun in Ceylon, Central and East Africa, and Bolivia, while in Canada native peoples had begun to enter the Faith. [MoC293] Sri Lanka; Africa; Bolivia; Canada Custodians; Mass conversion; Native Americans; First Nations
    1961 8 Jul Georges and Emma Wayenece, originally from Mare on the Loyalty Islands and the first Loyalty Islanders to become Bahá’ís, enrolled in Nouméa. [BW17:415]
  • Mrs Wayenece was the first Melanesian woman of the New Caledonia and Loyalty Islands area to become a Bahá’í. [BW17:415]
  • Noumea; Loyalty Islands Georges Wayenece; Emma Wayenece first Loyalty Islanders Bahá’í; first Melanesian woman Bahá’í of the New Caledonia and Loyalty Islands
    1961 15 Jul The Turkish court declared the Bahá’í Faith to be a ‘Tarighat’, a sect forbidden by the law of the land.<
  • The Bahá’ís were ‘forgiven’, released and the case against them dropped. [MoC308]
  • The National Spiritual Assembly decided to appeal the decision to a higher court and national spiritual assemblies were asked to make representations to the Turkish ambassadors in their respective countries. [MoC308]
  • Turkey Persecution, Turkey; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases; Human rights; NSA
    1961 16 Sep The House of Worship in Sydney, the Mother Temple of the Antipodes, was dedicated by Hand of the Cause Rúhíyyih Khánum in a service for Bahá’ís only. [BW13:729; MoC15]
  • For details of the service and pictures see BW13:726–32.
  • Sydney; Australia Mashriqul-Adhkar, Sydney; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Dedications
    1961 17 Sep The House of Worship in Sydney was officially opened by Hand of the Cause Rúhíyyih Khánum in two public services, each attended by 900 people. [BW13:732]
  • For message of the Custodians to the dedication service see MoC309–12.
  • For cable of the Custodians to the Bahá’ís of the world see MoC313.

    Specifics

      Location:Sydney, Australia (Ingleside on the MonaVale Road).
      Foundation Stone: 26 Jan 1958 (Clara Dunn and Hand of the Cause Charles Mason Remey, who had been designated by the Guardian as his representative, while attending the 2nd International Conference 21-24 March, 1958. A small bag of earth from the inner Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh and a piece of plaster from the room of the Báb in Máh-Kú was deposited under the floor.)
      Construction Period: 1957-1961
      Site Dedication:16 September 1961 (Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum brought a gift from the Guardian- a green silk carpet from the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh.)
      Architect C.M. Remey
      Seating: 500
      Dimensions: 124ft at the base and 130ft high
      Cost: Original budget was 120,000 Pounds Sterling
      Dependencies:
      References: BW13:319-322, BW13p720-732 CEBF241
  • Sydney; Australia Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Sydney; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Dedications; Clara Dunn; Charles Mason Remey; Architects; Boxes containing dust, earth or plaster; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Mah-Ku; Gifts; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1961 Oct The first summer school to be held on Rarotonga Island took place. Rarotonga; Cook Islands First summer and winter schools; Summer school; Islands first summer school on Rarotonga Island
    1961 (Autumn/Winter) The International Bahá’í Archives Building was opened to Bahá’í pilgrims. [BW13:429; MC20]
  • For details of the Archives building and several pictures see BW13:403–34.
  • Marble for the the International Baha’i Archives building was cut and chiseled by Margraf, a firm from Chiampo, Italy formerly known as Industria dei Marmi Vincentini. [BWNS1223]
  • BWC; Haifa International Bahai Archives; Pilgrimage; Marble; BWNS
    1961 15 Oct – 2 Nov The fifth Conclave of the Hands of the Cause of God was convened at Bahjí. [MoC297]
  • For the agenda see MoC298.
  • Akka Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Hands of the Cause, Conclaves; Bahji
    1961 22 Oct Mr. Sivalingam and Miss Puvaneswary were married in the first Bahá’í wedding in Malaysia. Malaysia Weddings; First weddings First Bahá’í wedding in Malaysia find reference
    1961 5 Nov The Hands of the Cause issued a message from their fifth Conclave. [MoC313–23]
  • They called for the election of the Universal House of Justice at a convention to be held in the Holy Land on the first, second and third days of Ridván 1963. [CB392; MoC321]
  • They asked the electors to leave the Hands free to ‘discharge their duties’. [MoC321]
  • The celebration of the Most Great Jubilee, the Centenary of the Declaration of Bahá’u’lláh, was to be held in London rather than Baghdád, owing to the situation in the Middle East. [MoC322]
  • Haifa; Baghdad; Iraq; London; United Kingdom Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Hands of the Cause, Conclaves; Bahji; Most Great Jubilee; World congresses; Centenaries; Universal House of Justice, Election of; UHJ
    1961 7 Dec An article appeared in the nationally prominent Moroccan newspaper Al Alam lamenting the decline of Islám and attacking the Bahá’í Faith. [MoC17]
  • This gave rise to persecution of the Bahá’ís in ensuing months.
  • Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1962 (In the year) Bahá’í homes in Morocco were searched by the police and Bahá’í literature seized. [MoC17] Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1962 (In the year) Thirty thousand new Bahá’ís enrolled in India in six months. [VV9] India Mass conversion
    1962 (In the year) The administrative institutions of the Faith were banned in Indonesia by President Sukarno. [BW19:41]
  • BW15:174 says this was in 1964, other indications are that it was around the time of the International Convention. [Servants of the Glory page 30]
  • Indonesia Persecution, Indonesia; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Z****
    1962 (In the year) Emeric Sala, made a visit to several islands in the Indian Ocean and reported that there were some 400 Bahá'ís in Mauritius of Indian, Moslem, Chinese, Creole and French descent. [TG163] Mauritius Emeric Sala
    1962 1 Jan Amelia Collins passed away in Haifa. (b. 7 June, 1873) [BW13:399, 840; MC12]
  • For her obituary see BW13:834–41.
  • Shoghi Effendi appointed her (publicly) among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
  • For the cable of the Hands of the Cause see MC333.
  • See also Faizí, Milly ,"The Fulfilled hope of 'Abdu'l-Bahá" by Richard Francis and PSBW73–106.
  • For a timeline of her life see Shareable Bahá'í Resources
  • While serving in Haifa she was given 'Abdu'l-Bahá's room. She was the last person to occupy it. [TG231]
  • Haifa Amelia Collins; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, First Contingent; In Memoriam
    1962 Jan A Bahá’í Professor of Fine Arts at the University of Tetuan, Morocco, was dismissed from his post and warned to have no association with other Bahá’ís. [MoC17] Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1962 Mar Aboubacar Kâ, a school teacher and the first Senegalese known to become a Bahá’í, enrolled. Senegal; Africa First Bahais by country or area the first Senegalese Bahá’í
    1962 Apr Virginia Breaks, Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for the Caroline Islands, moved to Saipan, the first pioneer to the area. Saipan Virginia Breaks; Knights of Bahaullah; Pioneers first pioneer Saipan
    1962 12 Apr Four Bahá’ís were arrested in Nador, Morocco. [BW13:289; BW14:97]
  • Eventually 14 Bahá’ís in total were arrested: 7 in Nador, 2 in Fez and 5 in Tetuan. [MoC17]
  • For an outline of the situation as it developed over 20 months see MC16–19.
  • Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1962 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Denmark was formed. [BW13:283]
  • For picture see BW13:276.
  • Denmark NSA first NSA Denmark
    1962 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Finland was formed. [BW13:283]
  • For picture see BW13:277.
  • Finland NSA first NSA Finland
    1962 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Italy was formed. [BW13:283]
  • For picture see BW13:278.
  • Italy NSA first NSA Italy
    1962 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Luxembourg was formed. [BW13:283]
  • For picture see BW13:279.
  • Luxembourg NSA first NSA Luxembourg
    1962 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Netherlands was formed. [BW13:283]
  • For picture see BW13:279.
  • Netherlands NSA first NSA Netherlands
    1962 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Norway was formed. [BW13:283]
  • For picture see BW13:280.
  • Norway NSA first NSA Norway
    1962 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Portugal was formed. [BW13:283]
  • For picture see BW13:280.
  • Portugal NSA first NSA Portugal
    1962 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Spain was formed. [BW13:283]
  • For picture see BW13:281.
  • Spain NSA first NSA Spain
    1962 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Sweden was formed. [BW13:283]
  • For picture see BW13:281.
  • Sweden NSA first NSA Sweden
    1962 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Switzerland was formed. [BW13:283]
  • For picture see BW13:282.
  • Switzerland NSA first NSA Switzerland
    1962 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Ceylon was formed in Colombo. [BW13:301] Colombo; Ceylon NSA first NSA Ceylon
    1962 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly of the Loyalty Islands was formed in Nouméa. Noumea; Loyalty Islands LSA first LSA Loyalty Islands
    1962 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Belgium was formed. [BW13:283]<
  • For picture see BW13:275.
  • Belgium NSA first NSA Belgium
    1962 22 May The first Athabascan Indian north of the Arctic Circle to become a Bahá’í, Charley Roberts, enrolled. [BW15:455] Canada First Bahais by country or area; Native Americans first Athabascan Indian Bahá’í north of the Arctic Circle
    1962 28 Jun President Tubman of Liberia visited the Shrine of the Báb.
  • This is the second official visit of a head of state and is notable in that Liberia is the first black republic on the continent of Africa. [BW13:400]
  • See BW13:400 for picture.
  • Haifa; Mount Carmel; Liberia Bab, Shrine of; Presidents; Prominent visitors; Firsts, Other
    1962 22 Aug The Custodians ask the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States to make representations to the diplomatic missions of Morocco in Washington and at the United Nations concerning the 14 Bahá’ís imprisoned in Morocco. [MoC368–9] United States; Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; NSA; Custodians
    1962 23 Sep The Custodians ask the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States to obtain an interview with the personal representative of the King of Morocco who heads that country’s delegation to the United Nations General Assembly in New York in connection with the Bahá’ís imprisoned in Morocco. [MoC373–4] United States; Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; NSA; United Nations
    1962 autumn A property was acquired outside of Gwalior, India, for a teaching institute. [DM192]
  • The institute was later converted into a boarding hostel solely for Indian children and still later into the ‘Rabbani School’, now an accredited agricultural school. [DM192–3; VV82]
  • Gwalior; India Teaching institutes; Rabbani School; Bahai schools; Social and economic development
    1962 31 Oct The 14 Bahá’ís imprisoned in Morocco were arraigned before the Regional Court of Nador. [BW13:289; MC18]
  • They were charged with rebellion and disorder, attacks on public security, constituting an association of criminals and attacks on religious faith. [BW13:289; BW14:97; MoC18]
  • Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases; Human rights
    1962 16 Nov The superstructure of the European House of Worship near Frankfurt was completed and the Temple was turned over to the Bahá’ís by the contractor. [BW13:737; MoC15] Langenhain; Frankfurt; Germany Mashriqul-Adhkar, Langenhain
    1962 10 Dec The trial of the 14 Bahá’ís imprisoned in Morocco on charges of sedition opened. [BW13:289; BW14:97]
  • The prosecution made no attempt to prove the charges against the accused. [BW13:289; BW14:97]
  • Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases; Human rights
    1962 14 Dec The Regional Court of Nador gave its verdict in the case of the 14 Bahá’ís imprisoned in Morocco on charges of sedition: four were acquitted on the grounds that they claim to be Muslims; one was acquitted apparently through family connections; one was released on 15 years’ probation owing to his diabetes; five were committed to life imprisonment; and three were condemned to death. [BBRSM174; MoC18–19]
  • The sentences were appealed to the Supreme Court. [BW13:289; BW14:97; MoC19]
  • Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases; Human rights
    1962 17 Dec The Custodians asked the Bahá’í International Community to issue press releases deploring Morocco’s persecution of religious minorities and pointing out its failure to adhere to the UN charter condemning religious intolerance. [MoC397] Morocco Custodians; Bahai International Community; Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights
    1962 21 Dec Telegrams were sent to 35 United Nations delegations appealing for help under the Genocide Convention for the Bahá’ís sentenced to death and imprisoned for life in Morocco. [BW13:794] Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; United Nations
    1962 23 Dec The Custodians asked national spiritual assemblies to cable Secretary General of the United Nations U Thant requesting his intervention on behalf of the Bahá’ís under sentence of death and imprisoned for life in Morocco. [BW13:794; MoC397–8] Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Custodians; NSA; United Nations
    1962 27 Dec The Custodians asked national and local spiritual assemblies to write to the Moroccan ambassador in their respective countries pleading for justice and religious freedom. [MoC398–9] Morocco; Worldwide Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Custodians; NSA; LSA
    1962 31 Dec The first indigenous local spiritual assembly in Venezuela was formed among the Yaruro Indians of Apure state in the village of Agua Linda. Agua Linda; Venezuela LSA; Indigenous people first indigenous LSA in Venezuela
    1963 (In the year) The passing of Hájí Mubárak, the servant of the Báb. He was born in 1823 and died at the age of 40. He was buried in the grounds of the Imam Husayn Shrine in Karbala, Iraq.
  • He had been purchased in Bushir at the age of 5 by Hájí Mírzá Abú'l-Qásím, the great-grandfather of Shoghi Effendi and brother-in-law of the Báb and was sold to the Báb in 1842, just prior to His wedding, at the age of 19 for fourteen tomans. [BP5, 18]
  • Bushihr; Iran; Karbala; Iraq Haji Mubarak; In Memoriam
    1963 (In the year) 15 years after the establishment of Israel and during the course of the unrest that swept through Iran in response to a set of far-reaching reforms launched by Muhammad-Ridá Sháh, Ayatollah Khomeini and the Association of Iranian Clerics, in two separate declarations, denounced Bahá'ís as agents and representatives of Israel, and demanded their severe repression.
          During the 1960s and 70s almost everything that troubled Iranian clerics was seen as evidence of a Bahá'í-Israeli plot against Islam. The Shah, who was harshly rebuked by the ‘ulama for his regime’s strong ties with Israel, was accused of being a Bahá'í because of some of the reforms he had introduced, notably his giving voting rights to women, and providing blue-collar industrial workers with a share of the profits earned by their companies. Various cultural events launched by the administration, some of which had clear Western tones, were seen as Bahá'í plots to undermine the Islamic identity of Iranians. Iranian ministers and courtiers were almost collectively accused of being Bahá'ís. Even Iran’s notorious intelligence agency, SAVAK, whose strong anti-leftist agenda had naturally led to its inclination to recruit people with Islamic ties, and which had obvious connections with the Hujjatieh society – the self-professed arch-enemies of the Bahá'ís – was seen as nothing more than a Bahá'í puppet. Consequently, the 1979 Islamic Revolution came about not just as an uprising against the Shah, but supposedly as a reaction to an Israeli-Bahá'í threat. [Iran Press Watch 1407]
    Iran; Israel Conspiracy Theories; Ayatollah Khomeini; Shahs; Mohammed Reza Shah Pahlavi; Reform; History (general); Iran, General history; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1963 (In the year) In Angola, Antonio Francesco Ebo and seven other Bahá’ís were arrested and imprisoned in a penal colony off the coast of southern Angola.
  • They remained in confinement for eight years.
  • Angola Persecution, Angola; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1963 1 Jan The Custodians ask all national and local spiritual assemblies to cable the King of Morocco appealing for justice for the Bahá’ís under sentence of death and imprisoned for life in his country. [BW14:97; MoC19] Morocco; Worldwide Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Custodians; NSA; LSA
    1963 18 Jan First Bahá'í marriage in Taiwan was between Miss Yeh Chan-ching and Mr Yang Su-thou. Official government recognition of the Bahá'í marriage was obtained in 1973. [The Taiwan Bahá'í Chronicle by Barbara R. Sims p37] Taiwan Weddings; Firsts, Other; Recognition First Bahá'í marriage in Taiwan find reference
    1963 31 Jan Roger Baldwin, Chairman of the International League for the Rights of Man, appeared before the UN sub-commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities and stated that, as far they know; the Bahá’í prisoners in Morocco were the only example in recent history where members of a religion had been condemned to death solely for holding and expressing religious views regarded as heretical. [MoC415–16] Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; United Nations
    1963 31 Mar King Hassan II of Morocco stateed in a televised interview in the United States that the Bahá’í Faith was not a religion and is ‘against good order and also morals’. [MoC415] Morocco King Hassan II; Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1963 2 Apr King Hassan II of Morocco made a public statement promising that if the Supreme Court upheld the decision condemning three Bahá’í prisoners to death, he would grant them a royal pardon. [MoC416] Morocco King Hassan II; Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases; Human rights
    1963 4 Apr The Custodians issued a statement of information to the national spiritual assemblies of the United States and Europe regarding the Bahá’ís imprisoned in Morocco and under threat of death, reminding them that clemency or a pardon are not sufficient, as the condemned Bahá’ís cannot be pardoned for a crime they did not commit. [MoC414]
  • For text of statement see MC414–20.
  • Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Custodians; NSA
    1963 9 Apr The sixth Conclave of the Hands of the Cause of God was convened at Bahjí.
  • For the agenda see MoC404.
  • For cabled message from the Conclave see MoC420.
  • Akka Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Hands of the Cause, Conclaves; Bahji
    1963 20 Apr The Ten Year Crusade was successfully completed. The achievements of the Ten Year Crusade were celebrated at the Most Great Jubilee in April and May 1963, which commemorated the Centenary of the Declaration of Baha’u’llah’s Mission. Two historic events transpired during that time: the International Convention, convened in Haifa, Israel, to elect the first Universal House of Justice; and the World Congress held in London, England.
  • For a summary of achievements during the Crusade see BW13:459–60.
  • For countries, islands and dependencies opened to the Faith during the Crusade see BW13:461–2. (259)
  • For number of localities in which Bahá’ís reside in different parts of the world see BW13:462. (from 2,000 to more than 11,000)
  • For languages into which Bahá’í literature has been translated see BW13:462–4.
  • For races represented in the Bahá’í world community see BW13:464.
  • For national spiritual assemblies at the end of the plan see BW13:468–9. (from 12 to 56)
  • Worldwide; BWC; London; United Kingdom Ten Year Crusade; Most Great Jubilee; Conventions, International; Growth; Statistics; Teaching plans; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline
    1963 21 Apr Establishment of the Universal House of Justice
  • The Universal House of Justice was elected for the first time. [BW14:427; MoC424]
  • The election was held at 9:30 in the morning at the home of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, 7 Haparsim Street, Haifa. [BW14:427; MoC425]
  • Ballots were received from all 56 national spiritual assemblies. [BW14:427]
  • 288 members of 51 national spiritual assemblies were present at the election. [BW14:427]
  • For a list of the electors see MoC406–13.
  • For details of the election see BW14:425–9 and MoC20–1.
  • Haifa; BWC Universal House of Justice, Election of; Conventions, International; Elections; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Firsts, Other; Appointed arm; Universal House of Justice, Basic timeline; Covenant (general); Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline first Universal House of Justice elected.
    1963 21 – 23 Apr The First International Convention was convened in Haifa. [MoC424]
  • For programme see MoC424–5.
  • For details of the Convention and pictures see BW14:425–30.
  • Haifa; BWC Conventions, International; First conventions first International Convention
    1963 22 Apr The results of the election of the Universal House of Justice were announced at the close of the morning session of the International Convention: Charles Wolcott, ‘Alí Nakhjavání, H. Borrah Kavelin, Ian Semple, Lutfu’lláh Hakím, David Hofman, Hugh Chance, Amoz Gibson and Hushmand Fatheazam. [BBD231–3; BBRSM131; BW14:425 MoC425; SS50; VVXI-XII]
  • For a picture of the Hands of the Cause of God with the Universal House of Justice see ZK123.
  • Haifa; BWC Charles Wolcott; Ali Nakhjavani; H. Borrah Kavelin; Ian Semple; Lutfullah Hakim; David Hofman; Hugh Chance; Amoz Gibson; Hushmand Fatheazam; Universal House of Justice, Election of; Elections; Conventions, International; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Firsts, Other Mr Amos Gibson was the first black member of the Universal House of Justice
    1963 23 Apr The State funeral of Izhak Ben Zvi, second President of Israel was attended by two Hands of the Cause and two members of the Universal House of Justice. [BW14:92–3]
  • This was the first official act of the Universal House of Justice. [BW14:92–3]
  • Israel Izhak Ben Zvi first official act of UHJ
    1963 28 Apr - 2 May The first Bahá’í World Congress, the ‘Most Great Jubilee’, was held in London to celebrate the centenary of the declaration of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW14:57]
  • For a detailed account and many pictures see BW14:57–80.
  • For the programme of speakers see BW14:60–1.
  • Some 6,000 Bahá’ís attend.
  • London; United Kingdom Most Great Jubilee; World Congresses; Centenaries; Bahaullah, Declaration of; First conferences; - Basic timeline, Expanded first Bahá’í World Congress
    1963 30 Apr The members of the Universal House of Justice were presented to the World Congress and the first statement of the House of Justice was read by David Hofman. [BW14:68]
  • For the text of the statement see BW14:431–2 and WG1–3.
  • London; United Kingdom David Hofman; Universal House of Justice, Members of; World Congresses first statement of UHJ
    1963 7 May The Universal House of Justice issued its first message to national conventions. [WG4–8]
  • It announced that the body had no officers and that its communications will be signed ‘Universal House of Justice’ over an embossed seal. [WG6]
  • It paid tribute to the Hands of the Cause. [WG5]
    • See the message from the Universal House of Justice dated 26 November, 2007 for a list of accomplishments of the Hands of the Cause during the period between the passing of the Guardian and the election of the Universal House of Justice.
  • BWC Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; UHJ; Universal House of Justice (general); Universal House of Justice, Letters and messages first message to national conventions by UHJ
    1963 9 May The Hands of the Cause of God passed a resolution regarding the principles that will apply between the body of the Hands and the Hands Residing in the Holy Land and the activities of the Hands in the Holy Land. [MoC426]
  • Five Hands of the Cause were assigned to the Holy Land.
  • Haifa Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities
    1963 10 May The passing of F. St. George Spendlove (b. 23 April, 1897 in Montreal) in Toronto.
  • He was part of the community of early believers in Montreal where he learned about the Faith after returning from the war in Europe.
  • He was a curator of the Canadian Collection at the Royal Ontario Museum. The Face of Early Canada, published in 1958, was illustrated with pieces from this collection. A second book, Collectors’ Luck, followed in 1960. [BW13p895–899]
  • See Bahá'ís of Canada.
  • Toronto George Spendlove; In Memoriam
    1963 19 May The Hands of the Cause cabled the annual conventions with the names of the five Hands chosen to reside in the Holy Land: Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum, Leroy Ioas, ‘Alí-Akbar Furútan, Paul Haney and Abu’l-Qásim Faizí. [MoC427] Haifa Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Leroy Ioas; Ali Akbar Furutan; Paul Haney; Abul-Qasim Faizi
    1963 5 Jun onwards Throughout Iran, advantage is taken of the general anti-government disorder to launch attacks on Bahá’ís in several localities under the cover of these disturbances. [BW18:391]
  • The Bahá’í cemetery in Tihrán was attacked, its buildings burnt and graves desecrated. [BW18:391]
  • Bahá’í houses were attacked and burned at Árán and the local Bahá’í centre was attacked. [BW18:391]
  • The Bahá’í centre at Isfahán was attacked. [BW18:391]
  • Several Bahá’í homes and businesses were attacked in Shíráz. BW18:391]
  • An attack on the House of the Báb in Shíráz was attempted. BW18:391]
  • Bahá’ís were dismissed from government employment. [BW18:391]
  • Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1963 7 Jun The Custodians published a Declaration ‘releasing all their functions, rights and powers conferred upon them by the Declaration of the Hands, November 25, 1957, to the Universal House of Justice’. [MoC433]
  • This was in accordance with the terms of the original document which provided for the Hands to exercise these functions until the election of the Universal House of Justice. [MoC431]
  • Haifa; BWC Custodians
    1963 16 Jun The Universal House of Justice announced that it will for the present time, use the Western Pilgrim House at 10 Haparsim Street, Haifa, as its seat and that both the Eastern and Western pilgrims will be housed in the Haifa Pilgrim House. [WG9] Haifa Western Pilgrim House; Universal House of Justice, Seat of; Pilgrimage
    1963 31 Jul The passing of Dr Genevieve Coy (b.1886) in Harare, Zimbabwe. [Bahá'í Chronicles, Baha’i Heroes & Heroines, grave]
  • See as well In His Presence: Visits to 'Abdu'l-Bahá by Roy Wilhelm, Stanwood Cobb, and Genevieve L. Coy published by Kalimat Press in 1989.
  • Harare; Zimbabwe Genevieve Coy; In Memoriam
    1963 25 Aug The Universal House of Justice announceed the demolition of the House of Worship in ‘Ishqábád (now Ashgabat, Turkmenistan) by the Soviet authorities owing to earthquake damage. [BBD122; BW14:479–81]
  • For a picture of the damaged Temple see BW14:481.
  • Ishqabad; Turkmenistan; Soviet Union; Russia Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Earthquakes; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship)
    1963 Oct After the International Conference in London, those members of the newly elected Universal House of Justice who were not already resident in Haifa returned to their homes to make plans to relocate. This was finally completed by October.
  • The Universal House of Justice announced the launch, at Ridván 1964, of the Nine Year Plan. [WG14]
  • As a preliminary step 19 new national spiritual assemblies were to be formed at Ridván 1964. [WG15–17]
  • The next election of the Universal House of Justice will be in spring 1968. [WG17]
  • The Faith had now entered the third epoch of the formative age. [WG17]
  • BWC Nine Year Plan (1964-1973); Formative age; Ages and Epochs; Universal House of Justice
    1963 6 Oct The Universal House of Justice cabled that it found that ‘there is no way to appoint or to legislate to make it possible to appoint a second Guardian to succeed Shoghi Effendi’. [WG11]
  • See an interview with Mr Ian Semple in which he provides background to the decision and the process by which it was made.
  • BWC; Haifa Guardianship
    1963 1 Nov The first person on Saipan to become a Bahá’í, Patience Robinson, enrolled. Saipan; Northern Mariana Islands First Bahais by country or area first Bahá’í, on Saipan
    1963 23 Nov At the request of the Universal House of Justice, Bahá’ís around the world prayed at the Feast of Qawl for favourable action to be taken in the case of the Bahá’ís under threat of death and imprisoned in Morocco. [BW14:98]
  • Shortly after the Feast the Moroccan Supreme Court heard the appeals, reversed the decision of the trial court and ordered the release of the prisoners. [BW14:98]
  • Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Court cases; Human rights; Custodians; UHJ
    1963 13 Dec The Bahá’í prisoners in Morocco were released on order of the Supreme Court. [BW14:98; MoC19]
  • For a picture of the release of the Moroccan Bahá’í prisoners see BW14:97.
  • Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Court cases; Human rights
    1964 (In the year) Four new believers in Cambodia were arrested and imprisoned as the Bahá’í Faith was not formally recognized and the Bahá’ís did not have permission to teach.
  • See Servants of the Glory page 26.
  • Cambodia Persecution, Cambodia; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; Z****
    1964 (Unsure of date) Rex and Mary Collision, Knights of Bahá'u'lláh for Ruanda-Urandi (now the independent countries of Rwanda and Burundi), returned to the United States after three year's service at the Temple in Kampala.
  • Photo.
  • Kampala; Uganda Rex Collison; Mary Collision
    1964 3 Feb Hand of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum and her companion Violette Nakhjavání left Haifa at the start of their 55,000 mile, 9-month journey through India, Ceylon, Nepal and Sikkim. [AV114; VV11] Haifa; India; Sri Lanka; Nepal; Sikkim Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum, Journeys of; Violette Nakhjavani
    1964 8 Mar A cable was sent from Temuco, Chile to the Bahá'í World Centre by Hand of the Cause Jalál Kházeh announcing that mass teaching had started among the Mapuche tribes in Cautin province in southern Chile. As of that time there were close to 9,000 Mapuche believers and more than 90 local spiritual assemblies in the provinces of Cautin, Malleco and Arauco. [BN 136 April 1979 p4-5] Temuco; Chile Mass teaching; Jalal Khazeh; Mapuche; Z****
    1964 22 Mar The Faith was brought to St Vincent for the first time by Shirley Jackson, who returned to the island the day after having become a Bahá’í while on a visit to her native home in Grenada.
  • Later in the year she enrolled the first Bahá’ís on St Vincent.
  • St Vincent First Bahais by country or area first Bahá’í on St Vincent
    1964 Apr The Universal House of Justice, in its message of 24 April, 1964 called for the acquisition of thirty-two Teaching Institutes during the Nine Year Plan (1964-1973) in areas where there was large-scale teaching. BWC Teaching Institutes; Nine Year Plan (1964-1973)
    1964 Apr The chief of the Arpushana clan of the Guajiros, Francisco Pimienta Arpushana, became a Bahá’í in Colombia and teaching work began among his people. [BW14:319] Colombia Francisco Pimienta Arpushana
    1964 Ridván The Nine Year Plan (1964-1973) was launched. [BBRSM159; BW14:101; VV1; WG22–7]<
  • This marked the beginning of the second epoch of Abdu’l-Bahá’s Divine Plan. [AWH178]
  • For letter of the Universal House of Justice announcing the Plan see BW14:102–4.
  • For an analysis of the details of the national plans sent to 69 national spiritual assemblies see BW14:104–23.
  • BWC Nine Year Plan (1964-1973); Teaching Plans; Formative age; Ages and Epochs; Tablets of the Divine Plan
    1964 Ridván The Universal House of Justice released statistics on the growth and spread of the Bahá’í Faith at Ridván. [BW14:124–35] Worldwide Statistics; Growth; Ten Year Crusade
    1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of West Africa was formed with its seat in Monrovia.
  • Prior to this the NSA for North West Africa was established in 1956 with the assistance of the NSA of Egypt. It included 25 territories: Tunisia (secretarial seat in Tunis), Algeria, Morocco (International Zone), Spanish Morocco, French Morocco, Spanish Sahara, Rio de Oro, Spanish Guinea, Ashanti Protectorate, French Cameroons, British Cameroons, Northern Territories Protectorate, French Togoland, British Togoland, Gambia, Portuguese Guinea, French West Africa, the Gold Coast, Liberia, Nigeria, SIerra Leone, Madeira,[1] the Canary Island, Cape Verde Islands, and St. Thomas Island. The Assembly was established with about 1,000 Bahá'ís, and 38 Local Assemblies (BW18,624). The seat of the NSA was transferred from Tunis to Rabat. [Bahá'í World 1954-63, 287; Bahá'í Communities by Country:Research Notes by Graham Hassall]
  • Monrovia; West Africa NSA first NSA West Africa
    1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Kenya was formed with its seat in Nairobi. Nairobi NSA first NSA Kenya
    1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Tanganyika and Zanzibar was formed with its seat in Dar-es-Salaam. Dar-es-Salaam; Tanganyika (Tanzania); Tanzania; Zanzibar NSA first NSA Tanganyika and Zanzibar
    1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of South Central Africa was formed with its seat in Salisbury. Salisbury NSA first NSA South Central Africa
    1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of South and West Africa was formed with its seat in Johannesburg. Johannesburg NSA first NSA South and West Africa
    1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Indian Ocean was formed with its seat in Port Louis. Port Louis NSA first NSA Indian Ocean
    1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the Hawaiian Islands was formed with its seat in Honolulu. Honolulu NSA first NSA Hawaiian Islands
    1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the South Pacific Ocean was formed with its seat in Suva. Suva NSA first NSA South Pacific Ocean
    1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the South West Pacific Ocean was formed with its seat in Honiara. Honiara NSA first NSA South West Pacific Ocean
    1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of North East Asia was formed with its seat in Tokyo. Tokyo NSA first NSA North East Asia
    1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Korea was formed with its seat in Seoul. Seoul NSA first NSA Korea
    1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Malaysia was formed with its seat in Kuala Lumpur. Kuala Lumpur NSA first NSA Malaysia
    1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Indonesia was formed with its seat in Djakarta. Djakarta NSA first NSA Indonesia
    1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Viet Nam was formed with its seat in Saigon. Saigon NSA first NSA Viet Nam
    1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Thailand was formed with its seat in Bangkok. Bangkok NSA first NSA Thailand
    1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Philippines was formed with its seat in Manila. Manila NSA first NSA Philippines
    1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of was North West Africa formed with its seat in Tunis. Tunis NSA first NSA North West Africa
    1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of West Central Africa was formed with its seat in Victoria, Cameroon. Victoria; Cameroon NSA first NSA West Central Africa
    1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Uganda and Central Africa was formed with its seat in Kampala. Kampala NSA first NSA Uganda and Central Africa
    1964 Jun Isaac Eziukwu, a Nigerian who had become a Bahá’í in Bangui, Central African Republic, in 1956, arrived in Libreville, Gabon, the first pioneer to the country. [BW16:522–3] Libreville; Gabon Isaac Eziukwu first pioneer to Gabon
    1964 4 Jul The House of Worship in Langenhain, Germany, was dedicated. [BW14:483–4]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW14:485–6.
  • For pictures see BW14:482, 483, 485, 491.
  • For a description of the teaching conference accompanying the dedication see BW14:586–8.
  • See also MC14–15; PP432–4.
  • See this brief film on Vimeo on the life of Anneliese Bopp and her part in the building of this Temple.

    Specifics

      Location: Frankfurt, Germany (near the village of Langenhain in the Taunus Hills)
      Foundation Stone: 20 November 1960 by Hand of the Cause Amelia Collins representing the World Centre. She placed Sacred Dust from the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh in the foundations.
      Construction Period: 1960-1964
      Site Dedication:4 July 1964 Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum represented the Universal House of Justice.
      Architect: Teuto Rocholl (plans approved by Shoghi Effendi)
      Seating:450 – 600
      Dimensions: Diameter at the base: 158ft, Inner diameter: 23m (69ft), Inner height of the dome: 24m (72ft). Height 20.5m (93ft)
      Cost:
      Dependencies: A home for the aged.
      Note: The construction of this temple was delayed by legal roadblocks instigated by church opposition, both Protestant and Catholic.
      References: BW14p483, BW14p483-484, BW18p104, CEBF241
  • Langenhain; Frankfurt; Germany; Europe Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Langenhain; Amelia Collins; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Teuto Rocholl; Architects; Boxes containing dust, earth or plaster; Bahaullah, Shrine of; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1964 19 Sep Prince Sihanouk Norodom, Head of State, and Prince Kantol Norodom, Prime Minister, signed a decree authorizing the exercise of the Bahá’í Faith in Cambodia and recognizing the Bahá’í World Centre in Haifa. Cambodia Recognition
    1964 Nov The Universal House of Justice announced that ‘there is no way to appoint, or to legislate to make it possible to appoint, Hands of the Cause of God’. [WG41]
  • For decisions of the Universal House of Justice regarding the development of the institution of the Hands of the Cause of God see WG40–3.
  • Haifa; BWC Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Institution; Appointed arm; Universal House of Justice; Universal House of Justice, Basic timeline
    1964 5 Nov Followers of Charles Mason Remey filed suit in the United States District Court for Northern Illinois against the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States, claiming they were the rightful owners of all Bahá’í properties and funds in the United States. [BW14:95]
  • The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States filed a counter-claim asking the court to restrain the Covenant-breakers from using Bahá’í names and symbols protected by trademark. [BW14:95]
  • United States Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; NSA; Court cases; Copyright and trademarks; Criticism and apologetics
    1964 - 1965 A Bahá’í Publishing Trust for the provision of literature in the French language was established in Brussels. [Riḍván 1965] Brussels Baha’i Publishing Trust; Z****
    1965 (In the year) The first pioneer to the San Andrés and Providencia Islands settled there briefly. San Andres and Providencia Islands First travel teachers and pioneers first pioneer to the San Andrés and Providencia Islands
    1965 (In the year) William Carr visited Alert in Canada, only 800 km from the North Pole and the most northerly inhabited location in the world. Alert; Canada William Carr; Arctic
    1965 (In the year) Nils and Sigrid Rutfjäll, the first Samer (Lapps) to become Bahá’ís, enrolled in northern Norway. [BW5:483] Sapmi (Lapland); Norway First believers by background; Indigenous people; Sami people first Samer (Lapps) Bahá’ís
    1965 (In the year) Emma Reinert, the first Faroese to become a Bahá’í, enrolled. Faroe Islands First Bahais by country or area first Faroese Bahá’í
    1965 Feb Jean and Ivanie Désert and their three children arrived in Guadeloupe from Haiti, the first Bahá’ís to settle on the island. Guadeloupe First Bahais by country or area first Bahá’ís to settle on Guadeloupe
    1965 18 Mar The Bahá’í International Community established its own offices in the United Nations Plaza Building in New York. [BW14:90, BIC-History] New York BIC; United Nations
    1965 23 Mar The case filed by the followers of Charles Mason Remey against the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States was dismissed on technical grounds. [BW14:95]
  • The Covenant-breakers filed a further suit. [BW14:95]
  • United States Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; National Spiritual Assemblies; Court cases; Copyright and trademarks
    1965 Apr Franklin Bozor, an agricultural labourer, and Pierre Defoe were the first persons to become Bahá’ís in Guadeloupe. Guadeloupe First Bahais by country or area first Bahá’ís Guadeloupe
    1965 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Iceland was formed in Reykjavik. Its members were Asgeir Einarsson, Kirsten Bonnevie, Florence Grindlay, Jessie Echevarria, Carl John Spencer, Charles Grindlay, Liesel Becker, Barbel Thinat and Nicholas Echevarria. [Bahá'í News (417): 10, December 1965] Reykjavik LSA first LSA Iceland
    1965 15 Jul Hendrik Olsen, the first indigenous Greenlander to become a Bahá’í, enrolled. Greenland Hendrik Olsen; First Bahais by country or area first indigenous Bahá’í in Greenland
    1965 22 Jul Leroy Ioas, Hand of the Cause of God, passed away in Haifa. (b.15 February, 1896 in Wilmington, IL). He was known as "the Guardian's Hercules" and was praised by Shoghi Effendi for his "tireless vigilance, self-sacrifice, and devotion to the Cause in all its multiple fields of activity, in 'prodigious labours' and his 'stupendous efforts'. [BW14:291-300, VV7]
  • For his obituary see BW14:291–300.
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
  • For cable of the Universal House of Justice see WG157.
  • For a short biography see LoF265-275.
  • See Leroy Ioas: Hand of the Cause of God by Anita Ioas Chapman, published by George Ronald, 1998
  • Bahaipedia.
  • Shoghi Effendi named the inner front door of the Shrine of the Báb "Báb-i-Ioas".
  • Haifa; Wilmington, Leroy Ioas; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, First Contingent; Anita Ioas Chapman
    1965 1 Aug Mrs Ridván Sadeghzadeh and Mrs Parvine Djoneidi and their children arrived in Niamey, Niger, from Tihrán, the first Bahá’ís to settle in the country. Niamey; Niger First travel teachers and pioneers first Bahá’ís to settle in Niger
    1965 Aug Thaddeus Smith, Clara Smith, Nando Valle, Evert Scott, Gloria Scott, Thomas Seymour and Lawrence Jebbers, the first to become Bahá’ís in the Cayman Islands, enrolled in George Town owing to the efforts of Ivan A. Graham, a Jamaican Bahá’í. George Town; Cayman Islands First Bahais by country or area; Islands first Bahá’ís in Cayman Islands
    1965 19 Sep Walter Garland and Miss Annie Lourie Williams, the first to become Bahá’ís on Grand Turk Island, enrolled. Grand Turk Island; Central America First Bahais by country or area first Bahá’ís on Grand Turk Island
    1965 Oct Alice Grey, the first person to become a Bahá’í on South Caicos Island, enrolled. South Caicos Island Alice Grey first Bahá’í on South Caicos Island
    1965 11 Nov The Universal House of Justice announced that the ‘final step’ in the ‘process’ of the ‘purification’ of the Bahá’í properties in Bahjí had been taken with the removal of the remains of the Covenant-breaker Mírzá Díyá’u’lláh from the immediate precincts of the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW14:82–3; Mess63-86p66]
  • Díyá'u'lláh (15 August 1864 - 30 October 1898) was the second son of Bahá'u'lláh's second wife Fatimih (also known as Mahd-i-'Ulya). He was born in Edirne and died on 30 October 1898 in Haifa. See The Child of the Covenant p150-151 for a description of the vacillating behaviour of Díyá’u’lláh.
  • Akka Bahji; Covenant-breakers; Mirza Diyaullah; Bahaullah, Shrine of
    1965 12 Nov Mr Jazy Souleymane, a teacher and the first person in Niger to become a Bahá’í, enrolled. Niger Jazy Souleymane first Bahá’í in Niger
    1966 (In the year) In Iraq the national and one local Ḥaẓíratu’l-Quds were seized and the activities of the friends were severely restricted. [Ridván Message, 1966] Persecution, Iraq; Z****
    1966 (In the year) Florence Parry, the first to become a Bahá’í in the West Leeward Islands, enrolled. West Leeward Islands Florence Parry first Bahá’í in West Leeward Islands
    1966 (In the year) Tommy Kabu, a prominent person from the village of Ara’ava in the Gulf Province and the first in the Territory of Papua to become a Bahá’í, enrolled. [BW15:459–60] Papua First Bahais by country or area first Bahá’í in Territory of Papua
    1966 (In the year) Jesus Bias Manibusan of Sinajana, Guam, the first Chamorro to become a Bahá’í, enrolled. Sinajana; Guam Jesus Bias Manibusan first Chamorro Bahá’í
    1966 (In the year) Mm. Marion Magnée arrived in Mali from Belgium, the first Bahá’í to settle in the country. Mali Marion Magnee first Bahá’í to settle in Mali
    c. 1966 – 1967 The island of Niue was opened to the Bahá’í Faith for the first time. Niue
    1966 Feb The first members of the Yao tribe become Bahá’ís in Laos enrolled. [BW14:150] Laos First believers by background first Bahá’ís of Yao tribe
    1966 8 Mar The second suit brought against the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States by the followers of Charles Mason Remey, who claimed to he the lawful owners of all Bahá’í properties and funds in the United States, was dismissed. [BW14:95] United States Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; National Spiritual Assemblies; Court cases; Copyright and trademarks
    1966 11 Mar Eduardo Duarte Vieira was arrested in Portuguese Guinea on a charge of subversive political activity following a period of increasing pressure and harassment instigated by the clergy. He had been detained, maltreated and brutally beaten on several occasions since becoming a Bahá’í. [BW14:390] Portuguese Guinea (Guinea Bissau); Guinea Bissau Eduardo Duarte Vieira; Persecution, Guinea Bissau; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1966 22 Mar Napoleon Bergarnaschi, an Alaskan Eskimo, and his three children open St Lawrence Island to the Bahá’í Faith. [BW14:146] St Lawrence Island Napoleon Bergarnaschi first Bahá'í to settle on St Lawrence Island
    1966 31 Mar While in the custody of the Portuguese authorities Eduardo Duarte Vieira died in prison in Portuguese Guinea (now Guinea Bissau) after twenty days of torture. He was named the first African martyr. [BW14:390, BW16:568]
  • For his obituary see BW14:389–90.
  • For the messages to his wife and children he scratched on a biscuit box. See BW14:390–1.
  • Portuguese Guinea (Guinea Bissau); Guinea Bissau Eduardo Duarte Vieira; Persecution, Guinea Bissau; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Firsts, Other first African martyr
    1966 7 Apr The passing of Ali Kuli Khan (b. Káshán Persia, about 1879) in Washington, DC. [BW14p351]
  • For information on his burial place see Rock Creek Cemetery.
  • For a short biography and recollections by Ali Kuli Khan see World Order, 6.1 p29-41.
  • Washington DC; United States; Kashan; Persia Ali-Kuli Khan; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1966 14 Apr Jessie Revell, formerly a member of the International Bahá’í Council, passed away in Haifa. [BW14:300]
  • For her obituary see BW14:300–3.
  • Haifa Jessie Revell; Births and deaths
    1966 17 April Ivor Ellard, a British resident of the United States, arrived Dominica, the first pioneer to the island.
  • Two days later William Nedden settled on the island.
  • Dominica First Bahais by country or area first pioneer to Dominica
    1966 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Senegal was formed in Dakar. Dakar; Senegal LSA first LSA in Senegal
    1966 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Suriname was formed in Paramaribo. Paramaribo; Suriname LSA first LSA in Suriname
    1966 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Brunei was formed with its seat in Brunei town. [BW14:99] Brunei NSA first NSA Brunei
    1966 19 May The first legally recognized Bahá’í wedding in Europe took place in Finland. [BW14:154] Finland Weddings; Firsts, Other; Recognition first legally recognized Bahá’í wedding in Europe
    1966 1 Jun The counter-claim of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States against the followers of Charles Mason Remey restraining them from using Bahá’í names and symbols, was upheld when the Covenant-breakers failed to appear at the trial. [BW14:95] United States Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; National Spiritual Assemblies; Copyright and trademarks; Court cases; Criticism and apologetics
    1966 10 Jun The Universal House of Justice addressed its first letter to ‘Bahá’í Youth in Every Land’. [BW15:324; WG92–7] Haifa UHJ first letter to Bahá’í Youth from UHJ
    1966 29 Sep Frances A. Foss, the first pioneer on St Maarten, arrived in Philipsburg. Philipsburg; St Maarten Frances A. Foss; pioneer first pioneer on St Maarten
    1966 29 Sep The Bahá'í Faith was officially recognized as a religious organization by the Icelandic government which gave it the right to legally perform marriages and other ceremonies as well as entitle it to a share of the church tax in proportion to its number of adult members. [Wikipedia] Iceland Legal recognition
    1966 7 Nov The first local spiritual assembly in Niger was formed in Niamey. Niamey LSA first LSA in Niger
    1966 Dec A campaign was launched against the Bahá’ís of Saysán, Ádharbáyján, by Mullá Mihdí Sultánpúr. [BW18:391] Saysan; Adharbayjan Persecution, Adharbayjan; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1966 12 Dec The Hand of the Cause John Robarts departed Africa from Cape Town after a stay of nearly 13 years. They were recalled from their pioneer post by the Universal House of Justice to help Canada win the goals of the Nine Year Plan. The objective was to raise 154 local assemblies by 1973 but the count had fallen from 68 to only 50, eighteen less than the number won during the Ten Year Plan and 104 short of the objective. [LNW158] Cape Town; South Africa; Canada John Robarts; Hands of the Cause
    1966 (Late in the year) Lorraine Landau arrived on Saba in the West Leeward Islands, the first Bahá’í to settle on the island. Saba Lorraine Landau first Bahá’í to settle on West Leeward Islands
    1967 (In the year) The beginning of the publication of a magazine for the Bahá'í children of Iran called Varqā. The magazine was published regularly each month until 1979 and was supported by subscribers all over the country and abroad. It played a significant role in the educational and intellectual life of Persian Bahá'í children for more than a decade. After the 1979 revolution, the magazine has continued to be published in India. [BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati] Iran Varqa; publications; Z****
    1967 (In the year) The Universal House of Justice published a compilation of Bahá'u'lláh's messages titled The Proclamation of Bahá'u'lláh to the Kings and Leaders of the World to mark the 100th anniversary of the inception of that proclamation. Bahá'í institutions worldwide were asked to present the book to the leaders of government in their respective countries. Some 140 Heads of State received a copy. [MUHJ63-86p113] BWC Proclamation of Bahaullah (book); Tablets to kings and rulers; Bahaullah, Writings of; Publications
    1967 c. Egbert Barrett arrived on Carriacou from Grenada, the first pioneer to the island. Carriacou Egbert Barrett; pioneer first pioneer to Carriacou
    1967 (In the year) Mr O. T. Shelton arrived on St Eustatius in the West Leeward Islands, the first pioneer to the island. West Leeward Islands First travel teachers and pioneers first pioneer to St Eustatius
    1967 (In the year) Victor de Araujo was appointed by the Universal House of Justice as the full-time Accredited Representative of the Bahá’í International Community to the United Nations; Mildred Mottahedeh was appointed Alternate Representative. [BW14:88–9; BW15:364]
  • For picture see BW15:365.
  • New York; United States Victor de Araujo; Mildred Mottahedeh; Bahai International Community; United Nations
    1967 (In the year) The first Mataco Indians to become Bahá’ís enrolled in Argentina. [BW14:150] Argentina First believers by background first Mataco Indians Bahá’ís
    1967 – 1968 Cleophas Koko Vava, a Togolese employed at the American Cultural Centre as a librarian to the United States Information Service and the first person to become a Bahá’í in Chad, enrolled. Chad First Bahais by country or area first Bahá’í in Chad
    1967 – 1968 Rhoda Vaughn arrived on Bonaire and remained for nine months, the first Bahá’í to visit the island. Bonaire First travel teachers and pioneers first Bahá’í to visit Bonaire
    1967 1 Jan A Bahá’í was beaten to death by a mob in Saysán, Ádharbáyján, and other Bahá’ís were attacked and beaten. [BW18:391] Saysan; Adharbayjan Persecution, Adharbayjan; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Mobs; Persecution
    1967 21 Feb The Universal House of Justice established the International Bahá’í Audio-Visual Centre in Victor, New York. [BW14:91–2] Victor; New York; United States Audio-Visual Centres; Universal House of Justice
    1967 Mar The first Bahá’í summer school in Liberia began. [BW14:174] Liberia Summer schools; First summer and winter schools first Bahá’í summer school in Liberia
    1967 24 - 26 Mar The Arctic Policy Conference was held in Toronto. Present were 16 attendees, Hand of the Cause John Robarts, representatives of the National Spiritual Assembly, the Auxiliary Board, the National Pioneer Committee and individuals involved in the teaching work in the Arctic. It was decided to establish Bahá'í houses in Frobisher Bay in the District of Franklin, Baker Lake in the District of Keewatin and Yellowknife in the District of Mackenzie. [SDSC278]
  • Photo of Bahá'í House in Baker Lake.
  • Toronto; Frobisher Bay; Baker Lake; Yellowknife; Canada John Robarts; Bahai centres
    1967 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Sikkim was formed with its seat in Gangtok. [BW14:99] Gangtok; Sikkim; India NSA first NSA Sikkim
    1967 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Laos was formed with its seat in Vientiane. [BW14:99] Vientiane; Laos NSA first NSA Laos
    1967 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Taiwan was formed with its seat in Taipei. [BW14:99; The Taiwan Bahá'í Chronicle by Barbara R. Sims p51] Taipei; Taiwan NSA first NSA Taiwan
    1967 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Cameroon Republic was formed with its seat in Victoria. [BW14:96] Victoria; Cameroon NSA first NSA Cameroon Republic
    1967 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Swaziland, Lesotho and Mozambique was formed with its seat in Mbabane. [BW14:96] Mbabane NSA first NSA Swaziland, Lesotho and Mozambique
    1967 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Zambia was formed with its seat in Lusaka. [BW14:97] Lusaka; Zambia NSA first NSA Zambia
    1967 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Leeward, Windward and Virgin Islands was formed with its seat in Charlotte Amalie. [BW14:93] Charlotte Amalie NSA first NSA Windward and Virgin Islands
    1967 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Eastern and Central Arabia was formed with its seat in Bahrain. Bahrain NSA first NSA Eastern and Central Arabia
    1967 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands was formed with its seat in Tarawa. [BW14:99] Tarawa NSA first NSA Gilbert and Ellice Islands
    1967 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Algeria and Tunisia was formed with its seat in Algiers. [BW14:96] Algiers NSA first NSA Algeria and Tunisia
    1967 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Belize was formed with its seat in the city of Belize. [BW14:93] Belize NSA first NSA Belize
    1967 Ridván The Universal House of Justice called upon the Bahá’ís to launch a global campaign proclaiming the message of Bahá’u’lláh to every stratum of society. A special edition of The Proclamation of Bahá'u'lláh was to be presented to Heads of State. [BW14:211, Ridván 1967] BWC; Haifa Universal House of Justice; Proclamation of Bahaullah (book)
    1967 3 May Patsy Vincent, a youth from Castries and the first St Lucian to become a Bahá’í, enrolled. St Lucian First Bahais by country or area first St Lucian Bahá’í
    1967 Oct A special edition of The Proclamation of Bahá’u’lláh was published by the Universal House of Justice for presentation to 140 heads of state. [BW14:204–6; CB406]
  • For a picture of the book see BW14:194.
  • For pictures and descriptions of some of the rulers addressed by Bahá’u’lláh see BW14:196–203.
  • For responses from present-day leaders to the book, and pictures, see BW14:207–10.
  • BWC; Worldwide Universal House of Justice; Universal House of Justice, Basic timeline; Proclamation of Bahaullah (book); Tablets to kings and rulers; Bahaullah, Writings of; Publications; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1967 5 – 10 Oct Six Intercontinental Conferences were held simultaneously in Panama City, Wilmette, Sydney, Kampala, Frankfurt and New Delhi to celebrate the centenary of the proclamation of Bahá’u’lláh to the kings and rulers of the world in September/October of 1867. [BW 14:221]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice to the conferences see BW14:221–2.
  • For descriptions of each conference see BW14:223–58.
  • See CG68-69 for a brief description of the Intercontinental Conference in Kampala.
  • The six Hands of the Cause representing the Universal House of Justice at the conferences travelled to Adrianople to visit the House of Bahá’u’lláh before dispersing to the conferences. [BW14:236, 458; VV2]
  • Panama; Wilmette; US; Sydney; Australia; Kampala; Uganda; Frankfurt; Germany; New Delhi; India Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Intercontinental; Tablets to Kings and rulers; Centenaries
    1967 8 Oct The foundation stone of the Mother Temple of Latin America was laid by Hand of the Cause Rúhíyyih Khánum in Panama City. [BW14:494] Panama; Latin America Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Panama; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Foundation stones and groundbreaking
    1967 25 Oct The passing of Canadian pioneer Catherine Huxtable (b. 6 January, 1932 Carlwood, Surrey, England) at her home in Jamestown, St Helena. Her life had been shortened due to muscular dystrophy. She, husband Cliff and son Gavin had arrived on St. Helena some nineteen months before. [LNW169, BW14p313-315]
  • See A Conqueror for St. Helena: A Tribute to Catherine Huxtable by W. G. Huxtable.
  • Jamestown; St Helena Catherine Huxtable; Clifford Huxtable; Gavin Huxtable; In memoriam
    1967 29 Oct The launch of the Centenary of Bahá'u'lláh's proclamation to the kings and the rulers in Toronto. A 30-minute memorial service for Catherine Huxtable was added to the program that included an eulogy by Michael Rochester. [LNW176-179] Toronto; Canada Tablets to Kings and rulers; Centenaries; Catherine Huxtable
    1967 12 Nov The dedication of two schools founded by Bahá'ís in Odusai and Tilling Uganda. (Note: Tilling was where the home of Hand of the Cause Olinda was located.) [CG70-71]
  • The schools had been confiscated during the regime of Idi Amin and had fallen into poor repair. A project was undertaken by the Mona Foundation to restore the facilities. [Website]
  • Odusai; Uganda; Tilling; Uganda Schools
    1967 Dec The Universal House of Justice in a letter addressed to all National Assemblies expressed the need for letters written by the Guardian to them or to their subsidiary institutions as well as to the friends under their jurisdiction. The Universal House of Justice asked for copies of the letters, offered to assist in making the copies and gave the option of sending the letter or copies directly to the World Centre if the subject matter was personal. [CBN No 297 Aug/Sep 1975 p14] BWC Archives; Guardian's letters
    1967 11 Dec The Bahá'í Campus Club was inaugurated at the University of New Brunswick. Moncton; New Brunswick; Canada Bahai associations; Universities find reference
    1967 25 Dec The passing of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Charles Dunning (b.27 March, 1885 need Leeds). [BW14p305-308]
  • See Bahaipedia
  • See a story about Charles as told by Marion Hofman.
  • See Bahá'í Blogspot for a photo of Charles with Ted Cardell and a story from a talk by Ian Semple.
  • See the Bahá'ís of Orkney website.
  • Cardiff; Wales; United Kingdom Knights of Bahaullah; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1968 (Approximate date) Našrīya was a news bulletin of the Local Spiritual Assembly of Tehran. It was distributed free of charge to each Bahá'í family in Tehran every 19 days. It functioned for a dozen years and kept its readers informed of the major news and developments in the Bahá'í community of Tehran. [BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati] Iran Nasriya; publications; Z****
    1968 – 1969 Throughout Iran, pressure on Bahá’ís intensified. [BW18:391]
  • Applications for government employment were refused. [BW18:391]
  • Bahá’ís were refused admission to colleges and universities. [BW18:391]
  • Bahá’í centres were closed. [BW18:391]<
  • Individual Bahá’ís were attacked. [BW18:391]
  • Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Education; Persecution
    1968 (In the year) The Bahá’í Publishing Committee based in Karachi developed into a Bahá’í Publishing Trust responsible for translation and publication into Urdu, English, Persian, Arabic, Sindhi, Pushtu, Balochi, Gojri, Balti and other regional languages. Karachi; Pakistan Publishing Trusts; Translation
    1968 (In the year) Over a thousand new believers enrolled in Ethiopia. [BW15:186] Ethiopia Mass conversion
    1968 (In the year) Ernest Ndouba (G Beadoumadji Moadoumgar) of the Sara ethnic group and the first Chadian to become a Bahá’í, enrolled in Ndjamena. Ndjamena; Chad Ernest Ndouba first Chadian Bahá’í
    1968 1 or 2 Jan The passing of Euphemia (Effie) Eleanor Baker (b.25 March 1880 at Goldsborough, Victoria) in Waverley, New South Wales.
  • For Effie Baker's obituary see BW14:320-1.
  • She became a Bahá'í in 1922 after attending a lecture by Clara and Hyde Dunn in Melbourne. She was the first woman to converted to the Faith in Australia.
  • She served in Haifa from 1925 to 1936. See SETPE1p105-107 for her contribution during that period.
  • In the 1930s Effie Baker travelled to Persia to take photographs of historical sites. Many of these photographs were included in The Dawnbreakers. [BW14:320]
  • She was buried in the Bahá'í Cemetery in Mona Vale. [Australian Dictionary of Biography]
  • Waverly; New South Wales; Australia Effie Baker; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Cemeteries and graves; Dawn-breakers; Dawnbreakers first woman Baha'i in Australia.
    1968 26 Jan A Moroccan Bahá’í was arrested, tried and convicted on the charges of having abused the sacredness of Islám and using deceptive methods to convert people to another religion; he was sentenced to three years’ imprisonment. [BW15:172] Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases
    1968 19 Feb His Highness Malietoa Tanumafili II of Western Samoa, the first reigning monarch to become a Bahá’í, wrote to the Universal House of Justice confirming his acceptance of the Faith. [BW15:180–3] Samoa Malietoa Tanumafili II of Western Samoa; Bahai royalty; Firsts, Other first reigning monarch Bahá’í
    1968 Ridván The Universal House of Justice was elected for a second time by delegates from 81 National Spiritual Assemblies. [BW15:557]
  • Dr David Ruhe was elected to replace Dr Hakím, who resigned for reasons of ill health. The members were: Amoz Gibson, 'Ali Nakhjavani, Hushmand Fatheazam, Ian Semple, Charles Wolcott, David Hofman, H. Borrah Kavelin, Hugh Chance and David Ruhe. [VV3]
  • For a description of the second international convention and pictures see BW14:564–8.
  • Haifa; BWC Universal House of Justice, Election of; Elections; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Conventions, International; Amoz Gibson; Ali Nakhjavani; Hushmand Fatheazam; Ian Semple; Charles Wolcott; David Hofman; H. Borrah Kavelin; Hugh Chance; David Ruhe
    1968 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in French Guiana was formed at Cayenne. Cayenne; French Guiana LSA first LSA in French Guiana
    1968 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly of the Cayman Islands was formed in George Town. George Town LSA first LSA in Cayman Islands
    1968 Ridván The first local spiritual assemblies of Equatorial Guinea were formed in Bata and Santa Isabel. Bata; Equatorial Guinea; Santa Isabel; Equatorial Guinea LSA first LSA in Equatorial Guinea
    1968 21 Jun The Universal House of Justice established the Continental Boards of Counsellors to continue the functions of the Hands of the Cause in the protection and propagation of the Faith. [BBD58–9, 97; BW15:611–13; BW17:319; MUHJ4–5; WG141, Mess63-86p130, 21 June, 1968, CEBF112]
  • For details of the eleven Boards and their membership see BW15:612 and WG140–4.
  • For pictures of the Counsellors see BW15:614, 615, 618, 619, 622, 623, 625, 627.
  • For a history of the development of the institutions of the International Teaching Centre and the Continental boards of Counsellors see BW20p673-693.
  • BWC; Haifa Universal House of Justice; Counsellors; Hands of the Cause; Appointed arm; Universal House of Justice, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded Auxiliary Board Members and assistants
    1968 summer The first summer school to be held in Ireland bagin. Ireland Summer schools; First summer and winter schools first summer school in Ireland
    1968 22 – 23 Jun The first National Youth Conference of the Bahá’ís of the United States opened in Wilmette, Illinois. [BW15:327 8]
  • For picture see BW15:325.
  • Wilmette; Illinois; United States Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, National first National Youth Conference of US
    1968 Jul Christian and Elanzo Callwood, Norris Duport and Ethien Chinnery, the first people to become Bahá’ís on the island of Jost Van Dyke in the British Virgin Islands, enrolled. Jost Van Dyke; British Virgin Islands First Bahais by country or area; Islands first Bahá’ís in British Virgin Islands
    1968 Jul Louis Joseph, the first Bahá’í indigenous to Dominica, enrolled in Roseau. Roseau; Dominica First Bahais by country or area first indigenous Bahá’í to Dominica
    1968 7 Jul The passing of Hand of the Cause Hermann Grossmann in Neckargemünd, near Heidelberg, (b.16 February, 1899) [BW15p416-421]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent of Hands of the Cause on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
  • For his biography see Herman Grossmann: Hand of the Cause of God, A Life for the Faith by Susanne Pfaff-Grossmann.
  • For his obituary see BW15:416–21.
  • For cable of the Universal House of Justice see BW15:416 and WG157–8.
  • Alternatively see Mess63-86p135.
  • Neckargemund; Germany In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, First Contingent; Herman Grossmann
    1968 27 – 28 Jul The first National Youth Conference of Honduras opened in Santa Rosa de Copán. [BW15:328–9] Santa Rosa de Copan; Honduras Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; First conferences first National Youth Conference of Honduras
    1968 10 Aug Dr Lutfu’lláh Hakím, former member of the Universal House of Justice, passed away in Haifa. [BW15:434]
  • For his obituary see BW15:430–4.
  • For cable of the Universal House of Justice see BW15:434 and WG158.
  • See Wikipedia.
  • Find a grave.
  • See Bahá'í Reference Library.
  • Haifa Lutfullah Hakim; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1968 23 – 25 Aug The first Oceanic Conference took place in Palermo, Sicily, to commemorate the arrival of Bahá’u’lláh in the Holy Land. [BW15:73, 178; VV3]
  • It was attended by some 2,300 Bahá’ís from 67 countries. [BW15:73]
  • For details of the conference, maps and pictures see BW15:72–80.
  • Palermo; Italy Oceanic Conference; Conference first Oceanic Conference in Palermo
    1968 26 – 31 Aug The centenary of the arrival of Bahá’u’lláh in the Holy Land was commemorated at the World Centre. [BW15:81–4]
  • For details of the commemoration, the pilgrimage to follow and pictures see BW15:81–6.
  • Haifa; BWC; Israel Centenaries; Pilgrimage; Bahaullah, Banishment of
    1968 2 Sep Tarázu’lláh Samandarí, Hand of the Cause of God, passed away in Haifa. (b.1874 in Qazvin, Persia)
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
  • For his obituary see BW15p410-416.
  • For cable of the Universal House of Justice see BW15:416 and WG158–9.
  • Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • See Moments with Bahá'u'lláh: Memoirs of the Hand of the Cause of God Tarázu'lláh Samandarí translated by Mehdi Samandarí and Marzieh Gail and published by Kalimat Press.
  • Find a grave.
  • Haifa Tarazullah Samandari; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam
    1968 9 Sep Gerald (Jerry) Van Deusen, a 24-year-old American Bahá’í from the Windward, Leeward and Virgin Islands and the first pioneer to Upper Volta, arrived in Ouagadougou. Ouagadougou; Upper Volta Gerald (Jerry) Van Deusen; pioneer first pioneer to Upper Volta
    1968 9 Oct The Universal House of Justice addressed its second letter to Bahá’í Youth. [BW15:324; WG152–4] Haifa UHJ; Youth
    1968 9 Oct The widowed mother of seven children was sentenced to six months’ imprisonment in Morocco for refusing to deny her faith. [BW15:172]
  • Despite the efforts of national spiritual assemblies to secure justice for her through their embassies and cables to the King of Morocco, she was made to serve the entire sentence. [BW15:172]
  • Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases; Human rights
    1968 24 Oct The Moroccan Bahá’í sentenced to three years’ imprisonment in January 1968 appelled and his sentence was extended to four years. [BW15:172]
  • Despite the efforts of national spiritual assemblies to secure justice for him through their embassies and cables to the King of Morocco, he was made to serve the entire sentence. [BW15:172]
  • Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases; Human rights
    1968 Nov Mohammed Brimer (Mohammed Braimah Belem), the first person to become a Bahá’í in Upper Volta, enrolled. Upper Volta Mohammed Brimer first Bahá’í in Upper Volta
    1968 4 Nov Following the participation of Algerian Bahá’ís in the first Oceanic Conference in Palermo, Sicily, and subsequent international news coverage, foreign Bahá’ís in Algeria were summoned by the police and interrogated. [BW15:172] Algeria Persecution, Algeria; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1968 7 Nov Sixteen Persian Bahá’ís in Algeria were expelled from the country and their properties confiscated; native Algerian Bahá’ís were put under restrictions and five were exiled to the Sahara and the eastern mountain regions. [BW15:172]
  • Following appeals, the confiscated properties were returned and the order of banishment for the local believers was gradually relaxed. [BW15:172]
  • Algeria Persecution, Algeria; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases; Human rights
    1968 Dec George Howard arrived on Union Island, the first person to take the Bahá’í Faith to the Grenadine Islands. Grenadine Islands George Howard first Bahá’í teacher to Grenadine Islands
    1968 (Late in the year) Two Chilean Bahá’ís, Aníbal Soto, a telegraph operator in the Chilean Navy and his wife, Norma Soto, were posted to a Chilean base in Antarctica. Antarctica Pioneering
    1969 (In the year) Fifteen youth enrolled at Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, the beginning of a process in which over 300 people become Bahá’ís. [BW15:218] Mayaguez; Puerto Rico
    1969 (In the year) Owing to the increased flow of pilgrims, the pilgrim house in Haifa was converted to a pilgrim centre and the decision was taken to accommodate pilgrims in hotels. [DH178] Haifa; BWC Pilgrim Houses; Pilgrimage; Pilgrims
    1969 1 Jan The Fredericton Bahá'í community became a registered charitable organization. Fredericton; New Brunswick; Canada Charitable organization find reference
    1969 Apr The Bahá’í Faith was banned in Algeria by official decree, all Bahá’í institutions were disbanded and the National Spiritual Assembly dissolved. [BW15:189; BW19:41] Algeria Persecution, Algeria; Persecution, Other; Persecution; NSA; Persecution, Bans
    1969 3 – 6 Apr The first European Youth Conference opened in Madrid, Spain. [BW15:329] Madrid; Spain; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International first European Youth Conference
    1969 4 – 6 Apr The first National Youth Conference of Australia opened at Bolton Place summer School. [BW15:329]
  • For picture see BW15:328.
  • Bolton Place; Australia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, National; Conferences, First first National Youth Conference of Australia
    1969 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Burundi and Rwanda was formed. [BW15:205]
  • For picture see BW15:142.
  • NSA first NSA Burundi and Rwanda
    1969 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly of Upper Volta was formed in Ouagadougou. Ouagadougou; Upper Volta LSA first LSA in Upper Volta
    1969 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Papua New Guinea was formed with its seat in Lae. [BW15:265]
  • For picture see BW15:142.
  • Lae; Papua New Guinea NSA first NSA Papua New Guinea
    1969 24 – 25 May The first Bahá’í Youth Conference of Japan opened on Jogashima Island. [BW15:329] Jogashima Island; Japan Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, National; Conferences, First first Bahá’í Youth Conference of Japan
    1969 10 Jul The Universal House of Justice announced an increase in the total number of members of the Continental Boards of Counsellors for the Protection and Propagation of the Faith to thirty-eight. [MUHJ63-86] BWC Counsellors; Statistics
    1969 Aug The first 12 new Bahá’ís enrolled on Union Island in the Grenadines during a visit of Patricia Paccassi and her daughter Judith. Union Island; Grenadines First Bahais by country or area first Bahá’ís in the Grenadines
    1969 Aug The Bahá’í Faith was legally recognized in Lebanon when the Local Spiritual Assembly of Beirut was incorporated. [BW15:173]
  • This was the first time any Arab government has granted the Faith recognition. [BW15:173]
  • Beirut; Lebanon LSA; Recognition first time an Arab government recognizes Bahá'í Faith
    1969 5 Aug Hand of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum and her companion, Violette Nakhjavání, arrived in Kampala, Uganda, at the start of the ‘Great Safari’. [BW15:59]
  • For details of the safari and pictures see BW15:588–607.
  • Kampala; Uganda; Africa Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum, Journeys of; Violette Nakhjavani; Great Safari
    1969 29 Oct A mechanism of world inter-communication will be devised, embracing the whole planet, freed from national hindrances and restrictions, and functioning with marvellous swiftness and perfect regularity. WOB203

    1844 May 24 Samuel F.B. Morse sent the first telegraphic message over an experimental line from Washington, D.C., to Baltimore, the message said: "What hath God wrought?"

    1894 May 10 Marconi sent a radio wave 3/4 mile, the first "wireless" transmission.

    1897 Marconi Co sent the first ship-to-shore message 12 miles. 1899 Mar 3 the ship "East Goodwin" was saved after sending the distress signal "HELP".

    1858 Aug 16 the first transatlantic telegraph cable was an undersea cable running under the Atlantic Ocean used for telegraph communications was laid across the floor of the Atlantic from Telegraph Field, Foilhommerum Bay, Valentia Island in western Ireland to Heart's Content in eastern Newfoundland. The first communications occurred August 16, 1858, reducing the communication time between North America and Europe from ten days.

    1969 October 29 The birth of the Internet. First message from computer to computer in different locations. UCLA student Charley Kline attempts to transmit the text “login” to a computer at the Stanford Research Institute over the first link on the ARPANET, which was the precursor to the modern Internet. After the letters “l” and “o” are sent the system crashed, making the first message ever sent on the Internet “lo” and the first crash of the system.

    Internet; Communication; Firsts, Other; History (general) first Morse Code message, first radio message, first transatlantic cable message, first Internet message....
    1969 29 Dec - 1970 2 Jan The First Pacific Area Bahá’í Youth Conference took place in Apia, Western Samoa. [BW15:329–30]
  • For picture see BW15:330.
  • Apia; Samoa; Oceania Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Conferences, First; Youth First Pacific Area Bahá’í Youth Conference
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