Search for tag "Arc"
||Mullá Hasan and his two brothers were arrested and beaten in Sarcháh, Bírjand. [BW18:383]
||Sarchah; Birjand; Iran
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
|1899 (In the year)
||Siyyid Mustafá Rúmí and others transported a marble casket to the Holy Land made by the Bahá'ís of Mandalay to accommodate the remains of the Báb. [BW10:517]
||Siyyid Mustafa Rumi; Bab, Shrine of; Bab, Sarcophagus for
|1901 (In the year)
||Áqá Siyyid Mustafa [Rumi] sent from Rangoon a sample of the marble that the sarcophagus for the blessed remains of the Primal Point was to be made from. Mishkin-Qalam asked for permission to design a Greatest Name for the sarcophagus, and, as was his custom, he signed the design. In the time of Bahá'u'lláh he signed his work with “The servant of the Threshold of Bahá,
Mishkin-Qalam" but for this work his proposal had the signature, “The servant of `Abdu’l-Bahá, Mishkin-Qalam.” 'Abdu'l-Bahá was furious with him. Throughout His ministry, `Abdu’l-Bahá greatly disapproved of believers composing verses about, or glorifying, His Person in any way. He would admonish them to focus their praise on Bahá’u’lláh. [MBBA155-157]
||Bab, Shrine of; Mount Carmel; Bab, Sarcophagus for; Mishkin Qalam; Áqa Siyyid Mustafa; Rumi
|1902 28 Nov
||Construction began on the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár of `Ishqábád with the laying of its cornerstone. [BFA2:116-17]
BBRXXX says this was 12 December. The discrepancy may lie in the use of two different calendars.
The foundation stone was laid in the presence of General Subotich, governor-general of Turkistan. [BFA2:116–17; GPB300; see discussion of Krupatkin vs Subotich in The City of Love:
Ishqábád and the Institution of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár by Bruce Whitmore] Also see BBR442-443 for the account of a Russian official, A D Kalmykov who says it was General Subotich.
`Abdu'l-Bahá commissioned Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-Taqí, the Vakílu'd-Dawlih, son of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad, the uncle of the Báb for whom Bahá'u'lláh had revealed The Kitáb-i-Íqán, to be in charge of the project. [AB109]
`Abdu'l-Bahá Himself delineated the general design and a Russian architect, Volkov, planned and executed the details of the construction. [AB109–10]
A meeting hall and some of its dependencies had been built before 1900.
The dependencies included two Bahá'í schools, a travellers' hostel, a medical dispensary and Hazíratu'l-Quds. [BBD122; BBR442; BBRSM:91]
For a Western account of this see BBR442–3.
See jacket of BBR for a photograph of work on the Temple.
See the message of the Universal House of Justice dated 1 August, 2014 for more on the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in `Ishqábád.
Location: In the heart of the city of `Ishqábád
Foundation Stone: Late 1902 by General Subotich, the governor-general of Turkistan who had been delegated by the Czar to represent him.
Construction Period: Initial step had been undertaken during the lifetime of Bahá’u’lláh. Superstructure: 1902 – 1907. External Ornamentation: 1919
Site Dedication: No record of a dedication ceremony on completion of the building can be found although the external ornamentation was completed in 1919 it is probable that the building had been in use for some years by this time.
Architects: `Abdu'l-Bahá Himself delineated the general design. More specific design was by Usád ‘Ali]í-Akbar Ranná and a Russian architect, Volkov, planned and executed the details of the construction under the supervision of Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-Taqí, the son of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad, the uncle of the Báb for whom Bahá'u'lláh had revealed The Kitáb-i-Íqán. [AB109]
Dependencies: two Bahá'í schools, a travellers' hostel, a medical dispensary and Hazíratu'l-Quds
Lease period: – 1938
Seizure; the building was turned into an art gallery
Demolition: August 1963 the Universal House of Justice announced that it had been demolished by the authorities and the site cleared.
References: AB109, BW14p479-481, GPB300-301, CEBF236, EB266-268, MF126-128
||Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Dependencies of; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Architecture; Architects; Foundation stones and groundbreaking; General Subotich; Krupatkin; Haji Muhammad-Taqi Afnan (Vakilud-Dawlih); Afnan; Bab, Family of; Haji Siyyid Muhammad; Volkov; Haziratul-Quds; Bahai schools; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Life of
|1907 (In the year)
||`Abdu'l-Bahá started to move His family to the house that He had designed and built in the German colony at the foot of Mount Carmel in Haifa. [BBD107; DH145]
Laura Clifford Barney helped to purchase the land for the house and to pay for its construction. [DH145]
Some members of the family occupied the house as early as February 1907, if not before. [DH145; GBF56]
||House of Abdul-Baha (Haifa); Abdul-Baha, Life of; Laura Clifford Barney; Purchases and exchanges; Architecture; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
|1909 21 Mar
||`Abdu'l-Bahá laid the sacred remains of the Báb in their final resting place at the Shrine in Haifa. [AB126; BBD210; DH138; GBF103; GPB276]
See AB126–30, CT84 and GPB273–8 for details of the occasion and its history.
The Shrine was a simple rectangular structure of six rooms. [DH71, ZK284]
The marble sarcophagus used for the remains of the Báb was a gift from the Bahá'ís of Rangoon. [AB129; MC155]
For details of the sarcophagus see RB3:431.
||BWC; Mount Carmel; Rangoon; Myanmar (Burma); Chicago; United States
||Bab, Shrine of; Bab, Sarcophagus for; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Marble; Gifts; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; - Basic timeline, Expanded
||Louis Bourgeois was selected as the architect for the Chicago House of Worship. [DP94; GPB303; SBBH1:145]
For details of the designs and selection process see DP76-100.
See CT159 for the source of inspiration for the design.
See FMH75-76 for details of a visit by Willard and Doris McKay to his home. He reported that "the inspiration for the Temple was from another realm and that he had been conscious, from the beginning, that Bahá'ulláh was the creator of the building."
||Wilmette; Chicago; United States
||Louis Bourgeois; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Architecture; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Architects
|1920 27 Apr
||The design for the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar at Wilmette, Illinois, was finally chosen by the forty-nine delegates present at the Twelfth Annual Convention of Bahá'í Temple Unity, being held at the Hotel McAlpin, New York. Excavation at the site began on the 24th of September and construction commenced on the 20th of December.
||New York; United States; Wilmette
||Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Architecture
|1925 (In the year)
||Shoghi Effendi established the International Bahá'í Archives on Mount Carmel, one site adjoining the Shrine of the Báb and the other was located in the immediate vicinity of the resting-place of the Greatest Holy Leaf. [GPB147; Archives, Bahá'í: Preserving and Safeguarding the Sacred Texts by / on behalf of Universal House of Justice.]
Note that the function of the archives was written into the Constitution of the Universal House of Justice:
"To ensure the preservation of the Sacred Texts and to safeguard their inviolability; to analyse, classify, and coordinate the Writings; and to defend and protect the Cause of God and emancipate it from the fetters of repression and persecution;"
||International Archives; Constitution of the Universal House of Justice; Archives
|1929 14 Feb
||Work began on the three additional chambers of the Shrine of the Báb after the rock had been excavated from behind the building during the previous year. [DH154]
Haji Mahmúd Qassabchí, the builder who had completed the repairs on the House of Bahá'u'llah in Baghdad was chosen to be in charge of the work. Shoghi Effendi later designed one of the doors to the Shrine as "Báb-i-Qassabchi" in his honour.
Originally the centre room had been separated by wooden walls and doors. These were removed and replaced by archways. [SETPE1p164]
These rooms, when completed, are used as the International Bahá’í Archives. There was a second repository of the archives at this time near the resting place of the Greatest Holy Leaf. [GPB347]
||BWC; Mount Carmel
||Bab, Shrine of; International Bahai Archives; Haji Mahmud Qassabchi; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
|1930 20 Aug
||Louis Jean-Baptiste Bourgeois, (19 March, 1856, Saint-Célestin, Quebec, Canada) designer of the Mashriqu’l-Adhkár in Wilmette, passed away in that city. He was buried in East Lawn Memorial Park Sacramento, Sacramento County, California, USA [DP145; Find a grave]
He had learned of the Faith in Boston through the efforts of Mary Hanford Ford. [Wikipedia]
For details of his life see DP76–86.
||Saint-Celestin-de-Nicolet; Quebec; Wilmette; Boston; United States
||Louis Bourgeois; Architects; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Mary Hanford Ford
|1932 15 Jul
||The Greatest Holy Leaf, Bahíyyih Khánum, ‘outstanding heroine of the Bahá’í Dispensation’ passed away in Haifa about one hour after midnight. [BW5:169; GPB108]
Her passing marked the end of the Heroic Age of the Faith. [BBD102; WOB98]
She was comparable in rank to Sarah, Ásíyih, the Virgin Mary, Fátimih and Táhirih. [GPB347]
Shoghi Effendi was in Switzerland and immediately went to Italy to commission a memorial for her grave. [DH156]
For Tablets of Bahá’u’lláh and ‘Abdu’l-Bahá revealed in her honour see BW5:171–3; by Bahá’u’lláh; by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá; and for tributes by Shoghi Effendi as well as by Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhiyyih Khánum.
See BW19 pg39-74 The Greatest Holy Leaf, The Fiftieth Anniversary of the Passing of Bahiyyih Khanum.
For Shoghi Effendi’s tribute to her see BW5:174–9.
For Marjory Morten’s obituary of her see BW5:181–5.
The design of the monument for the resting place of the Greatest Holy Leaf is a symbol of the Bahá’í administrative order. [CB298]
See also Bahíyyih Khánum and Gail, Khánum, The Greatest Holy Leaf; BBD42; CB121–2, 305; DH156–61; GBF65–8; PP144–8.
||BWC; Mount Carmel
||Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Heroic Age; Marjory Morten; In Memoriam; Monument Gardens; Architecture; Cemeteries and graves; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1940 (In the year)
||Marcia Atwater, from the United States, arrived in Santiago, Chile, as the first long-term pioneer.
||Marcia Atwater; First travel teachers and pioneers
|1940 1 Mar
||May Bolles Maxwell passed away in Buenos Aires. [BBD153; BW8:631 TG49]
Shoghi Effendi awarded her the honour of a ‘martyr’s death’ and designated her as a Disciple of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [BW8:631; MA38]
She was the first Bahá'í on European soil and the "mother" of both the French and the Canadian Bahá'í communities. [PP149]
For the story of her life see BW17:437–8.
Shoghi Effendi asked her husband, Sutherland Maxwell, to design her tomb, which was to be a ‘historic centre’ for ‘pioneer Bahá’í activity’. [BW8:642]
For an account of the erection of the monument to her see PSBW83–6.
||Buenos Aires; Argentina
||May Maxwell (Bolles); Births and deaths; Names and titles; Sutherland Maxwell; Architecture; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; First Bahais by country or area
|1942 Late in the year
||Shoghi Effendi asked Sutherland Maxwell to design the superstructure of the Shrine of the Báb. [BBD210; DH140; GBF103–5]
||Haifa; Mount Carmel
||Sutherland Maxwell; Bab, Shrine of; Architecture; Architects; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
|1951 (In the year)
||Shoghi Effendi received the original manuscript of The Kitáb-i-Íqán, in the handwriting of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá with some marginal additions by Bahá’u’lláh, and placed it in the International Bahá’í Archives.
||International Bahai Archives; Kitab-i-Iqan (Book of Certitude); Shoghi Effendi, Life of
|1952 25 Mar
||Sutherland Maxwell, Hand of the Cause of God, passed away in Montreal. He died in the very room that the Master had slept in during His visit to Canada. (b.14 November, 1874) [DH143; MBW132; PP246; CBN undated Memorial Issue]
For his obituary see BW12:657–62.
Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
For his relationship with Shoghi Effendi and work on the superstructure of the Shrine of the Báb see PP236–43.
Shoghi Effendi named the southern door of the Báb’s tomb after him in memory of his services.
On June 16th, 1952, friends of the Montreal area gathered at the grave to place, under the headstone, an alabaster box that had been sent by the Guardian. The box contained a piece of plaster taken from the walls of the prison in Máh-Kú where the Báb had been incarcerated in 1847. Another piece of plaster from the same source had been placed under the first golden tile of the dome of the Shrine of the Báb. The superstructure of the Shrine had been designed by Sutherland Maxwell. [TG55]
Find a grave.
For a brief biography see LoF276-286.
||Sutherland Maxwell; Architects; Fortress of Mah-Ku; Gifts; Relics; Bab, Shrine of; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
|1952 8 Oct
||Shoghi Effendi announced his decision to launch ‘the fate-laden, soul-stirring, decade-long world-embracing Spiritual Crusade’ in the coming year. [BW12:253–5; MBW411
For the objectives of the Crusade see BW12:256–14.
Among the goals to be achieved was the construction of the International Bahá’í Archives building. [BBD22; DH168; MBW43]
"the first of the major edifices destined to constitute the th seat of the World Bahá'í Administrative Centre to be established on Mout Carmel". [PP264]
He called upon the Hands of the Cause to appoint, during Ridván 1954, five auxiliary boards to act as their adjuncts or deputies to work with the national spiritual assemblies to execute the projected national plans. [MBW44, BW13p335; CBN No 53 June, 1954 p6; MBW58-60]
||Ten Year Crusade; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; International Bahai Archives; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Auxiliary Board; Auxiliary Board Members and assistants; Appointed arm; NSA; Teaching plans; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1953 2 May
||The House of Worship in Wilmette was dedicated in a public ceremony. [BW12:142, BWNS218]
For the text of the Guardian’s message of dedication see BW12:141–2.
For an account of the event see BW12:154–63.
See The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1952 Information Statistical & Comparative p24-26 for project statistics and a chronology of events.
Towards the end of his life in Tehran, Ahmad (of "Tablet of Ahmad" fame) had entrusted the original Tablet to his grandson Jamal who in turn, out of the purity of his heart and his devotion to the Faith of God offered it as a gift to Hand of the Cause, Trustee of Huqúq, the son and brother of two illustrious martyrs, Jinab-i-Valiyu'llah Varqá. When Jinab-i-Varqa, according to the instructions of the beloved Guardian, was sent to take part in this dedication ceremony he brought this most precious Tablet as his offering to the archives of the Bahá'ís of the United States. [A Flame of Fire by A.Q. Faizi.]
See the message of the Universal House of Justice dated 1 August, 2014 for more on the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in Wilmette.
Location: Wilmette, Illinois, U.S. Cook County
Administration: On the same day as the interment of the sacred remains of the Báb on Mount Carmel, March 21st, 1909, the first American Bahá'í Convention opened in Chicago. The Convention established the 'Bahá'í Temple Unity', incorporated to hold title to the Temple property and to provide for its construction. A constitution was framed and an Executive Board of the Bahá'í Temple Unity elected. This body became the future National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada. [BBD39; BBRSM:106; BW10:179; GPB349; PP397; SBBH1:146; BFA2:XVII, 309; BW13:849; MBW142–3]
Foundation Stone: by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, 1 May, 1912
Construction Period:The purchase of the site completed: 1914. Design Chosen: 1920. Superstructure: 1921 – 1 May 1931. External Ornamentation: June 1932 -1943. Interior: 1951
Dedication: 1 May 1953
Architects: Louis Bourgeois with Alfred Shaw (interior cladding) Bourgeois became a Baha’i in New York City in 1907, and two years later responded to the call for designs for the Temple. In 1920, delegates from across the country unanimously selected his innovative design. Bourgeois traveled to Haifa to consult with ‘Abdu’l-Bahá. With ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s encouragement, Bourgeois refined and scaled down the size of his design. [The House of Worship Architecture]
Seating: 1,191 [DP220]
Dimensions:203ft at the base and 49ft high
Cost: $2.6 million (another source) $51,500 (land) plus $3,212,517.60 (construction costs 1921-1953)
Dependencies: Construction of a home for the aged was began in December, 1957 and inaugurated on 1 February, 1959. It is located about three blocks away.
Note: In GPB349 Shoghi Effendi states that “…this enterprise—the crowning achievement of the Administrative Order of the Faith of Bahá’u’lláh in the first Bahá’í century…”.
References: CEBF236-241,GPB348-353, MDM121-239, The Dawning Place, The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1963 Information Statistical & Comparative p36-37.
|Wilmette; United States
||Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Lawh-i-Ahmad (Tablet of Ahmad (Arabic)); Gifts; Archives; Dedications; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Alfred Shaw; Architects; Bahai home for the aged; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Dependencies of; BWNS; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
|1953 8 Sep
||Jameson and Gale Bond arrived in Arctic Bay in the District of Franklin and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:451, SDSC127]
||Arctic Bay; Franklin; Canada
||Jameson Bond; Gale Bond; Knights of Bahaullah
|1953 7 – 15 Oct
||The Asian Intercontinental Teaching Conference was held in New Delhi. [BW12:178]
For Shoghi Effendi’s message to the conference see BW12:178–81.
For a report of the conference see BW12:181–8.
This was the first international Bahá’í gathering ever to be held in the East. [BW12:181; SBR171]
It was attended by 489 Bahá’ís representing 31 countries. [BW 12:181]
The design for the International Bahá’í Archives was revealed to the Bahá’ís of the world for the first time at this conference. [DH168]
||New Delhi; India; Asia
||Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade; International Bahai Archives; Teaching; First conferences
||Jean Sevin arrived in Tuamotu Archipelago and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:457]
||Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
|1954 6 Apr
||Shoghi Effendi announced that plans for the International Bahá’í Archives had been completed and that steps had been taken to begin its construction. [PP264BBD22–3; DH169; GBF117–8; MBW64]
||BWC; Mount Carmel; Haifa
||International Bahai Archives; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1954 7 Aug
||Marcia Steward de Matamoros Atwater arrived in the Marshall Islands and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:454]
||Marcia Atwater; Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
||A plot of land of slightly less than half an acre (1,300 metres) owned by Farah Sprague, a Covenant-breaker, was purchased (after expropriation by the state of Israel), overcoming the final obstacle to beginning the construction of the International Bahá’í Archives. This concluded a thirty-year struggle in the acquisition of land on the Arc for the Guardian. [LI210-211; DH169; MBW73–4; CBN No 60 January, 1955 p1]
||Farah Sprague; Covenant-breakers; International Bahai Archives
||Was she the Iranian-born wife of Sydney Sprague? See BFA2p155
Sister of Fareed? MBW73|
|1954. 27 Nov
||Shoghi Effendi announced the commencement of "the excavation for the foundations of the International Archives heralding the rise of the first edifice destine to inaugurate the establishment of the seat of the World Baha'i Administrative order in the Holy Land". [MBW75]
||International Bahai Archives
|1954 27 Nov
||Shoghi Effendi described the significance of the world administrative centre of the Faith and the ‘structures, which will serve as the administrative seats of such divinely appointed institutions as the Guardianship, the Hands of the Cause, and the Universal House of Justice’ to be ranged along a ‘far-flung arc’. [MBW74]
||BWC; Mount Carmel; Haifa
||Guardianship; Hands of the Cause; Universal House of Justice, Seat of; Arc (World Centre); - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
|1955 15 Nov
||Shoghi Effendi announced that thirty of the fifty-two pillars, each over seven metres high, had been raised and that half of the nine hundred tons of stone ordered from Italy had been safely delivered at the Port of Haifa. He also said that a contract for over $15,000 had been placed with the tile factory in Utrecht for over 7,000 green tiles to cover the 500 square metres of the roof. [MBW95]
He announced as well:
the purchase of a plot of land adjacent to the resting-place of the Greatest Holy Leaf for $100,000,
the purchase of the dilapidated house situated south of the Mansion at Bahjí in which 'Abdu'l-Bahá used to receive friends, among them the first party of Western pilgrims after Bahá'u'lláh's passing,
a plot of land situated in the neighbourhood of the Shrine of the Báb,
and that the formalities had been completed in the purchase of the site of the future Mashriqu'lAdhkár on Mt. Carmel. [MBW78-79, 95]
The transfer of the deeds for the above plots of land were being transferred to the name of the Israel branches of the United States, The British, the Persian the Canadian and the Australian Baháa'í National Spiritual Assemblies. [MBW95]
||International Bahai Archives; Bahji; Shrine of the Bab; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Abdul-Baha, Tea House of; Arc
||Shoghi Effendi announced that the remaining 22 pillars of the International Bahá'í Archives had been erected and that the last half of the 900 tons of marble from Italy had been delivered. Forty-four tons of glazed green tiles from Utrecht had been placed in position. [MBW108]
He also announced that:
the dilapidated house located near the Mansion had been restored,
Negotiations were underway with the Development Authority of the State of Israel for the acquisition of two plots to the north and south of the Shrine.
the destruction of a row of sheds near the Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh,
that an expropriation order had been published in the Israel Official Gazette related to the buildings enclosed within the Haram-i-Aqdas regarding the occupancy of these buildings of the Covenant-breakers. [MBW108-109]
||International Bahai Archives; Haram-i-Aqdas; Covenant-breakers; Abdul-Baha, Tea House of
||In his last Ridván message Shoghi Effendi announced that the exterior of International Bahá’í Archives had been completed and that the roof was in place. [VBHP38; DH169; GBF63–4; PP264–6]
It had cost approximately a quarter of a million dollars and was, like the Shrine of the Báb, ordered in Italy, entirely carved and completed there, and shipped to Haifa for erection; not only was each separate stone numbered, but charts showing where each on went facilitated its being place in its proper position." [PP265]
Ugo Giachery supervised the work in Italy and Leroy Ioas in Haifa. Because the landscaping had been completed prior to the completion of the construction, it had to be built from the rear with only a space of about 5 metres on three sides to work in. [PP265]
For details of its construction and photographs see BW13:403–33.
|BWC; Mount Carmel; Haifa
||International Bahai Archives; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
||Pouva Murday of Mauritius arrived in the Chagos Archipelago and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh.
||Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
|1957 4 Nov
||Passing of Shoghi Effendi
Shoghi Effendi passed away in London of coronary thrombosis after a bout of Asian influenza. [CB377; PP446 BW13:207-225]
He was in London to purchase some furniture to complete the interior of the International Archives Building. [PP445]
For a tribute to Shoghi Effendi written by Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum see BW13:58–226.]
See also Rabbání, The Guardian Of The Bahá’í Faith and The Priceless Pearl.
|London; United Kingdom
||Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; International Bahai Archives; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Appointed arm; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Covenant (general)
|1958 21–24 Mar
||The second Intercontinental Conference was held at the mid-point of the Crusade convenes in Sydney, Australia. [BW13:319]<
Hand of the Cause Charles Mason Remey, who had been designated by the Guardian as his representative and who was the architect of the Mother Temple of Australasia, attended, accompanied by four other Hands of the Cause. [BW13:317]
For the message of the Custodians to the conference see MC72–5.
For a report of the conference see BW13:319–21.
||Sydney; Australia; Australasia
||Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Charles Mason Remey; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Sydney; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Architecture; Architects
|1961 15 Jan
||The House of Worship in Kampala is officially opened by Hand of the Cause Rúhíyyih Khánum in a public service attended by 1,500 people. [BW13:715–18; MoC15]
For message of the Custodians to the dedication service see MoC2503.
For cable of the Custodians to the Bahá’ís of the world see MoC253.
Location:Northern Kampala, on Dikaaya Hill in Kawempe Division.
Foundation Stone: 26 Jan 1958 (Beneath the stone is a silver box containing the sacred earth from the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh and a wooden box containing a piece of the plaster from the Prison Fortress of Máh-Kú where the Báb had been incarcerated.)
Construction Period: Land purchased: 20 April 1954, January 1958 – 14 January 1961
Site Dedication: 14 January 1961 (Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum brought a gift from the Guardian- a carpet from the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh was hung on the inside of the door facing the Qiblih.)
Architect: Charles Mason Remey
Seating:Over 400 (800 for Dedication ceremony)
Dimensions: Dome at its base-44ft. Diameter of inner floor-84ft. Circumference: 265ft yielding 5,550 sq ft of floor space. Height of the building-124ft.
Cost: $ ? (initial budget was 42,00 Pounds Sterling)
References: BW13p704-719, CEBF241, CG45
||Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Kampala; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Dedications; Architects; Gifts; Boxes containing dust, earth or plaster; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Mah-Ku; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1961 17 Sep
||The House of Worship in Sydney was officially opened by Hand of the Cause Rúhíyyih Khánum in two public services, each attended by 900 people. [BW13:732]
For message of the Custodians to the dedication service see MoC309–12.
For cable of the Custodians to the Bahá’ís of the world see MoC313.
Location:Sydney, Australia (Ingleside on the MonaVale Road).
Foundation Stone: 26 Jan 1958 (Clara Dunn and Hand of the Cause Charles Mason Remey, who had been designated by the Guardian as his representative, while attending the 2nd International Conference 21-24 March, 1958. A small bag of earth from the inner Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh and a piece of plaster from the room of the Báb in Máh-Kú was deposited under the floor.)
Construction Period: 1957-1961
Site Dedication:16 September 1961 (Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum brought a gift from the Guardian- a green silk carpet from the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh.)
Architect C.M. Remey
Dimensions: 124ft at the base and 130ft high
Cost: Original budget was 120,000 Pounds Sterling
References: BW13:319-322, BW13p720-732 CEBF241
||Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Sydney; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Dedications; Clara Dunn; Charles Mason Remey; Architects; Boxes containing dust, earth or plaster; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Mah-Ku; Gifts; - Basic timeline, Expanded
||The International Bahá’í Archives Building was opened to Bahá’í pilgrims. [BW13:429; MC20]
For details of the Archives building and several pictures see BW13:403–34.
Marble for the the International Baha’i Archives building was cut and chiseled by Margraf, a firm from Chiampo, Italy formerly known as Industria dei Marmi Vincentini. [BWNS1223]
||International Bahai Archives; Pilgrimage; Marble; BWNS
|1964 4 Jul
||The House of Worship in Langenhain, Germany, was dedicated. [BW14:483–4]
For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW14:485–6.
For pictures see BW14:482, 483, 485, 491.
For a description of the teaching conference accompanying the dedication see BW14:586–8.
See also MC14–15; PP432–4.
See this brief film on Vimeo on the life of Anneliese Bopp and her part in the building of this Temple.
Location: Frankfurt, Germany (near the village of Langenhain in the Taunus Hills)
Foundation Stone: 20 November 1960 by Hand of the Cause Amelia Collins representing the World Centre. She placed Sacred Dust from the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh in the foundations.
Construction Period: 1960-1964
Site Dedication:4 July 1964 Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum represented the Universal House of Justice.
Architect: Teuto Rocholl (plans approved by Shoghi Effendi)
Seating:450 – 600
Dimensions: Diameter at the base: 158ft, Inner diameter: 23m (69ft), Inner height of the dome: 24m (72ft). Height 20.5m (93ft)
Dependencies: A home for the aged.
Note: The construction of this temple was delayed by legal roadblocks instigated by church opposition, both Protestant and Catholic.
References: BW14p483, BW14p483-484, BW18p104, CEBF241
|Langenhain; Frankfurt; Germany; Europe
||Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Langenhain; Amelia Collins; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Teuto Rocholl; Architects; Boxes containing dust, earth or plaster; Bahaullah, Shrine of; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1965 (In the year)
||William Carr visited Alert in Canada, only 800 km from the North Pole and the most northerly inhabited location in the world.
||William Carr; Arctic
||The Universal House of Justice in a letter addressed to all National Assemblies expressed the need for letters written by the Guardian to them or to their subsidiary institutions as well as to the friends under their jurisdiction. The Universal House of Justice asked for copies of the letters, offered to assist in making the copies and gave the option of sending the letter or copies directly to the World Centre if the subject matter was personal. [CBN No 297 Aug/Sep 1975 p14]
||Archives; Shoghi Effendi, Writings of
|1968 (Late in the year)
||Two Chilean Bahá’ís, Aníbal Soto, a telegraph operator in the Chilean Navy and his wife, Norma Soto, were posted to a Chilean base in Antarctica.
|1971 16 Oct
||The inauguration of Shahyad Tower ("King's Memorial Tower") in Tehran. The tower was built in honour of the shah on the occasion of the commemoration of the 2,500th anniversary of the Persian Empire and has become an iconic symbol of the city of Tehran. It has been described as being a tower, an arch, a gate and an obelisk in one and is 50 meters (164 ft) tall and completely clad in some eight thousand blocks of cut marble from Isfahan Province. The main financing was provided by a group of five hundred Iranian industrialists.
After the Revolution in 1979 it was renamed The Azadi Tower (Liberty Tower) and was, in turn, the gathering place of the "rebels" in 1979 and for those protesting the results of the election in 2009.
The architect, Hossein Amanat was only 24 years old and a recent graduate when he won the competition for the project. In addition to having a remarkable career in designing buildings for commercial, educational and residential use, he is the architect for such Bahá'í projects as the Universal House of Justice Building, the Centre for the Study of the Holy Texts, the International Teaching Centre and the Mashriqu’l-Adhka in Samoa. He left Iran in 1978 and took up residence in Vancouver in 1980. [Hossein Amanat website; Farah Pahlavi website; Wikipedia]
||Hossein Amanat (Husayn Amanat); Architecture; Architects
|1972 29 Apr
||The House of Worship in Panama was dedicated in a series of ceremonies held throughout the day attended by Hands of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum, Ugo Giachery and Dhikru’lláh Khádem and four thousand Bahá’ís. [BW15:634; VV14]
For the history of the House of Worship see BW15:643–6.
For statistics on the House of Worship see BW15:647–9.
Location:Panama City, Panama (On the Cerro Sonsonate (Singing Hill), a few miles north of Panama City)
Foundation Stone: 8 October 1967 (Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum)
Construction Period: 1969-1972
Site Dedication: 29 April, 1972 (Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum)
Architect: Peter Tillotson
References: BW14p493, BW15p632-649
||Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Panama; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Dedications; Ugo Giachery; Dhikrullah Khadem; Peter Tillotson; Architects; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1973 18 Sep
||Husayn Amánat was appointed architect of the Seat of the Universal House of Justice. [BW16:133; DH172; VV37]
||Universal House of Justice, Seat of; Hossein Amanat (Husayn Amanat); Architecture; Architects
|1974 7 Feb
||The construction of the Seat of the Universal House of Justice was initiated with the acceptance of the design conceived by architect Husayn Amánat. [BW17:73]
||Hossein Amanat (Husayn Amanat); Universal House of Justice, Seat of; Architecture
||The first local spiritual assembly of Kotzebue, an Iñupiat Eskimo community situated north of the Arctic Circle, was formed.
||Kotzebue; Alaska; United States; Arctic
|1974 11 – 18 Aug
||The first Teaching Conference of the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions of Europe took place in Tórshavn, Faroe Islands. [BW16:110]
||Torshavn; Faroe Islands; Arctic
||Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; First conferences
||The only Bahá’í to visit the continent in the 1970s, John R. Peiniger, an Australian, was stationed in Antarctica for a brief time.
See Aníbal and Norma Soto, a couple who visited in the previous decade.
||John R. Peiniger
|1975 5 Jun
||Excavation of the site of the Seat of the Universal House of Justice began. [BW16:133; BW18:465]
See BW16:399–404 for an article on the Seat by architect Husayn Amánat.
See BW17:301 for the significance of the seat.
||Hossein Amanat (Husayn Amanat); Universal House of Justice, Seat of; Architecture; Architects
|1983 Jan - Feb c.
||The Seat of the Universal House of Justice was completed; the Universal House of Justice officially occupied the building. [BBD204; BW19:23; VV62]
For a description and history of the building see BW19:24–6.
Marble for the Seat of the Universal House of Justice was quarried from Mount Pentelikon, just north of Athens and was cut and chiseled by Margraf, a firm from Chiampo, Italy formerly known as Industria Marmi Vincentini. [BWNS1223]
For pictures see BW18:466–72 and Construction.
See video called Ark of Destiny.
||BWC; Mount Carmel
||Universal House of Justice, Seat of; Universal House of Justice, Basic timeline; Marble; Architecture; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; BWNS; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1984 1 Sep
||The House of Worship in Apia, Western Samoa, the Mother Temple of the Pacific, was dedicated in the presence of Hand of the Cause of God Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum, Hand of the Cause Dr Ugo Giachery, His Highness Malietoa Tanumafili II and more than a thousand Bahá’ís from 45 countries. [BW19:100–1; VV64]
For a report of the dedication see BW19:552–3.
For the text of the address of His Highness Malietoa Tanumafili II see BW19:556.
For pictures see BW19:553 and VV64.
Marble for the House of Worship was cut and chiseled by Margraf, a firm from Chiampo, Italy formerly known as Industria Marmi Vincentini. [BWNS1223]
Location: Apia, Samoa (9km south of the city)
Foundation Stone: Laid by Malietoa Tanumafili II and Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum on 27 January 1979. She placed a small casket of Dust from the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh in a niche in a stone.
Site Dedication:1 September 1984
Seating: 500 - 700
Dimensions:Top of the dome to ground: 28m (92ft)
References: BW16p488-489, BW17p371-374, BW18p104, 585-588, BW19p547-557,
|Apia; Samoa; Pacific; Chiampo; Italy
||Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Ugo Giachery; Malietoa Tanumafili II of Western Samoa; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Apia; Dedications; Marble; Husayn Amanat; Malietoa Tanumafili II of Western Samoa; Architects; Boxes containing dust, earth or plaster; Bahaullah, Shrine of; BWNS; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1986 24 Dec
||The House of Worship in New Delhi, India, was dedicated in the presence of Hand of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum and more than 8,000 Bahá’ís from 114 countries. [AWH47; BINS161; BW19:102 BW20p732-733, VV92]
See VV93–4 for pictures.
Marble for the House of Worship was cut and chiseled by Margraf, a firm from Chiampo, Italy formerly known as Industria Marmi Vincentini. [BWNS1223]
Location: New Delhi, India (Bahapur (Abode of Light))
Foundation Stone: 17 October 1977 (Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum)
Construction Period: April 1980 - December 1986
Site Dedication:24 December 1986 (Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum placed a silver casket containing Dust from the Shrines of Bahá’u’lláh and the Báb into the crown of the Prayer Hall arch facing ‘Akká)
Architect/Project Manager: Faribouz Sahbá
Dimensions:Inner buds are 34.3m high, the outer leaves are 15.4m wide and 22.5m high.
References: BW16p486-487, BW17p368-370, BW18p103-104, 571-584, BW19p559-568, BW20p731-753
|New Delhi; India; Chiampo; Italy
||Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Delhi; Lotus temple; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Dedications; Marble; Faribourz Sahba; Architects; Boxes containing dust, earth or plaster; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Bab, Shrine of; BWNS; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1987 30 Apr
||The Universal House of Justice indicated that the way was open to erect the remaining buildings on the arc at the Bahá’í World Centre. [AWH51]
||Mount Carmel; BWC
|1987 31 Aug
||The Universal House of Justice called for the erection of the remaining three buildings along the arc at the Bahá’í World Centre—the Centre for the Study of the Sacred Texts, the Seat of the International Teaching Centre and the International Bahá’í Library—as well as an expansion of the International Archives building and the creation of 19 monumental terraces from the foot of Mount Carmel to its crest. [AWH50–4, 90; BBD21; VV96]
||Mount Carmel; BWC
||Centre for the Study of the Sacred Texts; International Teaching Centre, Seat; International Bahai Library; International Bahai Archives; Terraces; Arc project; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1988 24 – 25 Sep
||The first annual Bahá’í Studies Conference of Spain was held in Barcelona. [BINS192:5]
||Bahai Studies; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Other; First conferences
|1989. 10 Oct
||The Bahá'í World Centre received official approval by the Local Town Planning Committee and City Council of Haifa of the Town Planning Scheme for the initiation of the Projects on Mt Carmel.
||The Haifa District Town Planning Commission approved the plan submitted by the World Centre for the building projects on Mount Carmel. [AWH76]
||Mount Carmel; Haifa; Israel; BWC
|1990 23 May
||The work started on the project to reinforce and extend the main terrace of the Shrine of the Báb. This was the initial step in the work to have the Terraces extend from the foot of the ridge of the mountain. [Ridván Message 1992, AWH83, 102]
The architect for the Terraces project was Fariborz Sahba.
||World Centre; Akka; Haifa; Israel; BWC
||Terraces; Arc project; Bab, Shrine of; Fariborz Sahba
||The ground was broken for the construction of the Centre for the Study of the Sacred Texts and for the Extension to the International Archives Building. [Ridván Message 1992]
||Centre for the Study of the Sacred Texts; International Bahai Archives; Arc project; Foundation stones and groundbreaking
|1993 10 – 12 Apr
||The first Bahá'í Congress of Catalunya took place in Barcelona. [BW92–3:146]
||Barcelona; Catalunya; Spain
|1994 (In the year)
||The founding of the Cambodian Organization for Research, Development and Education (CORDE) in Cambodia.
Their programs include:
||Cambodian Organization for Research, Development and Education; Social and Economic Development Organizations
|1994 Jul 20 – 25
||The European Bahá'í Youth Council sponsored five regional ‘Shaping Europe' conferences, in Berlin, Bucharest, St Petersburg, Barcelona and Wolverhampton, United Kingdom. [BINS323:3–5; BW94–5:177–8, 189]
||Berlin; Germany; Bucharest; Romania; St Petersburg; Russia; Barcelona; Portugal; Wolverhampton; United Kingdom; Europe
||Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Youth
|1995 May 14
||The Universal House of justice representative Mr ‘Alí Nakhjavání began his tour of major Bahá'í communities to discuss the significance of the Arc projects on Mount Carmel.
||Ali Nakhjavani; Arc project; Funds
||The terraces below the Shrine of the Báb were completed and opened to pilgrims.
||World Centre; BWC
||Bab, Shrine of; Terraces; Arc project
|2001 8 - 17 Jan
||The inauguration of the International Teaching Centre Building at the World Centre with the meeting of the Institution of the Counsellors. Board members from 172 countries attended.
Message from the Universal House of Justice date 14 January, 2001 addressed To the Conference Marking the Inauguration of the International Teaching Centre Building.
This occasion was marked as "one of the historic happenings of the Formative Age". From the Ridván Message of 2000]
Construction of the International Teaching Centre Building began in 1987 and was completed in October 2000. [BWNS131]
For a full account of the event see BWNS131 and BW00-01p4148.
||BWC; Mount Carmel; Haifa
||International Teaching Centre, Seat; Arc project; BWNS; Counsellors; Counsellors conferences; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; - Basic timeline, Expanded
||The inauguration of the Centre for the Study of the Texts. The facility was completed and occupied in 1999. It consists of study rooms for resident and visiting scholars, meeting and conference rooms, a large reference library, a secretariat and ancillary spaces totalling 7750 sq. metres (83,420 sq. ft) Much of the building is located below ground. It has been integrated into the mountain with a portico that reflects the classical motifs of the other buildings on the Arc. The offices of the building are provided with natural light directly or through light wells, patios and skylights. Below ground it is connected to an extension to the Archives which provides secure, climate-controlled storage vaults for the original, hand written papers that constitute the Bahá'í Sacred Texts. The architect was Hossein Amanat. [amanatarchitect.com]
“The Centre for the Study of the Texts . . . will be the seat of an institution of Bahá’í scholars, the efflorescence of the present Research Department of the World Centre, which will assist the Universal House of Justice in consulting the Sacred Writings, and will prepare translations of and commentaries on the authoritative texts of the Faith.” [AWH p52]
“The building was completed and occupied in 1999. It now houses the Research Department, and is the temporary home of the International Bahá'í Library and other offices.” [Visiting Bahá’í Holy Places p. 35; BW99-00p38-39]
|BWC; Mount Carmel; Haifa
||Centre for the Study of the Sacred Texts; Arc project; Hossein Amanat (Husayn Amanat); Research Department; International Bahai Library; International Bahai Archives; Libraries; Archives; Translation; Architects; Architecture; Quick facts; - Basic timeline, Expanded; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
|2001 23 May
||At dusk on the evening of the 22nd of May, the opening of the Terraces of the Shrine of the Báb, a project begun ten years ago that has transformed the ancient barren face of the mountain into 19 majestic terraced gardens cascading down the length of the mountain. [BWNS121; BW01-02p37-73]
See the message To the Believers Gathered for the Events Marking the Completion of the Projects on Mount Carmel.
The nineteen Canadian believers who had the extraordinary blessing of being present in the Holy Land for the official opening of the Terraces of the Shrine of the Báb are: Dr. Akouete Akakpo-Vida, Mr. Riel Aubichon, Mr. Garrett Brisdon, Mrs. Pearl Downie, Mrs. Nellie Ironeagle, Mrs. Aghdas Javid, Mr. Joseph Kowtow, Mrs. Joo Jong Kung, M. Fréderic Landry, Ms. Giselle Melanson, Mr. Borna Noureddin, Mr. James Patrick, Mrs. Valerie Pemberton-Piggott, Mlle. Cindy Poitras, Mrs. Janice Schlosser, Mlle. Caroline Simon, Mrs. Doris Toeg, Mrs. Linda Wilkinson and Mme. Elizabeth Wright. In addition, several students from the Maxwell International Bahá'í School were present as members of the delegations from their home countries.The event was attended by some 4,500 people, 3,300 of them Bahá'ís, as representative of more than 200 countries and territories. [One Country Vol.13 Issue 1]
For the statement read at the official opening of the flight of terraces see Ruhi 8.3 page 93.
See video From Darkness to Light Recalling the Events at the Official Opening of the Terraces on Mount Carmel May 2001.
See The Opening of the Terraces (May 2001):
Reflections of a Participant by Thelma Batchelor.
||BWC; Haifa; Mount Carmel
||Bab, Shrine of; Terraces; Dedications; Arc project; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; - Basic timeline, Expanded; BWNS
||"In response to the call issued by the National Spiritual Assembly of Chile, 185 design concepts have been received from architects and designers around the world for the Mother Temple of South America to be constructed in Santiago." [Riḍván 2003 To the Bahá’ís of the World]
||Mashriqul-Adhkar, Santiago; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Architecture
||The announcement by the Universal House of Justice of the appointment of Siamak Hariri of Toronto, Canada, as architect of the Bahá'í Temple to be built near Santiago in Chile. [BWNS223]
See Ted Talk by Siamak Hariri entitled How do you build a sacred space?
||Santiago; Chile; Toronto
||Siamak Hariri; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Santiago; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Architecture; Architects; BWNS
|2011 20 May
||Fariba Kamalabadi and Mahvash Sabet were returned to Evin Prison in Tehran. They had spent a brief time in the appalling conditions at Qarchak prison, (from 3 May) some 45 kilometers from Tehran. [BIC Evin; BWNS826]
The five men were still being held under close scrutiny in a wing of Gohardasht prison, reserved for political prisoners.
||Yaran; Evin Prison; Gohardasht Prison; Qarchak prison; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Prisons; BWNS
|2012 (In the Year)
||The Office of Temples and Sites was established at the Bahá'í World Centre. The purpose of the office was to coordinate initial preparations for the temple builds with the respective National Spiritual Assemblies.
Firstly a committee is formed in each country, entrusted with identifying, together with institutions and agencies at all levels of the community, means to promote widespread participation and to channel the enthusiasm engendered among the friends following the announcement of the projects.
Another practical step in these national and local projects has been the selection of a suitable piece of land, one which is modest in size, strategically located, and easily accessible. Then a construction office for the project is established to assist with the management of technical, financial, and legal issues.
The next step is to call for the preparation of a design for the Temple edifice. This begins with the selection of potential architects and the formulation of an architectural brief defining the requirements for the structure which will ultimately result in a contract for the final design. Architects are presented with the singular challenge of designing Temples “as perfect as is possible in the world of being” that harmonize naturally with the local culture and the daily lives of those who will gather to pray and meditate therein. The task calls for creativity and skill to combine beauty, grace, and dignity with modesty, functionality, and economy and consideration for local customs and practices. [The Universal House of Justice message dated 1 August, 2014]
||Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Mashriqul-Adhkar, National; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Local; Architecture; Beauty; Economics; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|2014 14 Sep
||Some 500 people attend the unveiling of the design of the first local Bahá'í House of Worship in Norte del Cauca, Colombia
Julian Gutierrez Chacon was the architect for the House of Worship.
The relationship between the environment of the region and the community was also expressed in the design of the House of Worship, which was inspired by the shape of the cocoa pod, a plant that grows abundantly in Colombia and was integral to the identity of the landscape and the lives and economy of the people.
See BWNS for pictures.
||Agua Azul; Norte del Cauca; Colombia
||Mashriqul-Adhkar, Colombia; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Architecture; Architects; BWNS
|2015 17 July
||Some 300 people attended the unveiling of the design of the first local Bahá'í House of Worship in Battambang, Cambodia
See BWNS1062 for pictures.
||Mashriqul-Adhkar, Cambodia; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Architecture; BWNS
|2016 11 Oct
||The final newsreel on the construction of the Bahá'í House of Worship for South America was released as the time for the highly-anticipated dedication of the Temple approached. The video highlighted major developments over the previous year and the growing connection of the community to the Temple and the activities of service and worship that it inspired. [Video; Architect Siamak Hariri]
||Siamak Hariri; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Santiago; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Architecture
|2016 13 - 16 Oct
||The public dedication of the Mother Temple of South America in Santiago, Chile. The opening ceremonies were attended by over 5,000 people from 110 countries. Live video coverage of the public opening ceremony was provided on the Bahá'í World News Service website for approximately 90 minutes and the video recording has been made available at that website.
The Mashriqul-Adhkár (Dawning-Point of God’s Remembrance) is located outside of Santiago in Peñalolen, a commune whose name means "reunion of brothers" in the local language. [BWNS1128].
The temple was built in the foothills of the Andes, between mountains and city. The 2,415 square-metre edice (26,000-square-feet) is essentially one large room with nine doors made of bronze. The interior is surrounded by a dome that is made up of nine elements – called petals. These begin wide at the bottom of the building and then narrow upward to meet in a spiral at the top, separated by crescent-shaped windows and a round window at the top. The outer surfaces of these petals are made of 32-millimetre-thick panels of cast glass, which have a ruddy, milky quality to them; the inner surfaces are made of smooth Portuguese marble. Both layers are translucent.
Each of the nine wings of the building has two surfaces – one of cast glass and one of stone both of which rest on the steel structure. Each of those two surfaces has more than 1,000 separate components in more than 150 different shapes categorized as droops, slumps, bullnoses, shoulders, elbows, or spines. Each piece, which had to be crafted in three dimensions, was shaped using digital models. [BWNS1126]
Canadian architect, Siamak Hariri, began work on the $20-million project in 2003. [BWNS1127] The landscape architect was Juan Grimm, one of the most well-known landscapers of Latin America.
The Universal House of Justice was represented by Counsellor Antonella Demonte from the International Teaching Centre.
Message from the Universal House of Justice.
Location: Santiago, Chile
Construction Period: 2013 – October 2016
Site Dedication:13-16 October 2016
Architect: Siamak Hariri
Landscape Architect: Juan Grimm
Dimensions:2,415 square-metre (26,000 square-feet)
Cost: approximately $30m
Since its dedication in October 2016, the Temple has been a recipient of an International Architecture Award as well as awards for structural artistry from the Institution of Structural Engineers, for innovation in architecture from the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada, for innovation from the American Institute of Architects, for design excellence from the Ontario Association of Architects, for “Best in Americas, Civil Buildings,” from World Architecture News, and for Architectural and Cultural design from American Architecture Prize. [BWNS1262]
- The Temple design won the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada (RAIC) International Prize. This renowned prize is awarded every two years and was created to celebrate socially transformative, respectful, uplifting and inclusive architecture. [FloorNature site.]
- This site states that since the opening some 1.4 people have visited. Some weekend have had up to 36,000 visitors.
- This site has some spectacular photographs.
- The announcement that Hariri Pontarini Architects had won the prize on the 25th of October, 2019.
||Mashriqul-Adhkar, Santiago; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Siamak Hariri; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Architecture; Awards; Architects; Juan Grimm; Counsellors; Marble; Gardens; BWNS; Dedications; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|2017 18 Jun
||The plan for the design of the local Mashriqul-Adhkár in Tanna, Vanuatu was announced. Ashkan Mostaghim of Mostaghim & Associates, a firm from Sydney, Australia, was chosen as the Temple’s architect. His design was on the shortlist for the Continental Mashriqul-Adhkár in Santiago. [BWNS1175]
No less than a hundred design ideas had been offered for the Temple. [Ridván Message, 2014]
In the same message, the House of Justice highlighted Tanna as an example of a community where an entire population is moving toward a vision of material and spiritual prosperity, for which Baha’is around the world are striving.
||Mashriqul-Adhkar, Vanuatu; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Local; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Architecture; Architects; Ashkan Mostaghim; BWNS
|2017 1 - 2 Sep
||The opening of Cambodia’s first “Local House of Worship” in Battambang, just over two years after the design of the building was unveiled in July 2015.
The Mashriqul-Adhkár was designed by Phnom Penh-based architect Tang Sochet Vitou. It is situated on a 9 hectare property of which 1.5 hectares is used for the temple, an administrative building as well as gardens and ponds. The temple is a frequent topic of conversation among the local population. Even before its completion, it had galvanized action towards the betterment of the community and brought neighbours together. it will help provide for the spiritual needs of Cambodia’s growing Bahá'í community which, according to the Ministry of Cult and Religion’s most recent annual report, numbers about 12,000 although some adherents say the figure may now be closer to 20,000. Bahá'í communities were first recorded in the kingdom in the 1920s and since 1992 they have grown steadily with the help of aid workers and Asian immigrants.
In a letter dated 18 December 2014, the Universal House of Justice explained that a Bahá'í House of Worship is a “collective centre of society to promote cordial affection” and “stands as a universal place of worship open to all the inhabitants of a locality irrespective of their religious affiliation, background, ethnicity, or gender and a haven for the deepest contemplation on spiritual reality and foundational questions of life, including individual and collective responsibility for the betterment of society.”
The dedication was marked by a two-day conference bringing together over 2,500 people from Battambang and every other region of Cambodia. A number of Cambodian dignitaries attended along with representatives of other Bahá'í communities in Southeast Asia. The Universal House of Justice was represented by Ms. Sokuntheary Reth who served on the Continental Board of Counsellors in Asia.
See the letter from the Universal House of Justice, dated 1 September, 2017, for the message to the gathered friends.
Location: Battambang, Cambodia
Design unveiled:July 2015
Groundbreaking ceremony: 14 November, 2015
Construction Period:January 2016 to September 2017
Site Dedication: 1 September, 2017
Architect: Tang Sochet Vitou
Architectural firm: Architecture Design Intelligence (ADI)
Dimensions: Inside height 11.8m
BWNS1190 (slide show),
||Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Local; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Cambodia; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Architecture; Architects; Tang Sochet Vitou; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Dedications; Firsts, Other; Gardens; BWNS
|2018 18 Jan
||In response to growing interest in the persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran, a website was launched by the Bahá’í International Community providing a glimpse into several decades of discriminatory treatment against the Bahá’ís in that country. The website, named Archives of Bahá’í Persecution in Iran, made available, for the first time, thousands of official documents, reports, testimonials, and audio-visual material, revealing documentary evidence of years of relentless oppression.
||Websites; Internet; Archives; Publications; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Bahai International Community
|2018 21 Mar
||The design for the national Bahá'í House of Worship of Papua New Guinea (PNG) was unveiled.
Originally from New Zealand, Rodney Hancock—one of two individuals who brought the Bahá'í Faith to PNG in the 1950s—was asked to unveil the temple design before the audience of over 300 visitors.
The architectural team—composed of indigenous architect from PNG Henry Lape and Saeed Granfar—also addressed the audience. They explained that the “search for a universal theme” for the temple was “a profound challenge in a country with more than 700 distinct cultural groups.
The central edifice of the House of Worship will have a seating capacity of 350. [BWNS1246, EMTV.com 3 April, 2018]
||Port Moresby; Papua New Guinea
||Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, National; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Port Moresby; Architecture; Architects; Rodney Hancock; Henry Lape; Saeed Granfar; BWNS
|2018 15 Apr
||The design for the local Bahá'í House of Worship was unveiled at a gathering in Matunda Soy, Kenya attended by about 1,000 people. The temple will accommodate about 250 people and the design incorporated the diamond-shaped pattern, a motif commonly found in Kenyan culture. It will be built of construction materials found locally; the roof will be made of local state and the walls from from stone quarried nearby. The Temple’s architect, Neda Samimi, was the first female architect for a Bahá'í House of Worship. [BWNS1251]
||Matunda; Matunda Soy; Kenya
||Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Local; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Kenya; Architecture; Architects; Women; Firsts, Other; BWNS
|2018 1 - 7 Nov
||More than 7,500 people attended the Parliament of the World’s Religions held at the Metro Toronto Convention Centre.
This forum began in 1893 at the World Columbian Exposition in Chicago as an effort to promote an emerging international movement devoted to promoting dialogue among religions. Since that time, it has been held in Cape Town (1999), Barcelona (2004), Melbourne (2009) and Salt Lake City (2015). [Website] Bahá'í presenters were:
- Bani Dugal: “The Equality of Women and Men: Divine Imperative for an Age of Transition.”
- Hugh Locke: “Half the Sky, Half the Land: The Role of Women Farmers in Transforming Agriculture,”
- Payam Akhavan: “Equality and Justice, Global Perspectives” and
“Countering War, Hate, and Violence Assembly.”
- Emily Wright: “Making Interreligious Chaplaincy Education Meaningfully Inclusive” and “A New Cup of Grace—A Ukulele Opera
- Hooshmand Badee: “Interfaith Peacemaking Perspectives from Across the World.”
- Nader Saiedi: Presenting the new documentary film The Gate: Dawn of the Bahá’í Faith.
- Paul Hanley: “Man of the Trees: Richard St. Barbe Baker, the First Global Environmentalist.”
- JoAnn Borovicka: “Amazing Faiths! An Interactive Workshop on Interfaith Dialogue.”
- Robert Atkinson: “New Thoughts in Interfaith Spirituality.”
- Robert Stockman: “The Characteristics of Bahá’í Interfaith Dialogue.” Candace Hill: “From Shiraz to Chicago: Bahá’í Women of the East and the West”
- Edward Price: “The Divine Curriculum: Understanding the Báb, Divine Educator for the Modern Era.”
- Sovaida Maani Ewing: “Achieving World Peace: Bahá’í and Catholic Teachings.”
- Jean Muza: “Bahá’í Civic Engagement: How to Maneuver in America’s Divisive Political Landscape.”
- Robert Atkinson: “The Golden Rule as the Basis for a Global Justice System: An Interfaith Perspective with a Call to Action.”
- Edward Price: “The Divine Curriculum Concept as a Framework for Interfaith Inclusion and Love.”
|Toronto; Canada; Chicago; Cape Town; Barcelona; Melbourne; Salt Lake City
||World Parliament of Religions
|2019. 17 Nov
||About 2,000 people were joined by representatives of the national government and members of the National Spiritual Assembly for the groundbreaking ceremony at the Temple site at Lenakel, on the island of Tanna, Vanuatu. A traditional wooden spade called a kakel was used to turn the soil symbolizing the start of construction on the local Bahá'í House of Worship. Local chiefs had presented the kakel to the Bahá'í community in a customary ceremony the day before to honour the eight tribes of Tanna that together offered the land for the Temple. [BWNS1373]
Slideshow of the event.
||Mashriqul-Adhkar, Vanuatu; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Local; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Architecture; Foundation stones and groundbreaking; BWNS
|2019. 24 Nov
||Progress Report on the construction of the national Baha’i House of Worship for Papua New Guinea the first Mashriqul-Adhkár to be designated as a national Temple.
The House of Worship will be situated on a hilltop in the country’s sprawling capital city, Port Moresby. It will be located on the same property as the Baha’i community’s national offices and will include gardens and other meditative spaces. The central edifice will have nine gabled-roof entrances made of timber.
After receiving formal approval to commence construction from National Capital District’s building board in August, the excavation work began. At the time of the report the Temple’s foundation was being laid and it was expected to be complete by December. Work on the steel superstructure was scheduled to begin in January.
|Port Moresby; Papua New Guinea
||Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, National; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Architecture; BWNS
from the main catalogue
See all tags, sorted numerically or alphabetically.
- 20,000 Martyrs, Source of Statements about, by Universal House of Justice (1984). Two letters from the Research Department: one from 1984 identifies the source of the statement that 20,000 Bábís were martyred, and one from 2005 says that this source has not actually been found. [about]
- 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Commentary on the Qur'ánic Verses Concerning the Overthrow of the Byzantines: The Stages of the Soul, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 2 (2001). [about]
- 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Encounter with Modernity during His Western Travels, by Wendi Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). Abdu'l-Baha's responses to the West's technology and innovations on the one hand, vs. its archaic racist and sexual philosophies on the other. [about]
- Accessing literature on the Bahá'í Faith: Emerging search technologies and recent results, by Graham Hassall, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). Survey of search technologies that can be used to find documentation on the Bahá'í religion, and a summary of results of such searches for the period 2003-2006. [about]
- Action Research, by Rhett Diessner, in Converging Realities, 1:1 (2000). The purpose of action research is "transformative action," action that makes a difference in the life-worlds of both the researcher and the researched. [about]
- African religions; miracles; strange phenomena, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Five questions: the religion of Santeria; relationship to Sabaeanism; Yoruba-based new world religions; visions and miracles of the Virgin Mary and Fatima; UFOs, aliens, and genetic engineering. [about]
- Apostle Paul, a "False Teacher"?, by Universal House of Justice (1998). Whether Baha'i Writings state that Paul was a "false teacher," the relationship between apostles Paul and Peter, and some Baha'i teachings on Christianity. [about]
- Apparent Contradictions in the Bahá'í Writings, Reconciliation of, by Universal House of Justice (2002). On apparent contradictions, regarding Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl on Abraham and Zoroaster; 'Abdu'l-Bahá and a Baby Naming Ceremony; Minimum Age of Marriage; Smoking and Firmness in the Covenant; Corporal Punishment; Táhirih as "Woman Suffragette." [about]
- Arc Project: 1987 Open Letter, by Universal House of Justice (1987). Status of the Arc Project (Baha'i World Center), 1987. [about]
- Arc Project: 1991 Open Letter, by Universal House of Justice (1991). Status of the Arc Project (Baha'i World Center), 1991. [about]
- Arc Project: 1994 Open Letter, by Universal House of Justice (1994). Status of the Arc Project (Baha'i World Center), 1994. [about]
- Arc Project: A Poetic Experience, The: Pioneering Over Four Epochs, Section VIII Poetry, by Ron Price, in Pioneering Over Four Epochs: An Autobiographical Study and a Study in Autobiography, Section VIII: Poetry (2006). In the late 1980s I began to write more and more poetry as the construction projects on Mt. Carmel proceeded and the unfolding magnificence of the Terraces came more and more into view at the Baha'i World Centre [about]
- Archeology of the Kingdom of God, The, by Jean-Marc Lepain (2015). Analysis of the spiritual worlds as depicted in philosophical and religious texts, from ancient the Greek to Jewish, Christian and Muslim thought, contrasted with the theosophy, metaphysics, anthropology, and hermeneutics of Baha'u'llah and 'Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
- Archives, Bahá'í: Guidance Regarding, by Bahá'u'lláh and Shoghi Effendi. [about]
- Archives, Bahá'í: Preserving and Safeguarding the Sacred Texts, by Universal House of Justice, in Andalib, 12:48 (1993). Includes estimated numbers of Tablets revealed, and numbers of Tablets archived at the Baha'i World Center; prepared by the Archives Office on behalf of the House. [about]
- Art and Architecture: A Bahá'í Perspective, by Fariburz Sahba, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 7:3 (1997). [about]
- Arts and Architecture, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi. [about]
- Aspects of the Bahá'í Teachings, Conditions for Membership, and Voting Rights: Seven various questions, by Universal House of Justice (1991). On Baha'i status and community membership, spiritual primacy, Most Great Spirit, studying the Covenant, revelation of the Bab, civil elections, and definition of a pioneer. Includes short compilation "Conditions for Membership in the Baha'i Community." [about]
- Authenticity of prayer "O God! Refresh and gladden my spirit", by Universal House of Justice (2006). Some details on the history of a popular prayer. Includes comments on the authenticity of published compilations of Abdu'l-Baha's talks Some Answered Questions, Paris Talks, and The Promulgation of Universal Peace. [about]
- Authenticity of The Báb's Farewell Address to the Letters of the Living, by Universal House of Justice (2020). Memorandum of the Research Department of the Bahá'í World Center about the authenticity of the speech of the Báb to the Letters of the Living. [about]
- Authorization of Translations and the Authority of Publications from the Research Department, by Universal House of Justice (1994). On the process by which new translations are authorized; the authority of translations by the Guardian; and the authority of publications of the Research Department. [about]
- Bahá'i: A Second Look, by Marcus Bach, in Christian Century, 74:15 (1957). [about]
- Bahá'í Classification Schemes, by William P. Collins (2001). Explanation of the expanded filing scheme for Baha'i topics used at the Baha'i World Centre Library, and outlines of two other classification schemes which could be adopted by private Baha'i archives. [about]
- Baha'i Faith, The, by Marcus Bach, in They Have Found a Faith, Chapter 7 (1946). An outsider's view of the Baha'i community from a "faith-based" perspective. [about]
- Bahá'í Shrines, by John Walbridge, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 3 (1989). [about]
- Bahá'í Teachings, Aspects of, by Universal House of Justice (1997). Authenticity of Statements; Mathnavi; Quranic quotations; Marriage Prayer; 'Sun' and 'Moon'; Hands of the Cause; Night of Power; Khatt-i-Badi; Sarcophagus for Baha'u'llah; International Baha'i Library Building; Lunar Calendar and Holy Days; Leiden; Kings. [about]
- Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era Regarding the Explanation of Daniel 12:12: Beckwith's Allegations, by Universal House of Justice (1990). Responses to allegations Francis Beckwith makes in his booklet "Baha'i" about changes to this book. [about]
- Baron Rosen's Archive Collection of Bábí and Bahá'í Materials, by Youli A. Ioannesyan, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). [about]
- Bayan (Bayán-i-Farsí and Bayán-i-'Arabí), The: Letters and Letters of the Living, by Universal House of Justice and Iraj Ayman (1994). [about]
- Bible, Preferred English Translation of, by Universal House of Justice (1996). While Shoghi Effendi recommended the use of the King James translation of the Bible, Baha'is are yet welcome to use any translation they wish. [about]
- Biblical Questions, Interpretation of: Ezekiel 10:19, Jeremiah 49:38 and Micah 7:12, by Universal House of Justice (1998). Can certain passages from the Hebrew Bible be taken as prophetic references to the Babi or Baha'i Faiths? [about]
- "Book of Names" Mentioned in the Tablet of Carmel, The, by Bahá'u'lláh and Shoghi Effendi (2003). Letter from the House and a compilation explaining "People of Bahá" and the line in the Lawh-i-Karmil "Ere long will God sail His Ark upon thee, and will manifest the people of Bahá who have been mentioned in the Book of Names." [about]
- Catalogue and Description of 27 Bábí Manuscripts, by E. G. Browne, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1892). Categorization, descriptions, and excerpts of 27 manuscripts by the Bab, Baha'u'llah, Abdu'l-Baha, and Subh-i-Azal. [about]
- Catalogue and Description of 27 Bábí Manuscripts 2 (Continued from Page 499), by E. G. Browne, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1892). Categorization, descriptions, and excerpts of 27 manuscripts by the Bab, Baha'u'llah, Abdu'l-Baha, and Subh-i-Azal. [about]
- Celestial Pavilion, Inmates of, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, 4 (2003). [about]
- Compiler's Notes: Barstow Collection, by Thellie Lovejoy (2000). Introduction to and description of the Dwight Barstow archive. [about]
- Condition of non-Bahá'í Relatives after Death, The, by Universal House of Justice (1991). Four questions: Do the non-Bahá'í parents of believers become Bahá'ís in the next world? What is the definition of "kin"? What is the requisite spiritual state of the believer? What conditions are associated with the divine bounty? [about]
- Conservation and Restoration of Calligraphy by Mishkín Qalam, The, by Shingo Ishikawa and Patrick Ravines (2004). Three versions of a paper explaining the procedure for preserving manuscripts at the Baha'i World Centre, using the example of calligraphy by Mishkín Qalam. Includes high-resolution sample of Qalam's artwork. [about]
- Consultation, Portraits, Rakahs, Murtus, and Unknown Language, by Universal House of Justice (2009). Three replies from the Research Department to an individual, dated 2009, 2010 and 2018, on a variety of topics. [about]
- Contacting the Universal House of Justice; Obligatory Prayer, Greatest Name, Exemptions, by Universal House of Justice (1998). Procedures on contacting the Universal House of Justice; memorandum on obligatory prayer, reciting the Greatest Name, and exemptions from prayer. [about]
- Creation: The Nature of God and the Creation of the Universe in Bahá'í Cosmology, by Keven Brown (2003). [about]
- Daniel's Prophecies, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). [about]
- Development of Precast Exposed Aggregate Concrete Cladding, The: The Legacy of John J. Earley and the Implications for Preservation Philosophy, by Jenna Cellini (2008). Architectural use of concrete and different concrete types, with many references to the Baha'i temple in Wilmette. Link to thesis (offsite). [about]
- Development of the Babi/Bahá'í Communities, The: Exploring Baron Rosen's Archives, by Youli A. Ioannesyan (2013). 19th-century private letters and diplomatic correspondence from a prominent Russian scholar, one of the first to study the rise of the Babis. Excerpt from book: contents and Introduction. (Offsite.) [about]
- Digital Archiving at the Bahá'í World Centre Library, by Bahá'í International Archives, in Scriptum: Newsletter for Bahá'í Librarians & Information Professionals, 8 (1999). A paper written by staff at the Bahá'í World Centre Library (and approved for publication) about organization and methods of electronic-media archiving, as of 1999. [about]
- Dutch Library Holdings (2000). Complete list of items relating to Babi or Baha'i studies housed in the three principle libraries in the Netherlands. [about]
- Dwight Barstow Collection (2000). List of 478 translated tablets and other English documents from the library of American collector Dwight Barstow. [about]
- Early Bahá'í Census in Iran, by Universal House of Justice (2016). No systematic census was taken of the numbers of early believers, before the Guardian's call for such a count in 1923. Iran's own statistics in the 1920s count "several tens of thousands" of Baha'is. [about]
- English Sources and Authenticity of Fifteen Prayers in the Dutch Prayer Book Bahá'í Gebeden, by Universal House of Justice (2001). [about]
- Eshraghieh and Mahmoud Rabbani Collection, by Bosch Bahá'í School library (1998). Arabic and Persian books, tablets, and manuscripts held at the Bosch Baha'i School library. [about]
- European Bahá'í Archives Workshop (2001). Essays and handouts from a workshop on preservation of source material. Includes forms for archivists, historians, local and national assemblies, archiving methods, oral history guidelines, organizational schemes, and compilations from the Writings. [about]
- Evolution, Diagram Illustrating the True Story of, by Universal House of Justice (1997). Explanation of the chart Cycle of Life prepared by Lua Getsinger. [about]
- Exemption from Obligatory Prayer for the Sick, by Universal House of Justice (2000). [about]
- Fadil-i-Mazandarani, by Universal House of Justice (1998). Was Fadil-i-Mazandarani declared a Hand of the Cause of God, and on determining if there were other Hands. [about]
- Finding a Trace of the Traceless Friend: Reflection on Bahá'í Scholarship as a Journey in the Valley of Search, by Wolfgang A. Klebel, in Lights of Irfan, 15 (2014). Prerequisites of search; independent investigation and the role of the heart, culture and tradition; dealing with distractions; exclusivity of search and sacrificing; seeking truth in every soul; and the standard of Majnún — seek her everywhere. [about]
- Five Questions: Loss of Voting Rights, Mani, Magi, Five-Pointed Star, Joseph Smith, by Universal House of Justice, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 4:3-4:4 (1991). Responses to various questions. Closes with quotations on Confucianism and Genesis. [about]
- Gaia Concept, The, by Universal House of Justice (1992). Overview of the Gaia hypothesis, a concept which regards the entire planet as a living organism. [about]
- God the All-Humorous, by Universal House of Justice (1997). Did Baha'u'llah ever refer to God as the "All-Humorous"? [about]
- Goddess Religion, Ancient, by Universal House of Justice (1992). Ancient goddess religions and the role of the feminine in theology. [about]
- Grammatical Clarifications, by Universal House of Justice (2001). Letter and memorandum in response to questions about possible misprints in published extracts from letters of Shoghi Effendi and the Universal House of justice [about]
- Greatest Holy Leaf's Unparalleled Role in Religious History and the Significance of the Arc, the Site of Her Resting Place, The, by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in Lights of Irfan, 15 (2014). Biography of Abdu'l-Baha's sister, who acted as his "deputy, His representative and vicegerent, with none to equal her." Her burial place on Mount Carmel determined the location of the Arc and the later buildings of the World Centre. [about]
- Guardianship, Anticipation of, in the Kitab-i-Aqdas, by Universal House of Justice (1992). Did Baha'u'llah anticipate the Institution of the Guardianship in the Kitab-i-Aqdas? [about]
- Hands of the Cause of God Cannot Appoint a Guardian, by Universal House of Justice (2015). Short letter quoting the Guardian's statement that the Hands of the Cause of God have to ratify the current guardian's appointment of another guardian, and they may also suggest another guardian, but cannot themselves appoint one. [about]
- Hidden Word #63; quote from Promulgation of Universal Peace, by Universal House of Justice (2010). Two minor questions regarding matters of translation: a passage from Hidden Words Persian #63, and a passage from PUP quoted in Portals to Freedom. [about]
- Homeward Bound, by Ron Price, in dialogue magazine, 1:1 (1986). Reflections on the meaning of home and community, classical Greek culture, and the "new home" embodied in Mt. Carmel. [about]
- Identity of Man Who Asked "What is the object of life to a Bahá'í?", by Universal House of Justice (2004). On the identity of the individual to whom Shoghi Effendi said "The object of life to a Bahá’í is to promote the oneness of mankind." [about]
- Illustrated description of a design in the Persian-Indian style of architecture for the first Mashrak-el-Azkar (Bahá'í temple) to be erected in America, by Charles Mason Remey (1920). Expanded version of a portion of Remey's earlier Mashrak-el-Azkar [Mashriqu'l-Adhkár]: Descriptive of the Bahai temple, with photographs of Temple models. [about]
- Iranian National Bahá'í Archives (INBA) index (1996). A title/content catalogue of the 105 volumes of the Iranian National Baha'i Archives Manuscript Collection. [about]
- Ishraqát, Tablet of, Date of Revelation, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Clues that could provide a date for the revelation of Baha'u'llah's "Tablet of Ishraqat." Includes part of Sen McGlinn's original query to which the House. [about]
- Juan Cole manuscript and book collection: Shaykhi, Babi, and Baha'i texts (1997). Manuscripts and books in Cole's library and selected Iranian National Baha'i Archive contents. [about]
- Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book): The Obligatory Prayers, by Universal House of Justice and Ismael Velasco (2000). [about]
- Kitáb-i-Íqán, The Book of Certitude: Notes on paragraph numbering, by Universal House of Justice Research Department, in A Companion to the Study of the Kitáb-i-Íqán, ed. Hooper Dunbar (1998). Official paragraph numbering. [about]
- Legislative Responsibilities of the Universal House of Justice Regarding Obligatory Prayers, Guardian's Statement on, by Universal House of Justice (1995). Brief note about which aspects of obligatory prayer the House may one day legislate on. [about]
- Letters of Living, Dawn-Breakers, Quddús, Terraces, by Universal House of Justice (2000). Five unrelated questions: Identity of the Letters of the Living; "List of Illustrations" in the Dawn-Breakers; Status of the Writings of Quddus; Naming of the Terraces at the Arc; and The Bab's Tablets in the Dawn-Breakers.
- Letters to and from US Presidential Archives (1984). A collection of correspondence circa 1984 from and to archivist David Piff concerning Baha'i-related holdings. Also included is some correspondence between offices of the presidents and the US National Spiritual Assembly and the BIC. [about]
- Letters Written on Behalf of the Guardian, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). Three questions: Letters Written on Behalf of Shoghi Effendi; Status of Research Department Memoranda; Bahá'í Writings Based in Fact? [about]
- Lot and His Daughters, by Universal House of Justice (2015). Discussion of two Bahá'í references on the Biblical story of Lot; an interpretation of a Bible verse is not inevitably dependent on the Biblical source being authentic or reliable. [about]
- Mark of the Beast and Implanted Computer Chips, by Universal House of Justice (1998). Concerns about implanted computer chips as the "Mark of the Beast," and the response of individual Baha'is to government. [about]
- Mashrak-el-Azkar: Descriptive of the Bahá'í temple, by Charles Mason Remey (1917). Preliminary designs for the first Mashriqu'l-Adhkár to be built in America, showing nine varying treatments in different styles of architecture; includes discussions of the Ashkhabad temple and Baha'i history, and a 1908 letter to Star of West. [about]
- Mashriqu'l-Adhkar: Sacred Architecture and the Bahá'í faith, by Kenneth B. Sewell (1992). The nature of Baha'i architecture, the spiritual intentions of the unique design of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar, sacred geometry, and the author's original building design. Link to thesis (offsite). [about]
- Mental Tests, by Universal House of Justice (1995). Meaning of the phrase "mental tests" in the writings of Abdu'l-Baha and of Shoghi Effendi. Includes short compilation of relevant passages. [about]
- Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-1986: Third Epoch of the Formative Age, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
- Methods and qualities of the seekers of Reality in Some Answered Questions in the light of Bahá'í Scriptures, by Julio Savi, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 10 (2009). [about]
- Mirza Mihdi, "Holy Family", capitalization of pronouns, Guardian's use of English, by Universal House of Justice (1998). Five unrelated questions about Mirza Mihdi; use of the title "Holy Family"; capitalization of personal pronouns; and the Guardian's use of English in his translations. [about]
- Mírzá Yahyá Azal, Designation of in the Writings of the Báb, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). [about]
- Missing Dimension in the Built Environment, The: A Challenge for the 21st Century, by Leo R. Zrudlo, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 3:1 (1990). [about]
- Monarchy, The Future of: Warwick Leaflets, by Warwick Bahá'í Bookshop (2002). [about]
- Monogamy, Sexual Equality, Marital Equality, and the Supreme Tribunal, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Questions about monogamy, the Supreme Tribunal, and the Baha'i concept of equality of the sexes in light of some Baha'i laws and history which appear to undermine it [about]
- Music, Devotions, and Mashriqu'l-Adhkar, by R. Jackson Armstrong-Ingram, in Studies in Babi and Bahá'í History, volume 4 (1987). An in-depth examination of the development of music and hymns within American Baha'i devotional life, some history of the Chicago community, and the architecture and construction of the Wilmette temple. Includes sheet music and design plans. [about]
- Music, Devotions, and Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, by R. Jackson Armstrong-Ingram: Review, by Robert H. Stockman, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1:2 (1988). [about]
- Myanmar: History of the Bahá'í Faith, by Rose Ong and Chek Woo Foo (2008). Text and photos of the history of Baha'i activities in Burma and Myanmar, 1878-1995. [about]
- Mysteries of Alast: The Realm of Subtle Entities and the Primordial Covenant in the Babi-Bahá'í Writings, by Farshid Kazemi, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 15 (2009). One of the more esoteric concepts in Shi'i and Shaykhi thought is the "realm of subtle entities," 'ālam-i dharr, a sort of pre-existence for the archetype of humanity, which is relevant to free will and the seven stages of creation. [about]
- Napoleon III and Queen Victoria, Responses to the Tablets of Baha'u'llah, by Universal House of Justice (1997). Do we know what Napoleon and Queen Victoria really said upon receiving tablets from Baha'u'llah? [about]
- New Religious Movements, Tolkien, Marriage, by Universal House of Justice (1994). Various questions: new religious movements; Indian Letter of the Living; J.R.R. Tolkien; eternality of the marriage bond; illumination of Baha'u'llah's tablets. [about]
- Nine-Pointed Star, The: History and Symbolism, by Universal House of Justice (1999). The history and the proper place and use of the nine-pointed star, a common Baha'i symbol, in comparison and relation to the official five-pointed star and the Greatest Name symbols. [about]
- Number of tablets revealed by Bahá'u'lláh, by Robert Stockman and Juan Cole (1999). Informal accounting of the number of writings of Bahá'u'lláh. [about]
- Obligatory Prayer, Ablutions, and Repetition of the Greatest Name, by Universal House of Justice (2004). On recitation of the specific verses associated with the performance of ablutions for the medium Obligatory Prayer. Includes compilation of references regarding repetition of the Greatest Name 95 times per a Day. [about]
- Obligatory Prayer, Questions about, by Universal House of Justice (2000). Answers to four questions about reciting prayers at meetings; changing language gender; repetition of Greatest Name; and raising hands. [about]
- Pause to Reflect on Dustbins, A: Records of [A.L.M. Nicolas] Found amongst a Pile of Thrown-Away Writings, by Mahmoud Rouh-ol-Amini, in Ganjineh Asnad, 3:39/4:40 (2001). Brief discussion in Persian of papers of Nicolas found in the trash in Paris, with reflections on things discarded, written by Mahmoud Rouholamini. Includes background by Yves Monteil, who discovered the papers (1998) and scanned the later article (2001). [about]
- Perfection and Refinement: Towards an Aesthetics of the Bab, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 12 (2011). The writings of the Bab have implications for the "plastic" arts; significance for native traditions; relevance to the performing arts; and the concept of refinement which comes across in both the person and the writings of the Báb. [about]
- Persian/Arabic Bahá'í Books in the Library of Ahang Rabbani (1999). Private library of Persian and Arabic sacred writings and other Baha'i-related material. [about]
- "Phoenix Schedule" for the Dewey '200s', Suggested in particular for Bahá'í Libraries, A, by Paul Gerard, in Australian Bahá'í Studies, vol. 2 (2000). On the structure and limitations of the Dewey Decimal Scheme, with a detailed expanded subset for Baha'i material. [about]
- Platón, Leonardo y el sistema del Monte Carmelo, by Ernesto Fernandez (2012). The symbolic systems of Plato and Leonardo da Vinci, and their modern architectural representation in the Shrine of the Bab and the slopes of Mount Carmel. Includes English essay "Leonardo and his Vitruvian Man." [about]
- Prayer "Make me a hollow reed," Source of, by Universal House of Justice (1999). The prayer "Oh, God, make me a hollow reed..." is neither by Abdu'l-Baha nor George Townshend, and its author is unknown. [about]
- Prayer for Shaykh Kázim Samandar, by Bahá'u'lláh and Universal House of Justice (2001). Brief prayer revealed by Bahá'u'lláh to aid in making decisions. Translation and accompanying letter by the Bahá'í World Centre. [about]
- Prayer of the Bab "God Sufficeth...," Two versions of, by Universal House of Justice (1996). The original text of the prayer "God Sufficeth" has not been found, and there may be two versions. [about]
- Prayers and rituals in the Bahá'í Faith: Introduction to A Tablet to Jináb-i-Mullá 'Alí-Akbar fí Ardi'l-Álif, by Julio Savi and Faezeh Mardani, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 9 (2008). [about]
- Prayers and Tablets, Authenticity of, by Universal House of Justice, in American Bahá'í (1992). List of some prayers and tablets which are not or might not be authentic. [about]
- Primary Source Texts, Access to, by Universal House of Justice and Susan Maneck (1998). One scholar's query why the Baha'i World Centre's copies of primary sources in Babi and Baha'i history are not available for study, followed by the House's response. [about]
- Prophecy of Daniel; Modifications of Baha'u'llah and the New Era, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Two topics: the fulfilment of the Biblical prophecy of Daniel concerning 1,335 days, and modifications made to Baha'u'llah and the New Era. [about]
- Publishing, Bahá'í, Memorandum on: Materials to be Deposited with the Bahá'í World Centre Library, by Bahá'í International Archives and Universal House of Justice (1998). Overview of Literature Review, publishing, translations, and details of the requirement of sending copies of all materials to the World Center archives. [about]
- Recollections of Pilgrimage: Nine Days with the Guardian in 1957, by Bill Washington (2014). Lengthy account of 9 days in the Holy Land. Appendixes include list of items in the Archives, stories told by other pilgrims, and discussion of the Ten-Year Plan. [about]
- Research Department, Functions of; Etymologies of three terms, by Universal House of Justice (1988). Two questions: (1) what is the function of the Research Department, and (2) etymologies of the three terms "world of exemplars," "'álam," and "barzakh." [about]
- Resurrection and Return of Jesus, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 9 (2008). The body of Christ; the burial of Christ; His return; and explaining the Baha'i view to Christians. [about]
- Sabaeans and African-based Religions in the Americas, The, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). Overview of the religion of the Sabaeans [aka Sabeans], and some indigenous practices in the southern Americas such as Yoruba, Santeria, and Brazilian Candomble. [about]
- Sacred Baha'i Architecture, by Benjamin Leiker (1999). Symbolism and history of Baha'i temples. [about]
- Science and Religion, Quotations on, by Universal House of Justice (1997). Regarding a compilation on science and religion; includes a short list of references to science and religion. [about]
- Scriptum (1995). All 8 issues of a journal for Baha'i librarians and archivists. [about]
- Searchable online catalogues for US National Bahá'í Library and Louhelen Library, by Roger M. Dahl and Lewis Walker (2014). Overview of and links to online catalogues for two American Baha'i archives. [about]
- Seasons of the Soul: Reflections on "The Seven Valleys of Bahá'u'lláh" - The Valley of Search, by Hedi Moani, in The Family: Our Hopes and Challenges (1995). [about]
- Secret of Divine Civilization Translation, Capital Punishment, and Other Questions, by Universal House of Justice (1991). On the capitalization of pronouns, reference to "we Muslims," works of Abdu'l-Baha revealed during the time of Baha'u'llah, the first person to recognize Baha'u'llah, and designer of the temple in Ishqabad. Includes a compilation on capital punishment. [about]
- Selections from the Bahá'í Writings and from Shaykh Ahmad on the Seven Stages of Creation (2008). Collection of quotations from The Bab, Baha'u'llah, and Shaykh Ahmad, with footnotes, on the 7 stages of Divine action: Will, Determination, Destiny, Decree, Permission, Term, and Book. [about]
- Self-Defense, the Ungodly, Infallibility, and Sexual Violence and Abuse, by Universal House of Justice (2004). Answers to a number of questions, with extracts from four letters of the House, on self-defense, the ungodly, infallibility, sexual violence, and abuse. [about]
- Servants in the Households of Baha'u'llah and the Bab, by Universal House of Justice (2000). Whether or not the servants of the Bab and Baha'u'llah were slaves, and a list of relevant sources for further research. [about]
- Seven Valleys and the Scientific Method, The, by Robert Sarracino, in Lights of Irfan, Book 3 (2002). [about]
- "Share your time with God", by Universal House of Justice (2004). Source of the quotation "Share your time with God. Spend half of the day in search of livelihood," from a pilgrim's note. [about]
- Shoghi Effendi, by Marcus Bach, in The Circle of Faith, Chapter 3 (1957). Dr. Bach set out to meet the five people of his time whom he felt best exemplified the teachings of Jesus Christ. He travelled the world to pursue this aim, interviewing Helen Keller, Pope Pius XII, Albert Schweitzer, Therese Neumann, and Shoghi Effendi. [about]
- Shoghi Effendi: Recollections, by Ugo Giachery (1973). Biography of Shoghi Effendi from the close standpoint of the author's personal experiences. Short excerpt from book; Part 1 only. [about]
- Sin-covering Gaze, by Universal House of Justice (2001). Brief explanation of a possible source for a story of Christ told by Abdu'l-Baha about encountering a dead dog and commenting on the beauty of its teeth; i.e., having a "sin-covering gaze." [about]
- Six-Year Plan, 1986, by Universal House of Justice (1986). Outline of Baha'i goals for 1986-1992, and collection of letters from the House. [about]
- soc.religion.bahai: Complete Archives (1992). Link to an 18-year archive of the first moderated Baha'i newsgroup. [about]
- Socrates in History and the Bahá'í Writings, by Universal House of Justice (1995). Historical facts known about Socrates, some of the difficulties inherent in endeavouring to unravel the historical Socrates, and quotations from the Baha'i Writings. [about]
- St. Petersburg 19th Century Orientalist Collection of Materials on the Bábí and Bahá'í Faiths, The: Primary and Other Sources, by Youli A. Ioannesyan, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 7 (2006). [about]
- Symbolic Profile of the Bahá'í Faith, A, by Christopher Buck, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:4 (1998). [about]
- Tablet of 'Abdu'l-Baha Concerning Arius, by Universal House of Justice (1998). Arius was an early Christian theologian whose rejection of the Trinity, Abdu'l-Baha said, destroyed the unity of the Church. [about]
- Tablet of Ahmad and Tablet of the Holy Mariner, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Date of publications of translations of the Tablet of Ahmad and the Tablet of the Holy Mariner. [about]
- Tablet of Maqsud, by Universal House of Justice (2001). Date of the revelation of the Tablet of Maqsúd and its mention of "Two great powers." [about]
- Tablet of the Báb Lawh-i-Vasaya, "Will and Testament"; Titles of Mírzá Yahyá, by Universal House of Justice (2004). Two questions: on the Tablet of the Bab "Lawh-i-Vasaya: The Will and Testament"; the nature of the appointment and titles of Mírzá Yahyá. Includes two attachments: Tablet of the Bab Lawh-i-Vasaya and excerpt from Making the Crooked Straight. [about]
- Tablet of The Desired One (Lawh-i-Maqsúd): Wilmette Institute faculty notes, by Universal House of Justice and Juan Cole (1999). [about]
- Tablet of the Maiden: Commentary on its translation, by Universal House of Justice (1997). Two letters on the mystical/symbolic content of Tablet of the Maiden, with comments on the translation by Juan Cole [about]
- Tablet of the True Seeker: Personal Commentary and Reflections, by Ted Brownstein (1998). Commentary on the Kitab-i-Iqan. [about]
- Tablet to Amir Khan and Tablet of the Holy Mariner, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Three letters about Abdu'l-Baha'is Tablet to Amír Khán; one letter about the Tablet of the Holy Mariner, the "Call of God," and Native American Prophets; short note from David Ruhe about Deganawida. [about]
- Tablet to Sháh-Muhammad-Amín (Amínu'l-Bayán): Excerpt, by Bahá'u'lláh and Universal House of Justice (2003). Excerpt of a tablet revealed in honour of the first Trustee of Huquq’u’lláh, surnamed the “Trusted of the Bayán," with introductory letter from the House of Justice. [about]
- Tablets and Utterances of 'Abdu'l-Bahá Quoted in Compilations and Letters of the Universal House of Justice, by Universal House of Justice (2003). Discusses the authenticity of quotations included in letters from the Universal House of Justice, plus comments on pilgrims' notes. [about]
- Tablets to the Kings, by Universal House of Justice (1989). Two questions on the Tablets to the Kings: which ones were delivered and how, and the response of Queen Victoria. [about]
- Tahirih and Women's Suffrage, by Universal House of Justice, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 4:2 (1990). Two letters on the same topics. [about]
- Texts, Authenticity of, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Status of texts of Abdu'l-Baha's talks, of letters from the Universal House of Justice versus its Secretariat, of letters from the Guardian, and of the books Baha'i World Faith and Foundations of World Unity. [about]
- Texts, Sacred, Numbers and Classifications of, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 10 (2002). Three letters, from 2002, 2010, and 2013, about numbers of Sacred Texts catalogued by the Baha'i World Center and their classification into "authenticated," "revised," and "transcribed." [about]
- Thoughts on the Establishment of a Permanent Bahá'í Studies Center and Research Institute, Some, by Stephen Lambden, in dialogue magazine, 2:2-3 (1988). Present state and future possibilities of Baha'i studies and academic curricula, and answers to various objections. Includes short compilation on the importance of scholarship. [about]
- Translations of the Bible Used by Abdu'l-Baha, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Which translations of the Bible were used by Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
- Translations of the Qur'án and Introductory Books on the Bahá'í Faith, Recommendations Concerning, by Universal House of Justice (2002). On translations of the Qur'an, and introductory books on the Baha'i Faith. [about]
- Wondrous New Day, A: The Numerology of Creation and 'All Things' in the Badí' Calendar, by Robin Mihrshahi (2004). Symbolism in the Baha'i-era calendar, some Shaykhí origins of the Báb’s cosmology and ontology, and how these Shaykhí concepts find symbolic expression in the structure and organization of the Badí‘ calendar. [about]
- World Baha'i Institute in New York, by Nima Yadollahpour (2002). An architectural proposal for a Baha'i complex in Manhattan, designed structurally and mathematically based on the Seven Valleys. [about]
- Writings, Bahá'í: Importance of collecting and safeguarding, by Bahá'u'lláh and Shoghi Effendi, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 11 (2003). [about]