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Bahá'í Chronology: years 192-

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192-

date event locations tags firsts see also
1920 (in the year) The British Mandate for Palestine began. [BBR488]
  • For `Abdu'l-Bahá's attitude to the administration see BBR339.
  • For British accounts of `Abdu'l-Bahá and the Bahá'ís in this period see BBR339-43 and CH225-8.
  • For details see SA140-3.
  • Palestine; Israel Britain; History (general); Abdul-Baha, Life of
    1920 (in the year) The House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád was seized by Shí'ís. [BBD109; GBF33; GPB356-7] Baghdad; Iraq House of Bahaullah (Baghdad)
    1920 (in the year) Mírzá Ibráhím Khán, Ibtiháju'l-Mulk, was martyred in Rasht at the hands of the Jangalís. [BW18:387]
  • Momen reports the year of martyrdom as 1921. [Bahá'í History of Gílán by Moojan Momen]
  • Rasht; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1920 (in the year) Hyde and Clara Dunn arrived in Samoa enroute to Australia, the first Bahá'ís to visit the islands. Samoa Hyde Dunn; Clara Dunn; Islands; First Bahais by country or area first to visit Samoa
    1920 George Townshend became a Bahá'í, and sent a letter of acceptance of the Faith to `Abdu'l-Bahá. [GT49] Dublin; Ireland George Townshend; Hands of the Cause
    1920 (in the year) Fanny Knobloch arrived in Mozambique, the first Bahá'í to visit this country. She gave some `drawing room talks' at the mansion of the Portuguese Governor-General and spoke at various clubs. [BW2p40] Mozambique Fanny Knobloch first Bahá'í to visit Mozambique
    1920 early Jan The arrival of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's hand-built seven-seater Cunningham touring car made in Rochester NY by James Cunningham and Sons. The automobile probably cost in the range from $7,500 to $8.000 and was a gift from Mrs Ella Goodall Cooper. [Coachbuilt website]
    Mr. Fujita accompanied the shipment from the United States to Haifa where he maintained the car and was one of the drivers. The Master gave Shoghi Effendi instructions to see that it was cleared and delivered to the house after receiving notice of its arrival from Port Said. Although it was not a business day, he succeeded in getting the car delivered by taking the papers to the homes of various officials, asking them to sign the documents and give the necessary orders for the car of Sir ‘Abdu’l-Baha ‘Abbas to be delivered to Him at once.
    Although Abdul-Baha rode in the Cunningham car on occasions, it was predominantly used for transporting the pilgrims. The car has since been restored and pilgrims have the opportunity to see it. [PP28, Reflections on the Bahá'í Writings; PG126]
    Haifa Abdul-Baha, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Cunningham; Ella Cooper; Ella Goodall Cooper; Ella Cooper; Saichiro Fujita; Cars; Gifts; Pilgrimage
    1920 Jan `Abdu'l-Bahá wrote a Tablet to a group in Chile. [SWAB:246-50] Chile Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of
    1920 27 Jan The passing of Joseph H. Hannen, Disciple of 'Abdu'l-Bahá a week after he was knocked down by a car in Washington, DC. (b. January 27, 1920, Allegheny, Pennsylvania) It was Joseph Hannen who served as a note-taker for many of the talks of 'Abdu'l-Bahá during His tour in the United States. A number of the entries in Promulgation of Universal Peace have been accredited to him. [The Washington Times 28 January, 1928]

    ‘Abdu’l-Bahá sent the first Tablet of the Divine Plan to the southern states in care of Joseph. He and his wife Pauline taught the Faith to African Americans; among those they taught were Louis Gregory and Mrs. Pocahontas Pope. [Bahá'í Chronicles, Alain Locke: Faith and Philosophy pp 38-39 by Christopher Buck, Kalimat Press]

    He was buried with his wife, Pauline Amalie Knobloch Hannen (b. 29 August, 1874 d. 4 October, 1939) in Prospect Hill Cemetery, in Washington, DC.

    Washington DC; Allegheny; United States Joseph Hannen; Pauline Hannen; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Cemeteries and graves; Tablets of the Divine Plan; Promulgation of Universal Peace (book)
    1920 Mar John and Louise Bosch pioneered in Tahiti until September, the first Bahá'ís to travel to the island.
  • See BW3p368 for an account of their stay written by Louise.
  • Tahiti Louise Bosch; John Bosch the first Bahá'ís to travel to Tahiti
    1920 Apr Mírzá Asadu'lláh Fádil-i-Mázandarání arrived in North America with Manúchihr Khán in time to speak at the National Convention. [AB443; SBR88; PG127]
  • His purpose was to assist and stimulate the Bahá'í communities (1920-1921). [AB443]
  • He stayed for one year. [AB443]
  • He visited North America again in 1923-1925 at the request of Shoghi Effendi. [Fádl Mázandarání, Mírzá Asadu'lláh by Moojan Momen]
  • See Jináb-i-Fádil Mazandarání in the United States by Fadl Mazandarani (published as Jinab-i-Fadil Mazandarani) compiled by Omeed Rameshni for transcripts of his talks.
  • See SoW Vol 14 for photo.
  • United States Mirza Asadullah Fadil-i-Mazandarani; Manuchihr Khan; Conventions, National crossreference URLs; title; title
    1920 Apr Louis Bourgeois was selected as the architect for the Chicago House of Worship. [DP94; GPB303; SBBH1:145]
  • For details of the designs and selection process see DP76-100.
  • See CT159 for the source of inspiration for the design.
  • Wilmette; Chicago; United States Louis Bourgeois; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Architecture; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Architects first House of Worshp
    1920 10 Apr Clara and Hyde Dunn arrived in Sydney, Australia. [AB445] SBR158 says this was 18 Apr 1919.
  • They are thought to be the first Bahá'í pioneers to have arrived at their post after the release of the Tablets of the Divine Plan. [G. Hassel]
  • Within three years they had visited 225 towns. [Keynote address by Dr. Vahid Saberi at the Heroes Teaching Conference 6-7 April, 2019]
  • Sydney; Australia Clara and Hyde Dunn; Clara Dunn; John Henry Hyde Dunn; Hands of the Cause the first Bahá'í pioneers to have arrived at their post after the release of the Tablets of the Divine Plan
    1920 20 Apr Shoghi Effendi left Haifa for France with the intention of taking up his study of English at Oxford University. As instructed by 'Abdu'l-Bahá he stayed in a sanitarium in Neuilly (Maison d'Hydrothérapie et de convalescence du Parc de Neuilly, 6 Boulevard du Château, Neuilly-sur-Seine) before leaving for England in July. [SEO58]
  • See AY179-186 for and account of Shoghi Effendi's stay in the Paris area. According to Marzieh Gail he was probably in the area from about the 9th of April until the 13th of July.
  • Haifa; Oxford; United Kingdom; Neuilly; France Shoghi Effendi at Oxford; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Balliol College (Oxford University)
    1920 27 Apr `Abdu'l-Bahá was invested with the insignia of the Knighthood of the British Empire in a ceremony in Haifa. [AB443; BBRXXX, 343-5; CH214; DH149; GPB306]
  • For the document recommending `Abdu'l-Bahá for knighthood, see BBR344.
  • The knighthood was in recognition of `Abdu'l-Bahá's humanitarian work during the war for famine relief. [AB443]
  • He accepted the honour as a gift from a `just king'. [AB443]
  • He did not use the title. [AB443]
  • For Lady Blomfield's account see AB443-4 and CH214-15.
  • See SoW vol 13 No 11 p298.
  • Haifa; Abu-Sinan; Palestine; Israel Abdul-Baha, Knighthood (KBE); Abdul-Baha, Life of; World War I; British; Charity and relief work; Lady Blomfield; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline
    1920 27 Apr The design for the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar at Wilmette, Illinois, was finally chosen by the forty-nine delegates present at the Twelfth Annual Convention of Bahá'í Temple Unity, being held at the Hotel McAlpin, New York. Excavation at the site began on the 24th of September and construction commenced on the 20th of December. New York; United States; Wilmette Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Architecture find reference
    1920 mid July - mid October Shoghi Effendi arrived in England to take up his studies at Oxford.
  • He spent one week in London. He brought with him Tablets from the Master for Lady Blomfield, Lord Lamington and Major Tudo-Pole.
  • 21 July: Shoghi Effendi met Dr. Esslemont at a meeting of the believers Lindsay Hall in Notting Hill Gate. The meeting was also attended by Mr and Mrs Ober visiting from America.
  • 22 July: Dr Esslemont called on Shoghi Effendi at his hotel and they went to Miss Grand's home were the Obers were staying.
  • 23 July: Dr Esslemont met Shoghi Effendi at Miss Rosenberg's and together they went to the Grand home where some 17 people were introduced to the Faith. [PG141]
  • 26 July: Dr Esslemont came to London to meet Shoghi Effendi and they both visited Miss Herrick. [PG142]
  • He relocated to Oxford and stayed at the Randolph Hotel. He met with professors and looked for tutors. [PG142]
  • Probably in the early days of August Shoghi Effendi met with Lord Lamington. [PG142]
  • Although it was still the long vacation Shoghi Effendi started his work with the assistance of a tutor. [PG142]
  • 10-15 September: Shoghi Effendi visited Dr Esselemont at the sanitorium where he practiced in Bournemouth. They were joined by Shoghi Effendi's sister Rúhangíz and by a Persian believer Aflátún. [PG142-143]
  • London; Oxford; Bournemouth; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi at Oxford; Shoghi Effendic Life of
    1920 21 May The execution at Sultánábád of Hájí `Arab by hanging. [BBRXXX, 444-6; BW18:387] Sultanabad; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1920 24 May Charles Greenleaf, (b. 6 May, 1857 in Wisconsin), Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, passed away at the home of William Harry Randall in Boston. He was interred in Rosehill Cemetery and Mausoleum, Chicago, Cook County, Illinois, USA Show Map Section K Lot 42. [SBR105; Find a grave]
  • For details of his life see SBR97-105.
  • For his obituary see SW11, 19:321-2.
  • Boston; Massachusetts; United States Charles Greenleaf; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; William Harry Randall; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1920 11 Jun Shoghi Effendi made application to Balliol College at Oxford University as a non-collegiate student for a period of two years. [PG134] Neuilly; France; Oxford; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi at Oxford; Balliol College (Oxford University); Universities; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline
    1920 Jul-Aug Fanny Knobloch, the first Bahá'í teacher in South Africa, arrived in Cape Town. [BW2:40].
  • In her first week she met Miss Busby who within a very short time is the first person to become a Bahá'í in South Africa.
  • Cape Town; South Africa Fanny Knobloch first Bahá'í in South Africa; the first Bahá'í teacher in South Africa
    1920 1 Jul 'Abdu'l-Bahá sent His second Tablet to The Hague. The Hague Tablet to The Hague; Second Tablet to The Hague; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of
    1920 8 Jul August Rudd, a Swede who had becme a Bahá'í in America, returned to his native country, to become the first Bahá'í in Sweden. [BWT8:980-2]. Sweden August Rudd The the first Bahá'í in Sweden
    1920 19 Jul Shoghi Effendi departed from France two weeks after receiving 'Abdu'l-Bahá's permission to study at Oxford. According to Dr J. Fallscheer, the German woman physician that 'Abdu'l-Bahá had engaged to attend to the ladies of His household, 'Abdu'l-Bahá had decided to send Shoghi Effendi to England while he was still in high school. [PG137-138] Paris; France; Oxford; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi at Oxford; Balliol College (Oxford University); Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Fallscheer, Dr J.
    1920 After Jul The first Argentineans to become Bahá'ís, Hermann Grossman and his sister Elsa Grossman, accepted the Faith in Leipzig in 1920.
  • They were born in Argentina and emigrated to Germany in 1909.
  • Dr Grossman heard of the Faith at a public meeting given by Harlan and Grace Ober at the Theosophical Society. [BW13:869]
  • Leipzig; Germany Herman Grossmann; Elsa Grossman; Harlan and Grace Ober; Theosophical Society; First Bahais by country or area The first Argentineans to become Bahá'ís, Hermann Grossman and his sister Elsa Grossman,
    1920 Sep The tombs of the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs in Isfahán were demolished by a mob. [BBR437]
  • For Western responses see BBR437-9.
  • Isfahan; Iran Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Cemeteries and graves; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution; Persecution, Mobs
    1920 24 Sep Boring began at the site of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in Wilmette to determine the depth of the bedrock. [DP104]
  • Soon afterwards construction began. [DP108]
  • Wilmette; United States Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette
    1920 Oct Shoghi Effendi entered Balliol College, Oxford University. [CB284; DH149; GBF11-12]
  • For his purpose in going to Oxford see GBF12.
  • For his time in Oxford see PP34-8.
  • A Q Faizi is reported to have said, during a talk to pilgrims in May-June, 1965 that "Shoghi Effendi was sent to Oxford to protect him from potential enemies, not to learn English or be educated." [SDSC273]
  • Oxford; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi at Oxford; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Balliol College (Oxford University); Universities; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1920 Oct Mírzá Mustafá was killed at Farúgh, Fárs, and other Bahá'ís were imprisoned. [BW18:387] Farugh; Fars; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1920 16 Oct Shoghi Effendi at Oxford - The Michaelmas Term 1920

  • Because there wasn't a vacancy in Balliol College, Shoghi Effendi could not register during the first term. Although he was not registered in the College he attended every day and took instruction from tutors. During this time he took lodgings at 45 Broad Street. [PG151-155]
  • 23 October: Shoghi Effendi officially matriculated in the Non-Collegiate Delegacy, a week after starting lectures for the Michaelmas term (Oct-Christmas, or, more formally Michaelmas term — 13 Sundays before to 5 Sundays before the feast day of St Hilary). [PG157]
  • Shoghi Effendi hosted a visit from his childhood friend Ali Yazdi who was on his way to America. [RG 158-159]
  • Oxford; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi at Oxford; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1920 Dec The passing of Hájí Mírzá Haydar-Alí Isfaháni known as 'the Angel of Mount Carmel' in Haifa. He was buried in the Bahá'í Cemetery on Mount Carmel. [BBD98; EB250]
  • Acting on the request of 'Abdu'l-Bahá he wrote Bahá'í Martyrdoms in Persia in the Year 1903 AD. It covered the events from March to September and was published in English as a 28-page book in 1904 and 1917.
  • For the story of his life see RB2:438–50.
  • For his biography see EB237-50.
  • His autobiography was published as Stories from the Delight of Hearts - The Memoirs of Hají Mírzá Haydar-Alí, was translated by A Q Faizi and published by Kalimat in 1980.
  • Haifa Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Cemeteries and graves; Angel of Carmel
    1920 1 Dec Lillian Frances Kappes,(b. 1878 in Hoboken, New Jersey), died of typhus fever in Tihrán. [BFA2:361; SW11, 19:324-5, AY211-212]
  • She had gone to Tihrán nine years previously to help set up the Tarbíyat School for Girls. [SW11, 19:3 24]
  • She was buried next to the tomb of Varqa.
  • See Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • Tihran; Iran Lillian Kappes; Tarbiyat School; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1920 27-29 Dec The first All-India Bahá'í Convention was held in Bombay with 175 in attendance. [AB446; BBRSM194; 115] Mumbai (Bombay); India Conferences, Bahai; First conferences The first All-India Bahá'í Convention
    1921 (Beginning in) The Bahá'í community of Iran began publishing a magazine called Aḵbār-e amrī. Containing the holy writings of the Bahá'í faith, domestic and foreign Bahá'í news, official announcements of Bahá'í administrative bodies, and articles on various aspects of the Faith The magazine became a vital means of communication and a register of the main historical events for six decades until its closing in 1980. [BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati] Iran Aḵbare amri; publications; Z****
    1921 (In the year) The birth of Eduardo Duarte Vieira, the first African Bahá'í martyr, was born in Portuguese Guinea. Portuguese Guinea (Guinea Bissau); Guinea Bissau Eduardo Duarte Vieira; Births and deaths
    1921 (In the year) The Kingdom of Iraq under British Administration or Mandatory Iraq began. It would last until 1932. [Mandatory Iraq] Iraq House of Bahaullah (Baghdad)
    1921 (In the year) A journal called Bahá'í News started publishing in English and Persian. [BWNS1289] India Bahai News; - Periodicals; First publications; Publications; BWNS first Baha'i periodical in India
    1921 (After Mandate) After the establishment of British control of Iraq and the appearance of religious freedom and greater security, 'Abdu'l-Bahá authorized repairs to begin on the House. The renovations attracted the attention of neighbouring Shi'as and, after the passing of the custodian, Muhammad Husayn Bábí, they sued for possession on the grounds that he had no heirs. [SETPE1p25] Baghdad; Iraq House of Bahaullah (Baghdad)
    1921 Jan - mid Mar Shoghi Effendi at Oxford - The Hilary Term 1921
  • Permission was issued by the Non-Collegiate Delegacy for the migration of Shoghi Effendi into Balliol. He now had the privilege of living in the college and fully participating in college life. [PG161]
  • Shoghi Effendi continued his translation work while at Oxford. During the second term (Jan - Easter or, more formally Hilary term — 1 Sunday to 9 Sundays after the feast day of St Hilary). Some examples are: Persian Hidden Words, the Tablet of Visitation, Arabic Hidden Words and the Epistle to Queen Victoria.
  • He read a paper on the Faith to the Oxford University Asiatic Society. For the full text of the paper see PG227-240. The paper was serialized in "The Dawn", a monthly Bahá'í journal of Burma in 1923 - 1924. [PG168, 259]
  • Oxford; United Kingdom; Myanmar (Burma) Shoghi Effendi at Oxford; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; The Dawn (journal); Newsletters
    1921 23 Jan Mírzá Ya`qúb-i-Muttahidih was assassinated in Kirmánsháh. [BBRXXX, 446-50; BW18:387; GPB299]
  • He was the last to lay down his life in the ministry of `Abdu'l-Bahá. GPB299]
  • Kirmanshah; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1921 Feb The Shi'a petition for the possession of the House in Baghdád was granted and the Bahá'is were evicted. [SETPE1p25] Baghdad; Iraq House of Bahaullah (Baghdad)
    1921 1 Feb Leonora Holsapple Armstrong, the first Bahá'í pioneer in Latin America, arrived in Rio de Janeiro. Rio de Janeiro; Brazil Leonora Holsapple Armstrong
    1921 Feb Ahmad Sháh, who succeeded to the throne at age 11, (reigned 1909–25) was deposed in a coup d'état led by Reza Khán who appointed himself prime minister. He ruled as Reza Sháh Pahlaví between 1925–41. Iran Ahmad Shah; Reza Shah Pahlavi; Shahs; Qajar dynasty; Shahs, Throne changes; History (general); Iran, General history
    1921 Mar Two Bahá'í publications began, Sonne der Wahrheit, meaning Sun of Truth, and Wirklichkeit, meaning Reality. [BWNS1289; German Bahá'í website archive] Germany Sonne der Wahrheit (Sun of Truth); Wirklichkeit (Reality); - Periodicals; First publications; Publications; BWNS first Baha'i publications in Germany
    1921 mid Mar - 20 Apr Shoghi Effendi at Oxford - Spring Vacation 1921
  • 27 March: He visited his sister Rúhangíz in Scotland during the early part of his spring vacation.
  • In all likelihood, at some point he visited London and stayed at the home of Mírzá Yúhaná Dáwúd. [PG171]
  • Shoghi Effendi and spent the latter part of the vacation period in Sussex where he spent a few days in Fermote Villa for rest following 'Abdu'l-Bahá's instructions to do so. [PG171]
  • He continued to work on translations during this period. [PG171]
  • Oxford; Scotland; Sussex; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi at Oxford; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1921 21 Mar Construction began on the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in Wilmette. DP108]
  • See DP107 for a picture of Bahá'ís inaugurating the construction of Foundation Hall.
  • Note: The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1952 Information Statistical & Comparative p.5 says construction commenced in December 1920.
  • Wilmette; United States Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette
    1921 spring Dr Genevieve Coy was chosen as the director of the Tarbíyat School for Girls in Tihrán to replace Lillian Kappes. [SBR203] Tihran; Iran Genevieve Coy; Tarbiyat School
    1921 Apr The Minister of Justice overturned an earlier ruling and possession of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád was returned to the Bahá'ís. [SETPE1p25] Baghdad; Iraq House of Bahaullah (Baghdad)
    1921 25 Apr - 23 Jun Shoghi Effendi at Oxford - The Trinity Term at Balliol College 1921

  • The Trinity Term — 15 Sundays to 21 Sundays after the feast day of St Hilary.
  • In order to not waste any time during his stay at Oxford, in the first part of this term he made plans for a competent tutor to work with him during the upcoming long vacation. [PG173]
  • During this term he was able to socialize with his fellow students and participate in college clubs such as the Lotus Club where he presented a paper. [PG177]
  • 4 May: Shoghi Effendi presented a paper to the Bahá'í community in London. [PG177}
  • Oxford; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi at Oxford; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1921 19-21 May The first Race Amity Conference was held in Washington DC at the old First Congregational Church, 10th & G Streets NW. [BW2:281]
  • Mabry and Sadie Oglesby and their daughter Bertha from Boston as well as Agnes Parsons and Louis Gregory were involved. Agnes Parsons, during her pilgrimage in 1920, was instructed by 'Abdu'l-Bahá, "I want you to arrange in Washington a convention for unity between the white and colored people."[SETPE1p141-145, BW2p281]
  • For details of the conference see article by Louis Gregory entitled "Inter-racial Amity". [BW2:281-2]
  • See article The Bahá'í 'Race Amity' Movement and the Black Intelligentsia in Jim Crow America:Alain Locke and Robert Abbot by Christopher Buck [Bahá'í Studies Review, 17, pages 3-46, 2011] (includes a chronology of 29 Race Amity conferences organized in the United States between 1921 and 1935).
  • The Washington Bee (which, as part of its masthead, billed itself “Washington’s Best and Leading Negro Newspaper”) published the text of the entire speech on May 25, 1912, in an article headlined, “Abdue [ sic] Baha: Revolution in Religious Worship.”
  • Washington DC; United States Race (general); Race Amity; Race unity; Conferences, Race Amity; First conferences; Mabry Oglesby; Sadie Oglesby; Agnes Parsons; Louis Gregory First Race Amity Conference
    1921 29 May Alessandro Bausani, the Italian Bahá'í who was an Islamic scholar, linguist and historian of comparative religions, was born in Rome. Rome; Italy Alessandro Bausani
    1921 summer Siegfried Schopflocher, Hand of the Cause of God, became a Bahá'í. Siegfried Schopflocher; Hands of the Cause
    1921 20 Jun - 3 Oct Shoghi Effendi at Oxford - The Long Vacation 1921

  • Those students who wished to continue their studies during the vacation were required to move to an annex situated near Manchester College known as Holywell Annexe.
  • Shoghi Effendi met with Edna True at her hotel in London as she was passing through. [PG178]
  • He visited Dr. Esslemont in Bournemouth probably around the 20th of July for two weeks. [PG179]
  • 26 July: He went to London to meet his sister and went with her to Mrs Thornburgh-Cropper's. [PG179]
  • At some point during the vacation he visited Crowborough. [PG179]
  • Obedient to the instructions of the Master he spent some time during the break in rest in Torquay in August, at least from the 10th to the 29th of the month. [PG179-180]
  • 25 September (approx.) He travelled to London to sent his sister to Scotland to resume her studies. She had been staying with Mrs Thornburg-Cropper (at 20 Bloomsbury Square?). While there he met with Lady Blomfield. [PG181]
  • 1 to 6 October: Shoghi Effendi and his friend Díyá'u'lláh Asgharzádih travelled to Manchester, a community of some thirty believers. They stayed at the home of Jacob Joseph where a meeting of the community was held that evening. The group sent a letter to the Master which Shoghi Effendi translated the following day. He also sent a report of the situation in Manchester to the Master. [PG182-190]
  • See PG206-207 for a photo of Shoghi Effendi with the Manchester Bahá'ís and with the Joseph brothers.
  • See PG193 for a subsequent note from Shoghi Effendi to the friends in Manchester.
  • See PG193-194 for the Master's response to their joint supplication dated 18 October, 1921 and excerpts from Tablets to individuals.
  • Oxford; London; Bournemouth; Torquay; Manchester; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi at Oxford; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1921 Jul-Aug Bahá'ís of Zoroastrian background were harassed by the Zoroastrian agent in Qum. [BW18:388] Qum; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution
    1921 9 Jul Mírzá Asadu'lláh Fádil-i-Mázandarání left the United States for the Holy Land. [AB443footnote] United States; BWC Mirza Asadullah Fadil-i-Mazandarani
    1921 20 Aug-19 Sep Agnes Alexander visited Korea, the first Bahá'í to do so. [BW2:44] Korea Agnes Alexander the first Bahá'í to visit Korea.
    1921 Sep - Apr 1922 Roy Wilhelm had sent three generators to the Holy Land and had asked permission from 'Abdu'l-Bahá to have Curtis Kelsey come and install them. His request was granted and Curtis spent from September, 1921 until April, 1922 in the Holy Land. The units were installed at the Shrine of the Báb, (See SETPE1p38) at Bahjí (See SETPE1p55) and at the home of 'Abdu'l-Bahá at #7 Haparsin Street. The work was completed at all three locations on the last day of Ridván, 1922. [BW15p468-473] BWC Electrification of the Shrines; Bab, Shrine of; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Roy Wilhelm; Curtis Kelsey first lighting of the Holy Shrines.
    1921 6 Oct Shoghi Effendi at Oxford - The Michaelmas Term 1921
  • Shoghi Effendi continued his translation work. During his time in Oxford he acquired a love for The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire by Edward Gibbon and could often be seen reading his abridged copy. He also admired the translation of the King James version of the Bible. [PG191-197]
  • 29 November: Shoghi Effendi was summoned to the office of Major Tudor-Pole at 61 St. James Street in London. [PG198]
  • Oxford; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi at Oxford; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1921 20 Oct Áqá Siyyid Mustafá Tabátabá'í was poisoned in Sangsar. Continual agitation prevented the burial of the body for several days. [BW18:388] Sangsar; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1921 23 Nov A second suit for the possession of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdad was decided in favour of the Shi'a claimants. This allowed them to apply to the Peace Court in 1922. [SETPE1p25]
  • Before the application went before the Court the Shi'a group prevailed upon King Faisal to give an illegal personal order to the Governor of Baghdád to evict the Bahá'ís and then return the keys to them. All this was against the opinion of the British High Commissioner. [SETPE1p25]
  • The case was passed from court to court and finally brought before the Court of Appeal in Baghdád which, by a majority of four (the Iráqí members) to one (the British Presiding Justice), decided in favour of the plaintiffs. [SETPE1p25]
  • Baghdad; Iraq House of Bahaullah (Baghdad)
    1921 28 Nov Ascension of `Abdu'l-Bahá

    `Abdu'l-Bahá passed away at about 1:00 a.m., in Haifa. [AB452; BBD4; BBR347; GPB311; UD170]
  • For details of His passing see DOMH210-216, AB452, BW1:19-23; BW15:113-15 and GPB310-11.
  • This marked the end of the Apostolic, Heroic or Primitive Age of the Bahá'í Faith and the beginning of the Transitional Formative or Iron Age. [BBD35-6]
  • For a photograph of the cable sent announcing His passing see SW12, 15:245.
  • See The Passing of 'Abdu'l-Bahá by Shoghi Effendi and Lady Blomfield.
  • For a pen portrait of 'Abdu'l-Bahá see The Oriental Rose by Mary Hanford Ford pg 158-159
  • Also see AB452-83; HLS93-100.
  • See GPB309-320 for a summation of the events that took place in the lifetime of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, during the Heroic Age of the Faith.
  • Haifa Abdul-Baha, Passing of; Ages and Epochs; Heroic Age; Formative Age; Abdul-Baha, Life of; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Holy days; Covenant (general)
    1921 29 Nov The funeral of `Abdu'l-Bahá. [BW15:115]
  • For details of the funeral see AB464-74; BW1:23-6; BW15:115-19; GPB312-14; and SW12, 17:259-67.
  • For Western and newspaper accounts see AB474-80; BBR347-9; BW1:26-8; and BW15:119-20.
  • For eulogies to `Abdu'l-Bahá see AB481-2, BW1:28-9 and BW15 120-1.
  • Ten thousand people attend `Abdu'l-Bahá's funeral. [v7]
  • For a number of pictures of the funeral procession see SW12, 91:290, 292-8.
  • Bahíyyih Khánum looked for instructions on where to bury `Abdu'l-Bahá and, finding none, entombed Him in a vault next to the one where the remains of the Báb lay. [AB464; GBF14]
  • Also see Balyuzi, `Abdu'l-Bahá; Blomfield, The Chosen Highway; Honnold, Vignettes from the Life of `Abdu'l-Bahá; SW12, 15:245 and several following issues.
  • Photo.
  • Haifa; Bahji; Mount Carmel Abdul-Baha, Passing of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Bab, Shrine of; Abdul-Baha, Shrine of; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline
    1921 29 Nov A cable was sent to London with news of `Abdu'l-Bahá's passing. Shoghi Effendi was summonsed to the office of Wellesley Tudor Pole, probably at at 61, St. James St. in London, and learned of his grandfather's passing about noon after seeing the cable on Tudor Pole's desk. [GBF13]
  • See GBF13, PG199 and PP39-40 for Shoghi Effendi's reaction.
  • Oxford; London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Passing of; Shoghi Effendi at Oxford; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Wellesley Tudor Pole
    1921 (Following `Abdu'l-Bahá's passing) Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí published far and wide that he was the successor to `Abdu'l-Bahá. [CB277]
  • The Egyptian Bahá'ís responded to this by publishing a refutation of his claims. [CB276; SW12, 19:294-5]
  • Egypt Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers; Succession; Abdul-Baha, Will and testament of
    1921 29 Nov The Faith had spread to 35 countries, an increase of 20 since the passing of Bahá'u'lláh. [Patheos website] Statistics; Z****
    1921 1 Dec - 7 Dec Dr Esslemont made a trip from Bournemouth to London to visit Shoghi Effendi and offer support. He invited him back to Bournemouth where he stayed from the evening of the 2nd of December until the morning of the seventh. [PG199]
  • Shoghi Effendi wrote to a Bahá'í student in London describing his reaction to the news of the Master's passing. It would appear he had reconciled himself to the situation. [PG100; PP40-41]
  • See PG201 for the observations of others.
  • On the 7th of December he received a cable from the Greatest Holy Leaf urging him to return to the Holy Land. He left for London immediately. [PG100]
  • London; Bournemouth Dr Esslemont; Shoghi Effendi; Z****
    1921 2 Dec Ethel Rosenberg arrived in the Holy Land, having learned on the train from Port Said of the passing of `Abdu'l-Bahá. [ER181-2] Haifa Ethel Rosenberg; Abdul-Baha, Passing of
    1921 4 Dec On the seventh day after the passing of `Abdu'l-Bahá, corn was distributed in His name to about a thousand of the poor.
  • Up to this day 50 to 100 poor were fed daily at the Master's House. [BW15:122]
  • Haifa Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Passing of; House of Abdul-Baha (Haifa)
    1921 5-6 Dec The second Convention for Amity between the White and Coloured Races was held in Springfield, Massachusetts. [BW2:282; SBR92]
  • Over a thousand people attend. [SW13, 3:51]
  • For a report of the convention see SW13, 3:51-5, 601.
  • For a photograph see SW13, 3:50.
  • Springfield; Massachusetts; United States Race (general); Race amity; Race unity; Conferences, Race amity
    1921 16 Dec Shoghi Effendi left England for Haifa in the company of Lady Blomfield and his sister Rouhangeze [Rúhangíz]. Lady Blomfield stayed on in the Holy Land for several months to assist Shoghi Effendi in his new role as the Guardian. [GBF13-14; PP42; SBR66]
  • Due to passport difficulties Shoghi Effendi could not leave sooner. [GBF13; PP42; SBR66; PG202]
  • London; United Kingdom; Haifa Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Lady Blomfield; Rouhangeze (Ruhangiz); Shoghi Effendi, Family of
    1921 29 Dec Shoghi Effendi arrived in the Holy Land from England by train from Egypt. [GBF14; PP42]
  • An envelope addressed to him from 'Abdu'l-Bahá is waiting for him. It contained the Will and Testament. [Ruhi8.2p2]
  • He is so worn and grief-stricken that he has to be assisted up the stairs and is confined to bed for a number of days. [CB285]
  • United Kingdom; Egypt; Haifa Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Abdul-Baha, Will and Testament of; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Abdul-Baha, Passing of
    1921 (Late in the year) Mírzá Husayn Tútí arrived in the Philippines, the earliest known visit by a Bahá'í to this country. He stays for four months. Philippines Mirza Husayn Tuti
    1922 (In the year) The publication of The Promulgation of Universal Peace: Talks Delivered by ‘Abdu’l‑Bahá during His Visit to the United States and Canada in 1912. Compiled by Howard MacNutt.
  • From the preface to the 1922 edition..."This treasury of His words is a compilation of informal talks and extemporary discourses delivered in Persian and Arabic, interpreted by proficient linguists who accompanied Him, and taken stenographically in both Oriental and Occidental tongue."
  • From the same preface is a letter from 'Abdu'l-Bahá to Howard MacNutt dated 13 April, 1919 approving his idea to publish the compilation of His talks in America and urging him to be most careful to reproduce the exact text as well as promising an "effulgent face" in the Abhá Kingdom as well as the praise and gratitude of the friends.
  • And again from the same source is a letter from 'Abdu'l-Bahá to Albert Windust written on the 20th of July, 1919 asking him to name the book The Promulgation of Universal Peace and to direct that the Introduction must be written by Howard MacNutt. Prior to His coming to America the friends were unclear about His station and their differences in understanding was a major source of disunity. On one extreme were those that believed that 'Abdu'l-Baha was a man who, through the application and complete obedience to the Faith, had earned a high station, like the Christ's disciple Peter, implying that others could do the same. In the other camp were those who insisted that He was the return of Christ. Little wonder that they were confused because never in religious history had there been someone like 'Abdu'l-Bahá, one Who held the station of "The Mystery of God". Howard's failure to understand 'Abdu'l-Bahá's station and disobedience to Him and taken him precariously close to the company of Covenant-breakers but through 'Abdu'l-Bahá's unfailing love and guidance he was able to come to a true understanding. The Introduction to the 1922 edition was his testament to the station of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [DJT369-372]
  • The Promulgation of Universal Peace, although not "scripture", could be compared to Some Answered Questions in that it is a carefully transcribed record of His talks. Unlike that publication where He answered questions, in The Promulgation of Universal Peace it was 'Abdu'l-Bahá who chose the subject. Upon arrival in New York He said, "It is my purpose to set forth in America the fundamental principles of the revelation and teachings of Bahá'u'lláh." [PUPxii]
  • Chicago; New York; United States Promulgation of Universal Peace (book); Howard MacNutt; Publications
    1922 (In the year) Oswald Whitaker, a Sydney optometrist, and Euphemia Eleanor `Effie' Baker, a photographer, become Bahá'ís, the first Australians to accept the Faith. [BW14:320; SBR160-1, BW2p129]
  • In the 1930s Effie Baker travelled to Persia to take photographs of historical sites. [BW14:320]
  • See SETPE1p105-107 for her contribution while serving in Haifa.
  • For Effie Baker's obituary see BW14:320-1.
  • Australia; Iran Oswald Whitaker; Effie Baker; Photography; First Bahais by country or area the first Australians to accept the Faith
    1922 (In the year) Akhbar-i-Amri, a publication whose name means "News of the Cause" began in Iran. [BWNS1289] Iran Akhbar-i-Amri (News of the Cause); - Periodicals; Newsletters; First publications; Publications; BWNS first publication of a Baha'i periodical in Iran
    1922 3 Jan The Will and Testament of `Abdu'l-Bahá was read aloud for the first time, to a group of nine men, mainly senior members of `Abdu'l-Bahá's family. [BBRSM115; CB286; ER194; GBF14; PP45]
  • Shoghi Effendi was not present at the reading. [CB286; ER194]
  • Shoghi Effendi was appointed Guardian of the Bahá'í Faith. [WT11]
  • Shoghi Effendi had no fore-knowledge of the institution of the Guardianship nor that he would be appointed Guardian. [CB285; PP423]
  • Bahji Abdul-Baha, Will and Testament of; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Guardianship; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Passing of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; Covenant (general)
    1922 6 Jan A memorial feast for 600 people of Haifa, `Akká and the surrounding area was held 40 days after the passing of `Abdu'l-Bahá. [BW15:122; ER195]
  • More than a hundred poor were also fed. [BW15:122; ERT95-6]
  • For details of the memorial service see ER195-9 and SW13, 2:404.
  • Haifa; Akka Abdul-Baha, Passing of
    1922 7 Jan The Will and Testament of `Abdu'l-Bahá was read publicly at his house to an assembled gathering of Bahá'ís from many countries. [ER199-200]
  • Shoghi Effendi was again absent. [ER200]
  • The Greatest Holy Leaf sent two cables to Persia, informing the Bahá'ís that Shoghi Effendi had been appointed Guardian and instructing them to hold memorial services for `Abdu'l-Bahá. [PP47]
  • Haifa Abdul-Baha, Will and Testament of; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Guardianship; Abdul-Baha, Passing of; Abdul-Baha, House of; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1922 9 Jan William H. Hoar, Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, passed away in Fanwood, New Jersey. [SW12, 19:310]
  • For his obituary see SW12, 19:310-12.
  • Fanwood; New Jersey; United States William Hoar; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1922 16 Jan The Greatest Holy Leaf cabled the United States with the news that Shoghi Effendi had been appointed Guardian. [PP48] BWC; United States Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Guardianship; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, expanded
    1922 21 Jan Shoghi Effendi wrote to the two major communities of the Faith, Persia and America, urging the believers to arise in service for the triumph of the Cause. [BA15-17; CB298-300; CT154] BWC Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1922 24 Jan Dr Sarah A. Clock passed away in Tihrán. She had gone there in 1911 to assist Dr Moody at the Tarbíyat School. [BFA2:361; SW12, 19:309] Tihran; Iran Sarah A. Clock; Susan Moody; Tarbiyat School; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1922 30 Jan Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí and Badí`u'lláh seized the keys to the Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh. [BBR456-7; CB288-9, 333; ER205; GBF18; PP53]
  • The governor of `Akká ordered that the keys be handed over to the authorities and posted a guard at the Shrine. [BBR457; PP53-4]
  • For Western accounts of the episode see BBR456-7.
  • Bahji Mirza Muhammad-Ali; Mirza Badiullah; Bahaullah, Shrine of
    1922 Feb-Mar Shoghi Effendi called together a group of well-known Bahá'ís to discuss the future development of the Faith and the possible election of the Universal House of Justice. It was the commonly held opinion of the members of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's family, the British officials in Palestine, many believers and indeed Shoghi Effendi himself as evidenced by his letter to Persia dated 16 January, 1922, that the Universal House of Justice would be elected. [BBRSM:120, 126; EJR207; PP247-8]
  • Those invited to attend were: Major Tudor Pole, Ethel Rosenberg and Lady Blomfield from England; Emogene Hoagg (she had been living in Haifa for some time at this point), Laura and Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney from France, Consul and Alice Schwarz from Germany, Siyyid Mustafá Rúmí of Burma, Roy Wilhelm, Mountfort Mills, Mason Remey, from North America as well as Corinne True and her daughter Katherine. Two well-known Bahá'í teachers from Persia, Avarih and Fazel had been invited to attend but due to complications their arrival was long delayed. [EJR207-8; PP55] .
  • In a letter dated the 5th of March, 1922 Shoghi Effendi urged the Bahá'ís to subordinate firmly and definitely all personal likings and local interests to the interests and requirements of the Cause. He called for the establishment of local spiritual assemblies in every locality where the number of adult believers exceeded nine. He also described the tasks and functions of the assemblies saying that they would evolve int the local and national Houses of Justice. [PP248; SBR66]
  • See UD3-9; BA17-25 for the letter.
  • BWC Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Universal House of Justice; Universal House of Justice, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1922 12 Feb Laura and Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney arrived in Haifa from their travel teaching trip in Burma and Bombay. [EJR208] Haifa; Myanmar (Burma); Mumbai (Bombay); India Travel teaching; Laura Clifford Barney; Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; Z****
    1922 19 Feb Helen Goodall, Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, passed away in San Francisco. [SEBW33]
  • See SEBW21-33 for details of her life.
  • San Francisco; United States Helen Goodall; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam
    1922 22 Feb Subsequent to the decision of the Court of Appeal the government of Iraq took over the keys for the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád. [SETPE1p26] Baghdad; Iraq House of Bahaullah (Baghdad)
    1922 22 Feb King Feisal of Iraq ordered the Bahá'ís to be turned out of the Most Great House in Baghdád to keep the peace. [BW354; GPB343; PP54] Baghdad; Iraq King Faisal; House of Bahaullah (Baghdad)
    1922 25 Feb The Will and Testament of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá was written entirely in ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s own hand and it was Shoghi Effendi's first translation for the believers in the West. It was sent to New York and addressed to "The beloved of God and the handmaids of the Merciful throughout the United states of America and Canada". The "Will" delineated the Bahá’í World Order, already founded in the Kitab-i-Aqdas, and of which 'Abdul'-Bahá was the architect. [AY304] Haifa; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Will and Testament of; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Translation; Shoghi Effendi, Translations by; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Firsts, Other first translation for the believers in the West.
    1922 27 Feb Shoghi Effendi wrote to Professor Auguste Forel, advising him of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's passing and enclosing an English translation of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's letter to Dr Forel written in 1921. [The Life and Times of August Forel by Sheila Banani. [BW15p 37–43.] Auguste Forel
    1922 - 1978 The publication of the monthly Akhbár-i Amrí from 1922 to 1978 first by “Lajnih-yi Nashr-i Nafahát” (Committee for the Diffusion of the Divine Fragrances) and then by Mahfil-i Ruhání-yi Millí-yi Baháiyán-i Írán (National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of Iran).
  • Scanned copies from B.E. 102 to B.E. 111 and B.E. 116 were taken from bound copies of the journal originally owned by Mr Hormuzdiar Sabet and contain his annotations, frequently noting the original English text that has been translated in the journal.
  • Tehran; Iran Periodicals; Akhbar-i Amri
    1922 5 Mar Shoghi Effendi wrote to the American Bahá'ís calling for the establishment of local assemblies wherever nine or more believers reside and directing that all activities be placed under the authority of the local and national assemblies. [BA17-25; BBRSM120-1; CB300] BWC Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Local Spiritual Assemblies; National Spiritual Assemblies; Administration
    1922 Apr Shoghi Effendi sent verbal messages through Consul Schwarz to Germany and Ethel Rosenberg to Britain to form local spiritual assemblies and to arrange for the election of a national spiritual assembly in each country. [CB293; ER209, 211-12; PP56] Germany; United Kingdom; United States; Canada Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Consuls; Albert Schwarz; Ethel Rosenberg; National Spiritual Assemblies; Local Spiritual Assemblies; Spiritual Assemblies; Executive Board
    1922 Apr c. Shoghi Effendi appointed a body of nine people to act tentatively as an assembly in the Holy Land while he was away and entrusted the affairs of the Faith to the Greatest Holy Leaf. [GBF19; PP57, 276] BWC Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf)
    1922 Apr To the United States and Canada Shoghi Effendi sent a message to transform the 'Executive Board' into a legislative institution. [CB293; CT160; ER211-12; PP56]
  • It had been functioning since 1909 concerned mostly with the construction of the Bahá'í House of Worship.
  • He addressed his first letter to this body as the "National Spiritual Assembly of the United States" on December 23rd however in God Passes By pg333 he stated that the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States was not formed until 1925. [SETPE1p107, CT160, CoB293]
  • Chicago; United States Executive Board; Bahai Temple Unity; National Spiritual Assemblies; Spiritual Assemblies; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1922 5 Apr Shoghi Effendi left the affairs of the Faith in the hands of the Greatest Holy Leaf and departed the Holy Land for Europe, accompanied by his eldest cousin. [PP57]
  • See BA25 for his reasons for his departure.
  • Haifa; Europe Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline
    1922 7 Apr The Haifa Bahá'í Spiritual Assembly was seen to be in operation this date, perhaps earlier. [SETPE1p50,] Haifa Haifa Spiritual Assembly; Haifa Bahai Assembly
    1922 9 Apr Work commenced on the Western Pilgrim House. [PP69] Haifa Western Pilgrim House; Pilgrim Houses
    1922 21 Apr The Shrines of Bahá'u'lláh and the Báb were electrically illuminated for the first time. [PP69]
  • For the story of this project see He Loved He Served.
  • Bahji; Mount Carmel Electrification of the Shrines; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Bab, Shrine of; Light (general); Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1922 25 Apr A National Spiritual Assembly was elected in the United States to replace the Executive Board of the Bahá'í Temple Unity. [SBR94]
  • The difference between this body and its forerunner was little more than a change in name. [DP122]
  • The conversion of the Bahá'í Temple Unity into the National Spiritual Assembly took four years; it was not until 1925 that Shoghi Effendi recognized the American national body as a National Spiritual Assembly. [CT161; DP121-2; GPB333]
  • The election procedure followed that used in the United States and not the current Bahá'í procedure: there was electioneering and candidates were nominated, with a straw poll taken to trim the number of eligible candidates. [CT160; DP122]
  • Chicago; United States NSA; Spiritual Assemblies; Executive Board; Bahai Temple Unity; Elections; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1922 (Late May) The communities of London, Manchester and Bournemouth elected a Bahá'í Spiritual Assembly for England. [ER213; SBR28, 67]
  • This was also known as the Spiritual Assembly for London and the All-England Bahá'í Council. [ER2 13; SBR67]
  • See ER213 and SBR28 for membership.
  • The social centre of the London group was Ethel Rosenburg with Mrs Thornburgh-Cropper and later Lady Blomfield also playing significant roles. The group in Manchester came from the working- or lower middle-class background with Edward Hall and other men in leadership positions. The group in Bournemouth developed around Dr. Esslemont. In addition to these centres there were a few scattered isolated believers. [SBBH5p220]
  • London; Manchester; Bournemouth; United Kingdom Spiritual Assemblies; All-England Bahai Council
    1922 6 Jun The All-England Bahá'í Council met for the first time. [SBR28; UD9, 468]
  • ER2 13 says it first met 17 June.
  • The meeting was held in the home of Mrs Thornburgh-Cropper. [SBR28, 67]
  • United Kingdom All-England Bahai Council; Firsts, Other; Mary Virginia Thornburgh-Cropper first meeting of the future NSA of British Isles
    1922 9 Jul Bahá'ís gathered in the Foundation Hall of the Chicago House of Worship for the first time, to commemorate the martyrdom of the Báb. [CT158-9; SW13, 6:132]
  • Regular meetings were not held here until 1927. [CT158-9]
  • Wilmette; United States Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette
    1922 (Autumn) The Greatest Holy Leaf sent Shoghi Effendi's mother and other family members to Switzerland to ask him to return to the Holy Land. [PP63] Switzerland; Haifa Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of
    1922 10 Dec The first local assembly of Montreal was formed. [BW8:639, OBCC157, TG26] Montreal; Quebec; Canada LSA first Local Spiritual Assembly in Canada, first spiritual assembly in Montreal
    1922 15 Dec Shoghi Effendi returned to the Holy Land to take up his duties as Guardian. [PP63-4]
  • He sent cablegrams to a number of national communities announcing his return and his eagerness to resume the work. [PP64-5]
  • Switzerland; Haifa Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Guardianship
    1923 (In the year) Charles Mason Remey made preliminary plans for a monumental domed superstructure for the Shrine of the Báb. [BW6:723] Haifa Charles Mason Remey; Bab, Shrine of
    1923 (In the year) Amelia Collins contributed the funds necessary to complete the Western Pilgrim House. [DH180; PSBW76] Haifa Amelia Collins; Western Pilgrim House; Pilgrimage; Pilgrim Houses
    1923 (In the year) The keys for the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád were delivered to the Shi'as by the government. [PP94-5, GBF33] Baghdad; Iraq House of Bahaullah (Baghdad)
    1923 (In the year) The Dawn began publishing in Burma, in Burmese, English, and Persian. [BWNS1289] Myanmar (Burma) Dawn, The (newsletter); - Periodicals; Newsletters; First publications; Publications; BWNS first Baha'i periodical in Burma
    1923 (In the year) The first Bahá'í Feast was held in New Zealand in the home of Margaret Stevenson. It was attended by Hyde Dunn from Australia. [SoW Vol 14 p25]
  • For photo see Bahá'í Historical Facts.
  • New Zealand Feast; Margaret Stevenson; Hyde Dunn first Bahá'í Feast held in New Zealand
    1923 Jan The Guardian sent `Abdu'l-Husayn, Ávárih, to Europe to deepen the believers. [CB335; SBR68; EJR223]
  • For his life and eventual Covenant-breaking see CB334-42 and PP120.
  • Europe Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Avarih (Abdul-Husayn); Covenant-breakers
    1923 Feb Shoghi Effendi sent his early translation of The Hidden Words to America. [PP205] BWC; United States Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Translations by; Translation; Kalimat-i-Maknunih (Hidden Words); Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1923 8 Feb The keys to the Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh were returned to Shoghi Effendi. [GBF23; PP71] Bahji Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Bahaullah, Shrine of
    1923 12 Feb Bahai Scriptures, edited by Horace Holley, was published. [SBR231; BEL4.71-4.72]
  • It was the first comprehensive collection of Bahá'í writings made thus far in English. [SBR231]
  • New York, NY Horace Holley; Bahai Scriptures (book); Publications; First publications
    1923 16 Feb Declaration of the first native Hawaiian Bahá'í, Mae (Mary) Keali'i Kahumoku Tilton Fantom. She was from Maui. [Native Bahá'í - Indigenous Bahá'í] Maui; Hawaii Mae (Mary) Kealii Kahumoku Tilton Fantom first native Hawaiian Bahá'í.
    1923 Mar An article entitled `Bahai Organization: Its Basis in the Revealed Word' was published in Star of the West. [SW13, 12:323-8]
  • The purpose of the article was to convince those who were opposed to a structured form of Bahá'í administration. [BBRSM123]
  • Administration
    1923 12 Mar Shoghi Effendi wrote to Bahá'ís in America, Great Britain, Germany, France, Switzerland, Italy, Japan and Australasia about Bahá'í administration, outlining the process for annual elections of assemblies and calling for the establishment of local and national funds. [BA34-43; PP330]
  • See ER223-4 for the response of the British Bahá'ís.
  • In the same letter, as a Post Script, he included a list of the best known and most current Bahá'í terms transliterated with a recommendation that this be adopted as standard for all Western Bahá'ís with a promise that the Haifa Spiritual Assembly would provide a supplement. The transliteration scheme was mostly based on a standard adopted by the Tenth International Congress of Orientalists which took place in Geneva in September 1894. [BA43; PG208-209]
  • From the June 1923 issue of Star of the West, attempts were made to introduce the voting system although these are at first very patchy. The first books that appeared to be trying to put the system into use are Esslemont's Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era and Herrick's Unity Triumphant (the latter not entirely consistently), both published in 1923. Although some books appearing in 1924 did not follow the system, from this time on, books and other printed material published under Bahá'í auspices have followed it. [Transliteration by Mojan Momen]
  • A list of transliterated terms appeared in BW1p131 and expanded lists appeared in subsequent volumes.
  • Haifa Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Administration; Transliteration; Z****
    1923 Apr National Spiritual Assemblies were elected in the British Isles, India and Germany. [GPB333]
  • The election of the British National Spiritual Assembly was by postal ballot. [ER228]
  • For the membership of the British National Spiritual Assembly see ER228 and SBR71.
  • See also ER223-31 for the election and functioning of the British National Spiritual Assembly.
  • British Isles; United Kingdom; India; Germany NSA
    1923 25 Apr Martha Root left Osaka for northern China. [PH31]
  • It was her second visit to China and lasted until March 1924. [PH31-2]
  • China Martha Root
    1923 Jun Shoghi Effendi left Haifa for Switzerland. [PP72; BBRSM116]
  • He returned to Haifa in November 1923. [BRRSM116]
  • Switzerland; Haifa Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of
    1923 Jul The Bahá'ís appealed to the Peace Court for possession of the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád. [SETPE1p26] Baghdad; Iraq House of Bahaullah (Baghdad)
    1923 (In July or earlier) Lorol Schopflocher made a visit to King Feisel either with the blessing or C E S Palmer, the Consul-General of the British Mandate as reported in the Winnipeg Tribune 31 July, 1923 p16. Baghdad; Iraq House of Bahaullah (Baghdad); Lorol Schopflocher; King Feisal
    1923 Early Sep J. E. Esslemont's Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era was published in Britain by George Allen and Unwin. [DJEE28; RG77]
  • Dr Esslemont had been in invited to Haifa by 'Abdu'l-Bahá to discuss the book he was writing. He spent two and on-half month during the winter of 1919-1920 as a guest of 'Abdu'l-Bahá who amended and corrected four chapters. [UC45]
  • Shoghi Effendi viewed this as a landmark in British Bahá'í history. [UD97]
  • Over the years he encouraged its translation into dozens of languages. [RG77]
  • See DJEE37-8 for the importance of this work.
  • For a list of publications in various languages and formats see The Story of J. E. Esslemont and his Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era: Bibliography by Jan Jasion.
  • United Kingdom Esslemont; Bahaullah and the New Era (book); Introductory; Publications; Translation
    1923 13 Oct The National Spiritual Assembly of Britain met for the first time, at the home of Ethel Rosenberg. [ER228; UD13, 163]
  • It became the National Spiritual Assembly of the British Isles in 1930 and the National Spiritual Assembly of the United Kingdom in 1972.
  • United Kingdom; British Isles NSA; Ethel Rosenberg; NSA of UK
    1923 4 Nov The first recorded Bahá'í Feast in China was held in Beijing. [PH33]
  • Martha Root and Agnes Alexander were present. [PH33]
  • Beijing; China Nineteen Day Feast; Martha Root; Agnes Alexander
    1923 Nov (Sometime before 14 Nov) Shoghi Effendi returned from Switzerland. [PP73] Switzerland; Haifa Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of
    1923 14 Nov In a message addressed to "the beloved of the Lord and the handmaids of the Merciful throughout America" Shoghi Effendi expressed the following: I cherish the hope that, from now on the Beloved may bestow upon me all the strength and vigour that will enable me to pursue over a long and unbroken period of strenuous labour the supreme task of achieving, in collaboration with the friends in every land, the speedy triumph of the Cause of Bahá’u’lláh. This is the prayer I earnestly request all my fellow-brethren and sisters in the Faith to offer on my behalf.

  • This came to be known as "The Guardian's Prayer" and was used by many of his co-workers in their prayers for him. [BA51-52]
  • The prayer book that was first published in the UK in 1941 included this prayer at the very end of the book. In that version they made two changes. The phrase "from now on" was removed and "Shoghi Effendi" was substituted for the word "me" in the first sentence. [TG157, 246n1]
  • BWC Guardians Prayer; Prayer for the Guardian
    1923 Dec The first local spiritual assembly in Australia was formed in Melbourne. Melbourne; Australia Local Spiritual Assemblies; First Local Spiritual Assemblies The first local spiritual assembly in Australia is formed in Melbourne.
    1923 20 Dec The Peace Court ruled in favour of giving the Bahá'ís possession of House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád, however, the Council of Ministers, with the approval of King Feisal, ordered that the property not be returned until ownership could be established. [SETPE1p26]
  • The Guardian sent 19 cables to various individuals and national bodies with instructions that the Bahá'ís should send cables to the British High Commissioner in Iráq, Sir Henry Dobbs, as well as to the British authorities in Iráq and in London as well as to King Feisal to protest the action of the Council of Ministers. In communities where the numbers are stronger, Persia and America, he instructed that every local assembly protest directly. The Guardian himself sent over 600 pieces of correspondence during the following six months concerning this issue. [PP94-6, GBF33-34 BA94-95]
  • The Iráqí government refused to bow to the pressure put upon them. [PP96]
  • Baghdad; Iraq House of Bahaullah (Baghdad); Peace Court; Firsts, Other First time public opinion was rallied to support a miscarriage of justice against the Bahá'is
    1923 Ridván “...Ridvan messages: As early as 1923 Shoghi Effendi sent a letter of encouragement and greeting to the American national Bahá'í convention at Ridvan. Later it was his regular practice to write a Ridvan letter to the Bahá'ís of the world summarizing the progress of the Faith in the previous year and setting out general directions for the coming year. The Universal House of Justice has continued this practice. Other Bahá'í institutions, especially national spiritual assemblies, also sometimes issue Ridvan letters." [SA241] BWC Ridvan Message
    1924 (In the year) Miss Nora Lee, who became a Bahá'í in New Zealand, was the first Bahá'í to travel to Fiji, working as a nanny in Labasa from 1924 to about 1930.
  • Gretta Lamprill became the first Bahá'í in Tasmania in the latter part of the year. [SBR162]
  • Amelia Collins visited Iceland for two days.
  • Fiji; Tasmania; Iceland First Bahais by country or area; First travel teachers and pioneers; Amelia Collins first Bahá'í to travel to Fiji; first Bahá'í in Tasmania
    1924 (In the year) Memorials of the Faithful was published under the auspices of the Haifa Bahá'í Assembly. [MFXII] Haifa Memorials of the Faithful (book); Publications; Haifa Bahai Assembly; Haifa Spiritual Assembly
    1924 (In the year) The passing of Mírzá Mahmúd-i-Zarqání (b. c1875).
  • He was 'Abdu'l-Bahá's secretary on his western trip and is the author of Mahmúd's Diary. In his youth he travelled and taught around Iran and from 1903 he began travelling to and in India, learning Urdu. He also made a pilgrimage to Haifa where he transcribed Tablets and from there accompanied 'Abdu'l-Bahá on His journey to Europe and to America. [Ahmad Sohrab's Diary Edinburgh p.5]
  • Mirza Mahmud-i-Zarqani; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Mahmuds Diary; Abdul-Baha, Travels of
    1924 28 Jan Isabella Brittingham, Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, passed away at the Revell home in Philadelphia. [SEBW138]
  • For her life see SEBW131-8.
  • Philadelphia; United States Isabella Brittingham; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam
    1924 9 Mar Two Bahá'ís were imprisoned for several months in Marághih, Iran, after two mullás stirred up trouble against the Bahá'ís. [BW18:388] Maraghih; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1924 28-30 Mar The third Convention for Race Unity was held in New York City. [BW2:282-3; SBR93; TMW1467] New York; United States Race (general); Race amity; Race unity; Conferences, Race amity
    1924 2 Apr Bahá'ís in Turbat-i-Haydarí, Iran, were attacked; some were arrested and imprisoned and others were forced to leave the town permanently. [BW18:388] Turbat-i-Haydari; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1924 5 Apr Shaykh `Abdu'l-Majíd was beaten to death in Turshíz, Khurásán, Iran. [BW18:388] Turshiz; Khurasan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1924 22 Jun Aqá Husayn-`Alí was martyred in Firúzábád, Fárs, Iran. [BW18:388] Firuzabad; Fars; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1924 Jul The second local spiritual assembly in Australia was formed in Perth. Perth; Australia Local Spiritual Assemblies find reference
    1924 18 Jul American Vice-Consul Major Robert Imbrie was murdered in Tihrán for being a Bahá'í, which he was not, straining relations between the Persian and American governments. When Washington threatened to sever diplomatic relations, Persia arrested some two hundred mullás, formally apologized to the United States and accepted Washington’s terms for full reparations. [BBR462-5; BW18:388, [AY277-279]
  • For a picture of the floral tribute sent to his funeral by the Bahá'ís of Persia and America see BW1:100.
  • Tihran; Iran; United States Major Robert Imbrie; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1924 Sep Shoghi Effendi returned to the Holy Land after an absence of some six months. [BA65-7; BBRSM117; UD279] Haifa Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of
    1924 22 Sep - 3 Oct The conference `Some Living Religions within the British Empire' was held in London. [BW2:225; ER233; GPB342]
  • For details of the planning of the conference and its outcome see ER231-5.
  • For Shoghi Effendi's attitude to the conference see UD17, 19, 21-2, 245.
  • Two papers about the Bahá'í Faith were read at the conference, one by Horace Holley read by Mountfort Mills and the other by Rúhí Afnán. [BW2:225; ER232-3; SBR73]
  • For texts of the papers see BW2:227-42.
  • Note that a paper was delivered by Richard St. Barbe Baker. As a result of attending the conference he met a Bahá'í and dedicated the rest of his life in service to the Cause. [Bahá'í Chronicles]
  • London; United Kingdom Conferences, Other; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Horace Holley; Mountfort Mills; Ruhi Afnan; Afnan; Richard St Barbe Baker; Interfaith dialogue
    1924 Nov The Supreme Court of Iraq decided against the Bahá'ís in the dispute over the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád. [UD37-8] Iraq Court cases; House of Bahaullah (Baghdad); Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution
    1924 21 Nov Dr John E. Esslemont arrived in Haifa to help Shoghi Effendi with his work. [DJEE31; SBR233] Haifa Esslemont; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1924 Dec The National Spiritual Assembly of Egypt and the Sudan was formed, the first national body in Africa. [BBRSM121; GPB333] Egypt; Sudan; Cape Town; South Africa NSA The National Spiritual Assembly of Egypt and the Sudan was formed, the first national body in Africa.
    1924 Dec Martha Root gave the first African radio broadcast about the Bahá'í Faith, in Cape Town. Capetown; Africa Marth Root; radio; Z**** first African radio broadcast about the Bahá'í Faith, in Cape Town. find ref
    1924 24 Dec The first Bahá'í News Letter, forerunner of Bahá'í News, was published in New York by the National Assembly of the United States and Canada with Horace Holley as the editor. [BBRSM122; BW10:180; BW13:856; SBR232]
  • For links to the publications see entry at 1990-10-00.
  • New York; United States Newsletters; Bahai News; Horace Holley; Publications; First publications; - Periodicals
    1925 (In the year) Shoghi Effendi established the International Bahá'í Archives on Mount Carmel, one site adjoining the Shrine of the Báb and the other was located in the immediate vicinity of the resting-place of the Greatest Holy Leaf. [GPB147; Archives, Bahá'í: Preserving and Safeguarding the Sacred Texts by / on behalf of Universal House of Justice.]
  • Note that the function of the archives was written into the Constitution of the Universal House of Justice:

    "To ensure the preservation of the Sacred Texts and to safeguard their inviolability; to analyse, classify, and coordinate the Writings; and to defend and protect the Cause of God and emancipate it from the fetters of repression and persecution;"

  • BWC International Archives; Constitution of the Universal House of Justice; Archives
    1925 (Early in the year) Johanne Sorensen became a Bahá’í in Hawaii, the first Dane to accept the Faith. She returned to Denmark soon afterwards and remained the only Bahá’í there for 21 years. Hawaii; Denmark Johanne Sorensen first Dane to accept the Faith find ref
    1925 Louisa Gregory was the first Bahá’í to visit Romania. Romania Louisa Mathew Gregory first Bahá’í to visit Romania find ref
    1925 (In the year) The Bahá’í Esperanto magazine, La Nova Tago (The New Day) was first published. [BBRSM150]
  • It continued publication until 1937. [BBRSM150]
  • Esperanto; La Nova Tago (The New Day); Publications first publication La Nova Tago (The New Day)
    1925 (In the year) Fanny Knobloch and her sister Pauline Hannen were the first Bahá’ís to visit Southern Rhodesia. Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) Fanny Knobloch; Pauline Hannen first Bahá’ís to visit Southern Rhodesia
    1925 (In the year) At the suggestion of Horace Holley a Bahá'í yearbook was published under the name Bahá'í Year Book and subsequent editions were called The Bahá'í World, A Biennial International Record. Although it was published by the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States, Shoghi Effendi was the editor-in-chief. Volume 13 (1954-1963) saw publication shift to the Bahá'í World Centre and in 1992 the format changed. The last year of publication was 2006. [PP209-212, SETPE1p107] United States; BWC Bahai World volumes; Publications; Shoghi Effendi, Writings of
    1925 (In the year) Loral Schopflocher was sent by the Guardian to speak with King Feisal of Iraq. The King was not receiving visitors so she made an unorthodox entrance by driving her car through the gates at high speed and coming to an abrupt stop in front of the palace. [SETPE1p105] Baghdad; Iraq House of Bahaullah (Baghdad); Loral Schopflocher; King Feisal
    1925 Jan The Spiritual Assembly of Alexandria was established, the second assembly to be formed in Africa. Alexandria; Africa LSA first Spiritual Assembly in Alexandria
    1925 Jan The American Bahá’ís published Shoghi Effendi’s revised Hidden Words. [ER255]
  • Another translation was made in 1926–7. [ER254; GT55–8]
  • United States Shoghi Effendi, Translations by; Translation; Kalimat-i-Maknunih (Hidden Words); Publications; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1925 16 Jan Shoghi Effendi reported in a letter that the case of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád was then before the court of the First Instance and had been postponed for some time. He stated that, should the appeal be successful, the opponents were likely to refer the case to the Court of Appeal and, should that happen, the government would likely delay the return of the keys for the House. [BA76] Baghdad; Iraq House of Bahaullah (Baghdad)
    1925 There were 43 local spiritual assemblies in North America by this date. [BBRSM121] North America; United States LSA; Statistics
    1925 Of the 38 localities where Bahá'ís resided in Europe, 26 were in Germany. [BBRSM182] Europe; Germany Statistics
    1925 (Spring) The International Bahá’í Bureau was established in Geneva by Jean Stannard under the direction of Shoghi Effendi. [BW4:257]
  • For the history and work of the Bureau see BW4:257–61, BW6:130–5, BW7:108–13, BW11:507–8.
  • Its function was to act as intermediary between Haifa and other Bahá’í centres. [BBD118; BW4:261]
  • Geneva; Switzerland; Europe International Bahai Bureau; Jean Stannard; Firsts, Other first establishment International Bahá’í Bureau
    1925 10 Apr Shoghi Effendi wrote to the American National Spiritual Assembly indicating that the word ‘assembly’ was to apply only to the elected body of nine believers in each locality or to the national assembly, not to the believers as a whole. They had been using the term to mean the community of Bahá'ís. [BA83; SBBH258] United States Administration; National Spiritual Assemblies; Local Spiritual Assemblies; Spiritual Assemblies
    1925 10 May A Muslim Court in Egypt pronounced the Faith to be an independent religion. [BBRSM173; BW2:31;BW3:49]
  • For text of the judgement see BW3:48–50.
  • This was ‘the first charter of liberty emancipating the Bahá’í Faith from the fetters of orthodox Islam’. [BA100-1, 120-123; BW3:110–11; GPBXII, 302, 365; CB306; PP319–20; UD65 WOB99, LoF57, SETPE1p102-104]

    "an attack which, viewed in the perspective of history, will be acclaimed by future generations as a landmark not only in the Formative Period of the Faith but in the history of the first Bahá'í century. Indeed, the sequel to this assault may be said to have opened a new chapter in the evolution of the Faith itself, an evolution which, carrying it through the successive stages of repression, of emancipation, of recognition as an independent Revelation, and as a state religion, must lead to the establishment of the Bahá'í state and culminate in the emergence of the Bahá'í World Commonwealth. [GPB364]

  • Subsequent to the court's decision...

    "the presentation of a petition addressed by the national elected representatives of that community to the Egyptian Prime Minister, the Minister of the Interior and the Minister of Justice (supported by a similar communication addressed by the American National Spiritual Assembly to the Egyptian Government, see BW4p166), enclosing a copy of the judgment of the Court, and of their national Bahá'í constitution and by-laws, requesting them to recognize their Assembly as a body qualified to exercise the functions of an independent court and empowered to apply, in all matters affecting their personal status, the laws and ordinances revealed by the Author of their Faith--these stand out as the initial consequences of a historic pronouncement that must eventually lead to the establishment of that Faith on a basis of absolute equality with its sister religions in that land." [GPB367]

    "it became a lever which the Egyptian Bahá'í community, followed later by its sister-communities, readily utilized for the purpose of asserting the independence of its Faith and of seeking for it the recognition of its government. Translated into several languages, circulated among Bahá'í communities in East and West, it gradually paved the way for the initiation of negotiations between the elected representatives of these communities and the civil authorities in Egypt, in the Holy Land, in Persia and even in the United States of America, for the purpose of securing the official recognition by these authorities of the Faith as an independent religion. " [GPB366]

    Background Information

    "It was in the village of Kawmu's-Sa`áyidih, in the district of Beba, of the province of Beni Suef in Upper Egypt, that, as a result of the religious fanaticism which the formation of a Bahá'í assembly had kindled in the breast of the headman of that village, and of the grave accusations made by him to both the District Police Officer and the Governor of the province--accusations which aroused the Muhammadans to such a pitch of excitement as to cause them to perpetrate shameful acts against their victims--that action was initiated by the notary of the village, in his capacity as a religious plaintiff authorized by the Ministry of Justice, against three Bahá'í residents of that village, demanding that their Muslim wives be divorced from them on the grounds that their husbands had abandoned Islám after their legal marriage as Muslims." [GPB364-365]

  • See message from the Universal House of Justice to the Bahá'ís of Egypt dated 21 December 2006.
  • Kawmus-Saayidih; Beba; Beni Suef; Egypt Recognition; Islam; Interfaith dialogue; Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Other; Persecution first charter of liberty emancipating the Bahá’í Faith from the fetters of orthodox Islam’
    1925 4 Jul – 9 Jul The Seventeenth Annual Convention of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada was held at Green Acre. [GAP117; SBR94]
  • National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada was elected for the first time. [GPB333, SETPE1p107]
  • Like the previous attempts at electing a National Assembly in 1922, 1923 and 1924, the delegates didn't fully understand the Bahá'í election procedure. Nine members were elected as well as nine alternates whose purpose was to replace absent members at meetings. [SETPE1p108]
  • The members were: Alfred Lunt, William Randall, May Maxwell, George Latimer, Louis Gregory, Elizabeth Greenleaf, Mariam Haney and Keith Ransom-Kehler with Horace Holley becomes its first full-time secretary. [BW13:852; SBR233, SETPE1p108]
  • United States; Canada Alfred Lunt; William Harry Randall; May Maxwell (Bolles); George Latimer; Louis Gregory; Elizabeth Greenleaf; Mariam Haney; Keith Ransom-Kehler; Horace Holley; NSA; First National Spiritual Assemblies first NSA United States and Canada; first full-time secretary NSA United States and Canada
    1925 Sep Bertram Dewing began publication of the Bahá’í magazine Herald of the South in Auckland. [BEL174; SBR163; BWNS1289] Auckland; New Zealand Herald of the South (magazine); - Periodicals; First publications; Publications; BWNS first publication Herald of the South
    1925 Oct Faced with the possibility of Jewish developments on land near the Shrine of the Báb, Shoghi Effendi appealed to the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada to purchase the land in question. They responded quickly to the request. [BA92-3, SETPE1p108, PP97] BWC; Mount Carmel Bab, Shrine of; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Purchases and exchanges
    1925 31 Oct Ahmad Sháh was deposed and the Qájár dynasty (1785-1925) was formerly terminated by declaration of the National Consultative Assembly. He was replaced by Reza Shah Pahlavi. [BBD190; BBR482; BBRSM87, PDC66-69, AY46-47] Iran Ahmad Shah; Qajar dynasty; Reza Shah Pahlavi; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; Iran, general history
    1925 21 Nov On his way from Iran to study at the American University of Beirut (then called the Syrian Protestant College) the 17-year-old Hasan Balyuzi spent two days in Haifa. Although from a prominent Bahá'í family he was neither knowledgeable nor confirmed in his faith. After having spent more than one hour with Shoghi Effendi his faith was confirmed and the course of his life was set. [SETPE1p110-111, BW18p637-651]
  • See BKG232 footnote for a by Hasan Balyuzi with a story about Mírzá Ahmad, a son of Mírzá Yahyá.
  • Haifa; Beirut; Lebanon Hasan Balyuzi; American University of Beirut; Syrian Protestant College
    1925 22 Nov John Esslemont, Hand of the Cause of God, Disciple of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, passed away in Haifa. [BW3p84-85, BBD81, SETPE1p108-110]
  • For letters of Shoghi Effendi announcing his death and giving details of his life and funeral see BA97–8 and UD40–3.
  • For an obituary see BW1:133–6 and BW8:929–35.
  • He was buried next to the grave of Vakílu’d-Dawlih, the chief builder of the House of Worship at ‘Ishqábád. [DJEE37]
  • Shoghi Effendi elevated him to the station of Hand of the Cause of God on his death. The announcement was made on November 30th. [BA7-98; BWT3:333; DJEE40; PP92; UD403, MoCxxii
  • See also Moojan Momen, Dr John E. Esslemont (BPT UK 1975) and BW8p929-935 for "John Ebenezer Esslemont: His Life and Service" by Jesse E. Revell.
  • In addition to the publication of Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era in Britain by George Allen and Unwin in 1923 he also published a booklet called Bahá’u’lláh and His Message in New York by the Bahá’í Publishing Committee in 1921. (32 p). It was reprinted in London by the National Bahā’i Assembly of England, 1924. (23 p.), and a revised and edited publication was done by the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the British Isles. London, 1938.
  • The Message of Bahá’u’lláh: (Based on “Bahá’u’lláh and His Message”) was published in London by the Bahá’í Publishing Trust in 1945. (30 p.). [DJEE28; RG77; The Story of J. E. Esslemont and his Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era: Bibliography by Jan Jasion]
  • Haifa Esslemont; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Vakilud-Dawlih; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Cemeteries and graves
    1925 30 Nov With the passing of Dr Esslemont Shoghi Effendi was left without qualified secretarial help. This situation remained in place until the formation of the International Bahá'í Council in 1951. [PP92-95, SETPE1p112]
  • On November 30th Shoghi Effendi appointed him a Hand of the Cause of God.
  • Haifa Esslemont; Hand of the Cause of God; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi
    1925 Dec "A Plan of Unified Action to Spread the Bahá'í Cause Throughout the United States and Canada January 1, 1926-December 31, 1928" was formulated by The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada in response to Shoghi Effendi's message to the annual National Convention. [BA86-89]
  • It can be found at [Plan] The goals were (1) to unify the American Bahá'í community's efforts, (2) to increase the number of Bahá'ís, (3) to "penetrate the consciousness of the public with the spirit of Bahá'u'lláh", and (4) to raise $400,000 so that the construction of the first unit of the Temple's superstructure could begin. [SBBR14p160, BFA1p110]
  • This was the first of two Plans developed by the North American National Assembly in the years from 1926 to 1934 the second being "A New Plan of Unified Action To complete the Bahá'í Temple and promote the Cause in America (1931-1934)". [SBBR14p155-197]
  • The above two plans were the first to have the expansion and development of the Bahá'í community as a primary goal and it is likely that they provided the model for other plans organized by Shoghi Effendi and other National Assemblies. [SBBR14p155]
  • The first Plan of Unified Action indicates the ascendancy of those Bahá'ís who supported a centralizing authority over those who wanted a more amorphous system or no organization at all.[BiW177-8]
    • For an essay on this subject see "Some Aspects of the Establishment of the Guardianship" by Dr Loni Bramson-Lerche in SBBR5p253-293
  • During the years of these two plans the National Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada developed practices commonly used in subsequent plans, organized propagation, a central budget and the modern form of the Nineteen Day Feast. [SBBR14p160]
  • United States; Canada Teaching Plans; Teaching Plans, National; NSA
    1925 Dec The Guardian expressed his "heartfelt and abiding gratitude" to Milly Collins and seven others who had donated the necessary funds to complete the Western Pilgrim House construction project. It had been started in 1919 with a donation from Ruth and Harry Randal but had come to a halt when the funds ran out. [Millyp7] Haifa Western Pilgrim House; Pilgrim Houses; Amelia Collins; Donations; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre
    1925 13 Dec Ridá (or Reza) Sháh acceded to the throne of Iran. The Pahlaví dynasty commenced. [BBR482] Iran Reza Shah Pahlavi; Pahlavi dynasty; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; History (general); Iran, General history
    1925 13 Dec The keys to Bahá’u’lláh’s house in Baghdád were given to the Shí’ís. [UD45] Baghdad; Iraq House of Bahaullah (Baghdad)
    1926 (In the year) Opposition to the Faith began in Russia. [BW3:35; BBR473]
  • For details see BW3:34–43.
  • Russia; Soviet Union Persecution, Russia; Persecution
    1926 (In the year) Martha Root visited Budapest and taught the Faith to one of the grandsons of Arminius Vámbéry, Mr. György Vámbéry. He was 21 at the time and passed away some two years later. [www.bahai.hu] Budapest; Hungary Martha Root; Arminius Vambery; Gyorgy Vambery first Hungarian Bahá'í György Vámbéry?
    1926 (In the year) Green Acre came under the direct supervision of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada. [GAP118] Eliot; Maine; United States; Canada Green Acre; NSA United States and Canada
    1926 (In the year) For most of the year severe restrictions were placed on the Bahá’ís of Marághih in Ádharbáyján, the governor of the district effectively suspended all constitutional and civil rights of the Bahá’í community. [BBR472; BW18:388]
  • For a list of deprivations see BBR473.
  • Maraghih; Adharbayjan Persecution, Adharbayjan; Persecution; Human rights
    1926 (In the year) Shoghi Effendi visited Finland. Finland Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of find ref
    1926 (In the year) The Bahá’í World was first published. [BW1:4; GT77; PP209; SBR232; BWNS1289]
  • The first edition, April 1925 to April 1926, was called The Bahá’í Yearbook.
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s impression of it see UD82–4.
  • This marked a new stage in the capacity of the Bahá'í community to provide reports and statistics, capture experience from diverse countries, and disseminate important insights and analyses. Each edition covered the progress of the international Bahá'í community over a defined period.
  • United States Bahai World volumes; First publications; Publications; - Periodicals; BWNS first publication The Bahá’í World
    1926 Jan Orcella Rexford and her husband Dr Gayne Gregory (the first to accept the Faith in Alaska) went to Haifa on pilgrimage and were technically the first from Alaska to do so. They were in the process of moving from Alaska to the Continental USA. [SETPE1p112-112]
  • See BW11p495-498 for for details of the life of Orella Rexford.
  • Haifa; Alaska; United States First Bahais by country or area; Orcella Rexford First person to accept the Faith in Alaska, first Alaskan pilgrims
    1926 25 Jan The passing of Professor Edward Granville Browne, (b. on the family estate in Gloucestershire, 7 February, 1862. d. near Cambridge). He is buried at Elswick Cemetery in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England. Find a grave.

    Browne was a British orientalist who published numerous articles and books of academic value in the areas of Persian history and literature. He had a number of private interviews with Bahá’u’lláh at Bahjí in 1890. He was the only Westerner to have met Bahá’u’lláh and to have left a description of the experience (see Scholar Meets Prophet: Edward Granville Browne and Bahá'u'lláh).
    In 1912-13, while `Abdu'l-Bahá was in Europe, Browne visited him in London and Paris. These visits were supplemented by some correspondence between the two. Other Bahá'ís, including Montford Mills, also visited and corresponded with Browne from time to time. When `Abdu'l-Bahá passed away in 1921, Browne penned a sympathetic obituary. He also wrote a pen-portrait of Àbdu'l-Bahá. [Bahá'í Tributes]

  • Charles Melville, Professor of Persian History at Pembroke College in Cambridge headed the Browne Archive Project to digitize Browne's diaries and notes.
  • See Encounter with Bahá'u'lláh, a short video about Browne's life and his famous interview.
  • See MCS529-545 for a discussion of Browne's lack of objectivity and his partisanship as a researcher that lead to his committing some serious errors in his work on the Bábí-Bahá'í Faith.
  • He himself a professor of Arabic, found the Báb's style of writing very difficult and said of his works: "...some are so confused, so full of repetitions, extraordinary works and fantastic derivatives of Arabic roots, that they defy the most industrious and indefatigable reader." [SBBH5p227]

    Browne's Publications

    • Religious Systems of the World: A Contribution to the Study of Comparative Religion (1889)
    • A Traveller's Narrative Written to Illustrate the Episode of the Báb (1891) A history by`Abdu'l-Bahá which Browne translated and extensively annotated.
    • Tarikh-i-Jadid or New History of Mirza`Ali Muhammad the Báb (1893) by Mirza Husayn Hamadani translated by E.G.Browne.
      • Hájjí Mírzá Jani Kashani wrote a substantial history of the Bábi Faith sometime between 1850-1852. (He was martyred in 1852.) These memoirs as they were copied and re-copied and spawned a great many versions which differed particularly in their portrayal of Subh-i-Azál and Bahá'u'lláh, depending on the editor’s loyalty.
      • In about 1880 Mírzá Husayn Hamadani with the support of Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl took some version of Mírzá Jani's 1851 account and worked it up into a new history, The Tárikh-i-Jadíd. He did this at the request of a Zoroastrian, Manakji, who then added a preface, an epilogue, and an unknown number of amendments to the text and then published it under his own name.
      • Nabil-i-Akbar, in response to a commission by Bahá'u'lláh, made a revision of this work somewhere between 1880-1883 which is known as The Táríkh-i Badí‘-i Bayání.
      • Browne used two these two manuscripts, The Tárikh-i-Jadíd and The Táríkh-i Badí‘-i Bayání to write the single volume The New History (tarikh-i-jadid) of Mírzá Ali-Muhammed, the Báb. In referring to Mírzá Jani's history throughout the footnotes, he was not aware of the problems of discerning what represents the original memoirs and what others have added.
    • A Year Among the Persians (1893) Vividly describes his adventures, including his encounters with the Bahá'ís and Azalís during his time in Persian from October 1887 to September 1888.
    • A chapter from the history of Cannabis Indica (1897)
    • A Literary History of Persia From Firdawsí to Sa'dí (in four volumes) (1902-24)
    • The Persian Revolution of 1905–1909 (1910) About the Persian Constitutional Revolution, of which Browne was an ardent supporter.
    • He published, in Persian, the text of The Kitab-i-Nuqtatu'l-Kaf, being the earliest History of the Bábís compiled by Hájji Mírzá Jání of Kásgán between the years 1850 and 1852, edited from the unique Ms. Suppl. Persan 1071. (1910) This was a work that he had done at an earlier date. It was published at the instigation of Mirza Muhammad Qazvini, a well-known Iranian literary critic and Azalí sympathizer, who wrote the Persian Introduction to this volume. After the publication of this work, `Abdu'l-Bahá wrote to a number of Iranian Bahá'ís, urging them to compile material to refute its contents. One such work was Dashf al-Ghitá by Mírzá Abul-Fazl Gulpáyigání. [RR232] [See The History and Provenance of an Early Manuscript of the Nuqtat al-kaf dated 1268 (1851-52) by William F. McCants and Kavian Sadeghzade Milani and Nuqtat al-Káf by Kavian Sadeghzade Milani as well as Nuqtat al-Kaf and the Babi Chronicle Traditions by Juan Cole; The Bab's Stay in Kashan: A Historiographical Analysis of the Kitab-i-Nuqtatu'l-Kaf Based on the Kashan Pericope by Kavian Milani; MCS517; 541]
    • It is reported that 'Abdu'l-Bahá was "deeply annoyed" with Browne over the publication and dissemination of the Kitáb-i Nuqtatu'l-Káf as reported by Áqáy-i-Taqízádih in ´Ábdu'l-Baha's Meetings with Two Prominent Iranians introduced and translated by Ahang Rabbani. [World Order Vol 30 No 1 Fall 1998 p46]
    • 'Abdu'l-Bahá is reported to have said, "They tampered with the contents of the history of Hájí Mírzá Jání by removing some of its passages and inserting others. They sent it to the libraries of London and Paris and through such falsehood induced him [Browne] to translate and publish the document. In order to achieve his own selfish desires, he had it printed." [MD24]
    • Also from 'Abdu'l-Bahá, "I wrote to him, saying, `You are the first European teacher and author to have attained His Blessed Presence. Do not lose this distinction.' He did not understand me and his loss will be known when the lights of guidance shine in England with supreme brilliancy." [MD278]
    • From GPB81, Browne's testimony, “One of those strange outbursts,”...“of enthusiasm, faith, fervent devotion and indomitable heroism … the birth of a Faith which may not impossibly win a place amidst the great religions of the world.” And again: “The spirit which pervades the Bábís is such that it can hardly fail to affect most powerfully all subjected to its influence.… Let those who have not seen disbelieve me if they will, but, should that spirit once reveal itself to them, they will experience an emotion which they are not likely to forget.”
    • The Persian Constitutional Movement (1918) [MCS544]
    • Materials for the Study of the Babi Religion (1918) The book represented no great amount of original work on Browne's part since it was mainly documents that he had collected.
    • Arabian Medicine (1921) [Browne, Edward Granville by Moojan Momen] iiiii
    • For scholarly works on the life of Browne see Selections From The Writings of E.G. Browne - On The Babi And Baha'i Religions by Moojan Momen and Edward Granville Browne and the Baha'i Faith by Hasan Balyuzi. Both have been published by George Ronald.
  • Newcastle-upon-Tyne; Cambridge Edward Granville Browne; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Montford Mills; Hajji Mirza Jani Kashani; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Mirza Husayn Hamadani; Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Manakji; Nabil-i-Akbar; Abdu'l-Baha, Life of
    1926 28 Jan Martha Root sent a note and a copy of Bahá’u’lláh and the New Era to Queen Marie of Romania. [GBF42; GPB390; MR242] Romania Martha Root; Queen Marie of Romania; Esslemont
    1926 30 Jan Martha Root met with Queen Marie of Romania for the first time. [BBR59; GBF42; GPB390; PP107, HEC49]
  • For the details of the meeting and the acceptance of the Faith by Queen Marie see GBP389–96, BW6p580 and MR240–6.
  • This was the first of eight meetings between Martha Root and Queen Marie.
  • Romania Martha Root; Queen Marie of Romania; Bahai royalty first meeting with Queen Marie
    1926 First week in Feb Martha Root arrived in Bulgaria, the earliest documented visit to that country by a Bahá’í. [MR247]
  • She stayed 12 days. [MR247]
  • Bahá’ís had passed through Bulgaria on their way to Turkey, but Martha Root’s visit was the first one documented.
  • Bulgaria Martha Root first documented visit to Bulgaria
    1926 14 Feb In a ceremony, dust from the Tomb of Bahá'u'lláh brought back by pilgrims (including Margaret Stevenson) from the Holy land, was placed into the soil of New Zealand at the Stevenson's home. [Arohanui pg94] New Zealand Margaret Stevenson; Pilgrims, Bahaullah, Shrine of
    1926 Apr c. Lidia Zamenhof, a daughter of the founder of Esperanto Ludwik Zamenhof, became a Bahá’í, the first Pole to accept the Faith. [Lidia71] Lidia Zamenhof; Ludwik Zamenhof first Pole to accept the Faith
    1926 7 Apr Eight or perhaps as many as twelve Bahá’ís were beaten to death in Jahrum, Fárs, Iran. [BW18:388, SETPE1p128, GBF36, UD49-53]
  • It was first reported that 12 Bahá’ís were killed. [PP98]
  • For the response of Shoghi Effendi see BA104–6, 106–8; GBF36–7; PP98–9; and UD48–53.
  • For Western accounts and responses see BBR465–72.
  • "The attacks were apparently instigated by a majlis representative who sought to gain favour with anti-Bahá'í religious leaders in order to secure reelection. The Bahá'ís complained to the local and national authorities to obtain redress but were denied. This was the last incident of mass killing of Bahá'ís during Reza Shah’s reign." [Religious Contentions in Modern Iran,1881-1941 pg 229-230 by Mina Yazdani]
  • Jahrum; Fars; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1926 4 May Queen Marie of Romania wrote three articles as a testimonial to the Bahá’í Faith for a syndicated series entitled ‘Queen’s Counsel’, which appeared in over 200 newspapers in the United States and Canada. [BBR61, HEC57-58, MR245, BW2p174-6]
  • For text of the articles see BBR60–1.
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s response see BA110–13 and UD56–8.
  • United States; Romania Queen Marie of Romania; Newspaper articles
    1926 May (Near end) Shoghi Effendi departed Palestine for Switzerland. [PP97, SETPE1p131, GBF36] Switzerland Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of
    1926 24 Jun Enoch Olinga, future Hand of the Cause of God, was born in Abaango, Uganda. Abaango; Uganda Enoch Olinga; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
    1926 29 Jun Three Bahá’ís were martyred in Zavárih, near Isfahán. [BW18:388] Zavarih; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1926 16 Jul The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada mades representations to the Iranian government concerning the martyrdoms in Jahrum and asking the Sháh to intervene on behalf of the oppressed Bahá’ís. [BBR469; BW2:287]
  • For text of the petition see BW2:287–300.
  • United States; Jahrum; Iran NSA; Petitions; Persecution, Iran; Persecution; Human rights
    1926 2 and 4 Aug Two Bahá’í Esperanto conventions were held in conjunction with the Eighteenth Universal Esperanto Congress in Scotland. [BW2:266] Scotland; United Kingdom Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Other; Esperanto
    1926 15 Oct Shoghi Effendi returned from Switzerland where he had been joined by his mother and sister in August. [SETPE1p133, Ambassador at the Court chapter 8] Switzerland Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of
    1926 14 Nov Iraq's highest tribunal ruled against the Bahá'ís in the question of ownership of the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád. Shoghi Effendi immediately sent a cable urging the American National Assembly and all local assemblies to write or cable the Iraq High Commissioner through the British Consular authorities, to the King of Iraq and to the British central authorities to protest against the injustice. [SETPE1p138] Baghdad; Iraq House of Bahaullah (Baghdad)
    1926 30 Nov Sir Ronald Storrs (b. 1881 - d. 1955) was appointed Governor of Cyprus (30 Nov 1926 - 29 Oct 1932) Cyprus Ronald Storrs, Sir
    1926 26 Dec Howard MacNutt, Disciple of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, passed away in Florida after being struck by a motorcycle while walking to a meeting in a "Coloured" area. He had lost is beloved wife Mary about one month earlier.. (b. 13 July, 1858 in Philadelphia) He had been a student of Ibrahim George Kheiralla in New York and had learned both Persian and Arabic to better understand the Writings. Howard MacNutt was elected to the Bahá’í Board of Counsel for New York when it was established on December 7, 1900 and served on the body for many years. [SEBW42]
  • In 1905 Howard and his wife went on pilgrimage and attended a Nineteen Day Feast held by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, Who encouraged him to establish the practice in America. MacNutt consulted with the New York Board of Counsel after returning and a Feast was held in New York on May 23, 1905.
  • Howard wrote a booklet consisting of what he learnt while on Pilgrimage titled Unity Through Love.
  • MacNutt also edited Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl's Bahá'í Proofs before it was first published in 1902 and revised Ali Kuli Khan's manuscript translation of the Kitáb-i-Íqán for publication in 1904.
  • He held a belief that `Abdu'l-Bahá had no extraordinary spiritual station and he did not regard Him as being different in Spirit from other men, that through works and service and overcoming all He attained to His station. This opinion resulted in MacNutt failing to appreciate the Bahá'í teaching that Covenant-breaking is a spiritual disease. When `Abdu'l-Bahá came to the United States in 1912 He assigned to MacNutt the task of meeting with a group of potential Covenant-breakers in Chicago and warning them. He also ordered MacNutt to break all communication with Ibrahim Kheiralla and other Covenant-breakers. When MacNutt failed to do as directed, `Abdu'l-Bahá advised him that he had violated the Covenant himself and commanded him to repent before a group of New York Bahá'ís, which he did on 18 November 1912. The matter was not resolved; `Abdu'l-Bahá cabled Ali Kuli Khan on 16 April 1913, "MACNUTT REPENTED FROM VIOLATION OF COVENANT BUT WAS NOT AWAKENED." After several months of correspondence between MacNutt and `Abdu'l-Bahá via Ali Kuli Khan, MacNutt satisfied `Abdu'l-Bahá that he had come to understand and had repented for his earlier errors. Even though `Abdu'l-Bahá recognized MacNutt as a Bahá'í his reputation in the Bahá'í community remained tarnished. To redeem himself he took on the task of compiling `Abdu'l-Bahá's talks in the United States and Canada and editing them. It was published as The Promulgation of Universal Peace, the name chosen by 'Abdu'l-Bahá himself, in 1922. MacNutt's preface contains a long and important statement about `Abdu'l-Bahá's station. His redemption was complete. [PUPxx]
  • For further details of his life and his brush with Covenant-breaking see SEBW35–42. Also see "In Memoriam: Arthur Pillsbury Dodge, 1849-1915", SoW, Vol. 6, No. 19 (2 March 1916) p165 as well as BFA1p125, 168-17, DJT369-372, AOY111-133
  • See BW2p218 for a photo.
  • See AY321-323 for an account of his accidental death and his funeral.
  • Dade City; Pasco County; Florida; United States Howard MacNutt; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Promulgation of Universal Peace (book) first Nineteen Day Feast in America
    1927 (In the year) The Baghdád believers took photographs of the cave in the Sargul Mountain near Sulaymáníyyih where Bahá'u'lláh spent two years in solitude. [BW2Surveyp.33, SETPE1p141] Baghdad; Sulaymaniyyih Sulaymaniyyih; Photography; Caves; Mountains; Sargul Mountain; Bahaullah, Life of
    1927 (In the year) Abu'l-Qásim Faizi, a 19-year-old student who had attended the Tarbiyát School in Tehran but was now enrolled at the American University at Beirut, visited Haifa to meet Shoghi Effendi. Like Hasan Balyuzi before him, he was immediately possessed by a great desire to serve him. [SETPE1p146-7] Haifa; Tihran; Iran; Beirut; Lebanon Abul-Qasim Faizi; Tarbiyat School; American University of Beirut; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1927 8 Jan The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada appointed seven people to a National Race Unity Committee. [SBR94; TMW166]
  • For the functions and challenges faced by the committee see TMW165–72.
  • United States; Canada NSA; Race (general); Race Unity; Race Amity
    1927 13–16 Jan A World Unity Conference was held in Dayton, Ohio, one of many such conferences to be held in the year in major cities of the United States. [TMW159, 165]
  • See also The Babi and Bahá'í Religions: An Annotated Bibliography, section 'conference listing'.
  • Dayton; Ohio; United States Conferences, Unity
    1927 Mar Shoghi Effendi retranslated the Hidden Words.
  • He was assisted by George Townshend and Ethel Rosenberg, the ‘English friends’ mentioned on the title page. [ER246–7, 253–6; GT109, SETPE1p126]
  • This was to be the start of an 18 year relationship of collaboration between Shoghi Effendi and George Townshend in the translation of the Writings. As well as Hidden Words, he worked on Kitáb-i-Íqán, The Dawn-Breakers, Prayers and Meditations by Bahá'u'lláh, Epistle to the Son of the Wolf, God Passes By and by suggesting titles and writing introductions for The Dawn-Breakers and God Passes By. [SETPE1p127]
  • BWC Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Translations by; Translation; Kalimat-i-Maknunih (Hidden Words); George Townshend; Ethel Rosenberg; Publications; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1927 11 Mar Sadie Oglesby and her daughter Bertha Parvine arrived in Haifa, the first black American women to make the pilgrimage. [TMW173, 206, SETPE1p141-145] Haifa Pilgrims; First pilgrims first black American women to make pilgrimage
    1927 25 Mar Áqá ‘Abdu’l-‘A‘zím, Amínu’l-‘Ulamá’ was martyred in Ardibíl, Iran, by the order of the mujtahid. [BW18:388] Ardibil; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1927 Apr The American National convention was held in Montreal, a major subject of which was race relations. [TMw178]
  • Edwina Powell spoke on the subject, as she had been asked by Shoghi Effendi. [TMw178]
  • In her address, Sadie Oglesby recalled her conversations with Shoghi Effendi on the subject of race. [TMw178–80]
  • Montreal; Quebec; Canada NSA; Conventions, National; Edwina Powell; Race (general); Sadie Oglesby
    1927 8 - 10 Apr The second conference for racial amity in Washington was held at the Mt Pleasant Congregational Church with the cooperation and participation of other like-minded groups and persons. [BW2p284] Washington DC; United States Race (general); Race Amity; Race unity; Conferences, Race Amity
    1927 29 Apr The British delegates, at their first National Convention, elected ten members because there were an equal number of votes for ninth and tenth places. [ER253; UD70–1]
  • One of the members was a Rev. Biggs. [ER253; UD71]
  • Shoghi Effendi wrote on 13 May recommending that next year the number of members be strictly confined to nine. In an earlier letter written on his behalf he explained that all of the delegates were to choose nine members of the National Assembly from all of those eligible. Prior to that time the understanding was that, for example, the London delegates would vote for a proportional number of persons from the London area, the Manchester delegates would choose a number of members based on their proportion of the total Bahá'í population. [ER253; UD70, SETEP1p140]
  • United Kingdom NSA; Elections; Conventions, National; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; First conventions First National Convention of the United Kingdom
    1927 Apr-May Martha Root journeyed through the Baltic States and become the first Bahá’í to visit Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia (2 May). [MR272–4] Baltic States; Latvia; Lithuania; Estonia Martha Root first Bahá’í to visit Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia
    1927 29 Apr - 1 May The nineteenth National Convention of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada was held at the Windsor Hotel in Montreal, the hotel where 'Abdu'l-Bahá stayed during His visit in 1912. [Bahá'í News No. 17 April, 1927] Montreal; Quebec; Canada; United States Conventions, National
    1927 May The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada drew up and published a ‘Declaration of Trust’ and ‘By-laws of the National Spiritual Assembly’. [BW2:89, BW10:180]
  • For text see BW2:90–8.
  • The Guardian described it as the Bahá’í ‘national constitution’ heralding ‘the formation of the constitution of the future Bahá’í World Community’. [GPB335; PP302–3]
  • The drafting was largely the work of Horace Holley with assistance from the lawyer Mountfort Mills. [SBR234]
  • In subsequent years the National Assemblies of India and Burma, of Egypt, Iraq, Persian and the British Isles all adopted this example almost verbatim. [UD101, BA134-5, SETPE1p145-6]
  • United States; Canada NSA; Horace Holley; Mountfort Mills; Constitutions; By-laws; Recognition; Firsts, Other The first document of this sort to establish a clear legal basis for the National Spiritual Assembly
    1927 May The funeral of a believer resident in the Holy Land, Mírá Moshen Afnán, was the first entirely Bahá'í funeral to take place in Palestine showing the strong independence of the Faith. [SETPE1p147] Haifa; Palestine Mira Moshen Afnan; funeral first entirely Bahá'í funeral to take place in Palestine
    1927 Jun Shoghi Effendi left Palestine destined for Switzerland in the company of his sister. [Ambassador at the Court Chapter 8] Switzerland Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of
    1927 19 Jun Karbalá’í Asadu’lláh-i-Saqat-furúsh was martyred in Kirmán, Iran. [BW18:388] Kirman; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1927 1 Aug Geyserville Bahá’í Summer School, the first American Bahá’í summer school, was established on property in California donated by John Bosch. It was to operate until 1973 when a new road project divided the property. The land was sold and the funds used to purchase land in the mountains above the coastal town of Santa Cruz. The new school was named In honour of John and Louise Bosch. [BBD87; BW10:180; GPB340, Bosch]
  • BW5:28–9 says this was the second Bahá’í summer school in America but Shoghi Effendi indicates in GPB340 that Green Acre is formally established as a Bahá’í summer school in 1929.
  • Geyserville; California; United States Summer schools; First summer and winter schools; John Bosch; Green Acre first American Bahá’í summer school
    1927 9 Sep - 2 Dec Leonora Holsapple (later Armstrong) made a teaching trip through Latin America and the Caribbean, becoming the first Bahá’í to visit Venezuela, Colombia, Haiti, Curaçao, Trinidad (2–12 Oct), the Guianas (29 Oct), Barbados (Dec) and several islands in the Antilles group. Latin America; Caribbean Leonora Holsapple Armstrong first Bahá’í to visit Venezuela, Colombia, Haiti, Curaçao, Trinidad, the Guianas, Barbados and several islands in Antilles group
    1927 13 Sep Dr George Augur, (b. 1 Oct 1853 New Haven, New Haven County, Connecticut, USA d. 13 Sep 1927 Honolulu, Honolulu County, Hawaii, USA), Disciple of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, passed away in Hawaii. He was buried in the O'ahu Cemetery in Honolulu. [SBR198]
  • Find a grave
  • For the story of his life see SBR187–98.
  • Honolulu; Hawaii George Augur; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam
    1927 Oct Shoghi Effendi entrusted Dr William Slater and his wife Ida Slater, who were visiting Haifa on a 19-day pilgrimage, with carpets from the Shrines of the Báb and 'Abdu'l-Bahá for the House of Worship in Chicago. [SETPE1p149] Haifa; Wilmette; United States William Slater; Ida Slater; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Bab, Shrine of; Carpets; Gifts; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1927 (Mid-Oct) Shoghi Effendi announced the defection of 'Abdu'l-Husayn Ávarih. He had been a very successful teacher and the author of a book on the history of the Faith but opposed Shoghi Effendi's efforts to build the Administrative Order. He was insistent that the Universal House of Justice be formed at that time. He was denounced by the believers in Egypt and Iran. [SETPE1p149, BA137-139, Ruhi8.2-20, CoC294-296; MBW53; PP120; ; BKC118-120]
  • After his defection he became a Muslim and an opponent of the Bahá'í Faith. He returned to Tehran and spent the rest of his life as a secondary school teacher. During this period he wrote many works of poetry and prose, including Kashf al-Hial, a three volume work refuting the Bahá'í Faith. [Wikipedia]
  • Haifa Covenant-breakers; Avarih (Abdul-Husayn); Abd al-Hosayn Ayati
    1927 (Mid-Oct to 1 Nov) Shoghi Effendi retired to the mountains of Switzerland to rest and re-gain his strength. (SETPE1p150, DND20] Switzerland Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of
    1927 10 - 11 Nov The third convention for amity in inter-racial relations in Washington was held in the Mt. Pleasant Congregational Church. [BW2p285] Washington DC; United States Race (general); Race Amity; Race unity; Conferences, Race Amity
    1928 (In the year) The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Mírzá 'Alí-Muhammad, known as Ibn-i-Asdaq. He was born in Mashhad in 1850/1851.
  • His father was Mullá Sádiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khursúní, referred to as a Hand of the Cause of God by 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [EM19] While still a child he suffered imprisonment with his father in Tehran.
  • He begged Bahá’u’lláh permission to be a martyr. Bahá'u'lláh said that if one lived right he might attain martyrdom. In 1882 Bahá'u'lláh conferred the station of martyr on him calling him “Shahid Ibn-i-Shahid” (“Martyr, son of the Martyr”) .”
  • He was the first of the Hands of the Cause of God named by Bahá'u'lláh.
  • ‘Abdu’l-Bahá gave him a special mission to teach members of the “ruling class” the Faith.
  • He was deeply involved in the planning and construction of the Mashriqu’l-Adhkár in ‘Ishqábád.
  • Ibn-i-Asdaq, Mírzá ‘Alí-Muhammad, Hand of the Cause of God, Apostle of Bahá’u’lláh, passed away in Tihrán. [BBD115, EM176, LoF9-12, RoB4p286]
  • For details of his life see EB171–6, BW6p103, Bahaikipedia
  • Tihran; Mashhad; Iran In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause; Hands appointed by Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Apostles of Bahaullah; Ibn-i-Asdaq (Mirza Ali-Muhammad); Apostles of Bahaullah; Mulla Sadiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khursuni; Hands referred to as such by Abdul-Baha; Names and titles; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad
    1928 to 1938 The third Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh was Hájí Ghulám-Ridá (entitled Amín-i-Amín) (Trustee of the Trustee). He had been Hájí Amín's assistant for several years and so was chosen to succeed him. He had been born into the wealthy merchant class in Tehran. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
  • During his tenure steps were taken to register Bahá'í properties and endowments in Iran.
  • He died due to an illness. [BW8p659]
  • Tihran; Iran Huququllah; Huququllah, Trustees of; Haji Ghulam-Rida (Amin-i-Amin)
    1928 (In the year) Louisa Mathew Gregory moved to Varna and became the first Bahá’í to settle in Bulgaria. Varna; Bulgaria Louisa Mathew Gregory first Bahá’í to settle in Bulgaria
    1928 (In the year) The first local assembly of Shanghai was formed. [PH28] Shanghai LSA first LSA Shanghai
    1928 (In the year) The publication of Bahá'í Administration, a collection of communications to the American Bahá'í community from the Guardian between 1922 and 1929. Revisions were published in 1933, 1936, 1941 and 1945. Additional messages and an expanded index was added in 1968. [WOBpv, BAiv]

    "His letters to Bahá’í institutions and to Bahá’ís in general began almost at once, and many will be found in Bahá’í Administration, beginning January 21, 1922. Early or late, his communications were not merely writings, they were the dynamic that moved the Bahá’í world. These letters in effect built the Administrative Order, its most vital features being found there. They taught the Bahá’í Assemblies how to be, how to consult, what their duties were. The book also contains the Declaration of Trust and By-Laws drawn up by the international lawyer Mountfort Mills, carefully reviewed by Shoghi Effendi, and adopted in 1926 by the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada, at this time under one jurisdiction. (Khan, back in America by then. Shoghi Effendi wished all National Spiritual Assemblies to adopt, with necessary local adaptations, this Declaration of Trust and ByLaws, which set forth the character and objectives of Bahá’í communities worldwide." [Cited from AY304]

    Bahai Administration (book); Shoghi Effendi, Writings of; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Publications; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Declaration of Trust and By-Laws; Mountfort Mills; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Administrative order
    1928 Jan A Covenant-breaker, Jamil Irani, tried to still up trouble by implicating the Bahá'ís with Saláru'd-Dawlih, an ambitious brother of Muhammad-'Ali Sháh who had been deposed by the 1909 Revolution in Iran. The allegation was investigated by Lord Plummer, the British High Commissioner in Palestine who learned the truth of the matter. [SETPE1p151-152] Iran; Haifa Covenant-breakers; Jamil Irani; Plummer, Lord
    1928 11 - 12 Feb The ‘Conference for Inter-Racial Amity' was arranged by Inter-Racial Amity Committee of the Bahá’ís of Montreal’. There were three sessions in three venues: the YMCA, Channing Hall, and the Union Congregational Church. Speakers included Louis Gregory (‘International Lecturer on Race Relations’) and Agnes MacPhail, first Canadian woman Member of Parliament. [The Bahá'í 'Race Amity' Movement and the Black Intelligentsia in Jim Crow America: Alain Locke and Robert Abbot by Christopher Buck page 34, Bahá'í Studies Review, 17, pages 3-46, 2011, BW7p660]
  • See BW6p659-664 for the essay by Louis Gregory entitled "Racial Likenesses and Differences: The Scientific Evidence and the Bahá'í Teachings".
  • Date conflict: "The Origins of the Bahá'í Community of Canada, 1898-1948 by Will C. van den Hoonaard on page 90 says: "and on 2-4 March 1930 The Montreal Bahá'ís held Race Amity meeting." His source was the National Bahá'í Archives Canada, Notes on Montreal Bahá'í History.
  • Montreal; Quebec; Canada Race (general); Race Amity; Race unity; Conferences, Race Amity; Agnes MacPhail; Louis Gregory
    1928 (In the year) In this year there were 579 localities in the world in which Bahá’ís lived, 102 local spiritual assemblies, nine national spiritual assemblies, and about eight languages into which Bahá’í literature was translated. [BBRSM160–1] NSA; LSA; statistics
    1928 Apr The Soviet authorities abrogated the constitution of the Spiritual Assembly of ‘Ishqábád (now Ashgabat, Turkmenistan) and the assembly was dissolved. [BW3:37, BW8p88, SETPE1p154]
  • Bahá’í schools and libraries were closed. [BBRSM173]
  • Not long after, the government ordered that all religious buildings in the Soviet Union were the property of the government and the Mashriqu’l-Adhkár was expropriated and leased back to the Bahá’ís. [BBD122; BBR473; BBRSM161; BW3:37]
  • For the history of the persecution of the Bahá’ís in the Soviet Union see BBR473 and BW3:34–43.
  • PP364–5 says it was 1929.
  • Ishqabad; Turkmenistan; Soviet Union; Russia Persecution, Russia; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad
    1928 Ridván 'Abdu'l-Hamid Khemiri arrived in Haifa from Tunis. He was the first from that country to make a pilgrimage. [SETPE1p153] BWC; Tunis; Tunisia Pilgrims First pilgrim from Tunisia.
    1928 26–30 Apr The National Convention of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada was held in the Foundation Hall of the House of Worship for the first time. [BW2:180; CT167]
  • See BW2:180 for a picture.
  • Wilmette; Chicago; United States Conventions, National; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Firsts, Other first time National Convention held in the Foundation Hall of the House of Worship, Wilmette
    1928 27 May Hájí Amín, Abu’l-Hasan-i-Ardikání, Hand of the Cause of God and Apostle of Bahá’u’lláh, passed away in Tihrán. [BBD7; EB263]
  • For his biography see EB263.
  • He was named a Hand of the Cause of God posthumously by Shoghi Effendi. [BBD7; EB263]
  • See BBD7 for a picture and an account of his life.
  • Tihran; Iran Haji Amin (Abul-Hasan-i-Ardikani); Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; In Memoriam; Apostles of Bahaullah
    1928 Jun Martha Root visited the parents of Milosh Wurm in Brno. He had been the first to become a Bahá'í in Czechoslovakia and the first to have translated a book into Czech when he was only seventeen years of age. He lost his life in the Great War. [BW3p44, Bahá'í Historical Facts 26 March, 2018] Brno; Czechoslovakia Martha Root; Milosh Wurm; First Bahais by country or area first to become a Baha'i in Czechoslovakia; first to translate a book into Czech;
    1928 Jul The first International Religious Congress for World Peace was held at The Hague. It was attended by Martha Root. [BW3:45] Hague, The; Netherlands Conferences, Peace; Martha Root; First conferences first International Religious Congress for World Peace
    1928 27 Aug The word ‘Bahá’í’ was registered with the United States Patent Office as a trademark. [BW6:348] United States Patent Office; Copyright and trademarks
    1928 11 Sep The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of Iraq submitted a petition to the Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations for the return of the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád. [BW3:198–206]
  • See BA164-165 for letter from Shoghi Effendi.
  • Text of the Petition
  • Baghdad; Iraq Petitions; League of Nations; House of Bahaullah (Baghdad)
    1928 Oct A newspaper campaign of opposition to the Bahá’ís began in Turkey. [BBR474]
  • Several Bahá’ís were arrested as a result and a close investigation of Bahá’í affairs in Turkey was made by the judiciary and the police. [BBR474]
  • Turkey Persecution, Turkey; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1928 26 Oct-13 Nov The case of the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád was taken before the fourteenth session of the Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations. [BW3:207]
  • The right of the Bahá’ís to the House was upheld and the government of Iraq was strongly pressed to find a solution but the House was not returned to the Bahá’ís. [BW3:207–9; GBF35; PP96–7]
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s comment on these developments see BW3:206–9.
  • The Shí’ís turned the House into a Husayníyyih, where the martyrdom of the Imám Husayn is mourned. [BBD113–14]
  • Baghdad; Iraq House of Bahaullah (Baghdad); League of Nations; Imam Husayn
    1928 Nov It was recommended to the Council of the League of Nations to request that the British Government make representations to the Iraqi Government to redress the denial of justice to the Bahá'ís with reference to House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdad. [GBF35] Baghdad; Iraq; Geneva House of Bahaullah (Baghdad); League of Nations
    1928 13 Dec The case arising out of the newspaper persecution of the Bahá’ís of Turkey was brought before a criminal tribunal. [PP316]
  • The Bahá’ís were able to make known the history and tenets of the Faith. [PP316–17; UD78–9]
  • Turkey Persecution, Turkey; Persecution; Court cases; Human rights
    1928 20 Dec Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney, (b. 12 Apr 1873, Paris, France, d. 20 Dec 1928, Paris, France), Disciple of Abdu’l-Bahá, passed away in Paris. He was buried in Cimetiere de Montmartre in Paris. [UD84–5]
  • See Find a grave for a succinct biography.
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s eulogy of him see BW3:210–14 and UD84–5.
  • Paris; France Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam
    1928 31 Dec Ruth White, who had met 'Abdu'l-Bahá in New York in 1912 and who had been on pilgrimage in 1922, wrote to the High Commissioner of Palestine with a charge that the Will and Testament of 'Abdu'l-Bahá was a forgery. [SETPE1p157]
  • See AY103 for 'Abdu'l-Bahá's reaction to Ruth White in New York in 1912.
  • Palestine; New York; United States Covenant-breakers; Ruth White; Abdul-Baha, Will and Testament of
    1929 (In the year) Shoghi Effendi completed the construction of the building at 10 Haparsim Street, which was designed as a hostel for western pilgrims, and adopted the custom of taking the evening meal with them in the dining room on the lower level. He usually met with the eastern pilgrims in the pilgrim house next to the Shrine of the Báb. [Bahá’í Pilgrimage] Haifa Pilgrimage; 10 Haparsim
    1929 11 Feb William ‘Harry’ Randall, (b. 1863), passed away in Medford, MA. After his death, Shoghi Effendi named him one of the 19 Disciples of Abdu’l-Baha, a “Herald of the Covenant”. [BBD71]
  • For his obituary written by Shoghi Effendi see BW3:213.
  • For his biography see William Henry Randall: Disciple of Abdu’l-Baha by his daughter Bahiyyih Randall-Winckler, with M. R. Garis.
  • Medford; MA William Harry Randall; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1929 14 Feb Work began on the three additional chambers of the Shrine of the Báb after the rock had been excavated from behind the building during the previous year. [DH154]
  • Haji Mahmúd Qassabchí, the builder who had completed the repairs on the House of Bahá'u'llah in Baghdad was chosen to be in charge of the work. Shoghi Effendi later designed one of the doors to the Shrine as "Báb-i-Qassabchi" in his honour.
  • Originally the centre room had been separated by wooden walls and doors. These were removed and replaced by archways. [SETPE1p164]
  • These rooms, when completed, are used as the International Bahá’í Archives. There was a second repository of the archives at this time near the resting place of the Greatest Holy Leaf. [GPB347]
  • BWC; Mount Carmel Bab, Shrine of; International Bahai Archives; Haji Mahmud Qassabchi; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1929 27 Feb The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada forwarded a pamphlet published by Ruth White to Shoghi Effendi. His advice was to abstain from any provocation and to avoid hurting her feelings. [SETPET1p157, Bahá'í News p230, 298] Covenant-breakers; Ruth White
    1929 4 Mar The Council of the League of Nations adopted the conclusion reached by the Mandates Commissions upholding the claim of the Bahá’í community to the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád. [BW3:50-55]
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s response to this see BW3:206–9 and BA175-180.
  • Baghdad; Iraq; Geneva League of Nations; House of Bahaullah (Baghdad)
    1929 16 Mar In December of 1925 the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of United States and Canada adopted the "Unified Plan of Action" and among the resolutions was to raise some $400,000 over the following three years to construct the first unit of the superstructure of the Temple. By the end of 1926 only $51,000 had been collected and the following year was just as disappointing. At the National Convention in 1928 Fred Schopflocher's donation of $25,000 inspired contributions and the Fund rose to about $87,000 by March 1929. On this day Fred and Lorol Schopflocher contributed a further $100,000. [LoF388-389, SETPE1p162-163]
  • See May 1937 for another contribution of $100,000 from the Schopflochers.
  • Montreal; Canada; Wilmette; United States Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Fred Schopflocher; Lorol Schopflocher; Unified Plan of Action
    1929 Apr The New History Society was founded in New York by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s former secretary and interpreter Ahmad Sohrab along with Lewis Stuyvesant Chanler and his wife Julie as an indirect way of spreading the teachings of the Baha'i Faith. The New History Society gave rise in 1930 to the Caravan of East and West and the Chanler's New York house was henceforth called "Caravan House". This foundation was designed to prepare children and youth to join the New History Society. This group had a quarterly magazine called The Caravan. [BRRSM124, LDG2p134] iiiii New York; United States Covenant-breakers; New History Society; Ahmad Sohrab; Lewis Stuyvesant Chanler; Julie Chanler; Caravan of East and West; Caravan House; The Caravan; Z****
    1929 Apr Shoghi Effendi announced that the Council of the League of Nations had pronounced in favour of the Bahá'í petition regarding the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdad. Unfortunately, King Faisal, a Sunni, relented under the pressure of the Shi'iah element and the property was never returned. [Bahá'í News Letter, no. 31 (April 1929), p.6, SETPE1p169] Baghdad; Iraq; Geneva; Switzerland House of Bahaullah (Baghdad); League of Nations; King Faisal
    1929 May The American National Spiritual Assembly incorporated as a voluntary Trust. [BBRSM122; GPB335]
  • This enabled the National Spiritual Assembly to hold property, to receive bequests and to enter into contracts. [BBRSM122; GPB335–6]
  • United States NSA; Voluntary Trust
    1929 4 May When the British Mandate in Palestine had been set up, an Order-in-Council had been enacted that allowed each of the recognized religious communities to be administered in all affairs of personal status according to their own religious laws and courts. The Bahá'í community had not, however, been accorded this "recognized" status and was thus compelled to submit to the Muslim Courts. In 1929 Shoghi Effendi asked Mountfort Mills to raise the matter with the authorities and the Bahá’í Community of Haifa formally petitioned the government that the Bahá’í laws on personal status be recognized in Palestine. [BBR459; PP284]
  • Recognition was granted later in the year. [BBR459; DH116; PP284]
  • Haifa; Palestine Recognition
    1929 summer Shoghi Effendi made plans to hold an international conference to consider, among other things, how to establish national spiritual assemblies as a prelude to the Universal House of Justice. [PP250]
  • He cancelled the conference when he perceived that the Bahá’ís would find it a source of confusion and misunderstanding. [BBRSM126; PP250]
  • BWC; Haifa Universal House of Justice; Spiritual Assemblies
    1929 12 Aug Green Acre became a fully fledged Bahá’í summer school when the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada obtained legal title to the property. [BBD91; GAP118; GPB340; SBBH126, Green Acre] Eliot; Maine; United States Summer schools; Green Acre
    1929 End of Aug Martha Root arrived in Albania, the first Bahá’í to set foot in the country. [MR317]
  • She obtained an audience with King Zog I and was warmly received by him. [MR319]
  • For Martha Root’s own account of her stay in Albania see MR319–20.
  • Albania Martha Root; King Zog I first Bahá’í to visit Albania
    1929 Sep Shoghi Effendi sailed from England to Cape Town and proceeded overland to Cairo. [PP180–1, SETPE1p163]
  • He travelled through East Africa passing through Rhodesia where he visited the grave of Cecil Rhodes and further north in Rhodesia to see the Victoria Falls.
  • He rode as a passenger with an English hunter through part of East Africa and travelled on a train for some five hundred miles.
  • He crossed the Nile River through a papyrus swamp on a ferry.
  • He was back in Haifa by October. [SETPE1p163]
  • United Kingdom; Cape Town; South Africa; Cairo; Egypt; Africa Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1929 9 Sep The British Bahá’ís opened their new centre, at Walmar House, Upper Regent Street, London. [PSBW46–7] London; United Kingdom Bahai centres
    1929 14 Sep The Green Acre Trustees were appointed by the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada. [GAP118] Eliot; Maine; United States Trustees; Green Acre
    1929 6–26 Nov The case of the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád was taken before the sixteenth session of the Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations. [BW4:237]
  • The text of the petition was conceived and drafted by Monfort Mills. Shoghi Effendi paid tribute to his work in a letter dated March 20, 1929. [BA180]
  • The right of the Bahá’ís to the House was upheld and the government of Iraq was strongly pressed to find a solution but the House was not returned to the Bahá’ís. [BW4:237; GBF35; PP96–7]
  • Baghdad; Iraq House of Bahaullah (Baghdad); League of Nations; Montfort Mills
    1929 27 Nov The Mansion at Bahjí was evacuated by the Covenant-breakers after the occupation by Muhammad-Alí and his relatives for about 40 years. [DH116; GPB355–6; PP231-232, SETPE1p174]
  • During this time they showed no respect for the Holy Site; a blacksmith shop was set up near the entrance to the Shrine. [SE125]
  • For details of how the building was left see GBP356.
  • For pictures of its neglected state see DH116.
  • Covenant-breakers continued to occupy the adjacent house until June 1957. [PP233]
  • See SE126 for Shoghi Effendi's plan for a Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • Bahji House of Bahaullah (Bahji); Covenant-breakers; Bahji; Bahaullah, Shrine of
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