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Search for tag "Spirit"

from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1897 In the year The Hands of the Cause appointed by Bahá'u'lláh were instructed by `Abdu'l-Bahá to gather to begin the consultations regarding the future organization of the Bahá'í community in Tihrán.
  • This gathering lead to the formation of the Central Spiritual Assembly of Tihrán in 1899. [BBD98, 114, 115; EB268]
Tihran; Iran Hands appointed by Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Central Spiritual Assembly of Tihran; Spiritual Assemblies; Administrative Order
1899 A local spiritual assembly called "The Consulting Assembly of Tihrán", a forerunner of the National Spiritual Assembly, was established. [EB175–6; 26 November, 2007]
  • Four Hands of the Cause were permanent members; nine others were elected by special electors appointed by the Hands. [EB175–6]
Tihran; Iran NSA; Spiritual Assemblies; Hands of the Cause; Appointments; Elections
1899 May A council board of seven officers, a forerunner of the Local Spiritual Assembly, was established in Kenosha. [BFA1:112; GPB260] Kenosha; Wisconsin; United States Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies
1900 c. 16 Mar The Chicago community re-organizes by selecting a ten-member Board of Council. Neither Kheiralla nor any of his supporters are on the Board. [BFA1:XXIX, 170] Chicago; United States Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies; Ibrahim George Kheiralla
1900 7 Dec In New York, nine men were selected to govern the affairs of the Faith. Those serving were Arthur Dodge, Hooper Harris, William Hoar, Andrew Hutchinson, Howard MacNutt, Frank Osborne, Edwin Putnam, Charles Sprague and Orosco Woolson. Among the problems that they had to face was the effect of the disaffection of Kheiralla. [BFA2p36] New York; United States Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies; Ibrahim George Kheiralla
1901 15 May The Chicago Bahá'ís elect a nine-man Board of Council for a term of five years. [BFA2:XXV, 44–7] Chicago; United States Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies
1901 20 May The number of members on the Board of Council is raised to 12. [BFA2:47] Chicago; United States Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies
1901 24 May The name of the Chicago Board of Council is changed to the House of Justice. [BFA2:48]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá requests that this name be changed a year later. [BFA2:49]
Chicago; United States Board of Council; House of Justice; Spiritual Assemblies
1902 10 May The Chicago House of Justice changes its name to the House of Spirituality. [BFA2:XV] Chicago; United States House of Justice; House of Spirituality; Spiritual Assemblies
1903 7 Mar Inspired by the news of the `Ishqábád Temple project, the Chicago House of Spirituality asks `Abdu'l-Bahá for permission to construct a Mashriqu'l-Adhkár. [BFA2:XVI, 118; BW10:179; GPB348] Ishqabad; Turkmenistan; Wilmette; Chicago; United States House of Spirituality; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette
1903 30 May A letter from `Abdu'l-Bahá is received by the Chicago House of Spirituality giving His approval for the building of a Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in North America. [BFA2:119] Wilmette; Chicago; United States House of Spirituality; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette
1903 7 Jun Eight days after `Abdu'l-Bahá's first Tablet arrives, a second Tablet arrives from Him approving the project. [BW10:179; CT41; GPB262, 349; MBW142] Wilmette; Chicago; United States House of Spirituality; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette
1907 19 Jul The Chicago `Bahai Assembly' files an affidavit of incorporation, the first Bahá'í community to acquire legal status. [BFA2:278]
  • The incorporation is in the name of the community rather than the governing body. [BFA2:278–9]
Chicago; United States Spiritual Assemblies; Incorporation; Recognition; Firsts, Other
1907 26 Nov The first national Bahá'í conference is held in America. [BFA2:XVI; BW10:179]
  • At the invitation of the House of Spirituality of Chicago, nine Bahá'ís from various communities join some ten from the Chicago area at a one-day conference to foster national cooperation on the Temple project and to choose a suitable site for the Temple. [BFA2:280; CT78; GPB262, 349]
Chicago; United States Conferences; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, National; House of Spirituality; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; First conferences
1911 22 Aug - 3 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá took up residence at Thonon-les-Bains on Lake Leman (Lake Geneva). [AB140; GPB280; SBR219]
  • While there He encountered Zillu's-Sultán, the eldest son of the Sháh of the time, Násirid-Dín Sháh. It was he who had ratified the execution of the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs and at least 100 others. The whole family was in exile in Geneva at this time. 'Abdu'l-Bahá was very courteous to this man who had been such an inveterate enemy of the Cause. [DJT172, AY19, GPB201] .
  • The Master sent for Juliet Thompson who had been waiting in London for His permission to join Him.
  • During His stay he had a visit from Annie Boylan, a member of the New York community that was experiencing disharmony. Unaware of Bahá'í election procedures, a group that was unhappy with the disunity and ineffectiveness of the Council had organized a vote to be rid of several of its Council members. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had written to the community a short time before recommending that the Council be expanded from 9 to 27 members so that all factions could be represented. He also recommended that women be included on the Council and that the name be changed to "the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of New York". This apparently addressed the problem of disunity because the New York community went on to contribute significantly to the progress of the Faith on a national level. [DJT181, BFA2p338]
  • Horace Holley, who lived at Quattro Torri, Siena, Italy at the time, along with his wife Bertha Herbert and baby daughter Hertha, visited 'Abdu'l-Bahá on the 29th and 30th of August. Please see his Religion for Mankind p 232-237 for a pen portrait of 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • He met with Elizabeth Stewart and Lillian Kappes who were on their way to Tehran. [find reference]
  • It would appear that He returned to Marseilles and travelled to London by sea. [SCU22-23]
Thonon-les-Bains; Lake Leman; Marseille; France; Switzerland; Italy; London; United Kingdom; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies; Unity; Zillus-Sultan; Persecution; Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Juliet Thompson; Horace Holley; Elizabeth Stewart; Lillian Kappes; Ships
1922 5 Mar Shoghi Effendi writes to the American Bahá'ís calling for the establishment of local assemblies wherever nine or more believers reside and directing that all activities be placed under the authority of the local and national assemblies. [BA17-25; BBRSM120-1; CB300] BWC Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Local Spiritual Assemblies; National Spiritual Assemblies; Administration
1922 Apr Shoghi Effendi sent verbal messages through Consul Schwarz to Germany and Ethel Rosenberg to Britain to form local spiritual assemblies and to arrange for the election of a national spiritual assembly in each country. [CB293; ER209, 211-12; PP56]

To the United States and Canada he sent a message to transform the 'Executive Board' into a legislative institution. [CB293; CT160; ER211-12; PP56]

Germany; United Kingdom; United States; Canada Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Consuls; Albert Schwarz; Ethel Rosenberg; National Spiritual Assemblies; Local Spiritual Assemblies; Spiritual Assemblies; Executive Board
1922 Apr c. Shoghi Effendi appointes a body of nine people to act tentatively as an assembly in the Holy Land while he was away and entrusted the affairs of the Faith to the Greatest Holy Leaf. [GBF19; PP57, 276] BWC Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Spiritual Assemblies
1922 Apr Shoghi Effendi called for the Executive Board of the Bahá'í Temple Unity to become an elected legislative body. It had been functioning since 1909 concerned mostly with the construction of the Bahá'í House of Worship. He addressed his first letter to this body as the "National Spiritual Assembly of the United States" on December 23rd however in God Passes By pg333 he stated that the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States was not formed until 1925. [SETPE1p107, CT160, CoB293] Chicago; United States Executive Board; Bahai Temple Unity; National Spiritual Assemblies; Spiritual Assemblies; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
1922 7 Apr The Haifa Bahá'í Spiritual Assembly is seen to be in operation this date, perhaps earlier. [SETPE1p50,] Haifa; Haifa Spiritual Assembly
1922 25 Apr A National Spiritual Assembly was elected in the United States to replace the Executive Board of the Bahá'í Temple Unity. [SBR94]
  • The difference between this body and its forerunner is little more than a change in name. [DP122]
  • The conversion of the Bahá'í Temple Unity into the National Spiritual Assembly took four years; it was not until 1925 that Shoghi Effendi recognized the American national body as a National Spiritual Assembly. [CT161; DP121-2; GPB333]
  • The election procedure followed that used in the United States: there was electioneering and candidates were nominated, with a straw poll taken to trim the number of eligible candidates. [CT160; DP122]
Chicago; United States NSA; Spiritual Assemblies; Executive Board; Bahai Temple Unity; Elections; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
1922 Late May The communities of London, Manchester and Bournemouth elect a Bahá'í Spiritual Assembly for England. [ER213; SBR28, 67]
  • This is also known as the Spiritual Assembly for London and the All-England Bahá'í Council. [ER2 13; SBR67]
  • See ER213 and SBR28 for membership.
London; Manchester; Bournemouth; United Kingdom Spiritual Assemblies; All-England Bahai Council
1923 Dec The first local spiritual assembly in Australia is formed in Melbourne. Melbourne; Australia Local Spiritual Assemblies; First Local Spiritual Assemblies
1924 Jul The second local spiritual assembly in Australia is formed in Perth. Perth; Australia Local Spiritual Assemblies
1925 10 Apr Shoghi Effendi writes to the American National Spiritual Assembly indicating that the word ‘assembly’ is to apply only to the elected body of nine believers in each locality or to the national assembly, not to the believers as a whole. [BA83; SBBH258] United States Administration; National Spiritual Assemblies; Local Spiritual Assemblies; Spiritual Assemblies
1925 4–9 Jul The Seventeenth Annual Convention of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada is held at Green Acre. [GAP117; SBR94]
  • National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada is elected for the first time. [GPB333, SETPE1p107]
  • Like the previous attempts at electing a National Assembly in 1922, 1923 and 1924, the delegates didn't fully understand the Bahá'í election procedure. Nine members were elected as well as nine alternates whose purpose was to replace absent members. [SETPE1p108]
  • The members were: Alfred Lunt, William Randall, May Maxwell, George Latimer, Louis Gregory, Elizabeth Greenleaf, Mariam Haney and Keith Ransom-Kehler with Horace Holley becomes its first full-time secretary. [BW13:852; SBR233, SETPE1p108]
United States; Canada Alfred Lunt; William Harry Randall; May Maxwell (Bolles); George Latimer; Louis Gregory; Elizabeth Greenleaf; Mariam Haney; Keith Ransom-Kehler; Horace Holley; NSA; First National Spiritual Assemblies
1933 25 Nov The first Spiritual Assembly of Addis Ababa was formed. [BW6:70]
  • The community is established by Sabri Elias, a pioneer from Egypt who thus earned the title Knight of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW6:70]
  • Ethiopia is the only independent Kingdom in Africa at this date. [BW6:70]
  • Wikipedia says that the Assembly was formed in "late 1934".
Addis Ababa; Ethiopia First Local Spiritual Assemblies; Sabri Elias; Knights of Bahaullah
1938 - 1939 Shoghi Effendi disbanded the Haifa Spiritual Assembly which had been in operation since at least 1922, and sent the local community away. [PP348]
  • The disbanding of the spiritual assembly apparently did not mean the end to the publication of the "Haifa News Letter" in which news from the World Centre had been forwarded to all the Bahá'í centres in the East in Persian with an English translation of the publication distributed in the West. The last known mention of the Haifa News Letter is in Bahá'í News Dec. 1945 p780. [PP50, 282,348]
Haifa Haifa Spiritual Assembly; Spiritual Assemblies; Haifa News Letter; Newsletters
1939 Ridván The first Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Budapest is elected. There are about 14 believers in the community, mostly of Jewish ancestry. This will cause difficulty for the community in the Nazi persecutions that are to follow. [Rebirth: Memoirs of Renée Szanto-Felbermann p108]

According to the description of Renée Szántó-Felbermann, they could not even meet in Budapest: „It was at their (the Sugárs) house in Alag (today part of Budakeszi) that we elected the first Spiritual Assembly in the history of Hungary, Ridvan 1939. When we boarded the train for Alag, in order to avoid suspicion, we Bahá’ís did not remain together, but went by twos and threes. The same procedure was repeated on our arrival to Alag. It was a memorable, unforgettable evening, that Feast of Ridván in the small house at Alag fragrant with spring flowers. We were all deeply moved. And our dear Bertha Matthiesen was radiant. … Jenő Sugár was elected chairman, Mária Kleinberger became treasurer and I continued as secretary.” [www.bahai.hu]

  • Ms Bertha Matthiesen spends a lot of time in Hungary between 1937 and 1939 when most declarations take place and the first spiritual assembly is formed. [www.bahai.hu]
  • Mr Emeric Sala (Imre Szalavetz) a Canadian Bahá'í who was born in Hungary visits Budapest in 1933 and in 1937. [www.bahai.hu]
  • Canadian travel teacher Ms Lorol Schopflocher visits Budapest in March-April 1937. [www.bahai.hu]
Budapest; Hungary First Local Spiritual Assemblies; World War II; War (general); Persecution, Hungary; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Jews
1939 12 Dec The Bahá’ís of Caracas, Venezuela, hold their first Nineteen Day Feast and afterwards elect a ‘Provisional Assembly’. Caracas; Venezuela Nineteen Day Feast; Local Spiritual Assemblies; Firsts, Other
1943 The first Local Spiritual Assembly was formed in Jamaica. [BWNS233] Jamaica First Local Spiritual Assemblies; BWNS
1943 4 Sep The first local spiritual assembly in Alaska is established at Anchorage. Anchorage; Alaska; United States First Local Spiritual Assemblies
1955 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly of French Togoland (Togo) formed at Lomé. Lome; French Togoland (Togo); Togo First Local Spiritual Assemblies
1958 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in the Kingdom of Tonga is formed at Nuku’alofa. Nukualofa; Tonga First Local Spiritual Assemblies
1958 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly of Macau is formed. Macau LSA; First Local Spiritual Assemblies
1958 Ridván The formation of the first local spiritual assembly of Taipei. [The Taiwan Bahá'í Chronicle by Barbara R. Sims p25] Teipei; Taiwan LSA; First Local Spiritual Assemblies
1965 23 Mar The case filed by the followers of Charles Mason Remey against the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States is dismissed on technical grounds. [BW14:95]
  • The Covenant-breakers file a further suit. [BW14:95]
United States Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; National Spiritual Assemblies; Court cases; Copyright and trademarks
1966 8 Mar The second suit brought against the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States by the followers of Charles Mason Remey, who claim to he the lawful owners of all Bahá’í properties and funds in the United States, is dismissed. [BW14:95] United States Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; National Spiritual Assemblies; Court cases; Copyright and trademarks
1966 1 Jun The counter-claim of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States against the followers of Charles Mason Remey restraining them from using Bahá’í names and symbols, is upheld when the Covenant-breakers fail to appear at the trial. [BW14:95] United States Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; National Spiritual Assemblies; Copyright and trademarks; Court cases; Criticism and apologetics
1967 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Taiwan is formed with its seat in Taipei. [BW14:99; The Taiwan Bahá'í Chronicle by Barbara R. Sims p51] Taipei; Taiwan NSA; First National Spiritual Assemblies
1977 14 Sep The first local spiritual assembly in the Galapagos Islands is formed on Santa Cruz. Galapagos Islands; Ecuador First Local Spiritual Assemblies
1980. 26 Oct Publication by the Universal House of Justice of the compilation on Attendance at National Spiritual Assembly Meetings. [MUHJ63-86p404] BWC National Spiritual Assemblies; Compilations; Publications; Administration
1989 Ridván The Local Spiritual Assembly of ‘Ishqábád (now Ashgabat, Turkmenistan) is re-formed after a lapse of 61 years, the first local assembly to be formed in the Soviet Union. [AWH73; VV111] Ishqabad; Turkmenistan; Soviet Union First Local Spiritual Assemblies
1990 1990 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Estonia is formed at Tallinn. [BINS223:3] Tallinn; Estonia First Local Spiritual Assemblies
1990 Ridván The first local assembly to be formed in Hungary since before the Second World War is elected in Budapest. [BINS223:4]
  • The assembly was first elected in 1939 but lapsed during the war. [BINS223:4]
Budapest; Hungary Local Spiritual Assemblies
1990 Ridván The re-formation of the Spiritual Assembly of Moscow with Hand of the Cause 'Alí-Akbar Furútan in attendance. [VV111-2] Moscow; Russia Local Spiritual Assemblies; Re-formation
1990 6 Aug The first local spiritual assembly in the Ukraine is formed in Kyiv. Kyiv; Ukraine First Local Spiritual Assemblies Find ref
1990 8 Sep The first local spiritual assembly on Sakhalin Island is formed in Yuzhno. [BINS232:5] Yuzhno; Sakhalin Island; Russia Local Spiritual Assemblies
1991 Jan The first local spiritual assembly in Slovakia is formed in Bratislava. Bratislava; Slovakia First Local Spiritual Assemblies Find ref
1991 2 Jan The first local spiritual assembly in Bulgaria is formed in Plovdiv. [BINS239:2] Plovdiv; Bulgaria First Local Spiritual Assemblies
1991 25 Jan The first local spiritual assembly in Latvia is formed in Riga. [BINS241:3] Riga; Latvia Local Spiritual Assemblies; First Local Spiritual Assemblies
1992 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of the Baltic States ( Latvia and Lithuania and Estonia) is formed with its seat in Tallinn. [BINS270:2; BW92–3:119, CBN Jan92 p2, VV121]
  • For picture see BINS282:9.
Tallinn; Baltic States NSA; Regional Spiritual Assemblies
1992 Ridván The formation of a Regional Spiritual Assembly for Ukraine, Belarus and Moldova with the seat in Kiev. [CBN Jan92 p2, CBN Jan91 pg2, BW92–3:119; VV121] Ukraine; Belarus; Moldova; Kiev NSA; Regional Spiritual Assemblies
1992 Ridván The former Spiritual Assembly of the USSR with its seat in Moscow became the Regional Spiritual Assembly of Russia, Georgia and Armenia. [CBN Jan92 p2, CBN Jan91 pg2, BW92–3:119; VV121] Russia; Georgia; Armenia NSA; Regional Spiritual Assemblies
1992 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of the Republics of Kazakhstan, Kirgizia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) is formed with its seat in Ashkhabad. [BINS270:4-5; BW92–3:119; BW94–5:29; CBN Jan92 p2, VV121] Kazakhstan; Kirgizia; Tajikistan; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan; Ashkhabad NSA; Regional Spiritual Assemblies
1997 Ridván The Universal House of Justice restricted the formation of Local Spiritual Assemblies to the first day of Riḍván. This measure had the effect anticipated, a decrease in the number of these institutions but the fall was not drastic. [Message from the Universal House of Justice Ridván 2000] Worldwide Ridvan; Elections; Administration; Local Spiritual Assemblies; LSA, formation of; Growth; Statistics; Bahai Faith, Evolutionary nature of; Maturity
1997 30 May In its message of 30 May 1997 the Universal House of Justice announced that they have authorized the formation of "State Bahá'í Councils" or "Regional Teaching and Administrative Committees" to be called "Regional Bahá'í Councils. Their intention was to provide a balance between centralization and decentralization. This structure had been in place in some countries, notably India, for some years prior to this time. See 23 May, 1986. [TP87-90]
For a synopsis of the letter see The Establishment of Regional Bahá'í Councils in Certain Countries, Their Characteristics and Functions.
The distinguishing effects of the establishment of Regional Bahá’í Councils are the following:
  • It provides for a level of autonomous decision making on both teaching and administrative matters, as distinct from merely executive action, below the National Assembly and above the Local Assemblies.
  • It involves the members of Local Spiritual Assemblies of the area in the choice of the members of the Council, thus reinforcing the bond between it and the local believers while, at the same time, bringing into public service capable believers who are known to the friends in their own region.
  • It establishes direct consultative relationships between the Continental Counselors and the Regional Bahá’í Councils.
  • It offers the possibility of forming a Regional Bahá’í Council in an ethnically distinct region which covers parts of two or more countries. In such a situation the Council is designated to work directly under one of the National Assemblies involved, providing copies of its reports and minutes to the other National Assembly.
  • The greater degree of decentralization involved in the devolution of authority upon Regional Bahá’í Councils requires a corresponding increase in the capacity of the National Spiritual Assembly itself to keep fully informed of what is proceeding in all parts of the territory over which it has ultimate jurisdiction.
BWC; Haifa State Bahai Councils; Regional Bahai Councils; National Spiritual Assemblies; Local Spiritual Assemblies; Administration
2000 28 - 31 Aug The Millennium Peace Summit of Religious and Spiritual Leaders was held in New York and involved more than 1,000 attendees. The “very specific purpose” of this meeting was “to further the prospects for peace among peoples and nations, and within every individual.” The outcome of this Peace Summit was the adoption and signing of a declaration committing the participants to global peace. Noting that “the United Nations and the religions of the world have a common concern for human dignity, justice and peace,” accepting that “men and women are equal partners in all aspects of life and children are the hope of the future,” and acknowledging that “religions have contributed to the peace of the world but have also been used to create division and fuel hostilities,” the declaration resolved to “collaborate with the United Nations and all men and women of goodwill locally, regionally and globally in the pursuit of peace in all its dimensions.” The Baha'i' International Community was represented by its Secretary-General, Mr Albert Lincoln. Laurence Arturo and Bani Dugal-Gujral also attended as BIC representatives. [BW00-01p89, Letter from the Universal House of Justice dated 24 September 2000] New York; United States United Nations Millennium Forum and Summit; United Nations; United Nations Summits; United Nations conferences; Conferences; Millennium; Bahai International Community; Peace; World Peace Summit of Religious and Spiritual Leaders; Interfaith dialogue; Albert Lincoln; Laurence Arturo; Bani Dugal Gujral

from the main catalogue

  1. 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Encounter with Modernity during His Western Travels, by Wendi Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). Abdu'l-Baha's responses to the West's technology and innovations on the one hand, vs. its archaic racist and sexual philosophies on the other. [about]
  2. Academic Methodologies, by Universal House of Justice and Susan Maneck (1997). Two letters to the House on the relationship between "materialistic methodologies" and "doctrinal heresy" in the academic fields, followed by the House's detailed response. [about]
  3. Answered Questions, Some, by Abdu'l-Baha (1990). [about]
  4. Answered Questions, Some, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2014). New 2014 translation (with a version side-by-side with the original). [about]
  5. Archeology of the Kingdom of God, The, by Jean-Marc Lepain (2015). Analysis of the spiritual worlds as depicted in philosophical and religious texts, from ancient the Greek to Jewish, Christian and Muslim thought, contrasted with the theosophy, metaphysics, anthropology, and hermeneutics of Baha'u'llah and 'Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
  6. Aspects of the Bahá'í Teachings, Conditions for Membership, and Voting Rights: Seven various questions, by Universal House of Justice (1991). On Baha'i status and community membership, spiritual primacy, Most Great Spirit, studying the Covenant, revelation of the Bab, civil elections, and definition of a pioneer. Includes short compilation "Conditions for Membership in the Baha'i Community." [about]
  7. Authenticity of prayer "O God! Refresh and gladden my spirit", by Universal House of Justice (2006). Some details on the history of a popular prayer. Includes comments on the authenticity of published compilations of Abdu'l-Baha's talks Some Answered Questions, Paris Talks, and The Promulgation of Universal Peace. [about]
  8. Báb's Epistle on the Spiritual Journey towards God, The, by Todd Lawson, in Lights of Irfan, Book 3 (2002). [about]
  9. Bahá'í Community and Health Promotion, The, by Robert Phillips, in dialogue magazine, 1:2 (1986). There is a strong connection between spiritual health and physical health, but this concept doesn't relate well to the contemporary technological hospital-based approach. [about]
  10. Bahá'í Community and Health Promotion, The: The Message and the Metaphor, by Robert Phillips, in dialogue magazine, 1:2 (1986). There may be a connection between spiritual development and physical health, which is not often recognized in contemporary medicine. Lifestyle changes which improve health can be promoted by religious principles. [about]
  11. Bahá'í Conventions, by Moojan Momen, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 3 (1989). Brief article, short enough to qualify as "fair use." [about]
  12. Bahá'í Faith and Accounting, The: Is There a Link?, by Roger Doost, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 7:3 (1997). Summary of discussions in an accounting class about spirituality. As a system that seeks to create balance, order, and justice in human business affairs, the philosophy of accounting is in line with belief in God and Baha’i principles. [about]
  13. Bahá'í Faith and the Spiritualists, The: A Bibliographic Survey (2017). Citations from the private database of the International Association for the Preservation of Spiritualist and Occult Periodicals. [about]
  14. Bahá'í Spirituality, by Moojan Momen (1997). [about]
  15. Bahá'í Teachings on The Universe (2017). Compilation of writings related to the cosmos, the worlds of God, and spiritual evolution. [about]
  16. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 18 (1979-1983), in Bahá'í World (1986). [about]
  17. Beauty of the Human Psyche, The: The Patterns of the Virtues, by Rhett Diessner, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 26:4 (2016). Insights from science and the Bahá'í Writings combine to show how the human soul is a shining of divine attributes reflected into our mind, where they manifest as virtuous thoughts and spiritual emotions. [about]
  18. Birth of Human Beings in the Writings of the Bab, by Nader Saiedi (2010). A talk on an invited topic (the origin of humankind) from a scholar known for his unique familiarity with the works of The Bab. [about]
  19. Birth of the Human Being, The: Beyond Religious Traditionalism and Materialist Modernity, by Nader Saiedi, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 21 (2011). We have arrived at a turning point in human evolution: the moment of the birth of the human being. This paper examines the development of this idea in the Writings of the Báb, Bahá’u’lláh, and ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, and its opposite concept, dehumanization. [about]
  20. Blasphemy against the Holy Spirit: Chapter 31 of Some Answered Questions, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 10 (2009). [about]
  21. Breathe Not the Sins of Others: A Tale of Suspense, by Stephen D. Dighton (2000). Features Baha'is and their Faith in situations many will recognize as mirroring their own spiritual battles. [about]
  22. Buddy, Can You Spare a Paradigm?: The Bahá'í Faith and the New Age Movement, by Paul Doden hoff (1999). [about]
  23. Celestial Burning, A: A Selective Study of the Writings of Shoghi Effendi, by Jack McLean (2012). Style, content, and context of World Order of Baha'u'llah and Dispensation of Baha'u'llah: part of chapter 1 of this lengthy analysis of the work of Shoghi Effendi (pages 1-71), offered as a sample. [about]
  24. Common Teachings from Chinese Culture and the Bahá'í Faith: From Material Civilization to Spiritual Civilization, by Albert Cheung, in Lights of Irfan, Book 1 (2000). An examination of the similarities in belief between the Baha'i Faith and traditional Chinese culture. [about]
  25. Community Functioning, Issues Concerning: Fostering the Development of Bahá'í Communities, by Shoghi Effendi and Universal House of Justice, in Compilation of Compilations, Volume 3 (2000). Extensive guidance on community development. Includes extracts from letters written on behalf of Shoghi Effendi on fostering the evolution of Baha'i communities. [about]
  26. Compilation on "Spiritual Beauty". [about]
  27. Concept of Spirituality, The, by William S. Hatcher, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). Widely-read ABS monograph, re-published in the Baha'i World. Includes chapters "The Nature of Man," "Process of Spiritual Growth," and "Collective Dimension of Spirituality." [about]
  28. Confidencialidad en los Asuntos de las Asambleas Locales y Nacionales, by Universal House of Justice (1994). [about]
  29. Creating Environments that Enhance Spirituality, by Dawn Staudt, in Solas, 3 (2003). The teachings and laws of the Bahá’í Faith are for spiritual advancement of both the individual and society. Three areas in particular help individual development: the use of personal prayer, the arts and Tranquility Zones, and the role of encouragement. [about]
  30. Cultural Reconciliation in Canada - questions, by Universal House of Justice (2001). Reply from the House of Justice to a request for a reexamination of the assumptions on which its letter to Canada of 5 September 1999 was based. [about]
  31. Demographics of the United States National Spiritual Assembly, by Archives Office of the United States Bahá'í National Center (2016). Percentage of women, African-Americans, Native Americans, Asian Americans, and Latino Americans serving on the U.S. and Canadian NSAs from 1922-2015. [about]
  32. Depression: Biological, Psychosocial, and Spiritual Dimensions and Treatment, by Abdu'l-Missagh Ghadirian, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 25:4 (2015). Biological, psychosocial, and environmental factors contribute to the development of depression. If religious beliefs and spiritual values also play a role, what insights can the Baha'i Faith offer? [about]
  33. Developing Distinctive Bahá'í Communities: Guidelines for Spiritual Assemblies, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States (1998). A guide to community development. Links to document offsite. [about]
  34. "Easy Familiarity," Explanations of, by Ruhiyyih (Mary Maxwell) Khanum and Ann Boylan (1912). Statements on displays of affection (hugging and kissing) between members of the opposite sex. Also questions on assembly infallibility, and whether one with a minority opinion should vote against his conscience. [about]
  35. El Desarrollo Sostenible y el Espíritu Humano, by Bahá'í International Community. El Desarrollo Sostenible y el Espíritu Humano, presentado Río de Janeiro, Brasil, junio de 1992 [about]
  36. Elements of Immortality: A Nexus of Proofs by 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Some Answered Questions, by James B. Thomas. This paper approaches the mystery of immortality in four steps that are based on objective reasoning by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá: the spirit of man; immortality of the spirit; proof with respect to progress after death; entrance into the Kingdom of God. [about]
  37. Female Representations of the Holy Spirit in Bahá'í and Christian writings and their implications for gender roles, by Lil Osborn, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 4:1 (1994). A response to feminist theologian Mary Daly's argument that a male representation of God reinforces patriarchy with the suggestion that sexual equality is independent of, and unrelated to, gender images of the Divine. [about]
  38. Feminine Forms of the Divine in Bahá'í Scriptures, by Paula A. Drewek, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 5:1 (1992). Examples of the interaction between male and female principles in the writings. Complementarity of masculine and feminine images of divinity enriches our understanding of the divine–human encounter, but does not supplant the unity or unknowability of God. [about]
  39. Give Me Thy Grace to Serve Thy Loved Ones, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (2018). A selection of writings prepared by the International Teaching Centre for the Continental Counsellors and their Auxiliaries. [about]
  40. Hindu Concept of God, The: Unity in Diversity, by Anjam Khursheed, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 2 (1997). The fundamental unity behind Hindu concepts of God and those found in the Semitic traditions, and the principle of unity in diversity, allow Hindu and Baha'i beliefs to come together and further their common goal of uniting the world's religions. [about]
  41. Human Nature and Mental Health: A Bahá'í-Inspired Perspective, by Michael L. Penn, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 25:1-2 (2015). Overview of one research-practitioner’s understanding of the nature of mind from the perspective of the Bahá’í teachings, and implications of this view for understanding mental health and mental illness. [about]
  42. Indexes to Bahá'í World volumes: Obituaries, chronologies, contents, illustrations, in Bahá'í World (2013). Seven separate indexes for Bahá'í World, in PDF, Word, and Excel versions. [about]
  43. Indian Nations and National Spiritual Assemblies, by Universal House of Justice (2002). American Indian nations are not fully sovereign and thus do not have their own National Spiritual Assemblies. [about]
  44. Introduction to the Lawh-i Haqqu'n-Nas, An, by Jean-Marc Lepain, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). Summary of the tablet Lawh-i Haqqu’n-Nas, Tablet of the "Right of the People," on the metaphorical character of this world. [about]
  45. Investigating Spiritualization: Noticing, Processing and the Function of Time, by Sandra S. Fotos and Lynne Hansen (1995). surveys and analysis of the personal adoption of virtues among Mormons and Baha'is. [about]
  46. Journey Motif in the Bahá'í Faith, The: From Doubt to Certitude, by Roshan Danesh, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 22 (2012). The process of individual spiritual growth lies at the heart of human purpose. Bahá’u’lláh speaks about the collective spiritualization of humanity — creating new patterns of community and social relations — as the "journey" of the human body politic. [about]
  47. Kafka's spiritual dimension, by Greg Massiah, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 6 (1996). [about]
  48. Law, Application of, by Universal House of Justice (1991). Questions concerning the violation of Baha'i and civil law, and the removal of administrative rights. [about]
  49. Letters and Essays, 1886-1913, by Mirza Abu'l-Fadl Gulpaygani (1985). Treatises of "the greatest and most learned of all Bahá'í scholars" about Alexander Tumansky; on meeting Abdu'l-Baha; and on the meaning of angels, resurrection, civilization, tests, angels, holy spirit, and the saying "Knowledge is twenty-seven letters." [about]
  50. Local Spiritual Assemblies, by Universal House of Justice, in Compilation of Compilations, Volume 2 (1991). [about]
  51. Local Spiritual Assembly, The, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). The institution of the LSA, its significance, and its by-laws. [about]
  52. Local Spiritual Assembly, The, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá, in Compilation of Compilations, Volume 2 (1991). [about]
  53. Material and Spiritual Worlds, by Peter J. Khan (2010). Four talks on the Five-Year Plan given at the North Island Baha'i Summer School, Hamilton, New Zealand, December 2010. [about]
  54. Meditation, Prayer, and Spiritualization, by Universal House of Justice (1983). Practicing personal spirituality and methods for achieving spiritual growth. [about]
  55. Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-1986: Third Epoch of the Formative Age, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
  56. Missing Dimension in the Built Environment, The: A Challenge for the 21st Century, by Leo R. Zrudlo, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 3:1 (1990). [about]
  57. Moral and Spiritual Development, by William S. Hatcher (2008). [about]
  58. Mystic Cup, The: Essential Mystical Nature of the Bahá'í Faith, by LeRoy Jones, in Lights of Irfan, Book 2 (2001). [about]
  59. National Convention, The, by Universal House of Justice (1992). [about]
  60. National Convention, The, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi, in Compilation of Compilations, Volume 3 (2000). [about]
  61. National Spiritual Assemblies: Lists and years of formation, by Graham Hassall (2000). [about]
  62. National Spiritual Assembly, by Shoghi Effendi, in Compilation of Compilations, Volume 2 (1991). [about]
  63. National Spiritual Assembly members who are women, Percentage of, 1953-2007, by Bahá'í World Centre (1998). Two letters from the House, with attached tables, showing the number of women serving on NSAs 1953-1993, 1987-1997, and 1997-2007. Includes graphs showing numbers and percent of women serving on NSAs by continental region. [about]
  64. National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States vs. New Mexico Covenant-Breakers, in United States Patent Quarterly, 150 (1966). Documents from the lawsuit by the NSA vs. the New Mexico covenant-breaker group "The National Spiritual Assembly of the Baha'is of the United States of America Under the Hereditary Guardianship, Inc." for their use of Baha'i names and titles. [about]
  65. National Spiritual Assembly, The, by Universal House of Justice and Horace Holley, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). Includes Holley's brief overview of the nature of an NSA and the history of Bahá`í Temple Unity, NSA by-laws and a list of new NSAs as of 1980-1983. [about]
  66. Not Just for Consumers: An Argument for Depicting Diverse Beliefs on U.S. Television, by Deborah Clark Vance, in Diversity and Mass Communication: Evidence of Impact, ed. Amber Reetz Narro and Alice C. Ferguson (2007). [about]
  67. NSA staff members answering correspondence; prayers of Abdu'l-Baha, by Universal House of Justice (2011). Two topics: the use by National Spiritual Assembly staff members to handle correspondence, and the authenticity of a prayer attributed to ‘Abdu’l-Bahá "O Lord! Open Thou the door, provide the means, prepare the way, and make safe the path..." [about]
  68. Obedience, by Ian C. Semple (1991). Obedience in relation to freedom of thought, and the importance of obedience both to the individual's spiritual development and to society as a whole. [about]
  69. Permanence of Change, The: Contemporary Sociological and Bahá'í Perspectives, by Hoda Mahmoudi, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 18 (2008). Sociohistorical changes of the Axial Age and the Renaissance, sociological views on modernity and its contemporary challenges, and key features of modernity as identified in the Bahá’í writings as "the universal awakening of historical consciousness." [about]
  70. Personal Journey toward Reconciliation, A, by Patricia Verge, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 26:3 (2016). On the author's spiritual journey and how it has been entwined with First Nations people; tensions between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Bahá'ís; pioneering to the Nakoda community; and the importance of learning, listening, and personal transformation. [about]
  71. Philosophy of Spirituality, The: A Bahá'í Viewpoint, by William S. Hatcher, in Dialogue and Universalism, vol. 11-12 (1996). [about]
  72. Power and the Bahá'í community, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 19 (2018). While Baha'i social teachings may have sounded new and exciting a century ago, that is no longer the case today. The problem the world faces is not in the principles that would lead to a better society, but in their application. [about]
  73. Preliminary Analysis of the Bahá'í Concept of Mental Health, by Laura Herzog (1998). A preliminary analysis of Bahá’í concepts of psychology, delimited to translated Scriptures and the author’s understanding of Divine Revelation, vis-à-vis the theories of Jung, Maslow, and Rogers. [about]
  74. Principles of Bahá'í Administration, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (1973). [about]
  75. Proselytizing, Development, and the Covenant, by Universal House of Justice, in Messages from the Universal House of Justice: 1963-1986, The Third Epoch of the Formative Age (1996). Teaching vs. proselytization; applying Baha'i social teachings without becoming ensnared in prevailing cultural mores; and the uniqueness of the Baha'i covenant. [about]
  76. Psychology of Spirituality, The: From Divided Self to Integrated Self, by Hossain Danesh (2000). Explores what is the nature of human reality, the purpose of human life, transcendence, and whether we have free will, using case histories, in-depth analysis, and practical examples. First 3 chapters only. [about]
  77. Ranks and Functions in the Bahá'í Cause, by Universal House of Justice (1978). Different ranks of and interactive functioning of the Continental Board of Counsellors versus National Spiritual Assemblies. [about]
  78. Reflection on the Theory of Alchemy as Explained in the Bahá'í Writings, A, by Keven Brown (2002). [about]
  79. Retórica Gnóstica de la Espiritualidad en las Escrituras Bahá'ís, La, by Badi Villar Cardenas, in La Pluma del Conocimiento, 4 (2002). Este escrito contiene una sencilla exposición de la riqueza de expresiones gnósticas que abundan en la retórica bahá’í de la espiritualidad, al tiempo que demuestra una diferencia substancial en cuanto a la cosmogonía, el compromiso social y la afirmación [about]
  80. Sabaeans and African-based Religions in the Americas, The, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). Overview of the religion of the Sabaeans [aka Sabeans], and some indigenous practices in the southern Americas such as Yoruba, Santeria, and Brazilian Candomble. [about]
  81. Spiritual Approach to Microcredit Projects, A, by Michel P. Zahrai (1998). Spiritual considerations that should guide the elaboration and implementation of microcredit schemes and measure their success. [about]
  82. Spiritual Assembly (Mahfel-i-Ruháni), by Moojan Momen, in Encyclopaedia Iranica (2011). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
  83. Spiritual Assembly's Growing Pains, A, by Ruhiyyih (Mary Maxwell) Khanum (1976). A play, in 28 pages, showing "some of the workings of a Baha'i Spiritual Assembly· some of the blunders, some of the problems; how certain types of people fit better into one office and others into another." [about]
  84. Spiritual Dimensions of Microfinance, The: Towards a Just Civilization and Sustainable Economy, by Barbara J. Rodey (2001). Prepared for the Microcredit Summit to emphasize the importance of universal spiritual principles to achieve the real benefits of microfinance services. [about]
  85. Spiritual Dimensions of Sustainable Development, by Arthur Lyon Dahl (1996). The many meanings of "development" and their spiritual aspects. [about]
  86. Spiritual Growth, Essential Requisites for, by Universal House of Justice (1983). Letter to Europe, its historically-recent turn away from religion, six ways to improve spirituality, and the importance of prayer and meditation. [about]
  87. Spiritual Nature of a Human Being, The, by William G. Huitt, in Educational Psychology Interactive (2000). [about]
  88. Spiritual Nature of Reality, The: Has the Future Already Been Written?, by John S. Hatcher, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 10:3-4 (2000). Meditations on "Who is Writing the Future": why is spiritual development a social as well as personal matter; what is epistemological methodology for this development; how is it distinct from materialism; and how does it relate to the Covenants? [about]
  89. Spiritual Role of Art, The, by Ludwig Tuman, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 4:4 (1991). [about]
  90. Spiritualism, Reincarnation and Related Subjects, in Bahá'í Institutions (A Compilation) (1973). Includes psychic phenomena, spiritual healing, and astrology. [about]
  91. Spirituality of Games, by Tom Price (2012). Talk on the science of spirituality as it relates to a quotation of Abdu'l-Baha comparing life to a game: what are the rules of life, and how does one win the "game" of life? [about]
  92. Spiritualization of the Bahá'í Community: A Plan for Teaching, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Ireland and Adib Taherzadeh (1982). A three-part collection consisting of a letter from the NSA of Ireland, a letter from Taherzadeh to the Baha'is of Ireland regarding the spiritualization of the Baha'i community, and the preamble for a plan of action for teaching. [about]
  93. Strategies for Spiritualization, by Sandra S. Fotos, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 9:1 (1999). [about]
  94. Towards a Spiritual Methodology of Scholarship, by Chris Jones Kavelin, in Australian Baha'i Studies, Volume 4 (2003). Attempt to offer youth a vision of their sacred duty to pursue scholarship and a confidence in their unique spiritual genius to enable a world civilization to become conscious of its own Divine origin, spiritual nature, sacred purpose and glorious destiny [about]
  95. Tractatus on Philosophy, by Jean-Marc Lepain (1998). An attempt to translate the teachings of Baha'u'llah in contemporary philosophic jargon, in poetic style. [about]
  96. Tree of Life, The: A Program for the Spiritualization of the Bahá'í Community, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the Hawaiian Islands (1993). Compilations for a spiritualization and teaching campaign on prayer and meditation, how to be like the "shining examples" of the Bab and Baha'u'llah, and the 1992 Ridvan message. [about]
  97. Understanding the Human Condition: Secular and Spiritual Perspectives, by Suresh Sahadevan, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 6 (2001). Both materialist and religious paradigms are important for happiness and for informing our decisions about how to live fruitful lives. Religion must work for the betterment of the world by applying spiritual concepts to solve contemporary problems. [about]
  98. United States National Spiritual Assembly vs. Mirza Ahmad Sohrab (1941). In 1941 the National Spiritual Assembly unsuccessfully sued Covenant Breaker Mirza Ahmad Sohrab for his use of the word "Baha'i." This is the court's conclusions. [about]
  99. Unrestrained as the Wind: A Life Dedicated to Bahá'u'lláh (1985). Compilation of quotations on topics of especial interest to Bahá'í youth. [about]
  100. Valorando la espiritualidad en el Desarrollo: Consideraciones Iniciales en cuanto a la Creación de Indicadores de Base Espiritual para el Desarrollo, by Bahá'í International Community. Consideraciones Iniciales en cuanto a la Creación de Indicadores de Base Espiritual para el Desarrollo, presentado al "Diálogo Mundial de las Fes y el Desarrollo", 1998 [about]
  101. Violation of Baha'i and Civil Law, by Universal House of Justice (1991). Role of Spiritual Assemblies in regulating behavior of Baha'is, removal of administrative rights, and treatment of Baha'is convicted of a criminal offense. [about]
  102. Why Are We Here: Meaning of Life: Warwick Leaflets, by Warwick Bahá'í Bookshop (2003). [about]
  103. WIPO Domain Name Dispute: Case D2001-1302, "bahaiwomen.com" (2001). A legal ruling finding, on behalf of the Baha'is, that unauthorized use of the domain bahaiwomen.com is a trademark infringement. Followed by a newspaper article from Newsbytes, "Bahá'í Organization Bests Speculator In Domain Dispute." [about]
  104. WIPO Domain Name Dispute: Case D2005-0214, "uhj.net" (2005). A legal ruling finding, against the Baha'is, that covenant breakers are allowed to use the domain uhj.net. [about]
 
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