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from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1897 In the year Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí, the first Bahá'í to have settled China, dies in Bombay on his way back to Shíráz. [PH24]

The Hands of the Cause appointed by Bahá'u'lláh are instructed by `Abdu'l-Bahá to gather to begin the consultations regarding the future organization of the Bahá'í community in Tihrán.

  • This gathering leads to the formation of the Central Spiritual Assembly of Tihrán in 1899. [BBD98, 114, 115; EB268]
Fifteen Bahá'ís are arrested in Saysán, Ádharbáyján. They are taken to Tabríz, imprisoned and fined. [BW18:384]

Three Bahá'ís are arrested in Nayríz on the orders of Áqá Najafí, the `Son of the Wolf'. [BW18:384]

The homes of several Bahá'ís in Hamadán are looted and ransacked after complaints by Jews of the town against Bahá'ís of Jewish background. [BW18:384]

China; Bombay; Tihran; Saysan; Ádharbayjan; Tabriz; Nayriz; Hamadan Haji Mirza Muhammad-Ali; Spiritual Assemblies; Aqa Najafi; Persecution; First Bahais by country or area
1899 May A council board of seven officers, a forerunner of the Local Spiritual Assembly, is established in Kenosha. [BFA1:112; GPB260] Kenosha; Wisconsin; United States Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies
1900 c. 16 Mar The Chicago community re-organizes by selecting a ten-member Board of Council. Neither Kheiralla nor any of his supporters are on the Board. [BFA1:XXIX, 170] Chicago; United States Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies; Ibrahim George Kheiralla
1900 7 Dec In New York, nine men were selected to govern the affairs of the Faith. Those serving were Arthur Dodge, Hooper Harris, William Hoar, Andrew Hutchinson, Howard MacNutt, Frank Osborne, Edwin Putnam, Charles Sprague and Orosco Woolson. Among the problems that they had to face was the affect of the disaffection of Kheiralla. [BFA2p36] New York; United States Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies; Ibrahim George Kheiralla
1901 15 May The Chicago Bahá'ís elect a nine-man Board of Council for a term of five years. [BFA2:XXV, 44–7] Chicago; United States Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies
1901 20 May The number of members on the Board of Council is raised to 12. [BFA2:47] Chicago; United States Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies
1901 24 May The name of the Chicago Board of Council is changed to the House of Justice. [BFA2:48]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá requests that this name be changed a year later. [BFA2:49]
Chicago; United States Board of Council; House of Justice; Spiritual Assemblies
1902 10 May The Chicago House of Justice changes its name to the House of Spirituality. [BFA2:XV] Chicago House of Justice; House of Spirituality; Spiritual Assemblies
1903 7 Mar Inspired by the news of the `Ishqábád Temple project, the Chicago House of Spirituality asks `Abdu'l-Bahá for permission to construct a Mashriqu'l-Adhkár. [BFA2:XVI, 118; BW10:179; GPB348] `Ishqabad; Chicago Temple; House of Spirituality; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
1903 30 May A letter from `Abdu'l-Bahá is received by the Chicago House of Spirituality giving His approval for the building of a Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in North America. [BFA2:119] Chicago House of Spirituality; Mashriqu'l-Adhkár
1903 7 Jun Eight days after `Abdu'l-Bahá's first Tablet arrives, a second Tablet arrives from Him approving the project. [BW10:179; CT41; GPB262, 349; MBW142] Chicago House of Spirituality; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
1907 26 Nov The first national Bahá'í conference is held in America. [BFA2:XVI; BW10:179]
  • At the invitation of the House of Spirituality of Chicago, nine Bahá'ís from various communities join some ten from the Chicago area at a one-day conference to foster national cooperation on the Temple project and to choose a suitable site for the Temple. [BFA2:280; CT78; GPB262, 349]
Chicago national conference; House of Spirituality; Temple; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
1911 22 Aug - 3 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá took up residence at Thonon-les-Bains on Lake Leman (Lake Geneva). [AB140; GPB280; SBR219]
  • While there He encountered Zillu's-Sultán, the eldest son of the Sháh of the time, Násirid-Dín Sháh. It was he who had ratified the execution of the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs and at least 100 others. The whole family was in exile in Geneva at this time. 'Abdu'l-Bahá was very courteous to this man who had been such an inveterate enemy of the Cause. [DJT172] .
  • The Master sent for Juliet Thompson who had been waiting in London for His permission to join Him.
  • During His stay he had a visit from Annie Boylan, a member of the New York community that was experiencing disharmony. Unaware of Bahá'í election procedures, a group that was unhappy with the disunity and ineffectiveness of the Council had organized a vote to be rid of several of its Council members. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had written to the community a short time before recommending that the Council be expanded from 9 to 27 members so that all factions could be represented. He also recommended that women be included on the Council and that the name be changed to "the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of New York". This apparently addressed the problem of disunity because the New York community went on to contribute significantly to the progress of the Faith on a national level. [DJT181, BFA2p338]
  • Horace Holley, who lived at Quattro Torri, Siena, Italy at the time, along with his wife Bertha Herbert and baby daughter Hertha, visited 'Abdu'l-Bahá on the 29th and 30th of August. Please see his Religion for Mankind p 232-237 for a pen portrait of 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • He met with Elizabeth Stewart and Lilian Kappes who were on their way to Tehran. [find reference]
  • It would appear that He returned to Marseilles and travelled to London by sea. [SCU22-23]
Thonon-les-Bains; Lake Leman; Marseilles; France; Switzerland; Italy; London; United Kingdom; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies; Unity; Zillus-Sultan; Persecution; King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs; Juliet Thompson; Horace Holley; Elizabeth Stewart; Lilian Kappes
1922 Apr Shoghi Effendi sends verbal messages through Consul Schwarz to Germany and Ethel Rosenberg to Britain to form local spiritual assemblies and to arrange for the election of a national spiritual assembly in each country. [CB293; ER209, 211-12; PP56]

To the United States and Canada he sends a message to transform the `Executive Board' into a legislative institution. [CB293; CT160; ER211-12; PP56]

Germany; United Kingdom; United States; Canada Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Consuls; Albert Schwarz; Ethel Rosenberg; National Spiritual Assemblies; Local Spiritual Assemblies; Spiritual Assemblies; Executive Board
1922 Apr c. Shoghi Effendi appoints a body of nine people to act tentatively as an assembly in the Holy Land while he is away and entrusts the affairs of the Faith to the Greatest Holy Leaf. [GBF19; PP57, 276] BWC Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Spiritual Assemblies
1922 Apr Shoghi Effendi calls for the Executive Board of the Bahá'í Temple Unity to become an elected legislative body. It had been functioning since 1909 concerned mostly with the construction of the Bahá'í House of Worship. He addresses his first letter to this body as the "National Spiritual Assembly of the United States" on December 23rd however in God Passes By pg333 he states that the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States was not formed until 1925. [SETPE1p107, CT160, CoB293] Chicago; United States Executive Board; Bahai Temple Unity; National Spiritual Assemblies; Spiritual Assemblies; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Chicago; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
1922 7 Apr The Haifa Bahá'í Spiritual Assembly is seen to be in operation this date, perhaps earlier. [SETPE1p50,] Haifa; Haifa Spiritual Assembly
1922 25 Apr A National Spiritual Assembly was elected in the United States to replace the Executive Board of the Bahá'í Temple Unity. [SBR94]
  • The difference between this body and its forerunner is little more than a change in name. [DP122]
  • The conversion of the Bahá'í Temple Unity into the National Spiritual Assembly took four years; it was not until 1925 that Shoghi Effendi recognized the American national body as a National Spiritual Assembly. [CT161; DP121-2; GPB333]
  • The election procedure followed that used in the United States: there was electioneering and candidates were nominated, with a straw poll taken to trim the number of eligible candidates. [CT160; DP122]
Chicago; United States National Spiritual Assemblies; Spiritual Assemblies; Executive Board; Bahai Temple Unity; Elections; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
1922 Late May The communities of London, Manchester and Bournemouth elect a Bahá'í Spiritual Assembly for England. [ER213; SBR28, 67]
  • This is also known as the Spiritual Assembly for London and the All-England Bahá'í Council. [ER2 13; SBR67]
  • See ER213 and SBR28 for membership.
London; Manchester; Bournemouth; United Kingdom Spiritual Assemblyies; All-England Bahai Council
1923 Apr National Spiritual Assemblies are elected in the British Isles, India and Germany. [GPB333]
  • The election of the British National Spiritual Assembly is by postal ballot. [ER228]
  • For membership of the British National Spiritual Assembly see ER228 and SBR71.
  • See also ER223-31 for the election and functioning of the British National Spiritual Assembly.
British Isles; India; Germany National Spiritual Assembly
1923 13 Oct The National Spiritual Assembly of Britain meets for the first time, at the home of Ethel Rosenberg. [ER228; UD13, 163]
  • It becomes the National Spiritual Assembly of the British Isles in 1930 and the National Spiritual Assembly of the United Kingdom in 1972.
England National Spiritual Assembly; Ethel Rosenberg; National Spiritual Assembly of Britain; National Spiritual Assembly of the British Isles; National Spiritual Assembly of the United Kingdom
1923 Dec The first local spiritual assembly in Australia is formed in Melbourne. Melbourne; Australia Local Spiritual Assemblies; First Local Spiritual Assemblies
1924 Jul The second local spiritual assembly in Australia is formed in Perth. Perth; Australia Local Spiritual Assemblies
1924 Dec The National Spiritual Assembly of Egypt and the Sudan is formed, the first national body in Africa. [BBRSM121; GPB333]

Martha Root gives the first African radio broadcast about the Bahá'í Faith, in Cape Town.

Egypt; Cape Town. National Spiritual Assembly; Martha Root
1925 4–9 Jul The Seventeenth Annual Convention of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada is held at Green Acre. [GAP117; SBR94]
  • National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada is elected for the first time. [GPB333, SETPE1p107]
  • Like the previous attempts at electing a National Assembly in 1922, 1923 and 1924, the delegates didn't fully understand the Bahá'í election procedure. Nine members were elected as well as nine alternates whose purpose was to replace absent members. [SETPE1p108]
  • The members were: Alfred Lunt, William Randall, May Maxwell, George Latimer, Louis Gregory, Elizabeth Greenleaf, Mariam Haney and Keith Ransom-Kehler with Horace Holley becomes its first full-time secretary. [BW13:852; SBR233, SETPE1p108]
United States; Canada Alfred Lunt; William Randall; May Maxwell; George Latimer; Louis Gregory; Elizabeth Greenleaf; Mariam Haney; Keith Ransom-Kehler; Horace Holley; National Spiritual Assemblies; First NSAs
1925 Dec "A Plan of Unified Action to Spread the Baha'i Cause Throughout the United States and Canada January 1, 1926-December 31, 1928" was formulated by The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada in response to Shoghi Effendi's message to the annual National Convention. [BA86-89]
  • It can be found at [Plan] The goals were (1) to unify the American Bahá'í community's efforts, (2) to increase the number of Bahá'ís, (3) to "penetrate the consciousness of the public with the spirit of Bahá'u'lláh", and (4) to raise $400,000 so that the construction of the first unit of the Temple's superstructure could begin. [SBBR14p160, BFA1p110]

  • This was the first of two Plans developed by the North American National Assembly in the years from 1926 to 1934 the second being "A New Plan of Unified Action To complete the Bahá'í Temple and promote the Cause in America (1931-1934)". [SBBR14p155-197]
  • The above two plans were the first to have the expansion and development of the Bahá'í community as a primary goal and it is likely that they provided the model for other plans organized by Shoghi Effendi and other National Assemblies. [SBBR14p155

  • The first Plan of Unified Action indicates the ascendancy of those Bahá'ís who supported a centralizing authority over those who wanted a more amorphous system or no organization at all.[BiW177-8] For an essay on this subject see "Some Aspects of the Establishment of the Guardianship" by Dr Loni Bramson-Lerche in SBBR5p253-293

  • During the years of these two plans the National Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada developed practices commonly used in subsequent plans, organized propagation, a central budget and the modern form of the Nineteen Day Feast. [SBBR14p160]

National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada Plans
1927 May The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada draws up and publishes a ‘Declaration of Trust’ and ‘By-laws of the National Spiritual Assembly’. [BW2:89, BW10:180]
  • For text see BW2:90–8.
  • The Guardian describes it as the Bahá’í ‘national constitution’ heralding ‘the formation of the constitution of the future Bahá’í World Community’. [GPB335; PP302–3]
  • The drafting is largely the work of Horace Holley with assistance from the lawyer Mountfort Mills. [SBR234]
  • In subsequent years the National Assemblies of India and Burma, of Egypt, Iraq, Persian and the British Isles all adopted this example almost verbatum. [UD101, BA134-5, SETPE1p145-6]
America National Spiritual Assembly; Horace Holley; Mountfort Mills; Constitutions; By-laws
1938 - 1939 Shoghi Effendi disbands the Haifa Spiritual Assembly which had been in operation since at least 1922, and sends the local community away. [PP348]
  • The disbanding of the spiritual assembly apparently did not mean the end to the publication of the "Haifa News Letter" in which news from the World Centre had been forwarded to all the Bahá'í centres in the East in Persian with an English translation of the publication distributed in the West. The last known mention of the Haifa News Letter is in Bahá'í News Dec. 1945 p780. [PP50, 282,348]
Haifa Haifa Spiritual Assembly; Haifa News Letter
1940 27 Dec Elizabeth Cheney, the ‘spiritual mother of Paraguay’, arrives in Paraguay, the first pioneer to the country. Paraguay Elizabeth Cheney; spiritual mother
1943 4 Sep The first local spiritual assembly in Alaska is established at Anchorage. Anchorage; Alaska; United States First Local Spiritual Assemblies
1952 8 Oct Shoghi Effendi announces his decision to launch ‘the fate-laden, soul-stirring, decade-long world-embracing Spiritual Crusade’ in the coming year. [BW12:253–5; MBW411
  • For the objectives of the Crusade see BW12:256–14.
  • Among the goals to be achieved is the construction of the International Bahá’í Archives building. [BBD22; DH168; MBW43]
  • He calls upon the Hands of the Cause to appoint during Ridván 1954 five auxiliary boards to act as their adjuncts or deputies to work with the national spiritual assemblies to execute the projected national plans. [MBW44, BW13p335]
Haifa Spiritual Crusade; International Bahai Archives; Hands of the Cause; Auxiliary Board Members and assistants; NSA
1957 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Alaska is formed and incorporated immediately upon formation.
  • This is the first time a political entity (i.e. the United States) is subdivided to form a national spiritual assembly. [BW13:270]
Alaska; United States NSA; First National Spiritual Assemblies
1960 12 – 31 May Six national spiritual assemblies send messages of support to the Custodians, repudiating the claim made by Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [MC207–8] National Spiritual Assemblies; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship
1964 5 Nov Followers of Charles Mason Remey file suit in the United States District Court for Northern Illinois against the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States, claiming they are the rightful owners of all Bahá’í properties and funds in the United States. [BW14:95]
  • The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States files a counter claim asking the court to restrain the Covenant-breakers from using Bahá’í names and symbols protected by trademark. [BW14:95]
United States Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; National Spiritual Assemblies; Court cases; Copyright and trademarks
1965 23 Mar The case filed by the followers of Charles Mason Remey against the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States is dismissed on technical grounds. [BW14:95]
  • The Covenant-breakers file a further suit. [BW14:95]
United States Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; National Spiritual Assemblies; Court cases; Copyright and trademarks
1966 8 Mar The second suit brought against the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States by the followers of Charles Mason Remey, who claim to he the lawful owners of all Bahá’í properties and funds in the United States, is dismissed. [BW14:95] United States Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; National Spiritual Assemblies; Court cases; Copyright and trademarks
1966 1 Jun The counter-claim of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States against the followers of Charles Mason Remey restraining them from using Bahá’í names and symbols, is upheld when the Covenant-breakers fail to appear at the trial. [BW14:95] United States Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; National Spiritual Assemblies; Copyright and trademarks; Court cases
1971 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Solomon Islands is formed with its seat in Honiara. [BW15:269] Solomon Islands; Oceania NSA; First National Spiritual Assemblies
1980 17 Oct Leonora Armstrong, the ‘spiritual mother of South America’ and the first Latin American pioneer, passes away in Bahia, Brazil. [BW18:738; VV32]
  • For her obituary see BW18:733–738.
Bahia; Brazil Leonora Armstrong; spiritual mother of South America
1980. 26 Oct Publication by the Universal House of Justice of the compilation on Attendance at National Spiritual Assembly Meetings. [MUHJ63-86p404] BWC Attendance at National Spiritual Assembly Meetings
1990 Ridván Maureen Nakekea and Marao Teem are elected to the National Spiritual Assembly of Kiribati, the first indigenous women to be elected to the institution. [BINS224:7] Kiribati; Oceania Maureen Nakekea; Marao Teem; National Spiritual Assembly; Indigenous
1990 9 Jun The first local spiritual assembly in Czechoslovakia is formed at Prague. [BINS226:1] Prague; Czechoslavakia Spiritual assembly
1990 8 Sep The first local spiritual assembly on Sakhalin Island is formed in Yuzhno. [BINS232:5] Yuzhno; Sakhalin Island; Russia Local Spiritual Assemblies
1991 25 Jan The first local spiritual assembly in Latvia is formed in Riga. [BINS241:3] Riga; Latvia Local Spiritual Assemblies; First Local Spiritual Assemblies
1991 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Romania is formed with its seat in Bucharest. About 200 believers were present at the inaugural National Convention. [AWH86; BINS246:1; VV113] Bucharest; Romania National Spiritual Assembly
1992 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of the Baltic States is formed with its seat in Tallinn. [BINS270:2; BW92–3:119, CBN Jan92 p2, VV121]
  • For picture see BINS282:9.
Tallinn NSA; Regional National Spiritual Assembly
1992 Ridván The former Spiritual Assembly of the USSR with its seat in Moscow became the Regional Spiritual Assembly of Russia, Georgia and Armenia. [CBN Jan92 p2, CBN Jan91 pg2, BW92–3:119; VV121] Russia; Georgia; Armenia NSA; Regional National Spiritual Assembly
1992 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of the Republics of Kazakhstan, Kirgizia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) is formed with its seat in Ashkhabad. [BINS270:4-5; BW92–3:119; BW94–5:29; CBN Jan92 p2, VV121] Kazakhstan; Kirgizia; Tajikistan; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan; Ashkhabad NSA; Regional National Spiritual Assembly
1992 Ridván The formation of a Regional Spiritual Assembly for Ukraine, Belarus and Moldova with the seat in Kiev. [CBN Jan92 p2, CBN Jan91 pg2, BW92–3:119; VV121] Ukraine; Belarus; Moldova; Kiev NSA; Regional National Spiritual Assembly
2001 16 Dec The passing of Philip Hainsworth at the age of 82 in Sevenoaks, Kent, England. Shoghi Effendi had described him as "the spiritual Stanley of Africa". [BW01-02p304-305] Sevenoaks; Kent; England Philip Hainsworth; the spiritual Stanley of Africa

from the main catalogue

  1. 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Encounter with Modernity during His Western Travels, by Wendi Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). Abdu'l-Baha's responses to the West's technology and innovations on the one hand, vs. its archaic racist and sexual philosophies on the other. [about]
  2. Academic Methodologies, by Universal House of Justice and Susan Maneck (1997). Two letters to the House on the relationship between "materialistic methodologies" and "doctrinal heresy" in the academic fields, followed by the House's detailed response. [about]
  3. Answered Questions, Some, by Abdu'l-Baha (1990). [about]
  4. Answered Questions, Some, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2014). New 2014 translation (with a version side-by-side with the original). [about]
  5. Aspects of the Bahá'í Teachings, Conditions for Membership, and Voting Rights: Seven various questions, by Universal House of Justice (1991). On Baha'i status and community membership, spiritual primacy, Most Great Spirit, studying the Covenant, revelation of the Bab, civil elections, and definition of a pioneer. Includes short compilation "Conditions for Membership in the Baha'i Community." [about]
  6. Bahá'í Community and Health Promotion, The: The Message and the Metaphor, by Robert Phillips, in dialogue magazine, 1:2 (1986). There may be a connection between spiritual development and physical health, which is not often recognized in contemporary medicine. Lifestyle changes which improve health can be promoted by religious principles. [about]
  7. Bahá'í Spirituality, by Moojan Momen (1997). [about]
  8. Bahá'í Teachings on The Universe, by Ernie Jones (2017). Compilation of writings related to the cosmos, the worlds of God, and spiritual evolution. [about]
  9. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 18 (1979-1983), in Bahá'í World (1986). [about]
  10. Beauty of the Human Psyche, The: The Patterns of the Virtues, by Rhett Diessner, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 26:4 (2016). Insights from science and the Bahá'í Writings combine to show how the human soul is a shining of divine attributes reflected into our mind, where they manifest as virtuous thoughts and spiritual emotions. [about]
  11. Birth of Human Beings in the Writings of the Bab, by Nader Saiedi (2010). A talk on an invited topic (the origin of humankind) from a scholar known for his unique familiarity with the works of The Bab. [about]
  12. Birth of the Human Being, The: Beyond Religious Traditionalism and Materialist Modernity, by Nader Saiedi, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 21 (2011). We have arrived at a turning point in human evolution: the moment of the birth of the human being. This paper examines the development of this idea in the Writings of the Báb, Bahá’u’lláh, and ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, and its opposite concept, dehumanization. [about]
  13. Blasphemy against the Holy Spirit: Chapter 31 of Some Answered Questions, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 10 (2009). [about]
  14. Breathe Not the Sins of Others: A Tale of Suspense, by Stephen D. Dighton (2000). Features Baha'is and their Faith in situations many will recognize as mirroring their own spiritual battles. [about]
  15. Celestial Burning, A: A Selective Study of the Writings of Shoghi Effendi, by Jack McLean (2012). Style, content, and context of World Order of Baha'u'llah and Dispensation of Baha'u'llah: part of chapter 1 of this lengthy analysis of the work of Shoghi Effendi (pages 1-71), offered as a sample. [about]
  16. Common Teachings from Chinese Culture and the Bahá'í Faith: From Material Civilization to Spiritual Civilization, by Albert Cheung, in Lights of Irfan, Book 1 (2000). An examination of the similarities in belief between the Baha'i Faith and traditional Chinese culture. [about]
  17. Community Functioning, Issues Concerning: Fostering the Development of Bahá'í Communities, by Shoghi Effendi and Universal House of Justice, in Compilation of Compilations, Volume 3 (2000). Extensive guidance on community development. Includes extracts from letters written on behalf of Shoghi Effendi on fostering the evolution of Baha'i communities. [about]
  18. Compilation on "Spiritual Beauty". [about]
  19. Concept of Spirituality, The, by William S. Hatcher, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). Widely-read ABS monograph, re-published in the Baha'i World. Includes chapters "The Nature of Man," "Process of Spiritual Growth," and "Collective Dimension of Spirituality." [about]
  20. Depression: Biological, Psychosocial, and Spiritual Dimensions and Treatment, by Abdu'l-Missagh Ghadirian, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 25:4 (2015). Biological, psychosocial, and environmental factors contribute to the development of depression. If religious beliefs and spiritual values also play a role, what insights can the Baha'i Faith offer? [about]
  21. Developing Distinctive Bahá'í Communities: Guidelines for Spiritual Assemblies, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States (1998). A guide to community development. Links to document offsite. [about]
  22. "Easy Familiarity," Explanations of, by Ruhiyyih (Mary Maxwell) Khanum and Ann Boylan (1912). Statements on displays of affection (hugging and kissing) between members of the opposite sex. Also questions on assembly infallibility, and whether one with a minority opinion should vote against his conscience. [about]
  23. El Desarrollo Sostenible y el Espíritu Humano, by Bahá'í International Community. El Desarrollo Sostenible y el Espíritu Humano, presentado Río de Janeiro, Brasil, junio de 1992 [about]
  24. Elements of Immortality: A Nexus of Proofs by 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Some Answered Questions, by James B. Thomas. This paper approaches the mystery of immortality in four steps that are based on objective reasoning by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá: the spirit of man; immortality of the spirit; proof with respect to progress after death; entrance into the Kingdom of God. [about]
  25. Female Representations of the Holy Spirit in Bahá'í and Christian writings and their implications for gender roles, by Lil Osborn, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 4:1 (1994). A response to feminist theologian Mary Daly's argument that a male representation of God reinforces patriarchy with the suggestion that sexual equality is independent of, and unrelated to, gender images of the Divine. [about]
  26. Hindu Concept of God, The: Unity in Diversity, by Anjam Khursheed, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 2 (1997). The fundamental unity behind Hindu concepts of God and those found in the Semitic traditions, and the principle of unity in diversity, allow Hindu and Baha'i beliefs to come together and further their common goal of uniting the world's religions. [about]
  27. Indian Nations and National Spiritual Assemblies, by Universal House of Justice (2002). American Indian nations are not fully sovereign and thus do not have their own National Spiritual Assemblies. [about]
  28. Investigating Spiritualization: Noticing, Processing and the Function of Time, by Sandra S. Fotos and Lynne Hansen (1995). surveys and analysis of the personal adoption of virtues among Mormons and Baha'is. [about]
  29. Kafka's spiritual dimension, by Greg Massiah, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 6 (1996). [about]
  30. Law, Application of, by Universal House of Justice (1991). Questions concerning the violation of Baha'i and civil law, and the removal of administrative rights. [about]
  31. Letters and Essays, 1886-1913, by Mirza Abu'l-Fadl Gulpaygani (1985). Treatises of "the greatest and most learned of all Bahá'í scholars" about Alexander Tumansky; on meeting Abdu'l-Baha; and on the meaning of angels, resurrection, civilization, tests, angels, holy spirit, and the saying "Knowledge is twenty-seven letters." [about]
  32. Local Spiritual Assembly, The, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). The institution of the LSA, its significance, and its by-laws. [about]
  33. Material and Spiritual Worlds, by Peter J. Khan (2010). Four talks on the Five-Year Plan given at the North Island Baha'i Summer School, Hamilton, New Zealand, December 2010. [about]
  34. Meditation, Prayer, and Spiritualization, by Universal House of Justice (1983). Practicing personal spirituality and methods for achieving spiritual growth. [about]
  35. Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-86, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
  36. Missing Dimension in the Built Environment, The: A Challenge for the 21st Century, by Leo R. Zrudlo, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 3:1 (1990). [about]
  37. Moral and Spiritual Development, by William S. Hatcher (2008). [about]
  38. Mystic Cup, The: Essential Mystical Nature of the Bahá'í Faith, by LeRoy Jones, in Lights of Irfan, Book 2 (2001). [about]
  39. National Spiritual Assembly members who are women, Percentage of, 1953-2007, by Bahá'í World Centre (1998). Two letters from the House, with attached tables, showing the number of women serving on NSAs 1953-1993, 1987-1997, and 1997-2007. Includes graphs showing numbers and percent of women serving on NSAs by continental region. [about]
  40. National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States vs. New Mexico Covenant-Breakers, in United States Patent Quarterly, 150 (1966). Documents from the lawsuit by the NSA vs. the New Mexico covenant-breaker group "The National Spiritual Assembly of the Baha'is of the United States of America Under the Hereditary Guardianship, Inc." for their use of Baha'i names and titles. [about]
  41. National Spiritual Assembly, The, by Universal House of Justice and Horace Holley, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). Includes Holley's brief overview of the nature of an NSA and the history of Bahá`í Temple Unity, NSA by-laws and a list of new NSAs as of 1980-1983. [about]
  42. Not Just for Consumers: An Argument for Depicting Diverse Beliefs on U.S. Television, by Deborah Clark Vance, in Diversity and Mass Communication: Evidence of Impact, ed. Amber Reetz Narro and Alice C. Ferguson (2007). [about]
  43. NSA staff members answering correspondence; prayers of Abdu'l-Baha, by Universal House of Justice (2011). Two topics: the use by National Spiritual Assembly staff members to handle correspondence, and the authenticity of a prayer attributed to ‘Abdu’l-Bahá "O Lord! Open Thou the door, provide the means, prepare the way, and make safe the path..." [about]
  44. Obedience, by Ian C. Semple (1991). Obedience in relation to freedom of thought, and the importance of obedience both to the individual's spiritual development and to society as a whole. [about]
  45. Philosophy of Spirituality, The: A Bahá'í Viewpoint, by William S. Hatcher, in Dialogue and Universalism, vol. 11-12 (1996). [about]
  46. Proselytizing, Development, and the Covenant, by Universal House of Justice, in Messages from the Universal House of Justice: 1963-1986, The Third Epoch of the Formative Age (1996). Teaching vs. proselytization; applying Baha'i social teachings without becoming ensnared in prevailing cultural mores; and the uniqueness of the Baha'i covenant. [about]
  47. Psychology of Spirituality, The: From Divided Self to Integrated Self, by Hossain Danesh (2000). Explores what is the nature of human reality, the purpose of human life, transcendence, and whether we have free will, using case histories, in-depth analysis, and practical examples. First 3 chapters only. [about]
  48. Ranks and Functions in the Bahá'í Cause, by Universal House of Justice (1978). Different ranks of and interactive functioning of the Continental Board of Counsellors versus National Spiritual Assemblies. [about]
  49. Reflection on the Theory of Alchemy as Explained in the Bahá'í Writings, A, by Keven Brown (2002). [about]
  50. Sabaeans and African-based Religions in the Americas, The, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). Overview of the religion of the Sabaeans [aka Sabeans], and some indigenous practices in the southern Americas such as Yoruba, Santeria, and Brazilian Candomble. [about]
  51. Spiritual Approach to Microcredit Projects, A, by Michel P. Zahrai (1998). Spiritual considerations that should guide the elaboration and implementation of microcredit schemes and measure their success. [about]
  52. Spiritual Assembly's Growing Pains, A, by Ruhiyyih (Mary Maxwell) Khanum (1976). A play, in 28 pages, showing "some of the workings of a Baha'i Spiritual Assembly· some of the blunders, some of the problems; how certain types of people fit better into one office and others into another." [about]
  53. Spiritual Dimensions of Microfinance, The: Towards a Just Civilization and Sustainable Economy, by Barbara J. Rodey (2001). Prepared for the Microcredit Summit to emphasize the importance of universal spiritual principles to achieve the real benefits of microfinance services. [about]
  54. Spiritual Dimensions of Sustainable Development, by Arthur Lyon Dahl (1996). The many meanings of "development" and their spiritual aspects. [about]
  55. Spiritual Growth, Essential Requisites for, by Universal House of Justice (1983). Letter to Europe, its historically-recent turn away from religion, six ways to improve spirituality, and the importance of prayer and meditation. [about]
  56. Spiritual Nature of a Human Being, The, by William G. Huitt, in Educational Psychology Interactive (2000). [about]
  57. Spiritualism, Reincarnation and Related Subjects, in Bahá'í Institutions (A Compilation) (1973). Includes psychic phenomena, spiritual healing, and astrology. [about]
  58. Spiritualization of the Bahá'í Community: A Plan for Teaching, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Ireland and Adib Taherzadeh (1982). A three-part collection consisting of a letter from the NSA of Ireland, a letter from Taherzadeh to the Baha'is of Ireland regarding the spiritualization of the Baha'i community, and the preamble for a plan of action for teaching. [about]
  59. Strategies for Spiritualization, by Sandra S. Fotos, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 9:1 (1999). [about]
  60. Tractatus on Philosophy, by Jean-Marc Lepain (1998). An attempt to translate the teachings of Baha'u'llah in contemporary philosophic jargon, in poetic style. [about]
  61. Tree of Life, The: A Program for the Spiritualization of the Bahá'í Community, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the Hawaiian Islands (1993). Compilations for a spiritualization and teaching campaign on prayer and meditation, how to be like the "shining examples" of the Bab and Baha'u'llah, and the 1992 Ridvan message. [about]
  62. United States National Spiritual Assembly vs. Mirza Ahmad Sohrab (1941). In 1941 the National Spiritual Assembly unsuccessfully sued Covenant Breaker Mirza Ahmad Sohrab for his use of the word "Baha'i." This is the court's conclusions. [about]
  63. Unrestrained as the Wind: A Life Dedicated to Bahá'u'lláh (1985). Compilation of quotations on topics of especial interest to Bahá'í youth. [about]
  64. Valorando la espiritualidad en el Desarrollo: Consideraciones Iniciales en cuanto a la Creación de Indicadores de Base Espiritual para el Desarrollo, by Bahá'í International Community. Consideraciones Iniciales en cuanto a la Creación de Indicadores de Base Espiritual para el Desarrollo, presentado al "Diálogo Mundial de las Fes y el Desarrollo", 1998 [about]
  65. Violation of Baha'i and Civil Law, by Universal House of Justice (1991). Role of Spiritual Assemblies in regulating behavior of Baha'is, removal of administrative rights, and treatment of Baha'is convicted of a criminal offense. [about]
  66. Why Are We Here: Meaning of Life: Warwick Leaflets, by Warwick Bahá'í Bookshop (2003). [about]
  67. WIPO Domain Name Dispute: Case D2001-1302, "bahaiwomen.com" (2001). A legal ruling finding, on behalf of the Baha'is, that unauthorized use of the domain bahaiwomen.com is a trademark infringement. Followed by a newspaper article from Newsbytes, "Bahá'í Organization Bests Speculator In Domain Dispute." [about]
  68. WIPO Domain Name Dispute: Case D2005-0214, "uhj.net" (2005). A legal ruling finding, against the Baha'is, that covenant breakers are allowed to use the domain uhj.net. [about]
 
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