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Bahá'í Chronology: years 188-

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188-

date event locations tags firsts see also
1880 Early 1880s The first Zoroastrians became Bahá'ís, in Persia. [SBBH2:67]
  • For information on these converts see SBBR2:67–93.
  • Iran Zoroastrianism; Conversion First Zoroastrians become Bahá'ís
    1880 In the year Martyrdom of seven Bahá'ís in Sultánábád. [BW18:383]
  • Three Bahá'ís were killed on the orders of Siyyid Muhammad-Báqir-i-Mujtahid and a large number of Bahá'ís were thrown into prison. [BW18:383]
  • Sayyidih Khánum Bíbí, an old lady, was sent to Tihrán and was strangled in prison. [BW18:383]
  • Sultanabad; Tihran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1889 (In the year) Bahá'u'lláh instructed Jamal Effendi, a Persian scholar of noble birth and high rank, to proceed to India and acquaint its people with the Bahá'í teachings. He arrived in Bombay in 1872, (sources differ on the date), and proceeded to travel throughout the country. Despite the language difficulty he managed to convey the teachings to many distinguished people. Jamal Effendi's vast knowledge, eloquent tongue and unfailing courtesy attracted many persons to him, and he was the guest of a number of prominent Indians of high standing. At innumerable meetings and discussions Jamal Effendi outlined Bahá'u'lláh's teachings for the upliftment of mankind and many recognized the truth of his words and embraced the Cause. It was not until 1880 that Jamal Effendi's strenuous efforts produced permanent results. In that year the first Bahá'í group was formed at Bombay and from there the Faith spread rapidly to Poona, Calcutta, Karachi and Delhi where Local Spiritual Assemblies were eventually established. [BW18p246] Bombay; Poona; Calcutta; Karachi; Delhi; India Jamal Effendi; Z**** first Bahai group in India; first Bahai group in Bombay.
    1880 18 or 19 Jun Bahá'u'lláh visited the Druze village of Yirkih (Yerka). `Abdu'l-Bahá joined Him for the last four nights. [DH123]
  • See DH123 for other Druze villages visited by Bahá'u'lláh.
  • Yirkih (Yerka); Palestine Bahaullah, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Druze
    1880 15 Aug Mishkín-Qalam addressed a petition to the High Commissioner of Cyprus begging to be released from his confinement. [BBR307]
  • See BBR307–11 for consequences of this.
  • Cyprus Mishkin-Qalam
    1881 (sometime prior to) The revelation of Javáhiru'l-Asrár, (meaning literally the "gems" or "essences" of mysteries) (in Arabic) by Bahá'u'lláh in reply to a question posed by Siyyid Yúsuf-i-Sihdihí Isfahání, who, at the time, was residing in Karbilá. One of the central themes of the treatise is the subject of "transformation", meaning the return of the Promised One in a different human guise. The second theme can be said to be mystical in nature. It has many similarities to The Seven Valleys. Bahá'u'lláh describes the seven valleys, but the names and orders of valleys are slightly different from those found in the book of The Seven Valleys [GDMii]
  • It was published in English in 2002 under the title Gems of Divine Mysteries. [Chronology 2002-06-26]
  • For a synopsis of the treaties see Gems of Mysteries (Javáhiru'l-Asrár): Wilmette Institute faculty notes by Muin Afnani, 1999.
  • See The Seven Cities of Bahá'u'lláh compiled by Arjen Bolhuis. 2002.
  • See Seven Cities in the Spiritual Journey to God: Gems of Divine Mysteries (Javáhiru'l-Asrár) and Seven Valleys by Fadl Mazandarani (published as Jinab-i-Fadl Mazandarani) originally published in "Star of the West", 13:11, pages 301-303, 1923-02.
  • See A Symbolic Profile of the Bahá'í Faith by Christopher Buck published in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:4, page 1–48, Ottawa: Association for Bahá'í Studies, 1998. iiiii
  • Javahirul-Asrar (Gems of Divine Mysteries); Bahaullah, Writings of
    1881 (In the year) The Ridván Garden and the Firdaws Garden were purchased in the name of Bahá'u'lláh. [BBD84, 196; DH95, 103]
  • Most of the flowering plants in the Ridván Garden were brought by pilgrims from Iran. [CH96]
  • BWC; Akka Ridvan Garden; Firdaws Garden; Gardens; Pilgrims; Purchases and exchanges; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    1881 to 1928 The second Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh was Hájí Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardikání, entitled Amín-i-Iláhí (Trusted of God). He had been a companion of Jináb-i-Sháh until his death in 1881 in a fatal attack. Hájí Sháh-Muhammad and Hájí Abu'l-Hasan had been the first believers to succeed in entering the city of 'Akká and attain the presence of Bahá'u'lláh in the public bath in the early days of His confinement in the Most Great Prison. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
  • He travelled to Paris to obtain the presence of 'Abu'l-Bahá. By 1906 he had made 19 pilgrimages to the Holy Land. [AY225]
  • Shoghi Effendi named him a Hand of the Cause of God posthumously (July, 1928) and was he was also named one of the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh. In appreciation of Hájí Amín's services, 'Abdu'l-Bahá named one of the doors of the Shrine of the Báb after him.
  • Upon his death Shoghi Effendi appointed Hájí Ghulám-Ridá (entitled Amín-i-Amín), who for several years had been Hájí Amín's assistant, to succeed him as Trustee of the Huqúq'u'lláh. [RoB3p74-86]
  • Akka; BWC Huququllah; Huququllah, Trustees of; Haji Abul-Hasan-i-Ardikani (Amin-i-Ilahi); Hands of the Cause; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Apostles of Bahaullah; Haji Shah-Muhammad-i-Manshadi (Aminul-Bayan); Haji Ghulam-Rida (Amin-i-Amin); Public baths
    1881 (In the year) The passing of Fáṭimih Bagum, the mother of the Báb in Karbila. She herself was from a prominent Shírází merchant family; she could trace her background back to the Imám Husayn. The daughter of Mírzá Siyyid Muhammad Husayn, she married Siyyid Muhammad Ridá, and had several children with him, however only one survived; ‘Alí-Muhammad. Widowed shortly after, she went to live with her brother Hájí Mirzá Siyyid 'Ali who served as a father figure to Siyyid ‘Alí-Muhammad. On hearing that Siyyid ‘Alí-Muhammad was making a pilgrimage to the holy city of Karbilá, she was distressed and arranged the marriage between Him to His second cousin once removed: Khadíjih Bagum.

    Originally, Fáṭimih Bagum did not accept her Son’s cause unlike her brother, however she kept an open mind. She was devastated on hearing the news of the treatment of her Son, and after His martyrdom her family kept it a secret from her for nearly a whole year. After hearing the news, the distraught Fáṭimih Bagum moved to Karbilá with her closest companions in December of 1851. She did not become a believer until some time later when Bahá'u'lláh instructed two of His faithful followers, Hájí Siyyid Javád-i-Karbilá'í and the wife of Hájí 'Abdu'l-Majíd-i-Shírázi to instruct her in the principles of the Faith

  • Shoghí Effendí pursued in trying to locate her grave, but it has not yet been found.
  • The Báb referred to Fáṭimih Bagum as "Ummu’l-Mu’minin" (mother of the believers) and "Ummu’dh-Dhikr" (mother of the Remembrance). Bahá’u’lláh referred to her as "Khayru’n-Nisa" (the best of women) and forbad all others, except Khadíjih Bagum, from adopting this title. [Wikipedia]
  • Karbila; Iraq In Memoriam; Faṭimih Bagum; Bab, Life of; Z****
    1881 24 Mar Mírzá Yahyá was granted freedom by the British administration of Cyprus. [BBR311]
  • He asked for British citizenship or protection so that he might return to Iran or Turkey in safety but was denied so stayed on in Cyprus for the rest of his life with a pension of 1193 pias/month from the British government. [BBR311]
  • Famagusta; Cyprus Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal)
    1882 (In the year) Ibn-i-Asdaq was given the distinction Shahíd Ibn-i-Shahíd (Martyr, son of the martyr) by Bahá'u'lláh. [EB173] Ibn-i-Asdaq (Mirza Ali-Muhammad); Names and titles
    1882 (In the year) Mírzá `Alí-Muhammad Varqá was arrested in Yazd. He is sent to Isfahán where he was imprisoned for a year. [BW18:383] Yazd; Isfahan; Iran Varqa, Mirza Ali-Muhammad; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; Varqa
    1882 20 Jan The Lawh-i-Maqsúd (The Goal, The Desired One) was revealed by Bahá'u'lláh in 'Akká. [MMG131-135; Lawh-i-Maqsúd: Letter from the Universal House of Justice; excerpt from Juan Cole's Modernity and Millennium]
  • The Tablet has been published in Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh revealed after the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, Wilmette: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1997, pages 159-178.
  • Leiden List says it was revealed December 31st, 1881.
  • Akka LawhiMaqsud; Bahaullah, Writings of
    1882 11 Jul The British navy bombarded Alexandria, beginning or provoking fires that destroyed the city and forced a mass exodus of its population to the interior. In August-September the British invaded the country, restored Khedive Tawfiq to his throne, arrested 'Urabi, the Muslim modernist Muhammad 'Abduh, and other constitutionalists, and imposed a "veiled protectorate" on the country that differed only in name from direct colonial rule. The official British sources attempted to suggest that they had saved Egypt from a military junta allied to Islamic fanaticism, but more impartial observers have characterized the British invasion as the quashing of a grassroots democratic movement by an imperial power in the service of the European bond market. [BFA15, Wilmette Institute faculty notes] Alexandria; Egypt Britain; History (general); Muhammad Abduh
    1882 11 Nov The passing of Khadíjih-Bagum, the wife of the Báb, in Shíráz in the house of her Husband. [BBD127; EB235; KBWB35; DB191; RoB2p387] Note: KBWB35 states that she passed on the 15th of September, 1882.
  • Within two hours of her passing her faithful servitor, an Ethiopian slave named Fiddhih, someone who had been a member of the household since the age of seven, passed away as well. Both were interred within the Shrine of Sháh-Chirágh. [BK35]
  • Upon her passing Bahá'u'lláh revealed a tablet of visitation for her and later He composed a verse to be inscribed on her tombstone. [RoB2p387]
  • Shiraz; Iran Khadijih Bagum; Servants; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Cemeteries and graves; Z****
    1882 – 1883 The Tihrán Upheaval.
  • A number of leading members of the Tihrán Bahá'í community were arrested and subsequently condemned to death. Some were confined for a period of 19 months in severe circumstances but the death sentences were not carried out. [BBR292–5; BW18:383]
  • This was occasioned by the release of Bahá'u'lláh from strict confinement and the subsequent increase in the number of pilgrims from Iran causing an upsurge of Bahá'í activities, particularly in Tihrán. [BBR292–5]
  • Tihran; Iran Tihran upheaval; Upheavals; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1883 (In the year) Six Bahá'ís were arrested in Yazd and sent to Isfahán in chains. BW18:383]

    Four Bahá'ís were arrested in Sarvistán, Fárs, and sent to Shíráz where they are bastinadoed. [BW18:383]

    Yazd; Isfahan; Sarvistan; Fars; Shiraz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1883 19 Mar Sixteen Bahá'í traders of the bazaar were arrested in Rasht; three others are brought from Láhíján. [BW18:383] Rasht; Lahijan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1883 15 Apr Birth in Goslar, Germany, of Dr Artur Eduard Heinrich Brauns, a prominent German Bahá'í, named by Shoghi Effendi a Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá. Goslar; Germany Artur Eduard Heinrich Brauns; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Births and deaths
    1883 June 21 The name Thornton Chase appeared in newspaper coverage of a poem printed in The Grand Army Magazine, June 1883, "Lo! the Ranks are Thinned and Thinning" United States Thornton Chase; Newspaper articles Thornton Chase in the newspapers
    1883 Aug Bahá'u'lláh travelled to Haifa on the second of four known visits (His first is His brief stop there before travelling to Akká in 1868). This second visit lasted about three weeks. [BBD94; DH109; GPB194]
  • He stays in Bayt-i-Fanduq, a house in the German Templar colony, that had served as a guest house. The building was located at the northeast corner of Meir Rutberg and Yafo Street. [BKG373–4; BPP173; DH109]
  • Haifa Templer colony; Bayt-i-Fanduq; Bahaullah, Life of First visit to Haifa by Bahá'u'lláh
    1884 (In the year) Birth of Valíyu'lláh Varqá, Hand of the Cause of God, in Tabríz. [BW18:381-834] Tabriz; Iran Varqa, Valiyullah; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Varqa
    1885 27 Mar 1885 Martyrdom of Mullá `Alíy-i-Námiqí in Námiq, Turbat-i-Haydarí, Khurásán. [BW18:383] Namiq; Turbat-i-Haydari; Khurasan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1886 In the year Birth of Músá Banání, Hand of the Cause of God, in Baghdád. [BW15p421–423] Baghdad; Iraq Musa Banani; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
    1886 In the year Birth of Narayan Rao Sethji Vakil, the first Hindu to become a Bahá'í in Surat, Gujarat, India. Surat; Gujarat; India Narayan Rao Sethji Vakil; Births and deaths; First believers by background; Conversion; Hinduism; Interfaith dialogue first Hindu to become a Bahá'í.
    1886 (In the year) `Abdu'l-Bahá wrote A Traveller's Narrative. [TN40]
  • A translation into English by E. G. Browne was published in New York, 1930 by the Bahá'í Publishing Committee. [A Traveller's Narrative - A Critical Analysis]
  • Akka Travelers Narrative (book); Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1886 (In the year) The passing of the wife of Bahá'u'lláh, Ásíyih Khánum, entitled Navváb (the Most Exalted Leaf) in the House of `Abbúd. [BBD170; BKG369; DH57, 213]
  • See CB119–20 for comments on her nature and station and for Tablets revealed by Bahá'u'lláh in her honour.
  • After her passing Bahá'u'lláh revealled a Tablet for her in which He called her his `perpetual consort in all the worlds of God'. [GPB108]
  • See CB120–1 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's commentary on Isaiah 54, which refers to Navváb.
  • She was interred in the Bahá'í section of the Muslim cemetery. [BBD170; DH57, 81]
  • Muhammad-Yúsuf Páshá demanded that `Abdu'l-Bahá vacate the house of `Abbúd even during Navváb's illness. [BKG369]
  • Akka Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Muhammad-Yusuf Pasha; House of Abbud; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Cemeteries and graves; Abdul-Baha, Life of
    1886 14 Sep Mishkín-Qalam, who had been living in Larnica, left Cyprus on a Syrian vessel going direct to `Akká. [BBR311, FOI24] Larnica; Cyprus; Akka Mishkin-Qalam
    1887 (In the year) Mírzá Músá, Áqáy-i-Kalím, the faithful brother of Bahá'u'lláh, passed away in `Akká. [BBD166; BKG369; DH57]
  • He was buried in the Bahá'í section of the Muslim cemetery. [DH81]
  • He was designated by Shoghi Effendi as one of the 19 Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh. [BBD166; BW3:80–1]
  • See Bahá'í Chronicles for a brief biography as well as MoF86-90.
  • Akka Mirza Musa; Aqay-i-Kalim; Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths; Cemeteries and graves; In Memoriam
    1887 (In the year) Karbalá'í Hasan Khán and Karbalá'í Sádiq were arrested in Sarvistán, Fárs, and imprisoned for two years before being killed in prison. [BW18:383] Sarvistan; Fars; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1887 13 Apr The first mention of the concept of `Hand of the Cause' in Bahá'u'lláh's writings is within a Tablet revealed in honour of Ibn-i-Asdaq. [BBD115; EB173] Ibn-i-Asdaq (Mirza Ali-Muhammad); Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Institution; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands appointed by Bahaullah; Firsts, Other; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Appointed arm First mention of concept of `Hand of the Cause'
    1887 – 1888 E. G. Browne, the noted Orientalist, spent 12 months in Persia. An important purpose of his journey was to contact the Bábís. [BBR29]
  • For a list of his books and other works and his relationship with the Bahá'í Faith see BBR29–36.
  • Also see BBD47; Balyuzi, Edward Granville Browne and the Bahá'í Faith and Momen, Selections From the Writings of E. G. Browne.
  • While sailing from Naples to New York 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave an account of Mírzá Yahyá and his followers and of the complaints they made to Edward G. Browne: "They tampered with the contents of the history of Hájí Mírzá Jání by removing some of its passages and inserting others. They sent it to the libraries of London and Paris and through such falsehood induced him [Browne] to translate and publish the document. In order to achieve his own selfish desires, he had it printed." [Mahmúd's Diary p21]
  • Iran; United Kingdom Edward Granville Browne; Mirza Yahya; Covenant-breakers; Haji Mirza Jani
    1888 (In the year) Jamál Effendi, accompanied by Hájí Faraju'lláh-i-Tafrishí, embarked on a long journey to the East visiting Burma, Java (Indonesia), Siam (Thailand), Singapore, Kashmir, Tibet, Yarqand, Khuqand in Chinese Turkistan, and Afghanistan. [EB123–4; PH22] Myanmar (Burma); Java; Indonesia; Siam (Thailand); Thailand; Singapore; Kashmir; India; Tibet; Yarqand; Khuqand; Chinese Turkistan; China; Afghanistan Jamal Effendi; Haji Farajullah-i-Tafrishi
    1888 29 Mar The first lecture in the West on the Bahá'í Faith (`Bábism') was given by E. G. Browne at the Essay Society, Newcastle, England. [SCU12] Newcastle; United Kingdom Edward Granville Browne; Firsts, Other First lecture in West on Bahá'í Faith
    1888 c. Jul-Aug Two Bahá'ís were arrested in Sarvistán, Fárs, and were sent to Shíráz, where one was imprisoned. [BW18:383] Sarvistan; Fars; Shiraz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1888 Jul Nabíl began his chronicle, The Dawn-Breakers: Nabíl's Narrative of the Early Days of the Bahá'í Revelation. [DBXXXVII] Akka Nabil-i-Azam; Dawn-Breakers (book)
    1888 23 Oct The martyrdom of Mírzá Ashraf of Ábádih in Isfahán. He was hanged, his body burnt and left hanging in the market. Later his body was buried beneath a wall. [BBRXXIX, 277–80; BW18:383; GPB201] Isfahan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1889(In the year) The passing of Mullá Sádiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khurásání entitled by Bahá'u'lláh Ism'lláh'l-Asdaq (In the Name of God the Most Truthful) in Hamadán. He was born in Mashhad in 1800, the son of a cleric, around the beginning of the 19th century He furthered his own clerical studies in Karbila under the Shaykhi leader Sayyid Qasim Rashti, eventually gaining the rank of mujtahid, and becoming known by the honorific title Muqaddas (‘the holy one’).
  • As a young man he had been a disciple of Siyyid Kázim and had met Siyyid 'Alí-Muhammad in Karbilá. He was among the first believers who identified with the Message of the Báb. See DB100 and EB7 for the story of how he independently determined His identity when he met Mullá Husayn in Isfahán on his way to deliver a tablet to Bahá'u'lláh in Tehran. The very next day he left Isfahán for Shíráz on foot arriving 12 days later to find that the Báb had already departed for pilgrimage.
  • He took up residence in Shíráz and received a Tablet from the Báb instructing him to change the Call to Prayer. See DB146-148, EB13-14 for the story of how he endured over 900 strokes of the lash on the command of Husayn Khán-i-Írva´ní, the Governor of the province of Fars, and remained indifferent to the pain. (6 August, 1845) He was expelled from the city and proceeded to Yazd. He had similar fate in that city and was banished.
  • On the way to Khurásán he joined Mullá Husayn and those who would participate in the Tabarsí siege where he was on hand for the death of Mullá Husayn. (DB381) After the deception and massacre he was one of the few survivors and, as a prisoner, was taken to Mázindarán to be executed by the family Prince Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá who had commanded the royal troops and had been killed in battle. On route the party called on the clerics to interrogate him and his fellow Bábi and they became convinced that they were not heretics deserving of execution. The prisoners were to be sent to Tehran but escaped and made their way to Míhámí and eventually to Mashad.
  • In 1861, after life in that city became impossible, he went to Baghdád where he attained the presence of Bahá'u'lláh. After 14 months he returned to his native province of Khurásán.
  • He continued in his audacious teaching and as a result was taken to Tehran where he was kept in the Síhåh-Chál. He taught a number of fellow prisoners about the Promised One and converted Hakím Masíh, the Jewish physician assigned to attend to the prisoners. He was the first Bahá'í of Jewish background in Tehran (and was the grandfather of Lutfu'lláh Hakím, a former member of the Universal House of Justice.) After 28 months imprisonment he was pardoned but refuse to leave without his fellow prisoners. The Sháh released 40 of the 43 prisoners. (The remaining three were guilty of actual crimes.)
  • After Tehran he went to Khurásán and returned to the capital some three years later to help in changing the hiding place of the remains of the Báb. Then he travelled to Káshán, Isfahán and Yazd where he convinced some of the Afnáns to accept the truth of their Nephew's claims. After returning to Khurásán he was given permission to make a pilgrimage to 'Akká where he remained for some four months, returning by way of Mosul and Baghdád. When he reached Hamadán he was exhausted. Twelve days after his arrival he passed.
  • He had been the recipient of many tablets from Bahá'u'lláh including a Tablet of Visitation after his passing. One of the most well-know tablets was the Lawh-i-Ahbáb (Tablet of the Friends). It is thought He revealed this Tablet some time after leaving the barracks in 'Akká, about 1870-1871. [RoB3p258-260, List of the Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh]
  • He was the father of Ibn-i-Asdaq who Bahá'u'lláh appointed a Hand of the Cause of God. [EB19]
  • ‘Abdu’l-Baha posthumously referred to him as a Hand of the Cause of God.
  • References [LoF32-41, MF5-8, DB381. EB7-23, BBR 69-70]
  • Hamadan; Iran Hands referred to as such by Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Ismullahul-Asdaq (Mulla Sadiq Khurasani)
    1889 Jun E. G. Browne gave a paper on the Bahá'í Faith (`Bábism') at the Royal Asiatic Society, London. London; United Kingdom Edward Granville Browne; Royal Asiatic Society
    1889 Jun Áqá Najafí, the `Son of the Wolf', initiated a campaign against the Bahá'ís in Isfahán, Sidih and Najafábád. [BW18:383] Isfahan; Sidih; Najafabad; Iran Aqa Najafi (Son of the Wolf)
    1889 17 Jul Upheaval in Najafábád: Áqá Najafí, the `Son of the Wolf', drove over a hundred Bahá'ís out of Sidih and Najafábád. They took sanctuary in the Telegraph Office and in the stables of the governor of Isfahán. [BW18:383]
  • See BBR280–4 for Western reporting of the episode.
  • Najafabad; Sidih; Isfahan; Iran Aqa Najafi (Son of the Wolf); Najafabad upheaval; Upheavals
    1889 18 Jul The Bahá'ís were persuaded to leave the Telegraph Office in Isfahán after being assured that they would receive protection in their villages. [BW18:383] Isfahan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1889 Aug Bahá'ís of Sidih and Najafábád, after having received no help or protection, went to Tihrán to petition the Sháh. [BW18:383] Tihran; Sidih; Najafabad; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Petitions
    1889 8 Sep Hájí Muhammad Ridáy-i-Isfahání was martyred in `Ishqábád. [BBRXXIX, 296–7; GPB202]

    "In the city of 'Ishqábád the newly established Shí'ah community, envious of the rising prestige of the followers of Bahá'u'lláh who were living in their midst, instigated two ruffians to assault the seventy-year old Hájí Muhammad-Ridáy-i-Isfáhání, whom, in broad day and in the midst of the bazaar, they stabbed in no less than thirty-two places, exposing his liver, lacerating his stomach and tearing open his breast. A military court dispatched by the Czar to 'Ishqábád established, after prolonged investigation, the guilt of the Shí'ahs, sentencing two to death and banishing six others - a sentence which neither Násir'd-Dín Sháh, nor the 'ulamás of Tihrán, of Mashad and of Tabríz, who were appealed to, could mitigate, but which the representatives of the aggrieved community, through their magnanimous intercession which greatly surprised the Russian authorities, succeeded in having commuted to a lighter punishment." [GPB202-203]

  • Czar Alexander III sent a military commission from St Petersburg to conduct the trial of those accused of the murder. [AB109; GPB202]
  • Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl served as chief Bahá'í spokesman at the trial. [AB109]
  • Two were found guilty and sentenced to death, six others were ordered to be transported to Siberia. [AB109; BBR297; GPB203]
  • Bahá'u'lláh attached importance to the action as being the first time Shí'ís received judicial punishment for an attack on Bahá'ís. [BBRSM91]
  • The Bahá'í community interceded on behalf of the culprits and had the death sentences commuted to transportation to Siberia. [AB109; BBR297; GPB203]
  • For Western accounts of the episode see BBR296–300.
  • Ishqabad; Turkmenistan Haji Muhammad Riday-i-Isfahani; Czar Alexander III; Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Firsts, Other; Persecution, Turkmenistan; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Court cases; Court cases; Persecution; Human rights First time Shí'ís received judicial punishment for attack on Bahá'ís
    1889 19 Nov Birth of General Shu`á`u'lláh `Alá'í, Hand of the Cause of God, in Tihrán. Tihran; Iran Shuaullah Alai; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
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